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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
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as shown in Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. Inc. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Meniscus. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. face and rises in a small tube. Surface tension and capillarity.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. at sea level. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. formation of spray from water jets. 21. is concave upward.1. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. respectively. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. ft Capillarity.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. is pressure above or below atmospheric. psia. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. like surface tension. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. as shown in Fig. Thus. ft σ = surface tension. 21. 21.000 ft is shown in Fig. psi. Its temperature variation. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.7 psia. When the liquid is in a closed container. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . although negligible in many water engineering problems. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Absolute pressure. In equation form.21.7 psi.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is small and insignificant in most problems. 21. however. Its value Fig. 21. are significant in others. decreases with increasing temperature. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. All rights reserved. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig.3. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Gage pressure.2. pitting. and freezing damage to concrete. Click here to view. or liquid surface.1) where h = capillary rise. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. (21.
are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . 21. absolute viscosity. is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. In hydraulics. on the bottom surface. the force due to pressure p1. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. and the force due to pressure p2. Then.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. lb/ft2 21. the pressure acts equally in all directions. All rights reserved. ft. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. of length and time. on the top surface. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. and pitting appears. It is so named because its units. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. or completely turbulent flow exists.2) where τ = shearing stress. ft2.00001059 ft2/s. At any depth. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. Inc. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Viscosity. ft2/s. or implode. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. to collapse. psf. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. µ of a fluid.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.8) to determine whether laminar. 21. also called the coefficient of viscosity. (Pressures as high as 350.5 Fig. Since the prism is at rest.4. or dynamic viscosity.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. and cross-sectional area A. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. psf. which extend into the pores of the metal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. lb/ft3. transitional. ft/s y = depth. Click here to view. as shown in Fig. 21.
and y sin θ = h . (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. .3a) by A yields (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. then p2 is p. lb/ft3. ft. and other water control structures. Figure 21. (21. Inc. All rights reserved.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.4.5) 21. (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. psf. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. For horizontal surfaces. ft2. tanks.3a) Division of Eq. (21. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. dams. the pressure. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. Click here to view. the depth below the water surface. (21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. 21. 21. Thus. however.3b) then becomes (21.3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Taking ∆h to be h. Equation (21. Therefore.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6) – ∫ydA = y A. at depth h. (21. The resultant pressure force P. lb. the depth of the centroid. where w is the specific weight of water. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.4). ft.4) Equation (21.
(21. Click here to view. Inc.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.7). psf.g. 6. (21.) that is below the c. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.). Otherwise. Pyp = ∫y dP. ft. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.p. (21. (21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.8).29).8) equals –A. 21. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. 21. represented by the length yp.7).5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.5). 21. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The denominator of Eq. . Thus. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.g.6 (see also Fig. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. Hence y .2° to the horizontal (Fig. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . Example 21. 21. The location of the center of pressure. – From Eq.7 Fig. where K is the radius of gyration. if that locus is a straight line. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. All rights reserved. (21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. of the surface about its centroidal axis.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. the total force P = whA.) but acts at a point (c.p.
Inc. 21. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.8. 21.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.5 + 1/ (5. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.08.0 + 2.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.0 + 0. Note: 1. From Eq. . The resultant pressure force can be calculated. however. (21.42 = 5.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.08/5 = 5.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. yp = 5. Therefore. All rights reserved. Also. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.21. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.g.42 ft.0) = 5. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. P = 62. 21.0 ft.) of common shapes.3. Click here to view. (See Example 21. K2 = point G. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.9). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
The corresponding angle is 57. PH = whA = 62. (b) Free-body diagram. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.5 × 5 = 780 lb.564.4°.6w = 19. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. 21. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.6 × 62. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (See Example 21. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.6 ft3.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Its angle with the horizontal is known. 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Inc.4 × 2. so the weight of the water is 19. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. 21.14 × 25/4 = 19. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example 21. 2.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. All rights reserved.9 Fig. When water is below the curved surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.7).Water Resources Engineering s 21.2. and for a constant-radius surface. .9). (21. Fig.9. 21. Click here to view. – From Eq.
ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Manometers indicate h. The stability of a ship. 21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. p = wh. 21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.g. 21. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. 21. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.).10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. ft3 ys = distance. is indicated by the metacenter..10b). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. (21. Inc.10a). The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.b. Given in feet by Eq. whether floating or submerged. 21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.4). All rights reserved. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. For a body to be in equilibrium. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. (21. ft. .4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or the difference in head. the pressure head. (21.21.10b. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.
11 manometer. 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. The liquid is water with w = 62. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Basic types of manometers.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (b) U-tube manometer. U-tube manometer. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. . Inc. Click here to view.11a is 2. and differential manometer. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. although the latter is most common.4 lb/ft3. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. 21. All rights reserved. 21. 21. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).17 psi. (a) Piezometers. What is hm? Fig. The piezometer (Fig.11): piezometer. Example 21.12c). However. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid.
21. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale. including negative gage pressures. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. Very low pressures.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. All rights reserved. 21.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. Click here to view. . A movable scale. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In this application. the Utube manometer (Fig. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.11b) is used. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. 21.12c). Inc. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.
5.0 ft. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. hm1 is 9 in.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.6 × 62. .40.0 and 2.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. hi is 2. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. ft. is magnified by the differential manometer. as shown in Fig. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Click here to view. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. 21. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. such as ft of water or psi.6). and z is 1. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. psf p2 = pressure at 2. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. the actual pressure difference. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. 32. and the right side. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. when expressed in feet of water. The pressure at B. Example 21. All rights reserved. the total energy per unit weight at 2. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.25 ft of water.25 ft. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Inc. or sump. 21.4 × 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. One factor. that is. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. Most of them. however. 21. psf. psf w = specific weight of fluid. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. in the manometer. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. The differential manometer (Fig. For example. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. psf.4 × 2.12a.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. however.4 × 0.75 + 13.13 indicating liquid. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. the magnification will be 2.11) where Z1 = elevation.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. if the actual difference is 0. Above 5.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. such as might be required in laboratories.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
. velocity.14 s Section Twenty-One (21.14) pa/w is called pressure head.21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. and pressure (Fig. or the total head ft: (21. 21. above some arbitrary datum. where Q is the quantity of flow. It equals WVa2 / 2g. ft. velocity. Click here to view.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. velocity head. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. where Va is the velocity. Example 21. 21.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. The total energy. Fig. Average velocity. ft.13. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. 21. a Fig. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. varies with velocity. lb.11). Usually.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Inc.5.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. and pressure. (21. As indicated in Fig. through friction. across the area of the section A.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. This term hf. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. All rights reserved. 21. 21. ft2. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. lb/ft3. when added to the downstream side of Eq.14. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. V2/2g. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.4 ft3/s. ft/s. ft/s = Q/A. Kinetic energy at the section. however. (See Example 21. ft3/s.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.13). where W is the weight.
p2 = 0. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. .15). gate valve. (21.9). sometimes called the total head line. direction. since the pipe has free discharge. All rights reserved. and any bends. Z2 = 0. which may result from a change in either velocity. 21. or magnitude of flow. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Click here to view.4/ 3. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.45 ft.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. ft. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. A change in momentum. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Also. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. Inc. hf = 50 – 1. In openchannel flow.55 = 48.15 Fig. 21. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Hence. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. is equal to the impulse. The energy grade line.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.14 = 10 ft/s. Thus substitution in Eq. respectively. 21. while in pressure flow. respectively. Art.
2° – 13.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.2° – 71.5°.96 cos 53. Inc.700/82. Then.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. All rights reserved.200 lb. (21.78. Let R be the force. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. Example 21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.2° – 0) = 4.5) = 65.21. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.94 × 100 × 65.000 lb. Fx = 181. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. Click here to view.4/ 32.600. since ∆Vy = –(–7. since ∆Vx = –(7.12)] but may be used separately.96 sin 53.94. apply Eq. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. which is to be determined).200 + Rx = 1. and at 2. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.15) first in the X direction. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.332π = 71. (See Example 21.000 sin 53.1 Rx = –82. 21.2= 1. Fig. lb.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To find F. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.16.1 and the density ρ = 62. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. With p1 known. 21.2° + Ry = 1. so θ = 60.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.500 lb. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. Fy = –181.94 × 100 × 4.78 Ry = 145. P2 = ppA2 = 13. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6.000 cos 53. (21. then in the Y direction. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.600 lb In the Y direction.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. .) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.11) or (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.5 ft/s.
analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Inc. to a given set of stimuli. Physical models are expensive to build. In water resources engineering.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. operate. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. droughts. 21. Click here to view. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. or proposed works. employs both physical and mathematical models. See also Art. Popular before the advent of digital computers. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. and surface tension. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. In most models. . In this way. momentum. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. alternative management schemes. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. It is.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. and through execution of the computer program. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. or drainage basin. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. aquifer. Usually. such as storm rainfall. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. however. or prototype. the capability of the computing resources. For instance. viscosity. A fourth mode of modeling. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize.7. All rights reserved. 1. In the preceding example. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses.Water Resources Engineering s 21. With hybrid models.7. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. hybrid modeling. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. gravity. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. such as a river. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. erosional scour. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia.17 21.
ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.20) R is dimensionless. Click here to view.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Inc. 32. such as spillways and weirs. The inertial force. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. and one other force are made proportional. All rights reserved. viscosity.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. which is always a predominant force. and Weber number. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. the model is termed a true model. the length ratio is the only variable.22) where ρ = density of fluid. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. (21. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.21a) (21. Once the length ratio has been set. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Then (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. entrainment of air in flowing water. Froude number. respectively. The Weber number is (21. Ratios of the forces of gravity.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. Therefore. The Reynolds number is (21. Similarly. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. Reynolds number. such as depth or diameter). .18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. (21.21. the formation of drops and air bubbles. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. The Froude number is (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. Squaring both sides of Eq. ft2/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.
