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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

or liquid surface. Its value Fig. as shown in Fig. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure.1) where h = capillary rise.21. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. are significant in others. although negligible in many water engineering problems. When the liquid is in a closed container. face and rises in a small tube. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. is small and insignificant in most problems. 21. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. All rights reserved. . at sea level. pitting. formation of spray from water jets. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. ft Capillarity.7 psia. Absolute pressure. portions of the liquid vaporize. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. however. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. respectively. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.2.000 ft is shown in Fig. 21.1. Gage pressure. 21.3. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. like surface tension. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. as shown in Fig. Thus. Surface tension and capillarity. ft σ = surface tension. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Click here to view. psi. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. Meniscus. decreases with increasing temperature. Inc. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid.7 psi. (21. is concave upward. psia. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and freezing damage to concrete.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. In equation form. Its temperature variation. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10.

It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. absolute viscosity. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity.4. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. the pressure acts equally in all directions. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. In hydraulics. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. . All rights reserved.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. psf. transitional. ft. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. µ of a fluid. 21.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. At any depth. of length and time. Then. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. ft/s y = depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. or implode. (Pressures as high as 350.00001059 ft2/s. also called the coefficient of viscosity. on the bottom surface. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. or completely turbulent flow exists. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lb/ft2 21. the force due to pressure p1. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. and cross-sectional area A. ft2/s. Viscosity. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. which extend into the pores of the metal. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2) where τ = shearing stress. Inc.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. as shown in Fig. psf. and the force due to pressure p2. 21. or dynamic viscosity. Since the prism is at rest. Click here to view. is a measure of its resistance to flow. lb/ft3. on the top surface. ft2. to collapse.8) to determine whether laminar.5 Fig. It is so named because its units. 21. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. and pitting appears. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. (21. and other water control structures.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. tanks.21. the depth below the water surface.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Click here to view. For horizontal surfaces. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA.4) Equation (21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. ft. (21.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21.4). p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). . Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. and y sin θ = h . Figure 21. lb/ft3. dams. then p2 is p.6) – ∫ydA = y A. 21. lb. Taking ∆h to be h.3a) Division of Eq. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Therefore. Thus.3a) by A yields (21. at depth h. where w is the specific weight of water. Equation (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. ft2. (21. 21. All rights reserved. The resultant pressure force P.3. (21. the depth of the centroid.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. p1 is atmospheric pressure.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. psf.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. Inc.3b) then becomes (21. the pressure. ft. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. (21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.5) 21.

It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 .7). Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. (21. 21. – From Eq.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. (21.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. the total force P = whA. ft. All rights reserved. .). (21. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Inc. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.7). The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.8).2° to the horizontal (Fig.6 (see also Fig. Otherwise.8) equals –A. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. psf. Example 21. represented by the length yp.p.) but acts at a point (c. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. Thus.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. 21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. of the surface about its centroidal axis. 6. (21. if that locus is a straight line. Click here to view.p. Hence y . The location of the center of pressure. Pyp = ∫y dP.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5). where K is the radius of gyration. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.g. The denominator of Eq.7 Fig. 21.29). 21.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.) that is below the c.g. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. 21. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.

Inc. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. however. Also. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. Click here to view.5 + 1/ (5. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.0 ft. (See Example 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.42 = 5.9). 21.0 + 2. All rights reserved. 21.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.08. From Eq.42 ft. Note: 1. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.3.21.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.8. . yp = 5. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. (21. 21. Therefore. P = 62.08/5 = 5.1. K2 = point G.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.g. 21.0 + 0.) of common shapes.0) = 5.

Its angle with the horizontal is known. The corresponding angle is 57. and for a constant-radius surface.4 × 2.2. Example 21.6w = 19. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. Click here to view. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.4°. . so the weight of the water is 19. All rights reserved. (b) Free-body diagram. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. (See Example 21. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.7). 21.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. 21.4 = 1220 lb = PV. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Fig.5 × 5 = 780 lb. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. (21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.9. 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. PH = whA = 62.Water Resources Engineering s 21. – From Eq. When water is below the curved surface. 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.14 × 25/4 = 19.9 Fig. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. 21. Inc.6 ft3.564.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.9).6 × 62.

All rights reserved. 21. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. (21. 21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures..10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. is indicated by the metacenter.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. The stability of a ship. or the difference in head.10b. ft. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. the pressure head. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. 21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10a). ft3 ys = distance. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. Given in feet by Eq. Inc.g.21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.10b).10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. p = wh. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. (21. 21. (21. Click here to view. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. Manometers indicate h.b. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. For a body to be in equilibrium.4). The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. whether floating or submerged.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. 21. .

Water Resources Engineering s 21. (b) U-tube manometer. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. U-tube manometer.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.12c). .3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Inc. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21.11 manometer.11): piezometer. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. The piezometer (Fig. However. (a) Piezometers. and differential manometer. 21.17 psi. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. although the latter is most common.4 lb/ft3. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Click here to view. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. 21.11a is 2. Example 21. Basic types of manometers. 21. What is hm? Fig. All rights reserved. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. . The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. 21.11b) is used. All rights reserved.21. In this application. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Inc. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. A movable scale. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.12c). the Utube manometer (Fig. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. Click here to view. Very low pressures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. as opposed to a fixed scale. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures.

hm1 is 9 in.13 indicating liquid. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. such as ft of water or psi. psf. Example 21.6 × 62.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. however. The differential manometer (Fig.0 ft. One factor. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. in the manometer.4: A differential manometer (Fig. and z is 1. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. however. Above 5. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.6). Most of them. ft.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. is magnified by the differential manometer.40. Inc. psf.25 ft of water.25 ft. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. the total energy per unit weight at 2. the actual pressure difference. ft. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. Click here to view.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. 32.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. and the right side. that is. 21. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For example.Water Resources Engineering s 21. hi is 2. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. psf p2 = pressure at 2.5. The pressure at B. .11) where Z1 = elevation. as shown in Fig.0 and 2. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.75 + 13. the magnification will be 2. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. or sump. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. when expressed in feet of water.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. psf w = specific weight of fluid. All rights reserved. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. if the actual difference is 0.4 × 0.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. 21.4 × 2.4 × 2.12a.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. such as might be required in laboratories. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. above some arbitrary datum. ft3/s. Inc. The total energy. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. through friction. (See Example 21. ft2. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. 21. 21. ft. It equals WVa2 / 2g. This term hf.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. 21. Example 21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. velocity head. where Q is the quantity of flow. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. 21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. across the area of the section A. Usually. and pressure (Fig.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. velocity. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.13). Click here to view. Average velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. or the total head ft: (21.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. varies with velocity.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.14. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. Kinetic energy at the section. ft. Fig. .5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. lb. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. ft/s. where W is the weight. ft/s = Q/A. 21. a Fig. where Va is the velocity. velocity.4 ft3/s.14) pa/w is called pressure head. As indicated in Fig. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. V2/2g. and pressure.13. (21. when added to the downstream side of Eq.21. lb/ft3.11).5. All rights reserved. however.

4/ 3. or magnitude of flow. Hence. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. Art. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. gate valve. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. 21. sometimes called the total head line. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. Z2 = 0. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21.7. (21. Also.9). which may result from a change in either velocity. Thus substitution in Eq. direction.55 = 48. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.15 Fig. All rights reserved. p2 = 0. respectively. and any bends. . is equal to the impulse. In openchannel flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. The energy grade line. Click here to view.15). Inc. hf = 50 – 1. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. respectively. A change in momentum. since the pipe has free discharge. while in pressure flow.14 = 10 ft/s. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.Water Resources Engineering s 21. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.45 ft.

The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.94 × 100 × 4. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. Let R be the force. Example 21. and at 2. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. P2 = ppA2 = 13. since ∆Vx = –(7. which is to be determined).15) first in the X direction. Fy = –181. To find F. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.94 × 100 × 65. lb.332π = 71.000 lb.12)] but may be used separately. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.96 sin 53.5 ft/s.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.000 sin 53. (21.2° + Ry = 1.200 + Rx = 1.21.2° – 71.4/ 32. Fx = 181. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.5) = 65. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. (21.2° – 0) = 4.11) or (21. Inc.000 cos 53.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.600.6.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.78. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Then.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.2° – 13.2= 1.94.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.700/82. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.500 lb. Fig.96 cos 53. since ∆Vy = –(–7. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. then in the Y direction.600 lb In the Y direction.200 lb. Click here to view. 21.5°.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. All rights reserved. . With p1 known.16. apply Eq. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.78 Ry = 145. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. 21.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.1 and the density ρ = 62. (See Example 21. so θ = 60.1 Rx = –82. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.

. hybrid modeling. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. Inc. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Click here to view. to a given set of stimuli.7. or prototype. A fourth mode of modeling. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. droughts. 1. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. or proposed works. viscosity. momentum. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. In most models. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. and through execution of the computer program. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Physical models are expensive to build. aquifer. It is. For instance. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. In the preceding example. With hybrid models.17 21. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. alternative management schemes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Usually. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Popular before the advent of digital computers. such as storm rainfall. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. employs both physical and mathematical models. the capability of the computing resources. however. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. operate. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. All rights reserved.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. and surface tension. gravity. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. such as a river.7. In water resources engineering. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. In this way. See also Art. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. erosional scour. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. or drainage basin. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure.

The inertial force. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. the model is termed a true model. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. Then (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. entrainment of air in flowing water. and one other force are made proportional. Click here to view. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. (21. Inc.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. The Reynolds number is (21. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion.21a) (21. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. All rights reserved.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. viscosity. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as spillways and weirs. the length ratio is the only variable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Once the length ratio has been set.20) R is dimensionless. . Therefore. (21. the formation of drops and air bubbles. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Squaring both sides of Eq. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. ft2/s. The Weber number is (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. respectively. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. such as depth or diameter). and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Reynolds number. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.22) where ρ = density of fluid.21. Similarly. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. The Froude number is (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. 32. Froude number. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Ratios of the forces of gravity. which is always a predominant force. and Weber number.

23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number.S.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. in particular. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. in turn. Click here to view. Hence. called a movable-bed model. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. catchment areas. This type of model is called a distorted model. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. the logical representation of prototypes. These expressions. All rights reserved. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow.24). In some cases. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. inertial. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately.26) where V = mean velocity. model designs are often based on the Manning equation.25) In models of rivers and channels. . the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For instance. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. and infiltration parameters. Rr = Lr. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. For such models. mathematical models are. One type of model. such as a morning-glory spillway. (21. such as flow networks. viscous. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. Inc. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. The U. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.23a) (21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. and through execution of the computer program. 21. Sr = 1. (21.

the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. or both. flood or drought impacts. R. Grigg. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent.21. vol. and groundwater yield. impacts of dam breaks. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. academia. New York. if comparisons of different plans are required. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. seepage. . this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. In object-oriented software. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. As this shearing stress increases. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Maidment. F. of all databases and software. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. wave or tidal analyses. Rothfus. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. watershed hydrology. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components.) 21. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. Hasen. flow routing.” D. Zipparo and H. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. This. 21. evaporation and irrigation. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. quantity and quality of water supply. This approach. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. density.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. Walker. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. Art.” V. reservoir regulation. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. sediment or pollutant transport. As a general rule. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. when fully implemented. Whan. All rights reserved. hydrologic forecasting. 1957.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. and among water resources modelers in the government. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. (D. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected.” McGraw-Hill. ecosystem impacts and restoration. “Water Resources Planning. For closed conduits other than circular. as in annular passages. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. G. As a result.” N. the model output required for design or evaluation. shown in Fig. or pollution. A. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. Click here to view. and private sectors. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. and R. “Handbook of Hydrology. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. J. design of hydraulic structures. H. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Inc. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. R.17.2). 3. Also. hydrodynamics.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. channel and river hydraulics. S. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. and turbulent flow results. however. landfill leachate analyses. Hoggan. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (J.

it is not practical to treat it analytically. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. ft/s D = pipe diameter. than for laminar flow (Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. a disturbance will probably be magnified. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. 21. 21. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. the velocity distribution is more uniform.) 21.17).l9.21 Fig. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. as shown in Fig.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. New York. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. In laminar flow.. at completely turbulent flow. Click here to view. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.29) For laminar flow.27) where V = fluid velocity. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. 32. ft ρ = density of fluid. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. ft L = length of pipe section considered. Fig. (E. In this region. 32. handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow is completely turbulent. (21.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. causing the flow to become turbulent. 21. Brater. (21. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. As the Reynolds number increases. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. F.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Therefore. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. flow is laminar in circular pipes. 21.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.19. (21. .30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.18. These disturbances create eddies. laminar flow is unstable. Eq. All rights reserved.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. 21. As a result.” 6th ed. 21.

0005 – 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. 32. 21.21. November 1944. The head loss is independent of the pressure. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. 21.03 – 0.19) L = length of pipe. All rights reserved. Moody. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. Click here to view. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.) Because Eq.003 – 0. ft V = velocity of fluid. ft D = diameter of pipe. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. 21. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.0002 0.003 0.001 – 0.0002 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0005 – 0. (21.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.9. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. .0005 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.008 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.001 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.008 0.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. F. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. 21.19) to Determine f ε. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. Inc.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. enamels.0002 – 0. (L. 21.00003 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. (21.

for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. .34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34b) (21. dependent on surface roughness.4 and 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. 21. 21. ft/s C = coefficient.31) where V = velocity.) Substitution into Eq. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.33b) (21. ft L = length of pipe. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. (Although based on surface roughness. which requires experience in its choice.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. Tables 21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. Inc.9. All rights reserved. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.9.34c) 21.3.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. (21. ft S = head loss due to friction. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.33d) (21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.32) where n = coefficient. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.33c) (21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.34e) where V = velocity. Click here to view.34d) (21.11 (p. See also Table 22. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.31) gives (21. ft3/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9.33e) 21. (21. where D is the pipe diameter.

012 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.015 0. because (21. and valves and other pipe fittings.012 0.012 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. in short pipelines.21. ft3/s hf = friction loss. All rights reserved.017 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.010 0.013 0.) Flow between reservoirs. enlargements.36) for a check. . Inc. Click here to view.014 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.013 0.015 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.017 From 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.35c) (21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. (21.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. bends.017 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.7: Figure 21.013 0. 21.013 0.010 0. However.7.035 0. (21.4 Values of n for Pipes.015 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.015 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.011 0.017 0.012 0. (21.015 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.017 0.35b) (21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.20 ple 21. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0.010 To 0. Example 21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.016 To 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.014 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. 21.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.

A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 80 4 in. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 21. 140 Large sizes. 21. 105 30 in and over. London. 21. steel forms. regardless of age. Gibson. ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21.37) or (21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. 21. ft/s g = 32. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. 85 16 in.21). 120 24 in and over. Inc. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. good workmanship. (21. H..40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. 120 Large sizes.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.10. All rights reserved. (21. good workmanship.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. (21. 110 4 in.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. minor losses must be considered.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21 are approximate. wood forms.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. (A..7. 110 (21. 135 In good condition. . where V is the velocity in the pipe. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. the values of K in Fig.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Click here to view. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.25 Table 21. 10 years older Average value. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 115 12 in.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. so a full velocity head is lost. 120 Centrifugally spun. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.10. is (21.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.38) A special application of Eq. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. are presented in Table 21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.10. Table 21.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. determined experimentally by Brightmore.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.37): (21.” Constable & Co. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. Ltd.

For these reaTable 21.0 Table 21. such as valves and elbows.8 are only approximate.76 0.05 K = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 0.9 0.21 of the sides. and at bends is given by (21. .5 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.80 K = 0.0 1.50 K = 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.64 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.25 The values in Table 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.62 0.81 0.42) Table 21.4 0.1 0. D = pipe diameter.0 5.4 21.5 0. Globe valve.9 0.2 2.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.89 1.66 0.21.71 0.68 0. Inc. All rights reserved. fully open Gate valve.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.63 0. Click here to view. 21.0 2.7 0.10.2 0. fully open Angle valve. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. fully open Swing check valve.

Experiments on smooth pipes. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. Beij. (21. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Reynolds number. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. 21. 21.42).44) where Q = discharge.45) 21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. (K. Equation (21.23. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. For low heads. All rights reserved. 1. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. Inc.. New York. J. (21. Zipparo and H. (H. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. square. Click here to view.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. Figure 21.42). although they are usually round.9 for low velocity of approach. Orifices may have any shape. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. not including friction loss.. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.) Fig. this error is corrected by the C values.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data.” Journal of Research. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. Ito. its effect should be taken into account. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. H. Hasen. the bend loss essentially remains constant. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. July 1938. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.” 4th ed. . National Bureau of Standards.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. vol.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. there is disagreement.27 sons. and angle of bend. or rectangular. Inc. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. 1960.11.Water Resources Engineering s 21. vol. not including friction loss in the bend. 21. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. (21.43) where ∆ = deflection angle.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. 82. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. McGraw-Hill. (V.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. however. The data are in agreement that the head loss. no. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.22: (21. If this velocity is significant. 21. series D.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.