Inc. catchment areas. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.24). and infiltration parameters. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. 21. the logical representation of prototypes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For instance. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. viscous. such as flow networks. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.25) In models of rivers and channels. Hence.26) where V = mean velocity. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. inertial. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch.S. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. For such models. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. called a movable-bed model.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. such as a morning-glory spillway. (21. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In some cases. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. . Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. One type of model. in particular. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. in turn. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. These expressions. and through execution of the computer program. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. This type of model is called a distorted model. (21.7.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. mathematical models are. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Sr = 1. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. (21. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. Rr = Lr. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. The U. All rights reserved. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Click here to view.23a) (21.
will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. sediment or pollutant transport. This approach. As this shearing stress increases. (J. design of hydraulic structures. F.” McGraw-Hill. and private sectors. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. and turbulent flow results. wave or tidal analyses. “Water Resources Planning.21. Hoggan. J. watershed hydrology. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Grigg. and among water resources modelers in the government. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Walker. Rothfus. and groundwater yield. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. 1957. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. evaporation and irrigation.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. Zipparo and H. Whan. (D. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. of all databases and software. flow routing. shown in Fig. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. Art. hydrologic forecasting. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. “Handbook of Hydrology.17. and R. R. 21. 3. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. flood or drought impacts. when fully implemented. Also. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall.” V. For closed conduits other than circular. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As a general rule. reservoir regulation.” N. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. vol. Maidment. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. or both. if comparisons of different plans are required. R. 21. . quantity and quality of water supply.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. channel and river hydraulics. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. impacts of dam breaks. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. New York.2). creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. ecosystem impacts and restoration. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. H. or pollution. As a result. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. This. academia. as in annular passages. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. however. In object-oriented software. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. G. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. seepage. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Click here to view. All rights reserved. landfill leachate analyses.) 21. Inc. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. the model output required for design or evaluation.” D. hydrodynamics. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. S. density. Hasen. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code.
at completely turbulent flow. the velocity distribution is more uniform. 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.17).29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. As the Reynolds number increases. 21. as shown in Fig. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. ft/s D = pipe diameter. Inc. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. than for laminar flow (Fig.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. Eq. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. handbook of Hydraulics. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.” 6th ed.. Therefore. laminar flow is unstable. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. flow is laminar in circular pipes. All rights reserved. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. ft ρ = density of fluid. In this region.21 Fig. causing the flow to become turbulent. .17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. New York. These disturbances create eddies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.19. In laminar flow. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. (21.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. (21. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.18. Fig. a disturbance will probably be magnified. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. 21. 32. it is not practical to treat it analytically.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. (21. 32. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. As a result. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. 21.) 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.l9. F.28) where hf = head loss due to friction.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. 21. ft L = length of pipe section considered. Brater.29) For laminar flow. (E. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. the flow is completely turbulent. Click here to view. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21.27) where V = fluid velocity.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.) Because Eq.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.0002 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.19) L = length of pipe.0005 – 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. Click here to view.001 0.9. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. (L.0002 0. Moody.008 0.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.19) to Determine f ε. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. F.03 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. All rights reserved. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.00003 0.003 0.0005 0.008 – 0.0005 – 0.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.0002 – 0. 21.003 – 0. Inc. ft V = velocity of fluid. The head loss is independent of the pressure. enamels. 21. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. (21.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.001 – 0. 21.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. ft D = diameter of pipe. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. 32. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. November 1944.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. (21. .
which requires experience in its choice.9.32) where n = coefficient.33c) (21.11 (p.) Substitution into Eq. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft S = head loss due to friction. 21.31) where V = velocity.31) gives (21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft L = length of pipe.9.33e) 21. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. where D is the pipe diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. (21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.33d) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.Water Resources Engineering s 21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. . ft/s C = coefficient. All rights reserved.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.34c) 21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. ft3/s. 21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33b) (21. dependent on surface roughness. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. (21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. Inc. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.34b) (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. Click here to view.4 and 21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. Tables 21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. (Although based on surface roughness.34e) where V = velocity. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.9. (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.34d) (21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.3. See also Table 22. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.
017 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.20 ple 21.013 0.21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.015 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.012 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.010 To 0.017 0.012 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. 21.35c) (21.012 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.015 0.7: Figure 21.013 0. in short pipelines.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.035 0.7.014 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.015 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.010 0.4 Values of n for Pipes.013 0. (21. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.017 From 0. All rights reserved. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.) Flow between reservoirs.35b) (21.013 0.016 To 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.017 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .010 0. However.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.015 0. Example 21.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. bends.36) for a check.013 0. (21.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.012 0. and valves and other pipe fittings. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.014 0.017 0. (21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. enlargements. 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. because (21.015 0. Click here to view.011 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.
140 Large sizes. 120 Centrifugally spun. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. regardless of age.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. good workmanship.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. the values of K in Fig. Ltd. so a full velocity head is lost. 10 years older Average value. Inc. Table 21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. ft/s g = 32. (A. good workmanship. London.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. 120 Large sizes.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. 115 12 in. H.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.10.21). . Click here to view. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.7. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 110 4 in.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. wood forms.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. 120 24 in and over. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 105 30 in and over. (21. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses.” Constable & Co.37) or (21. 80 4 in. steel forms. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. (21.25 Table 21. Gibson. ft.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 21. are presented in Table 21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. 21..2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. 21. is (21.38) A special application of Eq. (21. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.Water Resources Engineering s 126.96.36.199 are approximate. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.37): (21. 85 16 in. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 135 In good condition. 21.. 110 (21. where V is the velocity in the pipe. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. All rights reserved. minor losses must be considered.
0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.25 The values in Table 21. Globe valve. Inc. .8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.62 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For these reaTable 21.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21 of the sides.21.5 0.89 1. Click here to view.80 K = 0. fully open Swing check valve. fully open Angle valve.63 0.3 0. and at bends is given by (21.64 0.0 Table 21. such as valves and elbows.10.81 0.76 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.2 0.4 21.9 0.50 K = 0.4 0. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.6 0. 21.0 1.1 0.2 2. fully open Gate valve.71 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.68 0.0 5.5 0.7 0.8 are only approximate.8 0.05 K = 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.0 2.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.66 0.2 0.42) Table 21.6 0. D = pipe diameter.
J. and angle of bend. series D. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. not including friction loss in the bend.44) where Q = discharge. (21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Hasen. 21.” 4th ed. 21. square. 21. (H. Ito.22: (21. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. 82.42).11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. All rights reserved. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. its effect should be taken into account.. The data are in agreement that the head loss.27 sons. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. National Bureau of Standards. there is disagreement. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1. For low heads. (V. McGraw-Hill. Equation (21. (21. Beij. vol. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21. Click here to view.” Journal of Research. not including friction loss.45) 21.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Experiments on smooth pipes.11. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Zipparo and H.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Reynolds number. however. although they are usually round. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.42). vol. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. 1960. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. this error is corrected by the C values. July 1938. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. (21. If this velocity is significant. no. Orifices may have any shape. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.23. New York. H. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. (K. Inc.) Fig. . the bend loss essentially remains constant. or rectangular. Figure 21.9 for low velocity of approach.
595 0.613 0.623 0.614 0.608 0.596 0.597 0. ft 0.600 0.619 0.628 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.617 0.606 0.605 0.606 0.603 0.626 0.623 0.02 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.4 0. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 1886.632 0.595 0.643 0.592 0.591 0.04 0.644 0.607 0.601 0.616 0.612 0.637 0.593 0.614 0. and Eq.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.630 0.634 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet. ft 0. of circular orifices.621 0.603 0.602 0.600 0. the vena contracta.598 1.618 0.618 0.1 0.46) The actual velocity.611 0.0 Head.1 0.632 0.627 0.611 0.598 0. Z1 = h.596 0.608 0.608 0.602 0.599 0.605 0.590 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.609 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.613 0 610 0.652 0.602 0.622 0.594 0.596 0. Inc.636 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.604 0.592 1.599 0.601 0.610 0.604 0.601 0.614 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.603 0. Jr.602 0.610 0.612 0.99.599 0.628 0.619 0.660 0.596 0.617 0. 21.6 08 1 1.5 2 2.595 0.655 0.631 0. (21.0 0.616 0.02 0.615 0.597 0.592 0.605 0.629 0.600 0.648 0.600 0.593 0. determined experimentally.637 0.04 0.602 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.604 0.598 0. V1 = 0. and Z2 = 0. to Fig.94 to 0.45) becomes (21.641 0. All rights reserved.602 0.618 0.637 0.593 0. ft 0.599 0.623 0..594 0.602 0. “Hydraulics.603 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.602 0.607 0.648 0. With the reference plane through point 2.607 0.605 0. .601 0.596 0.596 0.21.
48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. 21. (21. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.24b. 21. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.” 6th ed. 21.11. Eq. Click here to view. the area of the orifice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67. 21. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. ft.11.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.25.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. “Handbook of Hydraulics.29 Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. Brater.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. Figure 21. All rights reserved.25 orifice.) 21. . New York. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. Inc. see E. F. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.. In Fig. (21. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. between 1 and 2.61 to 0.48) is obtained. (21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.47) where hL = losses in head. With a partly suppressed orifice.
when y = h2. (21.11.59). (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.57) for t and substituting in Eq. For simplicity. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. Eq.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. s The Y coordinate is (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir. Click here to view. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. when y = h1. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. 21. 32. ft h2 = head at the end.51) upon integration becomes (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.23). Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eq.26): (21.50) where a = area of orifice. .52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21.50) becomes (21. (21. All rights reserved.58)]. obtained by solving Eq. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. 21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.49) Solving for dt yields (21. Rearranging Eq. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. (21.21.58) Equation (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. is that for a parabola: (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. 21.56).26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.57) (21.56) Fig. (21.55) 21. to time t.58) gives (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. (21.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.5 a T T Fig.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.28). the coefficient of discharge C = 0.31 ty Cν = 0.80. 21. 21. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. if one exists). Inc.82 VT)2/2g = 0.67 V2T /2g.29. 21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. When this happens.67 V T / 2g = 0. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.00 VT / 2g – 0. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.67 V2 ) = 0. (21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. All rights reserved.27) but the head loss is larger. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.75. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.27. In the tube or pipe. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. psf w = unit weight of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. For a short tube flowing full. . Fig.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21. a K value for Eq.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.11. 21.33VT / 2g.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. ft2 Fig.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. 21. however. Equation (21. 21.82. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.82. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21.42) of 0. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. Therefore. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. Click here to view.11.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.
31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. the tube must flow full. Click here to view. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. either increased or decreased. The change causes a pressure rise.29. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. Fig.32). As the water flows into the reservoir. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. However. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. The pipe shown in Fig. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. but at a pressure much higher than normal.21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. . At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. As the water flows away from the closed valve. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. the pressure in the pipe falls. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Fig. the water in the pipe is motionless. this momentum drops to zero. 21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. For this analysis to be valid. it causes water hammer. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. Every time the flow rate is changed.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21. All rights reserved. either above or below the normal pressure. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30). caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. When a valve is closed. Inc. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. 21.