644 0.595 0. .28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.610 0.610 0.598 1.601 0.652 0.602 0.619 0.596 0.613 0 610 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.612 0.04 0.594 0.603 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2. of circular orifices.655 0.607 0.594 0.605 0.618 0.590 0.1 0.617 0. Inc.94 to 0.595 0.629 0.637 0.600 0.596 0. to Fig.608 0.637 0.623 0.607 0. and Eq. With the reference plane through point 2.604 0.04 0.604 0. Z1 = h.618 0.46) The actual velocity.602 0.621 0.611 0.616 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.632 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. the vena contracta.648 0.606 0.631 0.592 1. 21.21. Click here to view.596 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.604 0.602 0.614 0.628 0.605 0.628 0. and Z2 = 0.632 0.591 0.600 0.601 0.609 0.0 0.592 0.600 0.6 08 1 1.599 0.606 0.603 0.599 0. determined experimentally..02 0. Jr.600 0.597 0.602 0.614 0.603 0.634 0.601 0.598 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.598 0.45) becomes (21.602 0.648 0.592 0.602 0.622 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.603 0. (21.593 0.602 0.5 2 2.02 0.637 0.630 0. ft 0.611 0.613 0.602 0.” 1886.601 0.608 0.99.643 0.596 0.619 0.614 0.1 0.599 0.623 0.595 0. “Hydraulics.593 0.636 0.617 0. ft 0.616 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.596 0.641 0.618 0. ft 0.0 Head.623 0.627 0.598 * Hamilton Smith. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.597 0. All rights reserved.626 0.4 0.605 0.612 0.605 0.593 0.608 0.596 0.615 0. V1 = 0.607 0.660 0.599 0.

(21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. In Fig.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. F. 21. 21. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. the area of the orifice.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.) 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.61 to 0.25 orifice.29 Fig. Figure 21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. Click here to view. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. 21. Eq.24b.67. the contraction is completely suppressed. 21.25. Brater. (21. Inc. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.” 6th ed.11. between 1 and 2.. ft. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. 21. see E. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. With a partly suppressed orifice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11.47) where hL = losses in head.48) is obtained. New York. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. All rights reserved. (21.

21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. when y = h1.56).49) Solving for dt yields (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. (21.51) upon integration becomes (21.59). s The Y coordinate is (21. obtained by solving Eq.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.57) for t and substituting in Eq. Eq.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) gives (21.56) Fig.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. Rearranging Eq. For simplicity.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. ft2 A = area of reservoir. to time t. (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. when y = h2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. Click here to view. ft h2 = head at the end. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.50) becomes (21. All rights reserved. Eq. (21. is that for a parabola: (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.23).50) where a = area of orifice. (21.58)].55) 21.11.21. 32. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.26): (21. 21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. 21.58) Equation (21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.57) (21. Inc.

ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.42) of 0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. ft2 Fig. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. 21.27. (21. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. 21.29. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. a K value for Eq. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.33VT / 2g. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. For a short tube flowing full.67 V2 ) = 0. Inc.75. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. 21. All rights reserved. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.5 a T T Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.82 VT)2/2g = 0. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21.67 V2T /2g. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.82.28).11. if one exists).31 ty Cν = 0.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. Click here to view.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. however. 21. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.27) but the head loss is larger. Equation (21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. (21. Fig. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.67 V T / 2g = 0.11. 21. In the tube or pipe. When this happens.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.00 VT / 2g – 0. psf w = unit weight of water.82. Therefore.80.

Fig. Click here to view. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. either increased or decreased. The change causes a pressure rise. For this analysis to be valid. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. As the water flows into the reservoir. Every time the flow rate is changed. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. All rights reserved. 21. The pipe shown in Fig. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. 21. the tube must flow full. it causes water hammer. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure.32). 21. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21. However. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. Fig. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. this momentum drops to zero. As the water flows away from the closed valve.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. the pressure in the pipe falls. either above or below the normal pressure. the water in the pipe is motionless. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. When a valve is closed. but at a pressure much higher than normal.21. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.29. 21. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. .30).32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. Inc. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.

(21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. Inc.63a) becomes (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. Equation (21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. ft 21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.63a) In terms of pressure head. Eq. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.64) 21. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.13.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. approximate solution. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. 43.63). For instantaneous closure: (21. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. All rights reserved.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. s A plot of pressure vs. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. Click here to view. (21. . 21.13. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. 21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. 1.

The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft L = length of pipeline. McGraw-Hill. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. (21. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Hasen. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. Zipparo and H. Once the time interval has been determined.. (V. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.2 × 108 psf.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. then that obtained from Eq.63). Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. each causing an individual pressure wave. initial velocity = 10 ft/s.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. Inc. Vo the original velocity. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements.. (21. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. area = 78.) Example 21.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. penstock thickness = 1 in. 32.63). where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. equals L /aU. (21. .63). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York.32. Inc. (21. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. 21. Thus. to apply Eq. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. s T = actual closure time of valve. where a equals any integer. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. With the head known. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. J.21. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. is g = acceleration due to gravity. such as L/aU.) Velocity of pressure wave. where ∆t. (21.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock.” 4th ed. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. the increment of time. from Eq.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. diameter = 10 ft. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. length = 3000 ft. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. Click here to view. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. (21.5 ft2.61).

.Water Resources Engineering s 21.34 tension. floats on the line. 21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. in Assuming T = 4.64) gives the following result: 21.33) must still be designed for water hammer. Fig. is Pipe Stresses 21. the closure is instantaneous.34). and the pressure rise. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. from Eq. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. in effect. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. it is by no means the only one. Click here to view. 21. the stress. (21. approximate equation (21.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. All rights reserved. The water column. When a valve is suddenly closed. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. Various types of relief Fig.66) where p = internal pressure. 21. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. on the pipe material is (21. to prevent water hammer. Inc. 21.13.75 s. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.90 s.63). psi. lb Hence.90 s. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. Usually. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. When a valve is suddenly opened.

psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. Eq. The force diagram in Fig. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe..35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. this analysis is approximate. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. In this case.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. 21. In all bends. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. due to a temperature change is (21. (21. (21.” 2nd ed.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. For steel pipes. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. (S. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. For concrete pipes. Inc. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. All rights reserved.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. “Theory of . but it is usually small enough to be neglected.67). .) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. M. it acts like a beam. if expansion joints are to be used.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.10). (21. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. Equation (21. 21. Art. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. However. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. psi. Gere. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eq. however. elastic Stability. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. The stress. In Fig.67) for concrete pipe. New York. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. Click here to view. However. (21. P Timoshenko and J. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. is (21. 6.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.21.6). 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. If D/t is less than 10.

Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.71) where R = resultant force on bend. a railroad. however. the joints must also be able to take these forces. exit conditions. or other embankment. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. and slope. (21. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.71) give a quick solution.37 Fig. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. canal. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Eqs. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. 32. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. an exact theoretical analysis. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. All rights reserved. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Click here to view. 21. . Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. However. In small pipes.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. 62. psf w = unit weight of water.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.70) and (21. Inc.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends.

charts. computer software.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. Inc.36). but they do not cover Fig. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. 21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. 21. the normal depth (Art.23).” EB058W. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21.37). that is. For this reason. All rights reserved.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Portland Cement Association. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.21. and the control will still be at the inlet. the following equation is obtained: (21. 21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. . But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. 21. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Click here to view. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. 21. and the discharge is independent of the slope. the culvert flows full.33d) or (21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.73) 21.38). Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. and the Manning equation for friction loss.30)]. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.

21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 21. When the slope is less than critical. All rights reserved. Inc.39).19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.74) yields (21.75) Substituting this into Eq. When slope is less than critical. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. ft V = velocity in culvert.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. open-channel flow takes place. ft Equation (21. 32. (21. 21.23). the flow is considered subcritical (Art. Click here to view. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. and slope of culvert. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. depending on the head. Discharge depends on head H. Fig. for the open-channel condition (Fig. 21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. normal pipe flow occurs.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. and dn < dc . When slope exceeds critical. 21. 21. (21.74) Fig. 21.20) 21.39 Fig. . and dn > dc . The discharge. loss at entrance. Discharge is independent of slope. flow depends on inlet condition.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. The fluid flows under pressure. Thus.

21. 21.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. (21. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. Most culverts.76). 21. however. 21. If the friction slope approaches critical. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. All rights reserved. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. If this condition exists. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.72).41). When the friction slope is flat. If the head on a culvert is high. 21.37). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. (21. 21.39). The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. and discharge is given by Eq. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. ft To solve Eq.76). (21.40). the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. . Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.76). it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel.18). ft dn = normal depth of flow. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. (21. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert.21.

40). flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. and free exit. length = 300 ft. .10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.72) and (21. groove or bell. the flow is under pressure. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. But H = 5 + 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. When the entrance is not submerged. Find: size of culvert. These values are for culverts flowing full.15 0. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. and the entrance will not control. with Eq.95 × 4 = 39.72) yields Q =Va = 9. Since the culvert is under pressure. First find dn. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. Substitution in Eq. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. Example 21. slope = 0. All rights reserved.72) applies. (21.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Eq.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.19). (21.6. Fig. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. 21. n = 0. Click here to view. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. Table 21.44) for discharge through an orifice. square edge Concrete pipe. 21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. To calculate the hydraulic radius.8 ft3/s Table 21. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Application of Eq.73). 21. groove or bell. (21.41 For entrance control.013. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge.9 0. 21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.10 0. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.18 and 21.01. (21. (21. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. projecting Concrete pipe.5 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet.

Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. Click here to view.79) The velocity head HV. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. minus the free surface width. 32. ft. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.79). is generally given by (21.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. normally taken as 1. ft. Inc. depth of flow is constant throughout. The wetted perimeter is the length. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. Hence. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. or open-channel flow. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. . varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It has uniform flow if the grade. (21.77) where V = average velocity. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft3/s. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2 When the discharge is constant. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. or the total-head line. 21.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. or slope. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. In a uniform channel. Equation (21. however. plus the velocity head at the point.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. It is expressed in feet as (21. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory.36 for prismatic channels. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. (21. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. Figure 21. It is. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow.03 to 1. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Thus. All rights reserved. within a hydraulic jump.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. ft. and is given by (21. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section.

T.84) where A = area of flow.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. slope. Chow. New York. ft. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.43).43 Fig. 21.84) reduces to Fig. (V. the specific energy also decreases.43. (21. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. in which T is the top width of the channel. (See. As the depth decreases downstream.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. E.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. 21. McGrawHill Book Company. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. New York. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. 21. 21.. Inc.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. F. 21.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. roughness. and discharge are known. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) (21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. . normal depth decreases downstream. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. ft. for example.44. as shown in Fig.83) Brater. For a rectangular channel. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. or to the diameter of a circular channel. Click here to view. Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.42 is called the normal depth dn. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21.

New York). In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. (21.” 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. 21.44). 21. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. F. . He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.43. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. The flow there is called subcritical flow.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. (21.84) may be reduced to (21. for a given discharge. (21. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.84) is called the critical depth dc. For rectangular channels. 21.21. For a given value of specific energy. ft3/s d = depth of flow. Eq.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.84). “Handbook of Hydraulics. Click here to view. or it may be found directly from tables (E. or conversely..44). the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. the depth is greater than critical. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. and flow is supercritical.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Brater. 21. the depth is below critical. Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. along with a high loss of energy. indicating an irreversible occurrence.87) Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. without turbulence. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. 21.45 where dc = critical depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. p. as indicated in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. regardless of slope. It can be seen from Fig.45. Inc. All rights reserved. (21. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.52b.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. 21. once calculated. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.85). ft3/s b = width of channel. 21. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. For every depth greater than critical depth. Critical depth.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. . Such a change occurs gradually.44). should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.57). Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. 21. 21. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. 21. however. flow is subcritical. a hydraulic jump will occur. (21. flow is supercritical. [As indicated by Eq. Click here to view. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.

23). Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. All rights reserved.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. are identical for a channel of critical slope.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.and critical-depth lines.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.21. T. . 21. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. is replaced by a horizontal line. and C.D. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Chow. S for steep (supercritical). An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.4. horizontal. 21.L. E. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.90) where A = area of flow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. H for horizontal. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. Eq. New York. 21.D. The M2 curve forms between the normal.L. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). the average n values given in Table 21.L. The N.25). A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.S.L. 21. Dr. Department of Agriculture. These curves are divided into five groups. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and two types for channels of critical. as shown in Fig. and the critical-depth line C. (See also Art.46c and d.46a and b. Click here to view. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).9 and Table 21.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. are in Table 21.D. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. ft V = mean velocity of flow. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.89) may be written (21.) 21. 21. and the N.D. and A for adverse. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.L. (21. there must be a continuing maintenance program. (Although based on surface roughness.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. 21. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. and adverse slope. at an arbitrary elevation. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.D.11. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Inc. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. C for critical. therefore.46.

033 0.080 0.035 0.030 0.100 0. Wood a.035 0.013 0.020 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.022 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.012 0. Dense brush. Asphalt a. Rough wood form B. Smooth b.120 0.013 0.014 0.025 0.011 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Float finish b.032 0.022 0. Masonry a.080 0. wavy section 4.016 0.035 0. 21. Light brush on banks 3.025 0. Smooth wood form c.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. respectively).016 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.140 0. 21.017 0.060 0.023 0.014 0.46i and j. untreated 3. Jagged and irregular 0. 21. good section c. Lined channels 1. high stage 2.012 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Rock cuts a.035 0.014 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.027 0.013 0. Metal a.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. No vegetation b. after weathering b.040 0. Gunite.015 Avg 0.033 0.030 0.015 0. With short grass.013 0. The S2 curve. straight and uniform a. Concrete (unfinished) a.011 0.46a and b. .015 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.013 0.025 0. high as flow depth d.050 0.040 0.016 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.025 0.050 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.016 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Clean.028 0. Steel form b. few weeds c. Concrete a.014 0.025 0.012 0. Dense weeds.018 0. Unlined channels 1.018 0. Planed.025 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Click here to view.021 0.022 0. Excavated earth. Cemented rubble b.012 0. All rights reserved. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Cement-mortar surface 3.010 0. Inc. Gunite.024 0. commonly called a drawdown curve. Smooth and uniform b. 21.019 0.021 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Corrugated 2.030 0. Dredged earth a.023 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Dry rubble 5.016 0.017 Max 0. Rough C.

H. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. 21. The curves in Fig. indicates normal-depth line. Click here to view.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. All rights reserved. and A profiles.21. 21. Inc.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. critical-depth line.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.L. Examples in Fig. N. .L.D.46k and l. 21. C.D.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21.

The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow.47. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. gate.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. 21. French.) 21. H. T. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Explanations of both the graphical. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.77) if the depth were zero. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. (R.27. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. New York.and direct-integration methods are in V. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. The wave travels at a speed. For the section of channel in Fig. Inc. free overfall. each reach is solved in succession.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. the channel is divided into short lengths. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. and step methods. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. . 32. New York. direction-integration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate.5. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. Inc. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations..51). See Art. depending on the type of flow. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.” McGraw-Hill. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). known as its celerity. or reaches. For subcritical flow conditions. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. All rights reserved.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. weir. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. with relatively small variation.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. 21. (21. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. For step-method computations. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. Chow. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. dam. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow.

24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. respectively. (21. .82).47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.21. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the change in elevation. prismatic channels. rearranged as follows: Fig. Therefore.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. hi. The smaller the value of n. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. Inc. due to friction in the same reach. 21. the – eddy loss. 21.91) for L gives (21. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. as given by Eq. 21. (21. All rights reserved. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. and vice versa. not the channel bottom.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. ft.93). This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. the head loss.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. is negligible and can be ignored.92) (21. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Solving Eq. (21. the longer the backwater curve profile. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. and – SL = hf.93) where R = hydraulic radius. (For uniform.

is obtained from Eq.92). 21. (21. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. or roughness. which. respectively. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. (21.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2.51 may be some intermediate depth. Since this step method is a converging process. ft.93). becomes (21. computations progress toward the initial section. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.95) The coefficient k is 0. in natural channels. Next.96). Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Next. (21. ft/s. (21. (21. (21. and it is therefore often accounted for. ft. respectively. S. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. the average friction slope for the reach. the friction loss. All rights reserved.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq.47.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Eddy loss. Z2. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. sometimes called impact loss. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Click here to view. (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers.2 for diverging reaches. Finally. and about 0. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.95). Then.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. Inc. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. (21.93). The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Then. Therefore. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. . ft.1 for converging reaches.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. at sec– tions 1 and 2. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. referred to a horizontal datum. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. For lined channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. total head H. grade.94). Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. from 0 to 0. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. after substitution of H from Eq. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. The value of total head computed from Eq. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss.

Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0.1 ft in elevation. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. If the two values of total head do not agree.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. known as the length of jump.S. known as the roller. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. Inc. Bradley. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. Fig. French. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations.” Hydraulics Design Series no. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.52b. 21. 21. a gate. or other obstruction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .51 and 21. 21.21. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.23). New York. U. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.. The effect of bridges. Utilizing the above data. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48 Hydraulic jump. and determine the discharge. 21. 1.48). The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). is a turbulent mass of water. Federal Highway Administration. 1970. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. as shown in Figs. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. N. and J. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. however. Click here to view. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. 21. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. bridge piers. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. respectively.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. H. The upstream surface of the jump. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. Department of Transportation. 21. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. All rights reserved. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Bureau of Public Roads. 2nd ed. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel.27. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area).52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. approach roadways. velocity. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. However.

the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. (21. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. (21.82).49) is given by (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. Click here to view. For rectangular channels. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.104) = discharge. (21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. All rights reserved.105) where A = area of flow. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.98) and (21. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or alternate depths. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. d2 must also equal dc.99) where M = mass of water. (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. 32. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft3/s = unit of time. . ft. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. V is the mean velocity. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. This difference (Fig.98) where d1 = depth before jump.102) Equation (21. ft w = unit weight of water.27. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. where L is a characteristic length.16)]. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.100).99).2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. For open-channel flow. this resultant pressure force is (21. ft/s2. in Eq.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. ft/s. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. 21. s (21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. and g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2 T = width of free surface.100) Equation (21. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. 21.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. ft d2 = depth after jump.