43. (21. Eq. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. Click here to view.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.13.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. (21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. Fig.64) 21. s A plot of pressure vs. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. (21.63).32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second.63a) In terms of pressure head. Equation (21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. For instantaneous closure: (21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. approximate solution. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. 21. 1. ft 21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.13. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. 21.63a) becomes (21. . Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.
Thus. diameter = 10 ft.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. each causing an individual pressure wave. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. length = 3000 ft. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. such as L/aU. Click here to view. to apply Eq. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.61)... the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. Once the time interval has been determined. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. where ∆t. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. the increment of time.32. (V. Vo the original velocity. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings.63). so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.2 × 108 psf. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. (21. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. Inc. then that obtained from Eq. Hasen. is g = acceleration due to gravity. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. With the head known.” 4th ed. ft L = length of pipeline. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. 32. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.) Velocity of pressure wave.63). Inc.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. . J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. area = 78. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. (21.) Example 21. penstock thickness = 1 in. 21. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. (21.63). s T = actual closure time of valve. where a equals any integer. All rights reserved. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.21. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. equals L /aU. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. from Eq. Zipparo and H. (21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening.5 ft2.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. New York. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. McGraw-Hill. (21. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.
The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When a valve is suddenly closed. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. 21.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.64) gives the following result: 21. Fig. floats on the line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Various types of relief Fig.66) where p = internal pressure.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. on the pipe material is (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the closure is instantaneous. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.75 s. lb Hence. approximate equation (21. it is by no means the only one. When a valve is suddenly opened. to prevent water hammer. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.90 s.34 tension.33) must still be designed for water hammer. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. 21. All rights reserved. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. (21. psi. in Assuming T = 4. 21. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. Click here to view. Inc. Usually. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.34). 21.90 s. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. . in effect.63). The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. from Eq.13.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. and the pressure rise. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. is Pipe Stresses 21. The water column. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. the stress.
the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. The force diagram in Fig. However. However.6).10). ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. Click here to view. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 6. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. For steel pipes.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. “Theory of . there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. . is (21.. if expansion joints are to be used.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. All rights reserved. In Fig.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. (S. Inc. Gere. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. M. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The stress.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67) for concrete pipe. Equation (21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. however. Eq. If D/t is less than 10. (21. In this case. psi. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes.21. it acts like a beam. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. P Timoshenko and J. elastic Stability. 21.67). the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. In all bends. this analysis is approximate.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. Eq.” 2nd ed. New York. (21. 21. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. 21. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. Art. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. (21. The internal diameter is used in Eq.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. For concrete pipes. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. due to a temperature change is (21.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers.
the joints must also be able to take these forces.37 Fig.70) and (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. psf w = unit weight of water. a railroad. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. Inc. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. an exact theoretical analysis. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. (21. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. 62. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. All rights reserved. 32. 21. Click here to view. canal. however. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. or other embankment. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. (21.71) give a quick solution. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. and slope.71) where R = resultant force on bend. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. exit conditions. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. In small pipes. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. However. Eqs. . ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends.
and the Manning equation for friction loss.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. that is. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.” EB058W.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. 21.30)]. All rights reserved. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. the normal depth (Art. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. 21. computer software. Portland Cement Association. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. the culvert flows full. but they do not cover Fig. 21. 21.36).33d) or (21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. and the control will still be at the inlet.23). slope is greater than the critical slope. (21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.73) 21. Inc. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.21.38). The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. charts. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .37). For this reason. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. the following equation is obtained: (21. Click here to view.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. .18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. 21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. and the discharge is independent of the slope.
depending on the head. 21. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. open-channel flow takes place. The fluid flows under pressure. for the open-channel condition (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and dn > dc . Inc. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. loss at entrance. The discharge. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21.74) Fig. Thus.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. .39). 21.74) yields (21. 21. Discharge depends on head H.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. Fig. normal pipe flow occurs. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. When the slope is less than critical.23).75) Substituting this into Eq. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21.39 Fig. 21. When slope is less than critical.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.20) 21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Discharge is independent of slope. ft Equation (21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32. All rights reserved. (21. 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. (21.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. and slope of culvert. and dn < dc . is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. flow depends on inlet condition. When slope exceeds critical. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. Click here to view.
and discharge is given by Eq. 21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. When the friction slope is flat. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. Click here to view. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. ft To solve Eq. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. (21. If this condition exists. If the head on a culvert is high.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. (21.21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. If the friction slope approaches critical. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig.76). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. 21.41). The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. All rights reserved. 21. 21. (21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. however. ft dn = normal depth of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.72). If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.76). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.39).76). Inc. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.18).40). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. 21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. Most culverts. 21.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. .37).
95 × 4 = 39.5 0. All rights reserved. Eq. These values are for culverts flowing full. slope = 0. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.44) for discharge through an orifice.15 0. groove or bell. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Table 21.18 and 21.72) and (21. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. 21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. To calculate the hydraulic radius.10 0.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. with Eq. Click here to view. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.013. (21. Find: size of culvert. 21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.6. . (21. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. (21. projecting Concrete pipe. When the entrance is not submerged.72) yields Q =Va = 9.01.9 0.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. (21. Substitution in Eq. Application of Eq.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. square edge Concrete pipe.40).19). Fig. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.72) applies.73). Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. n = 0.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. the flow is under pressure. First find dn. length = 300 ft. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. groove or bell. Inc. But H = 5 + 0.41 For entrance control. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. Since the culvert is under pressure. and the entrance will not control.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. and free exit.8 ft3/s Table 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. Example 21.
All rights reserved. or slope. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge.79) The velocity head HV.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.77) where V = average velocity. ft3/s. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. ft. In a uniform channel. (21. however. Thus. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Figure 21. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. or the total-head line. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point.21. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. ft. Inc. ft. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves.36 for prismatic channels. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Hence. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.79). It has uniform flow if the grade. is generally given by (21. It is. Click here to view. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. The wetted perimeter is the length. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. 32. plus the velocity head at the point. It is expressed in feet as (21. . ft2 When the discharge is constant. depth of flow is constant throughout.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. normally taken as 1. or open-channel flow. Equation (21. and is given by (21. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. within a hydraulic jump.03 to 1. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. minus the free surface width.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. 21. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.80) where V = average velocity from Eq.
43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. and discharge are known. 21.42 is called the normal depth dn. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. as shown in Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft. As the depth decreases downstream.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. normal depth decreases downstream.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. roughness. for example.84) reduces to Fig.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. Chow. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.43 Fig.43). the specific energy also decreases. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. McGrawHill Book Company. in which T is the top width of the channel.. E.83) Brater. New York. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.43. 21.44. (21. Inc. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. All rights reserved. “Handbook of Hydraulics. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. For a rectangular channel.) (21. slope.84) where A = area of flow. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. 21. T. 21. Click here to view. 21.” 6th ed. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. Eq. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. ft. (See. F. (V. 21.
44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21. . or conversely. Inc.21.44). the depth is greater than critical. For rectangular channels. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. Eq.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. New York).85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. The flow there is called subcritical flow. (21. (21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.44). Click here to view. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. F. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. the depth is below critical. for a given discharge. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.84) may be reduced to (21. (21. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Book Company.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Brater.43. ft3/s d = depth of flow. 21.84). 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig..” 6th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For a given value of specific energy. and flow is supercritical.84) is called the critical depth dc. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. 21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.
along with a high loss of energy. p. 21. flow is subcritical. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. however. Such a change occurs gradually. For every depth greater than critical depth. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. regardless of slope.52b. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. (21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. 21. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. ft3/s b = width of channel. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump.87) Fig. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as indicated in Fig. 21. (21. indicating an irreversible occurrence. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.45 where dc = critical depth. a hydraulic jump will occur. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. Critical depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. All rights reserved. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. flow is supercritical. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. 21.57). Inc. without turbulence. once calculated. . Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.44). ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. It can be seen from Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.45. 21.85). [As indicated by Eq. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.
(21. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. and the N. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.D. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. Inc. 21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. New York.S. Dr.L. are in Table 21. and two types for channels of critical. horizontal. is replaced by a horizontal line. (See also Art. as shown in Fig.D. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. (Although based on surface roughness. and the critical-depth line C. C for critical. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.D. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.D. and adverse slope. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). and A for adverse. These curves are divided into five groups. T. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. S for steep (supercritical). There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. there must be a continuing maintenance program. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.and critical-depth lines. .” McGraw-Hill Book Company.L.25).D. The M2 curve forms between the normal.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.11. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. Eq.23).9 and Table 21.46a and b.L.89) may be written (21. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.90) where A = area of flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.L. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.L. 21. therefore. the average n values given in Table 21. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.) 21.46c and d.4. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.46. Click here to view. H for horizontal. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. are identical for a channel of critical slope. E. 21.21. 21. at an arbitrary elevation. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. The N. Chow. 21. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. and C. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. ft V = mean velocity of flow. Department of Agriculture. 21.
017 Max 0.025 0.46a and b. Clean.140 0. Inc. Dry rubble 5.025 0.016 0. untreated 3.011 0. Concrete (unfinished) a. Dredged earth a.030 0.120 0.016 0.025 0. Jagged and irregular 0.027 0. Smooth wood form c. Lined channels 1. Masonry a.016 0. high as flow depth d. Smooth and uniform b.013 0. All rights reserved.060 0. Corrugated 2. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.023 0. No vegetation b. Dense weeds.025 0. few weeds c.012 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cement-mortar surface 3. Dense brush. wavy section 4.022 0. good section c.080 0.030 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Rough C.014 0.030 0. Light brush on banks 3.013 0.033 0.012 0. Cemented rubble b.035 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.46i and j.013 0.032 0. 21. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.033 0. Steel form b.017 0. Gunite.040 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.022 0.050 0.024 0.035 0. Gunite.014 0.016 0. Concrete a.022 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Planed.018 0.035 0.035 0. 21. respectively). Float finish b.028 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. 21. Asphalt a.013 0. straight and uniform a. Wood a. high stage 2.021 0. Excavated earth. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. after weathering b.014 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.040 0.012 0.010 0.021 0. Smooth b.023 0.014 0.025 0.016 0.012 0. Metal a.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.080 0. Rough wood form B.019 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Unlined channels 1.011 0. 21. .013 0. Click here to view.020 0. Rock cuts a.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. commonly called a drawdown curve.015 0.100 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.025 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. With short grass.015 0.015 Avg 0.018 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.050 0. The S2 curve.
C. critical-depth line. Examples in Fig.21. H. All rights reserved.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.D. Click here to view. Inc.. 21. . The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21. 21.D. N.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46k and l.L. 21.L. and A profiles. indicates normal-depth line. The curves in Fig.
ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5. The wave travels at a speed. Inc. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. (21. the channel is divided into short lengths. 32. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. gate. (R. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. 21. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. . 21.) 21. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. with relatively small variation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. For step-method computations. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. H. 21. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel.. Click here to view. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. weir. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. Chow. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. each reach is solved in succession.” McGraw-Hill.51). it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.27. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For the section of channel in Fig. French. New York. For subcritical flow conditions. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. New York.47.77) if the depth were zero. All rights reserved. See Art. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. dam. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. or reaches. direction-integration. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. depending on the type of flow. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. Inc. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. known as its celerity. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.and direct-integration methods are in V. free overfall. T.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and step methods. Explanations of both the graphical. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.
respectively.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Solving Eq.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. is negligible and can be ignored. 21. All rights reserved. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. rearranged as follows: Fig. prismatic channels. the head loss. as given by Eq.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and vice versa.21.92) (21.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. hi. the change in elevation.82). due to friction in the same reach.93) where R = hydraulic radius. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. (21.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. not the channel bottom. Inc. . ft.93). and – SL = hf. (21. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. The smaller the value of n. Therefore. (For uniform. the longer the backwater curve profile. (21. Click here to view.91) for L gives (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the – eddy loss. ft. 21.
Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. (21. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.92).93). Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach.96).95) The coefficient k is 0. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and about 0. the friction loss. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. respectively. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. or roughness.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. ft/s. grade. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Next. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. Then. from 0 to 0. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing.94). Then. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.51 may be some intermediate depth. (21.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Next. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.1 for converging reaches. Inc. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. (21. Z2. ft. and it is therefore often accounted for. The value of total head computed from Eq. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. which. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. respectively. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. Finally. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. (21. (21. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. sometimes called impact loss. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. ft. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. computations progress toward the initial section. Click here to view. 21. the average friction slope for the reach.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is obtained from Eq.2 for diverging reaches. total head H.93). Therefore. For lined channels. . Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Since this step method is a converging process. Eddy loss. in natural channels. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. becomes (21. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. All rights reserved.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. (21. ft. (21. referred to a horizontal datum. after substitution of H from Eq. S. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. (21.47. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. at sec– tions 1 and 2. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.95).
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.23). depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady.48 Hydraulic jump. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. Utilizing the above data. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). is a turbulent mass of water.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). The upstream surface of the jump.” Hydraulics Design Series no. 2nd ed. 21. or other obstruction. however. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway.. Department of Transportation. known as the roller. as shown in Figs. Bradley. . The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.51 and 21. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R.27. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. bridge piers. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Click here to view. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. and determine the discharge.1 ft in elevation. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. H. known as the length of jump. 21. French. 21. If the two values of total head do not agree. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required.52b. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Fig. The effect of bridges. approach roadways. However. All rights reserved.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. N. 21. respectively. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. 1970. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. a gate.21. Federal Highway Administration. and J. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.S. velocity.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. Inc. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. 1. Bureau of Public Roads. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. 21.48). U.
ft/s. (21. ft3/s = unit of time.102) Equation (21.105) where A = area of flow.99). this resultant pressure force is (21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. or alternate depths. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. s (21. V is the mean velocity.82). ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. Click here to view. and g = acceleration due to gravity. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.100) Equation (21.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. d2 must also equal dc.99) where M = mass of water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This difference (Fig. 32. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. 21. For rectangular channels. ft d2 = depth after jump. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. All rights reserved. in Eq.16)]. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. where L is a characteristic length. Inc. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.100). lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. 21. For open-channel flow.98) and (21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. ft2 T = width of free surface.104) = discharge. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.49) is given by (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump.27. ft/s2. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft w = unit weight of water.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. . ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. (21.
the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.5 to 9. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. For F1 = 9. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. This jump may be called a weak jump. For F1 = 1. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. chute. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. the flow is critical and there is no jump.5.5. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. depending on local conditions. the jump will be drowned out.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. very commonly in canals. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. were classified by the U.21. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. which gives discharge vs. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. For F1 = 2. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. All rights reserved.27. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. In either case. 21. For F1 = 4.7. Inc.0.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. below a spillway. For F1 = 1. there are undulations on the surface. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. 21.7 to 2. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which. for example.5 to 4. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. The jump action is rough but effective.23). the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. can travel for miles. Click here to view. . If the tailwater is too high. This jump may be called a steady jump.49.0 and larger. 21. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. If the tailwater is too low. This jump may be called a strong jump.S. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. The jump is well-balanced. 21. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. and the performance is at its best. For F1 = 1 to 1. depth after the jump. The jump is called an undular jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. Various forms of hydraulic jump.
and sloping the apron. 21. Bureau of Reclamation.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. Chow from data gathered by the U.51.27. But it has been determined experimentally.S. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.48) defies accurate mathematical expression.105). Click here to view. 21. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. Inc. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. The curve. This length (Fig. T. These features are expensive to build. prepared by V. changing the apron elevation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. therefore. 21. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. 21. . The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Accessories. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The resulting curve (Fig. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.27.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.55 curve involve changing the crest length.
the jump moves downstream to a new position. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21. but it is normally assumed to be 0. With values of d2 obtained from Eq.52. computed from Eq. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. All rights reserved. curves AB and ED in Fig. 21. if the downstream depth is lowered. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.52b. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. between lines CB′and EO. the jump occurs in the steep region. as shown in Fig. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. equal to the computed length of the jump. CB. (21.52a.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. equal in length to L. As depth d2 is lowered.101).23) to mild. Inc. A horizontal intercept FG. 21.102). The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. computed from Eq. the computed length of jump. The actual depth at the brink is 71. which occurs near the channel drop-off. Click here to view. It is assumed. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. that flow is uniform.51. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. 21. 21. using the step methods of Art. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. If d2 is less than d′ .46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. Conversely. (21.7dc for simplicity.5% of critical depth. 21. 21. the jump moves to a new location downstream. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. as shown in Fig.75h in the absence of better information. (21. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. but instead occurs a short distance upstream.46e and c). The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. as theory would indicate. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. for simplicity. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc.26. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.101) with d1 given. 21. 21. respectively (Fig. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. less than. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.
. ft3/s.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. or (b) below it. ft. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). ft. Inc. 21. is (21. All rights reserved.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. 21. New York. If the entrance loss must be considered. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.3 for one with squared ends..85)].) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. ft.53a). the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). if not. and the slope of the channel. Then.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0.51.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. the entrance loss. then the assumed discharge is correct. From Q = AV. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. on the channel entrance. McGraw-Hill Book Company. a new discharge is assumed. where He is the specific energy head.82) and (21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Brater.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and discharge is at a maximum. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. ft. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53). (R. 21. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. H. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. French.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. ignoring entrance loss. 21. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.23). Inc. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. New York. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.106) where b is the channel width.) 21. 21. F.” 6th ed. Click here to view. or (a) above it. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.” McGraw-Hill.
The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. Inc. 21. A is the cross-sectional area of flow.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53b).2 ft/s2. ft.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). All rights reserved. ft. ft2. 21. (b) mild-slope channel.22). If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. Click here to view. 21. where He – d is the actual head. ———— charge. and g is acceleration due to gravity. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. if not. 21.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.53b. 21. ft3/s.83). (21. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. producing flow. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. a new discharge is chosen. (In Fig.33). 21.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. then the discharge is correct. He is the specific energy head. 21. 32. d is normal depth.23). of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.
Inc. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. 21. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. 21. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.59 21. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Thus. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. All rights reserved.108). in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. and rc the radius of curvature. (21. ft /s.23).107) The theoretical difference y. ft. a unit mass of water. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. when a stream enters a curve. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. however. of the center line of the channel. . This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. or mV2 /rc for m.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. curve (Fig. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. 21. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. the true value of y would be only a few inches. In this range. The error will not be great.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. ft.83)]. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. where V is its average velocity. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. 21.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. Therefore.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. ft. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. Click here to view. If the bend continues long enough. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. with sufficient accuracy. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. 21. Fig. (21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. and continue crossing and recrossing. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. depths along the inside wall.” U. (F. however. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. Technical Bulletin 393.110) for θ in Eq. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. a series of standing waves are produced.S. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. The second is a negative wave. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. These waves cross at M. (21. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. flows around a bend in a channel.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. and should be used with discretion. by (21. Department of Agriculture. Two waves form at the start of the curve. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. an increase in friction loss results. . and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. His values have not been evaluated completely. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The cross slope required for 21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. 21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.23).16)] .55).21. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. One is a positive wave. Inc.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. All rights reserved. 21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. This angle may be found from (21.111). A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. of greater-than-average surface elevation. phase. (21. C. recross as shown. Scobey.
therefore. low-head-loss transfer of flow. Click here to view. such as flow-rate changes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.23).2 ft/s2. In this range.56. equals about 0. Straight. ft. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. respectively. if friction is ignored. 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. ft/s. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. 21. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. The transition loss.113) angle of about 12. 21. the average velocity decreases. p. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. as shown in Fig. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. .5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. When proceeding downstream through a transition. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. 21. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.44. For outlet-type structures. where K. Inc.44. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. ∆V is the velocity change.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.8[∆(V2/2g)]. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.54). and channel shape and slope.57). To place a transition properly between two open channels. If friction is ignored.1 for an inlet-type structure. 21. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. wall roughness. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. or change from supercritical to subcritical.2 for welldesigned transitions. change from subcritical to supercritical. Many variables.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. plus any transition and friction losses. and g = 32. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. All rights reserved. the loss factor. is given by K(∆V2/2g).