chute.5 to 4. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.0. The jump is called an undular jump. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. This jump may be called a weak jump. the jump will be drowned out. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. and the performance is at its best. the flow is critical and there is no jump. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. depending on local conditions. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. If the tailwater is too high. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.5. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels.49. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. 21. For F1 = 9. All rights reserved.7.7 to 2. 21. For F1 = 1.0 and larger. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 1 to 1. For F1 = 4. depth after the jump. were classified by the U. which gives discharge vs. which. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. very commonly in canals.27. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. This jump may be called a steady jump. In either case. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. 21. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Various forms of hydraulic jump. can travel for miles. .21. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway.5. there are undulations on the surface. for example. For F1 = 2. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. For F1 = 1.5 to 9. The jump action is rough but effective. Inc. The jump is well-balanced. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. an oscillating jet is entering the jump.23). and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. If the tailwater is too low.S. This jump may be called a strong jump. below a spillway.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.

a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. changing the apron elevation. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This length (Fig. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.27. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Click here to view. But it has been determined experimentally. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.51. Accessories. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. T. (21. These features are expensive to build. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. The curve. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. Inc. therefore. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. All rights reserved. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. The resulting curve (Fig.105). partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. and sloping the apron.55 curve involve changing the crest length. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. prepared by V.27.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.S.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. 21. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed.

as shown in Fig. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. equal to the computed length of the jump. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.101).52a. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. The actual depth at the brink is 71. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. but it is normally assumed to be 0. 21. computed from Eq. Click here to view.102). CB. 21. 21. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. as shown in Fig. (21. that flow is uniform. .23) to mild. for simplicity. using the step methods of Art. 21. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. As depth d2 is lowered. as theory would indicate. (21. curves AB and ED in Fig. respectively (Fig.75h in the absence of better information. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB.52. if the downstream depth is lowered. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. Conversely. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. less than. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. (21. 21. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. which occurs near the channel drop-off. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.101) with d1 given.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate.5% of critical depth. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig.52b. It is assumed.26. If d2 is less than d′ . between lines CB′and EO. A horizontal intercept FG. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. Inc.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. 21. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. All rights reserved.21. the jump moves to a new location downstream. equal in length to L. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. computed from Eq. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. the jump occurs in the steep region. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. 21. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.46e and c).7dc for simplicity. the computed length of jump. the jump moves downstream to a new position.51.

. From Q = AV. ft.85)]. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. where He is the specific energy head. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. Inc. Then. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. then the assumed discharge is correct. 21. if not. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. If the entrance loss must be considered. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. and the slope of the channel.” 6th ed. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. ft. (R. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.53a). If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. a new discharge is assumed. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). or (a) above it. ignoring entrance loss. New York.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. 21. the entrance loss.3 for one with squared ends. Click here to view. New York. ft. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. 21. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.) 21. French. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). “Open-Channel Hydraulics.82) and (21. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.” McGraw-Hill. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. ft3/s. on the channel entrance.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. “Handbook of Hydraulics. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. Inc. F. is (21.23). Brater. (21. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen.106) where b is the channel width.. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. ft.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. H. 21.. or (b) below it.51. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.53).) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. and discharge is at a maximum.

83). 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. ft2. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. and g is acceleration due to gravity. (In Fig. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. . where He – d is the actual head. 21. d is normal depth. producing flow.53b). Inc.23). All rights reserved. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. a new discharge is chosen.21. Click here to view. 21. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. ———— charge. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. ft. ft. 32.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.53b. then the discharge is correct. ft3/s. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).22). (b) mild-slope channel.33). the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. if not. He is the specific energy head.2 ft/s2. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. 21. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. 21. (21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.

The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. 21.108). the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. and rc the radius of curvature. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. when a stream enters a curve. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. however. (21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. (21. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.23). The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. 21. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. If the bend continues long enough. Thus. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. Inc. the true value of y would be only a few inches. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon.59 21. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. of the center line of the channel. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. where V is its average velocity. Therefore. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. ft.107) The theoretical difference y. 21. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. ft /s. curve (Fig. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. ft. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. or mV2 /rc for m. Click here to view.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T.83)]. The error will not be great. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. All rights reserved. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. (21. . The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. 21. ft. In this range. a unit mass of water. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve.

” U.23). and should be used with discretion. Technical Bulletin 393. C. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. Scobey. however. His values have not been evaluated completely. a series of standing waves are produced. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. 21. This angle may be found from (21. by (21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills.55). “The Flow of Water in Flumes. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. phase.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. . The second is a negative wave. 21. All rights reserved. Two waves form at the start of the curve. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. an increase in friction loss results.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. with sufficient accuracy. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. One is a positive wave. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. (21. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. Inc. flows around a bend in a channel.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. (21. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. These waves cross at M.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. 21.21. Click here to view. (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.16)] . (F.111). of greater-than-average surface elevation. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.S. Fig. recross as shown. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. depths along the inside wall.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.110) for θ in Eq. and continue crossing and recrossing. The cross slope required for 21. Department of Agriculture.

8[∆(V2/2g)]. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.1 for an inlet-type structure. or change from supercritical to subcritical. 21. In this range. All rights reserved. For outlet-type structures.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. respectively.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. wall roughness. When proceeding downstream through a transition. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. and channel shape and slope. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. 21.44.54). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . therefore.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. change from subcritical to supercritical. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g).114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. The transition loss. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. where K. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. if friction is ignored. 21. To place a transition properly between two open channels. ft/s.113) angle of about 12.56. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.2 ft/s2. 21. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. Click here to view. p.2 for welldesigned transitions.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21. equals about 0. Many variables.57).44. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and g = 32. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. ft. Straight. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. Inc.23). ∆V is the velocity change. low-head-loss transfer of flow. 21. as shown in Fig. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. plus any transition and friction losses. the loss factor. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. the average velocity decreases. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. such as flow-rate changes. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. If friction is ignored. 21. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.

21.58). 21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.222 ft. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. 21. such as rectangular weirs. y = ax2. Inc. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. Fig. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section.000556(20)2 = 0.34. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.5 = a(30)2. trapezoidal weirs.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 21. 21. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. trapezoidal weirs. All rights reserved. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57. and. such as broad-crested weirs. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. 21. as shown in Fig. . where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.000556(10)2 = 0. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. For Fig.59 Weir not sharp-crested. the weir is submerged or drowned.59. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.21. and parabolic weirs. triangular weirs. from which a = 0. In contrast. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. the weir has free discharge. Click here to view. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000556. measured from A or B.58 Sharp-crested weir. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. triangular or Vnotch weirs.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. If the discharge is partly under water. 21. Fig. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.

A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.34. 21. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. 21. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Chow. below the crest. 2.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.5H upstream from the weir. If P is less than Fig. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.115) where Q = discharge. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. Inc. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hence. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. A V-notch weir (Fig.5H. Click here to view. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. T.60 V-notch weir. New York). the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. . unequal velocities in the channel of approach. All rights reserved. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. 21.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. ft The head should be measured at least 2. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. thus causing a contraction of the flow. One such equation. To be fully ventilated. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. The height of weir P must be at least 2.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. Equation (21.58) (V.116) corrects for the effects of friction. At very low heads. contraction of the nappe. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.

ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. 21.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.61) (E. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. Fig. All rights reserved. 69. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. there are two end contractions and N = 2. 21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. ft H = head. measured from notch bottom. 21. F.. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.34. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21. Inc. His values were summarized by Brater.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. The effective length L. (21. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.119) where Q = discharge. Discharge is given by (21.” 6th ed. 21.34. vol. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. 1943). there is one end contraction and N = 1. T. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. 21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. Click here to view.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.34. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. McGraw-Hill Book Company. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.118) Fig. New York).5H upstream from the weir. (21. ft. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.118)] 21.2) when low discharges are to be measured.21.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. 21.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Lenz.

ft V = velocity of approach. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. for such weirs. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. 1947. velocity head of approach. Click here to view.” Engineering News-Record. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. The discharge Qs.115) is rewritten in the form (21. Then.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. ft. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. (21. Villemonte. velocity head. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. ft3/s. Typically. compute the velocity of approach. and then. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.59). R. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft3/s. p.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. or both.34.122) where H = measured head. 2 21.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. Eq. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. Inc.) Equation (21. neglecting the velocity head. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. and finally total head.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. 32.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. Where great accuracy is essential. 21.121) where Q = discharge. Thus. From this total head. . ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.) To use the Villemonte equation.34. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. (21. 21. (J.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 866. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. 25. 21. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Fig. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which may be done as follows: First.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. 21.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. using this rate and the required depths. heavily constructed devices. using this discharge. Dec.

02 0. All rights reserved. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.12. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. Therefore.2 of the head. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. thickness of pier.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. For each change of nappe shape.13. and the approach velocity. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. starting with the corrected discharge.10 H. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. and approach velocity.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. the head in relation to the design head. For conditions of design head Table 21. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. where approach velocities are high.5Hd > r* > 0. . “Design of Small Dams.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. For conditions of design head Hd. F. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. But the process should be repeated. Inc.” Government Printing Office.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. The effect is most critical for low heads.123) where L = effective crest length. DC 20402. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. ft L′ = net crest lengths.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.21.S. Washington.20 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. Department of the Interior.34. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. 21. ft (U. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. head in relation to design heads. Click here to view.

The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Inc. According to Chow. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. Click here to view. This manual and V.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Chow. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. The shape of this nappe. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.122). Fig. T. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic.67 Fig.” Government Printing Office. however. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.66 of the head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. for a sharp-crested weir.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face.S. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depends on the head producing the discharge. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Washington. 1. For flow at heads lower than the design head.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. (21. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. 21. This relationship is shown in Fig. Of the above rules.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. (U. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. called the design head Hd.5H upstream. and therefore of an ogee crest. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. New York). All rights reserved. .64) has such a shape. DC 20402. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. at the point of maximum contraction.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. where discharge is given by Eq.65. Department of the Interior. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. Consequently. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 2. T. Chow. “Design of Small Dams. Figure 21.34. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. 21. 21. 21. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow.

67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. . 21.66. (From “Design of Small Dams. New York. Click here to view.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.) Fig.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. Bureau of Reclamation.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. the flow differs from ideal. Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S. Fig. All rights reserved.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.S. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bureau of Reclamation.” U. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.21.” U. (From “Design of Small Dams. Inc. 21.

67 and 21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.” U. the coefficient of discharge. therefore.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. are used as spillways and control structures.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.69 Broad-crested weir. F.) 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.69 Fig. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. Figure 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved. “Handbook of Hydraulics. if flow is at other than the design head. New York.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. has contraction of the nappe. appear in Table 21. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.) Fig. 21. 21. and sharp right-angled edges. F. Figure 21. Brater. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. compiled by King. for example. the nappe springs free. 21. . 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Company..Water Resources Engineering s 21. is determined from Fig. Inc.68. (From “Design of Small Dams.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. E. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. a plane horizontal crest.S. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Weirs of irregular section.14. Click here to view. (See. New York. because of its sharp upstream edge.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. (E. Unless otherwise noted.. fairly common in waterworks projects.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. Brater. Bureau of Reclamation. Values of the discharge coefficient. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.34. where the velocity of approach is not high. (21.34.” 6th ed. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.” 6th ed.

32 3.64 2. which are often of equal consequence.67 2.68 2.32 3.26 3. and turbines.35.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.30 3. A density current. Heavier silt sizes.20 3.00 2.63 2.64 2.00 2.63 21.14 3.68 2.60 2.08 3.85 2.66 2. once formed.64 2.32 3.79 2.76 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 2.75 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.75 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.63 2.21. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.60 2.69 2.5 3. those carried in suspension.70 2.32 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.72 2.44 2. or soil.60 2.32 3.00 2.81 2.64 15.32 3.07 3.68 2.74 2.28 3.32 3.63 2.80 2. such as gates.75 2.72 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.61 2.00 2.66 2.60 2.5 2.92 3.64 2.07 3. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.54 2.00 2.48 2.32 3.65 2.03 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.69 2.32 3.69 2.30 3. valves.32 3.64 2.67 2.32 3.70 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.65 2.89 3.64 2.68 2.63 2.62 2.32 3.68 2.32 3. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.68 2.68 2.49 2.32 3.32 3.68 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.32 3.8 2.50 2.56 2.32 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.64 2.70 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.2 1.50 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.64 2. erosion.4 1.63 2.98 3.32 3.32 3.66 2. ft 0.2 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 3.32 3.50 H.0 1.74 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.32 3.6 1.64 2.5 4.32 3.31 3.32 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.31 3.92 3.0 3.73 2. All rights reserved.54 2.31 3.67 2.63 2.32 3.32 3.00 2.32 3.80 2.20 3.88 10.76 2.64 2.65 2.63 2.70 2.64 2.65 2. .05 3.07 3.63 2.97 3.68 2.32 4.63 2.67 2.32 3.88 2.32 1.92 2.07 3.07 3.63 2.88 3.32 1.68 2.00 2.38 2.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.4 0.61 2.64 2.64 2.64 2.67 2.66 2.79 1.0 2. those forming the bed load.65 2. 21.64 2.66 2.69 2.32 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 5.58 2.32 3.28 3. Inc.32 3.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 3.70 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.32 2.50 2.89 3.86 2.32 3. The smaller silt sizes.29 3.75 2.8 1.65 2.19 3.64 2.68 2. ft 0.68 2.32 3.32 5.0 4.75 2.0 5.72 2.77 2. with its load of suspended silt.34 2.32 3.89 2.04 3.65 2.64 2.6 0. This incoming water. such as a reservoir.70 2.08 3. Click here to view.85 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.20 3.

. Of course. landslide. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. however. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Click here to view. are coarsegrained. By this method. because of variations in rainfall. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. 21. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. All rights reserved. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project.39. formed from the bed load. once formed. The most common manner of destruction. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical.35. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. or failure of materials. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. or from year to year. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. on the other hand. These currents are stable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the rate is not uniform during the year. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. see Art. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. overtopping. 21. When neither can be done. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. However.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. Inc. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes.

The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.35. But for the most part. which generally occurs only during a storm. Frequently. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt.124) where Gb = total bed load.1). ft qo = critical discharge. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. Therefore. Therefore.0 ft/mi. A mean grain size of 0. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. ft3/s b = width of river. Click here to view. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. gravel. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Inc. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. which varies with both slope and discharge.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. Therefore.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. 21. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. . The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. discharge. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. (21. however. According to Witzig. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.21. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. and boulders. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course.

and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind.” U. (See H. circulation. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. evaporation. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. In this cycle. such as wind. and distribution. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. contour plowing. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. such as an hour. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. check-dam construction. Click here to view. and pressure. Graf. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Current data. Such screens. (W. The second type is a nonrecording gage.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . The first type is a recording or automatic gage. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. New York. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21.73 dation. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. or a combination of the two. including their relation to living things. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation.S. discharges into streams. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. and the stream velocity. Department of Agriculture. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. lakes. their occurrence. groundwater flow. debris barriers. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. day.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U.S. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. infiltration. planting of burned-over areas.) culation. and their reaction with their environment.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. H. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. and stream flow 21. Inc. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. water evaporation from oceans. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. rivers. infiltrates into the soil. Weather Bureau is 24 h. which are of two types. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. It continually records. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. on or near the land surface. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Use of vegetation screens. Einstein. A. All rights reserved. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. runoff.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. in the form of synoptic weather charts. by ink pen and revolving drum. (21-124). temperature. or digital microchip technology. are published daily by the U. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. if the dam is raised at a later date. Weather Bureau. or year. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. For instance. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. recharges groundwater. their chemical and physical properties.

has a relatively large surface area. Click here to view. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. or ground surfaces. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. commonly termed consumptive use. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. Evapotranspiration is important because. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. in of mercury. Not all rain reaches the ground. water changes from liquid to gaseous form.. tropical and subtropical regions. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. shallow pools and 11 for large. in of mercury. Evapotranspiration. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. see D. and it increases as wind velocity increases. (21. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21.125)]. This phenomenon. ground. . Maidment. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. In evaporation. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. while another portion may be caught on leaves. New York. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. All rights reserved. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. In transpiration.” McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Inc. on a long-term basis. equal to 15 for small. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. and plantleaf surfaces. plant. and other vegetation surfaces. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. developed from Dalton’s law. (21. A portion may evaporate as it falls. Evaporation may occur from free-water. Of the three. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it.125) (21. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. The Meyer equation [Eq. Inc. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. R. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure.126) where E = evaporation rate. called interception. branches. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. On an annual basis.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

80. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body.70. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Precipitation—form (rain. Commonly. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path.. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration.” McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Moving laterally. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. frost. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. subsurface storm flow. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. Inc. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. 21. effective rain includes subsurface flow.60 and 0. New York. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Hexadeconal. tropical. is in widespread use. Inc. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. . whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. or cetyl alcohol. also known as interflow. subsurface. Subsurface flow. snow. All rights reserved. Thus. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. or groundwater runoff. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. depending on the geographical region. to reach a channel. except in arid.Water Resources Engineering s 21. although it may vary between 0. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. where it continues as channel or stream flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. insects. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Click here to view. birds. (D. Maidment. or excess rain. intensity. hail. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. or groundwater flow. dew). time distribution. subsurface runoff. and storm seepage. Climatic characteristics a. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. It appears in surface channels. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Groundwater flow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Classified by the path taken to a channel. On large reservoirs. After joining stream flow. runoff may be surface. perhaps several years. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. called a Class A Level Pan. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. In practice. Runoff is supplied by precipitation.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. duration. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. aquatic life. and biologic attrition. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. natural or manmade.

mean flow. both published and unpublished. 21.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. general location. frozen ground during storms. Geologic—soil type. Weather Bureau. Inc. Click here to view. International Boundary Commission. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. Humidity e. Geological Survey. TVA. elevation. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Atmospheric pressure f. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. direction. groundwater formations. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. slope. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Drainage-basin characteristics a. soil moisture.S. 21. orientation. duration d. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. extremes of flow. yearly flow volume. extremes during precipitation c. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. shape.21. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Wind—velocity. Solar radiation 2. permeability. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Topographic—size.S. the U. roughness.S. the detail required in the final answer. land use and cover. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. as shown in Fig.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. special-interest items. length) b. the quantity and type of data available. and Weather Bureau. slope. channels (size. artificial drainage. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features.S. and the accuracy desired. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. snow storage. areal distribution. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. drainage net. antecedent precipitation. Agricultural Research Service. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. 21. and various state and local agencies. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. direction of storm movement b. detail.70. stratification Fig. These papers contain records of daily flow.” U. lakes and other bodies of water. All rights reserved. . and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. Geological Survey. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. and completeness of the hydrologic records. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. 21.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. Geological Survey.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. recurrence interval. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. shape of cross section. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length.S. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. Temperature—variation.