000556(20)2 = 0. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. the weir is submerged or drowned. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. In contrast. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. Fig. Fig.21. such as broad-crested weirs. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. trapezoidal weirs. such as rectangular weirs. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used.58 Sharp-crested weir. from which a = 0. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. Inc.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 21.58). For Fig. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. Click here to view.000556(10)2 = 0.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. 21.34. All rights reserved.5 = a(30)2. If the discharge is partly under water. 21. y = ax2. as shown in Fig. measured from A or B. triangular or Vnotch weirs.59.222 ft. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.59 Weir not sharp-crested. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. triangular weirs. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. . and parabolic weirs. and. the weir has free discharge.000556. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57. 21. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. trapezoidal weirs. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.
2. Click here to view.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. 21. 21. thus causing a contraction of the flow.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. If P is less than Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. 21.116) corrects for the effects of friction. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. below the crest. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. contraction of the nappe.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. Chow. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. . ft The head should be measured at least 2. New York).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.5H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.60 V-notch weir. One such equation. T. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. with measurement of flow as their secondary function.5H upstream from the weir. At very low heads.58) (V. To be fully ventilated.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Inc. Equation (21. All rights reserved. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.115) where Q = discharge. 21. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest.34. A V-notch weir (Fig. Hence. The height of weir P must be at least 2. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.
.34. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. 21. (21. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. Lenz.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. The effective length L. 21. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. 21. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.118) Fig. Fig. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. 69. New York). Inc. 21. F. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.34. there are two end contractions and N = 2. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21.21. T. Discharge is given by (21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. . ft H = head.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. 1943). ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Click here to view.61) (E.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.5H upstream from the weir. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz.34.118)] 21. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. measured from notch bottom.2) when low discharges are to be measured. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21. vol. His values were summarized by Brater.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.119) where Q = discharge. there is one end contraction and N = 1. ft. (21. 21.
or both. 21. Click here to view.” Engineering News-Record. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. All rights reserved. ft3/s. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. velocity head. ft V = velocity of approach. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.34. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 866. 21.) To use the Villemonte equation. compute the velocity of approach. ft3/s. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. ft. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.34. Thus. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig.) Equation (21. and then.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. The discharge Qs. 25. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 2 21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. neglecting the velocity head. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. using this rate and the required depths. 21. velocity head of approach. (J.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. Eq. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.122) where H = measured head. (21. 21. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. which may be done as follows: First. From this total head. Fig.115) is rewritten in the form (21. and finally total head. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. 32. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. heavily constructed devices. p.121) where Q = discharge. 1947. ft/s V /2g = Hν.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. . Then.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. using this discharge.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. Typically. Villemonte. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. R. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. (21. Dec. Inc. for such weirs.59). The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Where great accuracy is essential.
DC 20402. Washington.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.21.” Government Printing Office.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.02 0. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. All rights reserved. the head in relation to the design head. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. But the process should be repeated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. and the approach velocity. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. Therefore. 21. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.20 0.5Hd > r* > 0. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. starting with the corrected discharge. ft (U. Department of the Interior. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. F. For conditions of design head Table 21. . (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.2 of the head.123) where L = effective crest length.10 H.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.12.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. For each change of nappe shape. For conditions of design head Hd. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. ft L′ = net crest lengths. (3) Broad-crested Table 21.13.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.S. Click here to view. and approach velocity. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.34. Inc. thickness of pier. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. head in relation to design heads. The effect is most critical for low heads. where approach velocities are high. “Design of Small Dams.
Fig.66 of the head. 21. for a sharp-crested weir.67 Fig. New York). All rights reserved.5H upstream. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. 21.64) has such a shape. 21. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. . This relationship is shown in Fig. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. This manual and V. “Design of Small Dams. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. Consequently. For flow at heads lower than the design head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. The shape of this nappe. and therefore of an ogee crest.122).65. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. (U. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. T. Chow. T. According to Chow. where discharge is given by Eq. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. 1. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.34. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. (21. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. 2. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.S. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Figure 21. 21. Department of the Interior. called the design head Hd. Of the above rules. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. depends on the head producing the discharge. 21. however.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. at the point of maximum contraction. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. DC 20402. Chow.” Government Printing Office. Inc. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. Washington.
(From “Design of Small Dams. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.) Fig. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S.S.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. All rights reserved. Bureau of Reclamation. Fig. .) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. 21.” U. (From “Design of Small Dams.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. the flow differs from ideal. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.66.” U. Inc. Figure 21.21.
(See. Unless otherwise noted. compiled by King. E. Values of the discharge coefficient. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. fairly common in waterworks projects.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. and sharp right-angled edges.) Fig.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. 21. Inc. the coefficient of discharge. F. the nappe springs free. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. All rights reserved. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.14.S. Brater.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. McGraw-Hill Book Company. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.” 6th ed.34. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. 21. a plane horizontal crest. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. Click here to view.69 Broad-crested weir.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Figure 21.. for example. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. if flow is at other than the design head.68. is determined from Fig. 21. Bureau of Reclamation.67 and 21. New York.69 Fig.34. New York. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. “Handbook of Hydraulics. where the velocity of approach is not high.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. therefore. (E.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Weirs of irregular section. are used as spillways and control structures. has contraction of the nappe. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. appear in Table 21. . Figure 21.. because of its sharp upstream edge.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.” U.” 6th ed. (From “Design of Small Dams. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.) 21. (21. Brater. F.
32 3.68 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.92 3.4 0.65 2.70 2.86 2.92 2.64 2.80 2.8 2.30 3.61 2.5 4. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.68 2.63 2.0 1.32 3.63 2.0 5.6 0.00 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.75 2.65 2.70 2.38 2. The smaller silt sizes.74 2.64 2.66 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.66 2.68 2.74 2.34 2.32 3.66 2.54 2.60 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.54 2.63 2. which are often of equal consequence.14 3.63 2.60 2.64 2.32 3.32 3.32 3.70 2.32 3.32 3.72 2.58 2.63 2.65 2.64 15.31 3.5 5. ft 0.32 Breadth of crest of weir.07 3.32 3.04 3.0 4.56 2. those forming the bed load.65 2.8 1.0 3. such as a reservoir.65 2.32 3.05 3.64 2.64 2.32 3.64 2.89 3.76 2.97 3.64 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.08 3.00 2.32 3.32 3.49 2.68 2.00 2.32 2.32 3.35.69 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.64 2.50 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 1.4 1.20 3. with its load of suspended silt.00 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.65 2. Inc.6 1.63 21.72 2.68 2.67 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.68 2.2 0. ft 0.66 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.19 3.85 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.77 2.32 3.68 2.50 2.60 2.32 3.67 2. 21. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment. and turbines.98 3.2 1.64 2.62 2.75 2.88 2.63 2.32 3.64 2.69 2.32 3.21.20 3.68 2.70 2.00 2.67 2.64 2.32 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 3.32 3.64 2.07 3.28 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.63 2.73 2. Click here to view.48 2.32 4.32 3.29 3.70 2.28 3.89 3.66 2.30 3.85 2.64 2.79 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.67 2.72 2.07 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 5. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.88 10.00 2.32 3.32 1. This incoming water.76 2.07 3.63 2.0 2.32 3. such as gates.03 3.61 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.68 2.80 2.31 3.70 2.64 2.64 2.65 2. once formed. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.92 3.75 2.32 3.81 2.32 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.20 3.32 3.32 3.68 2. .64 2.68 2.88 3.50 H.60 2.32 3. erosion.50 2. or soil.08 3.32 3.75 2.63 2.32 3.32 3. those carried in suspension.79 1.75 2.63 2.5 2.26 3.00 2.32 3.31 3.32 3.5 3.69 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.32 2.32 3.68 2.67 2. valves. All rights reserved.69 2.64 2. Heavier silt sizes.89 2. A density current.07 3.44 2.
The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. because of variations in rainfall. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. the rate is not uniform during the year. All rights reserved. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. However. once formed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The most common manner of destruction.39. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. 21. By this method. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. landslide. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. . on the other hand. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. overtopping. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. see Art. Inc. formed from the bed load. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Of course. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time.35. or from year to year. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. 21. These currents are stable. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. or failure of materials. however. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. are coarsegrained. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. When neither can be done. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. Click here to view.
in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. According to Witzig.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. which varies with both slope and discharge. But for the most part. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. ft qo = critical discharge. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.35. and boulders. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. discharge. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. All rights reserved. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. 21. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. Therefore.21. however. Click here to view. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. Therefore. ft3/s b = width of river. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. Frequently. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir.124) where Gb = total bed load. gravel. Therefore. A mean grain size of 0.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Inc. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. . which generally occurs only during a storm. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. (21. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0.1). This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.0 ft/mi.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.
For instance. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume.S. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. or digital microchip technology.” U. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size.S. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. It continually records. contour plowing. on or near the land surface. such as wind. debris barriers. planting of burned-over areas. including their relation to living things. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. (See H. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. temperature. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. and their reaction with their environment. or a combination of the two. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. discharges into streams. Such screens. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. their occurrence. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. rivers. runoff. infiltrates into the soil. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. recharges groundwater. Graf. A. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Click here to view.S.73 dation. All rights reserved. (21-124). and the stream velocity. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. Inc.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. and distribution. if the dam is raised at a later date. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Current data. or year. (W. Use of vegetation screens. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. are published daily by the U. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. day.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering.) culation. infiltration. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. . water evaporation from oceans.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their chemical and physical properties. evaporation. such as an hour. and pressure. In this cycle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. lakes. The second type is a nonrecording gage. Weather Bureau is 24 h. H. which are of two types. Department of Agriculture. by ink pen and revolving drum. and stream flow 21. Weather Bureau. New York. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. groundwater flow. Einstein. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. check-dam construction. circulation.
especially if the reservoir is shallow. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.. Evapotranspiration. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. (21. A portion may evaporate as it falls. Click here to view. “Handbook of Hydrology. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate.21. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. Evaporation may occur from free-water. on a long-term basis. The Meyer equation [Eq. On an annual basis. equal to 15 for small. developed from Dalton’s law. and it increases as wind velocity increases. and other vegetation surfaces. All rights reserved. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. has a relatively large surface area. This phenomenon. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. and plantleaf surfaces. while another portion may be caught on leaves.125) (21. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water.” McGraw-Hill. in of mercury. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. see D. Maidment. Of the three. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. R. plant. (21. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. shallow pools and 11 for large. Inc. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. called interception. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. in of mercury.126) where E = evaporation rate.125)]. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. or ground surfaces. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. branches. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. ground. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. Inc. Not all rain reaches the ground. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. tropical and subtropical regions.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. New York. Evapotranspiration is important because. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. In evaporation. commonly termed consumptive use. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. . In transpiration.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or groundwater flow. snow. or cetyl alcohol. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Inc. New York. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. birds. Inc. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Precipitation—form (rain. . Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. is in widespread use. duration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80. subsurface runoff. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. depending on the geographical region. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used.. aquatic life. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. hail. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Thus.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Hexadeconal. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. natural or manmade. subsurface. and storm seepage.” McGraw-Hill. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Groundwater flow. Subsurface flow. to reach a channel. and biologic attrition. 21. dew).75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Moving laterally. insects. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Classified by the path taken to a channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. frost. or excess rain. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. R. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. All rights reserved. intensity.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.70. “Handbook of Hydrology. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. It appears in surface channels. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. also known as interflow. After joining stream flow. wind tends to push the film to the shore. tropical. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Maidment. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. effective rain includes subsurface flow. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. runoff may be surface. although it may vary between 0. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. subsurface storm flow. Climatic characteristics a. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. time distribution. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Click here to view. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. called a Class A Level Pan. perhaps several years. On large reservoirs. or groundwater runoff. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body.60 and 0. (D. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Commonly. except in arid. In practice.
the U. length) b.S. detail.21.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. 21. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. recurrence interval. All rights reserved. Solar radiation 2. yearly flow volume. extremes of flow.S. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. duration d. and various state and local agencies. Geological Survey. Atmospheric pressure f. groundwater formations. orientation. Inc. both published and unpublished. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. elevation. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. drainage net. the detail required in the final answer. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. Weather Bureau. and the accuracy desired. shape.S. and completeness of the hydrologic records. general location. antecedent precipitation. which may be either precipitation or stream flow.70. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. the quantity and type of data available. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. land use and cover. These papers contain records of daily flow.S. special-interest items. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Geological Survey. direction of storm movement b. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data.S. 21. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. mean flow. artificial drainage. 21.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. Wind—velocity. 21. extremes during precipitation c. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. TVA. roughness. snow storage. and Weather Bureau. Geologic—soil type. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. frozen ground during storms. Topographic—size. slope. permeability. . The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. channels (size. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. direction. Agricultural Research Service. slope. stratification Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. Geological Survey. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. Humidity e. lakes and other bodies of water. Temperature—variation. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. areal distribution. shape of cross section. Drainage-basin characteristics a. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. as shown in Fig. International Boundary Commission.” U. soil moisture.
1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. in/h A = drainage area. Chow. 2. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. others give the complete hydrograph. T. Inc. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. . and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.or 100-year-frequency storm. 5. Several methods yield only peak discharge. for example.41. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. a 50. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. the second to major hydraulic structures. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.127) where Q = peak discharge. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.128) 21. 1962). A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. and large downstream damage potential. Click here to view. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The values of C in Table 21. 3. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As an example. 4. All rights reserved. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. great importance.
35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.60 0. detached Multiunits. Inc.80 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.20 0.20 – 0.89)] . Equation (21.25 – 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. (See D. .85 0. or any equivalent method.16). and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. Click here to view.75 0. 2% Heavy soil. Inc. and the flow time in conduits.50 – 0.70 – 0. Maidment.” McGraw-Hill.30 – 0.40 0.15 – 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. New York.13 – 0. 2% Sandy soil.50 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. n.70 – 0. R. Sherman. avg.05 – 0. coefficient. 2–7% Heavy soil.95 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.50 – 0.25 0.70 0. flat. or ditches.95 0.41.80 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. steep. ditches. 21. K.25 – 0. All rights reserved. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. is a convenient.10 0.18 – 0.30 0. b.22 0. streets. in/h respectively. avg.40 0. After determining the time of concentration..129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. “Handbook of Hydrology.20 – 0.10 – 0. factor. (21.128) or Eq.95 0.60 – 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. min time of concentration Fig.15 0.85 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.71 and Table 21. (21. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.40 – 0. gutters.95 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.70 0.10 – 0. the flow time in streets.90 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.75 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. years duration of storm.) The flow time in gutters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flat.50 – 0.129) Table 21. (21.35 0. 21. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.21.127). 21.129).17 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.75 – 0.60 – 0. steep.10 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. (21. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. 7% Heavy soil.70 – 0.
and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. subdivision may be required. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. the time of storm runoff. The method is summarized by the formula (21. vol. If the watershed is very large.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. JanuaryJune 1932. pp.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Click here to view. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. termed a unit storm. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. 108. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. usually 1 acre).16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.” Engineering News-Record. and more accurate than any such set of factors. that is. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Inc. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. easier. (Leroy K. Thus. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Sherman. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. 501-505. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .79 Table 21. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. 3. This requires that a storm of short duration. 2. termed a unit period. 4. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area.
72. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Then. Illustrated in Fig. Click here to view. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Inc. 21. For ease of manipulation. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5. 21. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length.21. which is of fixed intensity and duration. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds.73). This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. 21. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. All rights reserved. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Usually. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. because of storm variations. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). . The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period.
73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. McGraw-Hill. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity..81 21. “Hydrology for Engineers.” 3rd ed. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. 21. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21.131) period. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Maidment. pp. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. Click here to view. 447–454). New York. Also. 21.” McGraw-Hill.. (See D.. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. 21. All rights reserved. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. perpendicular to direction of flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Linsley et al. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Fig. K. Inc. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. . (R. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.. Inc. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. 19. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. I. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. R. “Handbook of Hydrology. during heavy storms. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. This loss.) where Q = flow rate. New York.) Fig.74). This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. This method was developed by Franklin F. vol. pt. Inc. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.
the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. rather than a change in volume. Regardless of how it is defined. among others. groundwater levels. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. These costs include increased soap costs. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. Frequently. and overdraft. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. and location of artificial replenishment. usually a number of years. and methods of wastewater disposal. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. quantity. present and future water demands should be determined. alternative management plans should be formulated. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Inc. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. quantity. wastewaters. poor-quality replenishment waters. recycling. quality. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. Following the preceding preliminary work. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. cost of replenishment water. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. Deteriorating water quality. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. . because of impermeable layers above and below it. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. need for excessive pumping lifts. source. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. (A base period is a period of time. or other causes. Click here to view. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. All rights reserved. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. safe yield. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. and quality of water supply. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved.21. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. water softening costs. and indirect water-quality use costs.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. is a confined or artesian aquifer.
distribution. irrigation.” N. legal. K. and age of the city.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. flood. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. and hotels for drinking. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. industrial. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. percentage increase. The smaller the system.” R.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate.. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. washing. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. Hydrology for Engineers. and public. (“Ground Water Management. Bear. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water.. geographical boundaries. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 40. American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water Resources Planning. I. Kashef. Linsley et al. financially feasible. wastewater disposed. surface-water delivery facilities. S. Grigg. culinary. institutional. however. pumping. sanitary. . A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is a very difficult task. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. or other unforeseen emergency.” 3rd ed.” A. storage. land speculation. and environmental factors. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. J. Therefore. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. amount and location of groundwater extractions. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Estimation of future population. and sanitary purposes. motels. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. 1987. New York. industrial. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Inc. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. McGraw-Hill Book Company. bathing. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. and treatment works. Click here to view. transmission. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. commercial. fire-fighting. All rights reserved. graphical comparison with other cities. “Groundwater Engineering. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. such as industrial development. apartments. and natural and artificial replenishment. water used. no. decreasing percentage increase. fire.
and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. presents Table 21. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. it may control the design of the facilities. and faucets. type of service (metered or unmetered). All rights reserved. as presented in Table 21. and time of day. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. lawn sprinkling. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains.” 1979. Mo. Demand rates vary with time of day. if the cost of water increases. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. public buildings. degree of industrialization. and unauthorized uses. the demand for it decreases. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. The “California Water Atlas. quality. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Public Health Service Report. month.21. Normally. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. and cleaning. cooling. Table 21. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. pressure. cost. reservoir evaporation. such as the climate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. janitorial. size of the city. cost. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. valves. influence the demand rate for water. and pressure. and air conditioning purposes. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. . Calif. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. State of California Office of Planning and Research.17. but because of the high rate at which it is required.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. are the average of a range of values. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. and quality of the water. degree of industrialization.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Click here to view.S. meter malfunctions. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. standard of living. air conditioning. Inc. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. Public use of water for parks. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. mainly because of the lack of large industries. and year. The national demand-rate data. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality.
6 11.5 14.0 1.0 7. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. rivers. In selection of a source of supply.2 2. and streams. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. however. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 4.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 40. however.3 Duration. the effect of warm.000 85. gal/min P = population.000 40. The source must Table 21. is frequently undesirable. In the atlas. interdependent.000 40.4 3.0 3.18 Required Fire Flow.000 60.000 80.000 6. .000 85.18.8 6. † MGD = million gallons per day. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. In the past. legality.000 5.3 5. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. inland.000 2. and in some cases. Click here to view.000 40. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 90.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 40. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. to a large extent.9 4.000 1. but the demand rate is high. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. Hydrant Spacing.000 125.000 48.000 4.000 28.3 0. Total dependence on a single source. such as lakes.000 3.8 7.000 100. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 70.4 17.000 110.000 80.000 200.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 90. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. 21. quality. valley cities.000 8. Moreover. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 2.000 120. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. All rights reserved. Inc. In some local areas. and politics. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. MG = million gallons. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.500 2.000 55.000 * American Insurance Association. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.2 8.000 10.8 2.6 1.000 40.000 10. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. diversification is essential for reliability. industrialization. climate. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. MG† 0. cost.000 17. Cost.000 1.000 40.6 4. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 12. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.132) where G = fire-demand rate.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.21. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. dependent on local conditions. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. temperature.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. total dissolved solids. alkalinity. In addition. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. All rights reserved. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.21. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.5 – 8. Inc.) Source Protection s The U. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.” U. Click here to view. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. such as sulfates and chlorides. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. The measurements should include pH. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0.S.22. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.” American Public Health Association.S. (See also Art. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. calcium hardness. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and calculation of the Langelier index. . an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. 21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.5 mg / L 0.3 mg / L 0. American Water Works Association.) At the discretion of the state. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.
) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. mm If R > 2000.0. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Inc. V the flowthrough velocity. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. All rights reserved. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Figure 21. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. Reynolds numbers. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as those mentioned above.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. 21. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. velocity is constant. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Inc. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. 21.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.001 and 5. (See R. coagulation-sedimentation.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. slow and rapid sand filtration.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal.46.51). (Usually. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. depth ho . 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.0 < R < 2000. Ann Arbor. and size and shape of the settling basin. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. B. shape. disinfection. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Newton’s law applies: (21. Pojasek.134). (21. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. calculated with ν = νs. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. to be used in Eq. (21. . however. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. Mich. particulate and colored matter.. and softening (see also Art. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. unpleasant tastes and odors. In the region where 1. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. For this ideal basin.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. temperature and viscosity of the water. Figure 21. is equal to or less than 1. Click here to view. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. and width B. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle.
after Camp.) Fig. 21. .76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. (Observed curves. Inc. Click here to view. p. 21. 103. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. vol. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1946. at 10 °C.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 897.
46. The tubular settler (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21. rectangular (Fig. short circuiting.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. for example. Without coagulants. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. and D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fair. Inc. C.. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. salt. Click here to view. Okun.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. G. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Multistory tanks. 21. All rights reserved.78a) or circular (Fig. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo ..78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.8c. coagulants are added to the water. J. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. are removed in this basin. 27. “Water Treatment Plant Design. 21. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. Inc. Geyer. New York.78b).” John Wiley & Sons. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. .93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .” McGraw-Hill. finely Fig. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. and eddy currents.5 ft/min (most common velocity.) 21. or other indicator to pass through the basin. A. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Inc. 1. New York. M.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Click here to view. 21.21. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. (b) Circular clarifier. (d) Tubular settler.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. .78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.
New York. considering both cost and performance. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Thereby. L. organic polyelectrolytes. “Water Quality and Treatment. coliform organisms. Anionic polymers. highmolecular-weight. All rights reserved. T. chemical and biological reactions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Corbitt. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. Culp and R. Inc. A. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). or neutral in charge. “Water Supply and Sewerage. however. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. and suspended solids. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. settling. “New Concepts in Water Purification. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Polymers are long-chain.to 60min range. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. turbidity. such as pH. anionic. consequently. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply.” 4th ed. . and neutralization of electrostatic charges. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and air jets. however. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. American Water Works Association. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. and easier dewatering.” R.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. in some instances.. however.) 21. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. color. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. to get the small floc to agglomerate. production of a smaller volume of sludge. McGhee. L. (G. ferric chloride (FeCl3). ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). They are available in three types: cationic. J. Culp. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Also. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. such as mechanical stirrers. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. or positively charged. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. and nonionic. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Inc.. or negatively charged. plankton. such as paper fiber. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. 18H2O]. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. The filtering process has many components. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. centrifugal pumps. and hardness. temperature. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. such as physical straining.” McGraw-Hill. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. color. New York. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min.
and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. in millimeters. Usually. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The process requires rapid mixing. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. All rights reserved. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. and dual. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.25. 21. of the sand. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.to 0.35-mm range.21.to 12-in layer of gravel.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.79. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.or mixed-media filtration. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. . The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. 21. by weight. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Inc. through the sand and gravel layers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. depending on the turbidity.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Click here to view. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. The wash- Fig. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. that will pass 10%.
75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. however. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. bed cracking. gal/min b = width of trough.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.20 to 1. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. and air jets. . The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Dual-media. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. All rights reserved. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. The filtering medium may be sand. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.25 to 1. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. which produces an undertreated effluent. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. or deep coarse-media filters. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. or anthracite coal. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. which is drained to waste. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. Immediately after washing. water sprays. mixed-media. such as rakes. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. Inc. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs.002:1 to 0. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Click here to view. creating a high head loss across the filter. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. diatomaceous earth.005:1 range. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.35 to 0. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. filters pass water at a high rate.Water Resources Engineering s 21.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. may be more advantageous.
C. New York. L. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. and American Society of Civil Engineers. in clear wells. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. New York. carbonates. perforated..” McGraw-Hill Book Company. A.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. lime (CaO). Fair.139) 21. sulfates..137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins.. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.21. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.136) (21. L. respectively.3 and 0. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.1 mg/L. New York. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. (American Water Works Association. Regeneration requires between 0.138) (21. All rights reserved.. McGhee. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. “New Concepts in Water Purification.” 4th ed. Geyer. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. where 1 gpg = 17. Culp. J. such as calcium and magnesium. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. In the lime-soda process. “Water Supply and Sewerage. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. and R is the zeolite material. Okun.) (21. These materials remove cations. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Culp and R. New York.” 4th ed. “Water Quality and Treatment. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. American Water Works Association. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. or open-joint pipes.) 21. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” 6th ed.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. and D. J. Inc. G.” John Wiley & Sons.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water Treatment Plant Design. however. . gas. (G. M. McGraw-Hill Book Company.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. “Water Treatment Plant Design. and (3) total hardness. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and American Society of Civil Engineers. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. Click here to view. Some. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. Inc. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity.” and T. “Water Quality and Treatment.
21. Inc. J.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. “Water Treatment Plant Design. taste. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21.. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. iron.. anion exchange. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. activated carbon. Okun. McGhee.” and T. odor. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.” John Wiley & Sons. then. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water..Water Resources Engineering s 21. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. irrigation.) 21. Chlorine residuals of 0. Filter both solutions. and lime. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. Geyer. reverse osmosis. detergents. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. “Water Treatment Plant Design.1 or 0. ozone. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.” McGraw-Hill.) 21. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. 21. Click here to view. and D. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Fair. Inc. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. New York. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. and electrodialysis. Other disinfectants are iodine. despite its low solubility. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation.” McGraw-Hill.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. M. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. lime softening. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. Inc. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. J. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. bromine.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. A. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. . “Water and Wastewater Engineering. cation exchange. ultraviolet light. water supply. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. C. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. All rights reserved.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.) respect to carbonates.99 water supplies. excessive fluorides. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. flood control. New York.45). If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. manganese. (G. “Water Supply and Sewerage. chlorine dioxide.
The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as is the case for many water-supply projects.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. maximum flows will govern. When the demand rate is known. Inc. Also. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. Click here to view. 21. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. The plot of volume vs. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig.52. 21. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.21.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. 21.80. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. . The slope of the curve is the rate of flow.1). For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. minimum flows will be critical. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Aeri- Fig. The mass diagram (Fig. 21.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. All rights reserved.
San Francisco.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand.2). which may be only a few feet thick. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In deep reservoirs.52. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. are large distances from the city. give special attention to water quality. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. odor. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts.35 and 21. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed.101 Fig. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. During hours of maximum demand. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. the flow refills the reservoir. 21.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. Inc. pumping plants.Water Resources Engineering s 21. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. When the tem- 21. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. When the demand drops off. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. All rights reserved. Click here to view. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. . perature drops in the fall. Major sources of supply for some cities. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. If possible. such as New York. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. is called the thermocline. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. but there is no circulation across this zone. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. and Los Angeles. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir.
21.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. M. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. M.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 3. For the correct hydraulic grade.21. Inc. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. no. June 1953). For any given storage reservoir. Brune. 21. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.84). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. A flowing artesian Fig. Brune.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. All rights reserved. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.35.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. 21. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.52. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. 34. . 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.83). vol.82) (G. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. 21. 21. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc. Fig. Click here to view. All rights reserved. .103 Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
“Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. no. Hence.. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. pump (Art. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. or driven. A. Inc. 21.57).143) 21.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. M. V.53. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. T. ditch. “Water Supply and Sewerage. p. McGraw-Hill.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. (C. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. bored.84). J. screen. 21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. Jacob. 33. vol. p. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. 72. Fair.” Economic Geology. and D. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. gal/day. hollow-core. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. eductor or riser pipe. E. 1940. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. 889. ft The steady flow. ft d = diameter of well.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 21. or hydraulic rotary methods. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). motor. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.83). ft (Fig. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. 21. Inc.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. . 5. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. vol... to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing.53. C. from an artesian well is given by (21. Geyer. ft h = H minus drawdown.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. The pump. 21. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. J. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.” 6th ed. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer.53. waterjet. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. 629. (G. New York. 21. Theis.142) where Q = flow. McGhee. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. Click here to view.21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and motor. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. December 1938. All rights reserved. Okun. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well.53. C.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
A machine that produces a monolithic. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. bacteria in water. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. but wood is rarely used in new installations. and ability to withstand external loads. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. All rights reserved. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. bronze. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. Inc. valves. valves. an anode and a cathode. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. brass. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. steel. rubber. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are present. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil.54. ft 21. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. sand. (21. Since steel is stronger than iron. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. . In unlined pipes. such as polyvinyl chloride. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. however. Under favorable conditions. Copper. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. Wood pipelines are still in existence. lead. and sulfur compounds. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. sealed flanges. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. riveting. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. and plastics. pumps. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. impurities and strains in metals. contact between acids and metals. and other appurtenances. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. and meters destroyed by corrosion. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. tanks. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. plastic. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. hydrants. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Click here to view. concrete. or Dresser-type couplings. zinc. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure.146) where D = pipe diameter. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. 21.21. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. stray electric currents.) At the anode. polyethylene. If it is cement-lined. polybutylene.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years.
109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. All rights reserved. At the cathode. Inc. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. the faster electrons can move through the water. and treatment of the water. to prevent corrosion. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. zinc. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. 21. Strains. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. 21. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. caustic soda.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. the corrosion process continues (Fig. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.86). Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. water may be treated with bases. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. where e is an electron. Aluminum. When selecting materials. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Click here to view. Also. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. and Fig. and the more ions. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. cracks. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. . such as soda ash. use of protective coatings. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for example. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased.
“Water Quality and Treatment. oxides. horsepower. or eye. the most common waterworks pump. hydroxides. psia. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. ft. Water enters at the center. Corrosion. efficiency. called a volute (Fig. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Inc. To have practical meaning.87). accomplishes that in two steps.) w = unit weight of liquid. 21. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. magnesium. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21.21. McGraw-Hill. by (21. and so on on the walls of the pipes. 21. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. psia. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically.. lime. New York. 21. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. The centrifugal pump. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Inc. .. or impeller. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. z is negative.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. graphite. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. in feet. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. ft of water z = elevation difference. 21. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure.88). and the head-discharge relationship.147) where pa = pressure. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. (American Water Works Association. All rights reserved. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. To prevent cavitation. between pump center line and water surface Fig. Zinc. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump.” 4th ed. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. Click here to view. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required.