The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.128) 21. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.127) where Q = peak discharge. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available.or 100-year-frequency storm. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. the second to major hydraulic structures. Several methods yield only peak discharge. As an example. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Inc. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. 4. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in/h A = drainage area. . 3. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. 1962). One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. and large downstream damage potential. for example. All rights reserved. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. 5. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. Chow. a 50. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. others give the complete hydrograph. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 2. The values of C in Table 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Click here to view. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. great importance. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. T.41. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.

70 0.95 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. detached Multiunits.128) or Eq.30 0.70 – 0. b. 2–7% Sandy soil. .25 – 0. flat.95 0.85 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. 21.60 – 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. Inc. or any equivalent method.95 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. flat.95 0. Equation (21. New York. avg. (See D. 21.89)] .40 0.41.127). factor. is a convenient.75 – 0. n.60 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.) The flow time in gutters.21.25 0. R.15 0.35 0.22 0.129) Table 21.18 – 0.80 0. gutters. After determining the time of concentration.10 – 0.10 – 0.90 0. the flow time in streets.70 – 0.. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.40 – 0. 21. 2% Heavy soil. “Handbook of Hydrology.16).20 – 0. (21. coefficient.20 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.13 – 0. steep. streets.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.17 0.50 – 0.05 – 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. years duration of storm. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.50 – 0.10 0. ditches. or ditches. (21. (21. K. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.80 – 0. avg. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in/h respectively. Click here to view.50 0.85 0.15 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.129).10 – 0. steep. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. Sherman. min time of concentration Fig.25 – 0.75 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.70 – 0. Maidment. Inc. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.60 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. (21.30 – 0.” McGraw-Hill. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. 7% Heavy soil. and the flow time in conduits.20 – 0.71 and Table 21. All rights reserved.40 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.75 – 0. 2% Sandy soil.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.70 0.50 – 0.

usually 1 acre). is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. All rights reserved. pp.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. easier.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. Sherman. 501-505. The method is summarized by the formula (21. . and more accurate than any such set of factors. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. 4. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. that is. termed a unit period. (Leroy K. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the time of storm runoff. JanuaryJune 1932. 2. Click here to view. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. termed a unit storm. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in.” Engineering News-Record. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. 3. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Thus. If the watershed is very large.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern.79 Table 21. This requires that a storm of short duration. subdivision may be required. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. vol. Inc. 108.

Illustrated in Fig.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Click here to view. Then. . A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. which is of fixed intensity and duration. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.72. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. 21. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. For ease of manipulation. Inc. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.21. 5.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. because of storm variations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Usually. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. 21. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.73). Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily.

447–454). ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. (R. 21. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. Inc. K. Maidment. Fig.74). the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. .” 3rd ed.) where Q = flow rate. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. perpendicular to direction of flow.. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. McGraw-Hill. Linsley et al. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. I. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.81 21. vol.131) period. 21.. All rights reserved. New York. Also.. pp. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. This method was developed by Franklin F. 21. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. “Handbook of Hydrology. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method.) Fig. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. New York. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Hydrology for Engineers. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. Inc. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. during heavy storms. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. pt. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. R. 19.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. This loss. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. (See D.. Click here to view.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.

Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Following the preceding preliminary work. present and future water demands should be determined.21. quantity. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. and quality of water supply. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. groundwater levels. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. Click here to view. Regardless of how it is defined. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. usually a number of years. (A base period is a period of time. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. among others. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. All rights reserved. recycling. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. is a confined or artesian aquifer. alternative management plans should be formulated. rather than a change in volume. or other causes.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. water softening costs. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. cost of replenishment water. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. . Inc. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. and overdraft. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Frequently. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. source. and location of artificial replenishment. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. and indirect water-quality use costs. need for excessive pumping lifts. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. These costs include increased soap costs. and methods of wastewater disposal. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. because of impermeable layers above and below it. quality. safe yield.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). wastewaters. poor-quality replenishment waters. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. quantity. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Deteriorating water quality. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin.

or other unforeseen emergency. and age of the city. wastewater disposed. Estimation of future population. irrigation. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. washing. Therefore.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pumping. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. and treatment works. and hotels for drinking. New York. industrial. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. percentage increase. Kashef. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. 40. “Groundwater Engineering.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin.” 3rd ed.. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. Linsley et al. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. institutional. Click here to view. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. and sanitary purposes. culinary. Grigg. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. commercial. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.” A. motels. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. decreasing percentage increase. Hydrology for Engineers. 1987. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. fire. K. however. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. industrial. and natural and artificial replenishment. fire-fighting. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. no. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. water used. apartments. flood. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. such as industrial development. S.. land speculation. amount and location of groundwater extractions. (“Ground Water Management. and public. and environmental factors. storage. sanitary. I. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. J.” R. graphical comparison with other cities. American Society of Civil Engineers. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. surface-water delivery facilities. Bear. is a very difficult task. bathing.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. geographical boundaries. The smaller the system. distribution. All rights reserved. legal. transmission. financially feasible. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites.” N. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. “Water Resources Planning. .

150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. public buildings.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses.21. as presented in Table 21. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. if the cost of water increases. janitorial. meter malfunctions. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. type of service (metered or unmetered). Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Inc. standard of living. degree of industrialization. influence the demand rate for water. and air conditioning purposes. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Demand rates vary with time of day. The national demand-rate data. and faucets. but because of the high rate at which it is required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. air conditioning. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. quality. valves. pressure. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. the demand for it decreases. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. cooling. and cleaning. and year. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. degree of industrialization. and quality of the water. The “California Water Atlas. Click here to view. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. All rights reserved. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. lawn sprinkling. it may control the design of the facilities. Public Health Service Report. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. and time of day. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver.S. Table 21. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. cost. State of California Office of Planning and Research. and pressure.17. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. and unauthorized uses. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Mo. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. are the average of a range of values. size of the city. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. cost. Public use of water for parks. Calif.” 1979. such as the climate. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. presents Table 21. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. reservoir evaporation. Normally. month.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. .

gal/min P = population. quality.000 90. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. Click here to view. such as lakes. however.6 1. and in some cases.000 125. and streams. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.4 2.000 40. industrialization. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cost.000 10.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 40. Total dependence on a single source. legality. Inc. the effect of warm. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 48.000 40. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.0 1. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. and politics. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.8 2. climate.000 110. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.8 6. inland.000 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 1. MG = million gallons.8 7.000 80. is frequently undesirable. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. All rights reserved. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 90. Hydrant Spacing.18. In the past.5 14. however.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 8. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. MG† 0. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. valley cities.3 Duration. to a large extent. Moreover.000 70. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 * American Insurance Association.000 200. In the atlas.000 80.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 28.000 17.000 12.000 1. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. † MGD = million gallons per day.9 4. rivers.000 10. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. .000 120.18 Required Fire Flow.000 2. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.6 11.0 3. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 40.500 2. but the demand rate is high. 21.3 0. In selection of a source of supply. diversification is essential for reliability. interdependent.2 2.000 6.000 55.000 4.000 40.0 7.4 3.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 85.000 40.6 4.000 4.4 17. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. The source must Table 21.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 5.000 60.000 85.3 5.000 40.000 100.2 8. Cost. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. In some local areas.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. calcium hardness. temperature. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.21.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained.) Source Protection s The U.22. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. and calculation of the Langelier index.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. total dissolved solids.” U. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Inc. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. alkalinity.21. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. In addition.3 mg / L 0. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. and Water Pollution Control Federation.S. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.” American Public Health Association. 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. American Water Works Association. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. dependent on local conditions. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.) At the discretion of the state. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. . (See also Art. Click here to view.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. All rights reserved.5 mg / L 0. such as sulfates and chlorides.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.5 – 8. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. The measurements should include pH. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.

however. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.0 < R < 2000. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Figure 21. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A.51). where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. velocity is constant.001 and 5.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and width B. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. and softening (see also Art. (21. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. V the flowthrough velocity. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. 21. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. 21. particulate and colored matter. Newton’s law applies: (21.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. All rights reserved. Ann Arbor. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. shape. slow and rapid sand filtration. calculated with ν = νs. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. In the region where 1. .) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. to be used in Eq. Inc. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. unpleasant tastes and odors..0. coagulation-sedimentation. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. temperature and viscosity of the water. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. Pojasek. Mich.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. disinfection. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as those mentioned above. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. 21. Reynolds numbers. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.46. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. (Usually. depth ho . B.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. 21. For this ideal basin. Figure 21. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. is equal to or less than 1. (See R.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. and size and shape of the settling basin. mm If R > 2000. Inc. Click here to view.134).

at 10 °C. after Camp.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. 897.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. (Observed curves. p.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. . 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.) Fig. Inc.21. 1946. 103.