58. “Pump Handbook. (Also included in Fig.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. propeller.111 than the required NPSH. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. pump discharge. and air lift. 21.” 2nd ed.57 and check valves in Art. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.89. For that reason. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. All rights reserved. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. rotary. 21. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Karassik et al.. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. helical. as shown in Fig. 21. below 200 gal/min. head. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.. depending on the number of stages.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. In a typical water-system analysis. New York.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. See also Art. J. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. . there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. 21. however. jet. Inc.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. reciprocating. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. Fig. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. (I. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.) 21.
Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Because of the close tolerances. so that the entire lift is suction. gal/min H = head. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. and for Ns above 7500. 21. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Jet pumps (Fig.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. which are located at the well bottom. At sea level. which is a function of specific speed. utilize piston action to move water. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Reciprocating pumps. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.90 fied). vanes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe.21. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. 21. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. r/min Q = discharge.or motordriven. either hand. (21. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Click here to view. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used.148) where n = impeller speed. they can be used only for sediment-free water. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. cams. Inc. . Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. All rights reserved. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator.
applied through a gear-reduction device. one at the service connection. pumps. Corrosion. solids deposition. globe. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Also. Click here to view.113 tion. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Simplicity of construction and quick. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Hand or motor power. Check. globe. or it may be at the bottom of the well. rotates the disk. But these valves cost more than gate. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Inc. large pressure differences. All rights reserved. and butterfly. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. “Pump Handbook. The major types of isolating valves are gate. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. If sand is carried out with the water. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings.. curb. primarily because of their low cost. and butterfly valves. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. sluice gate. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. rubber. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. or corporation cocks. McGraw-Hill Book Company. plug. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells.Water Resources Engineering s 21. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. air-relief. in-service lubrication features. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. fast operation. availability. cone. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. (I. and low head loss when fully open. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Low head loss. respectively. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Karassik et al. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers.” 2nd ed. three valves must be used. and easy. one just upstream of the meter. New York. pressure-regulating. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. pressure-relief. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. which are water. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Usually.. tubercle formation. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). J.or oil-lubricated. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. Plug.) drives to permit manual operation. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. or Neoprene. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. . needle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. . Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. 21. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. or California type. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. For example. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Usually. Many automatic control valves. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. which connects the barrel to the main. Furthermore.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. check. When the valve is in a closed position. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. The wetbarrel. All rights reserved. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Inc. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. tube. Often. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Click here to view. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. such as trunk lines 21. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Interior-differential. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. and relief valves.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. rivers. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. and large pipes. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. such as pressure regulators and altitude. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min.21. Because of high head losses. The most common check valve is the swing type. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location.
Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. McGraw-Hill Book Company.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. rotary. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. ft d2 = diameter of throat. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Inc.149) Hydraulics. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. durability.) As in venturi meters. ft h1 = pressure in main section. 21. Brater. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. amount of head loss through the meter. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. The standard venturi meter (Fig. called a Price meter. The nutating disk is used. respectively.150) where Q = flow rate. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. and cost. for metering domestic-service connections. simplicity and ease of repairs. such as meters for individual customer connections. vertical velocity components.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. are the most common velocity-type devices.115 of distribution systems. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. However. Click here to view. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. The cup-type meter.91. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. but they are used primarily in laboratories. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. (21. 21. which do not affect propeller meters. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter.5% within the normal test-flow limits. New York. . Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. or modifications thereof. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. All rights reserved.. or nutating-disk types. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.” 6th ed. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. see E. A clicking noise. nozzle. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. F.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. utility-type enterprises. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. . and similar items. (c) Orifice- 21.21. fire use. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. and development of the system. step rate. if any. load factors.91 plate meter. Inc. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. or to some other recognized system. Click here to view. flat rate is falling into disuse. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. All rights reserved. peak rates of use. fixed charges on capital investment. (b) Nozzle meter. 21. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. seasonal use.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and block rate. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers.
tunnel. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. of serving an individual customer. buying water from a wholesale supplier. Inc. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. Cost component 2. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Click here to view. It is generally recognized that residential areas. where the majority of small users are. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. Cost component 1. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. S. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. This charge is usually small. including metering and billing. 21.746 kW 1 kW = 1. where applicable. Cost component 3.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. and. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. When fixing a system of rates. pumping energy. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. a building to house the machinery and equipment. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. turbines and governors. . For most distribution systems.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. generators and exciters. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. called the commodity component. and (3) cost. switching equipment. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. called the demand component. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. draft tube. and transformers. penstocks. depends on the peak usage of a customer. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. tunnels. called the customer component. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. canals. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more.117 With step rate. All rights reserved. treatment chemicals.
These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. On a weekly cycle. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. run-of-river plants with storage. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served.92). Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. . Storage can be provided for a daily. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. All rights reserved. weekly. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. 21. On a daily cycle. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Inc. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. such as navigation. Therefore. or seasonal cycle. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. or yearly basis. power production being only incidental.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. to be used at some future time. weekly. If the minimum flow is very low. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. and peak-load plants. Then. Click here to view. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities.21. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. It can be computed on a daily. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. On a seasonal cycle. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. base-load plants. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed.
) 21. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. . This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Zipparo and H. Hasen. The main classifications are gravity. (Department of Water and Power.” 4th ed. When needed.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Los Angeles. 21. it usually is not as economical. 21. New York. Click here to view.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle..) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.119 Fig. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight.92). This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Force F2 represents silt pressure. All rights reserved. arch. Figure 21. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Inc. Calif. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. earth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. and rock-fill.Water Resources Engineering s 21. J. Its distribution is triangular. (V. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. buttress.
Inc. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.153) where w = unit weight of water. ice pressures as high as 50.425h above the base. 21. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. given by Eq. .93 by forces F4 and F5.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. In cold climates.” discussion by von Karman. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. today it is realized these values are much too high.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. (E. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. 434. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.) (21. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. 1933.153). Rose. vol. presented by Edwin Rose. 98. All rights reserved.000 psf. ice. (21. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Click here to view. was developed by von Karman. p.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. A method of calculating these forces. 21.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. In the past. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig.21. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. which create forces on any object resting on it. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. These accelerations occur in every direction. A close approximation of the force. which forms on the reservoir surface. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. May 1946.1 g. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.
the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. First. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If the deflections are not equal. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. . The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. overturning by rotating about the toe. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. Inc. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. silt. sand. their relative importance is much different. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. however. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. because of bearing contact. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. but the structural design is much more critical. All rights reserved. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. and uplift forces are smaller. When the base is not drained. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. In the past. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. uplift is not so important. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. however. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. Recent belief. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. Hence. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. and clay. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. The modes of failure are also the same. If a large quantity of pervious material. or failure of the foundation material. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. On arch dams. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. rock flour. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. such as sand and gravel. but its formwork is more expensive. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. engineers assumed that. They are not suited to most sites. In the multiple-arch.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. is available and clayey materials must be imported. however. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. However.
Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Temporary facings are usually of wood. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. although steel has been used occasionally. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. U. Click here to view. The downstream face is usually 1. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.3 on 1. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. If pervious material is not available. All rights reserved. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock.” U. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.) 21. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Bureau of Relamation. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. providing power. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Zipparo and H.. the natural angle of repose of rock.” EM 1110-2-2300. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face.3 on 1. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. and an upstream impervious facing. bonding into the dumped rock. S. J. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. For some types of soil.” 4th ed.94). Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. or wood over concrete. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing.21. Hasen. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. therefore. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. S. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. onto the fill. For dams over 200 ft high. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Inc. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. New York. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Leakage should be expected. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. however. bearing on the rubble cushion. Army Corps of Engineers. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. sometimes from as high as 175 ft.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. (V. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. The facing is usually concrete. Today. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage.
The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load.95a). efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. All rights reserved. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. This creates a force on the runner. if the load drops below 50%. it changes direction. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The propeller turbine (Fig. As the water flows through the tur- 21. However. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Click here to view. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. (V. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. . The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. At heads below 100 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. Zipparo and H. runner. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. the propeller-type (Fig. however. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. In these. 21. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.123 bine. and draft tube. The wicket gates. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. 21. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. In such installations. wicket gates. runner. and the fixed-blade type.95c). and draft tube. When the power demand on the turbine changes. At heads above 1000 ft.) Fig. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. 21. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. wicket gates. Hasen. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity.94 turbine. however. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. 21. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. Inc. J.” 4th ed. 21. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. New York. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. located just outside the perimeter of the runner.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. their efficiency decreases rapidly.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case.. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. McGraw-Hill Book Company.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.
95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. (b) Kaplan. if designed correctly. All rights reserved. . the dam will not be damaged by the water. 21. This type of spillway is Fig. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.65.21. widely used for concrete dams because.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. (c) axial flow. Inc. 21.
Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. 21. 21. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir.96 Siphon spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. All rights reserved. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Washington. lined.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. . 21. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. When the head is relatively low. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. called an ogee spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flared. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. DC 20402). The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.S. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. “Design of Small Dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In a chute spillway. The air vent shown in Fig. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The weir can be sharp-crested. or ogee in cross section. In a shaft spillway. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. This type of spillway. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. Thus. As the head increases. open channel. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. Once this second condition is reached. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. model tests are usually employed. In a side-channel spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. Click here to view. A siphon spillway (Fig. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. both depending on the head on the weir.34). Bureau of Reclamation. Inc.” Government Printing Office. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. 21.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam.
The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. level of a reservoir within close limits. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. 21.21. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. 21. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. 21. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Inc. controlling flow. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.97). Click here to view. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. Fig. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. In a taintor gate (Fig. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. In contrast. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. causing damage and hampering operation. .98 Bear-trap gate. 21. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. On large stop-log installations. and providing support for the conduit. All rights reserved. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. 21. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.65. making removal difficult. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.97 Taintor gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest.5 ft/s. Fig. the pipes fail. To do this. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations.65. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head.
99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. 21.99 Drum gate. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. (V. J. J. as shown in Fig. drum gates are not suited to small dams.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Zipparo and H. The drum gate (Fig. Doland. L. “Water Supply Engineering. J. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. E. and J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. Babbitt. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.. Inc. To raise a bear-trap gate.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Fig. . New York. 21.98. Cleasby. Hasen.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. and H. Because of the large recess required in the dam.” 4th ed. 21.
Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . All rights reserved. Click here to view.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.blank page 21.