21. J.8c. coagulants are added to the water.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. New York. .0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. short circuiting.46. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. G. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Okun. Click here to view. or other indicator to pass through the basin. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. C. and D. A. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 27. The tubular settler (Fig.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . 21. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Inc.” John Wiley & Sons. Fair. salt. Inc.5 ft/min (most common velocity.78a) or circular (Fig. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. finely Fig. and eddy currents. M. Geyer.. 1.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for example.” McGraw-Hill.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.) 21. 21. Inc. “Water Treatment Plant Design. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.78b). Multistory tanks. are removed in this basin.. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. 21. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Without coagulants. All rights reserved. rectangular (Fig. New York.

21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (d) Tubular settler.21. All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Inc. . (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (b) Circular clarifier. Click here to view.

The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Thereby. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). anionic. color.” R. plankton. J. highmolecular-weight. such as physical straining. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant.to 60min range. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced.” 4th ed. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. considering both cost and performance. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Anionic polymers.. New York. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. polymers have a minor effect on pH. however. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. and easier dewatering. Polymers are long-chain. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. 18H2O].” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O).47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ferric chloride (FeCl3). The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. (G. Culp. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. L. however. such as pH. organic polyelectrolytes. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. or negatively charged. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. “Water Quality and Treatment. production of a smaller volume of sludge. All rights reserved. however. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. . and nonionic. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. American Water Works Association. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. T. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. centrifugal pumps. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. consequently. Culp and R. L. “New Concepts in Water Purification. or positively charged. Inc. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in some instances. Click here to view. and air jets. settling. and hardness. The filtering process has many components. Corbitt. A. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins.. chemical and biological reactions. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. They are available in three types: cationic. Inc. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. turbidity. color. coliform organisms. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. Also. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. such as paper fiber. New York. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc.) 21. temperature. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. McGhee. and suspended solids. such as mechanical stirrers. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. or neutral in charge.

that will pass 10%. 21. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.to 0. The wash- Fig. through the sand and gravel layers. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.25.21. . of the sand. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Click here to view.35-mm range. Inc. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Usually. and dual.or mixed-media filtration. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. by weight. addition of a polymer as a filter aid.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The process requires rapid mixing. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. All rights reserved. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in millimeters. 21. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.to 12-in layer of gravel. depending on the turbidity.79.

however. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Click here to view. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. which produces an undertreated effluent. gal/min b = width of trough. or anthracite coal. The filtering medium may be sand.005:1 range. and air jets. Immediately after washing. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.25 to 1. All rights reserved. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. or deep coarse-media filters. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. bed cracking. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. diatomaceous earth. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. which is drained to waste. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.35 to 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. Inc. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Dual-media. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. filters pass water at a high rate. mixed-media. water sprays. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.002:1 to 0. such as rakes. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.20 to 1. may be more advantageous. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. creating a high head loss across the filter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.

New York. Okun.139) 21. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. L. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.” 6th ed. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. such as calcium and magnesium. (G. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. however. sulfates. G. “Water Treatment Plant Design.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. lime (CaO). gas.” 4th ed. carbonates.” and T. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. A. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value.136) (21.21. “Water Quality and Treatment. “Water Treatment Plant Design. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. Culp and R. Some.. American Water Works Association. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Click here to view. and D. (American Water Works Association. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 4th ed. All rights reserved. and R is the zeolite material.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. and American Society of Civil Engineers. and (3) total hardness. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. C. J. Inc. . Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. New York. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Culp. New York. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.. Fair. New York. “Water Supply and Sewerage. These materials remove cations. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.1 mg/L. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. Inc. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. J. and American Society of Civil Engineers.3 and 0. M. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.) (21.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed.. respectively.138) (21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. or open-joint pipes.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid.” John Wiley & Sons. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. L. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. McGhee. where 1 gpg = 17.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. “Water Quality and Treatment. Regeneration requires between 0. in clear wells. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level.. In the lime-soda process. perforated. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Geyer.

Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. A. “Water Treatment Plant Design. ozone. New York. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. All rights reserved. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. McGhee. and D. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Filter both solutions. New York. cation exchange. Other disinfectants are iodine. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. excessive fluorides. lime softening. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. ultraviolet light. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Chlorine residuals of 0. irrigation. chlorine dioxide. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. “Water Supply and Sewerage. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” and T. C. despite its low solubility.” John Wiley & Sons.45). J.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. Inc. 21. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. anion exchange. water supply.) respect to carbonates.99 water supplies. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. taste. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. M.Water Resources Engineering s 21. bromine.. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.” McGraw-Hill.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. odor. reverse osmosis. Inc.1 or 0.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. Inc. (G. New York. and electrodialysis.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. then. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. Okun. 21.” McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. “Water Treatment Plant Design. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. Geyer. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. J.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. detergents. Fair. Inc.) 21. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.) 21. . iron. manganese. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water... activated carbon. and lime. flood control.

as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.80. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Click here to view. Also. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Aeri- Fig.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Inc.80 Mass diagram of stream flow.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . All rights reserved. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. areavolume curves (Fig. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. 21. The plot of volume vs. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.21. 21.52. When the demand rate is known.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Once a reservoir site has been selected. minimum flows will be critical. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period.1). 21. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. 21. The mass diagram (Fig. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. maximum flows will govern. 21.

such as New York. San Francisco. If possible.52.35 and 21. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. perature drops in the fall. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. is called the thermocline. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. 21. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. During hours of maximum demand. Inc. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . odor. the flow refills the reservoir.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir.2). The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. 21. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. When the demand drops off.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. When the tem- 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In deep reservoirs.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.52. Click here to view. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. and Los Angeles. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. pumping plants. but there is no circulation across this zone. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. All rights reserved. Major sources of supply for some cities.Water Resources Engineering s 21. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. are large distances from the city.101 Fig. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. which may be only a few feet thick. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. give special attention to water quality. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir.

acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.35. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. Click here to view. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. 21.52. 3. M. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. . no.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. 21. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. M. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. 21. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. vol. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. A flowing artesian Fig. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. Brune.21. 21. For the correct hydraulic grade.82) (G.83). All rights reserved. June 1953). Brune.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. For any given storage reservoir.84). 21. Inc. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 34. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.

. Inc.103 Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Fig.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. 21.

where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.53.84). McGraw-Hill. 21.53. screen. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Inc. T. ditch. E..2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. ft h = H minus drawdown.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. gal/day. 72. 21. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Geyer.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. 21.. McGhee. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. bored.143) 21. or hydraulic rotary methods. from an artesian well is given by (21. Inc. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. ft d = diameter of well. 21.. vol. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. December 1938. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. (C.21. p. or driven. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.142) where Q = flow. C. Fair. Theis. 5. ft The steady flow. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. C. ft (Fig. V. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). J. Jacob. Click here to view. 33. The pump. Hence. 1940. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.” John Wiley & Sons.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. waterjet. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. A. 21. . New York. hollow-core. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.57). correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. 629.53. New York. Inc. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. motor. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. M. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. and motor. 21. 889. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. and D.83).” 6th ed.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. no. pump (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. (G. Okun. All rights reserved. J. eductor or riser pipe. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference.53. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.” Economic Geology. vol.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. and meters destroyed by corrosion. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. valves. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. Inc. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. and other appurtenances. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. steel. . contact between acids and metals. and sulfur compounds. or Dresser-type couplings. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. If it is cement-lined. riveting. plastic. tanks. and ability to withstand external loads. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe.21. zinc. stray electric currents. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. pumps. lead. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. rubber. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. In unlined pipes. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. brass. Wood pipelines are still in existence. and plastics. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Copper. concrete. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. 21. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. such as polyvinyl chloride. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. polybutylene. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Since steel is stronger than iron.) At the anode. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. hydrants. impurities and strains in metals. Under favorable conditions. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. (21. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. A machine that produces a monolithic. ft 21. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. polyethylene. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. are present. sand. valves. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Click here to view. an anode and a cathode. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. bronze. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes.54. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. bacteria in water. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. however. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. sealed flanges. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. but wood is rarely used in new installations. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe.146) where D = pipe diameter.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. At the cathode. and treatment of the water. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. When selecting materials. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. .109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. and the more ions. Inc.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Click here to view.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. for example. Also.86). If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. 21. to prevent corrosion. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. and Fig. Aluminum. zinc. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. cracks. the faster electrons can move through the water. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. caustic soda. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). such as soda ash. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water may be treated with bases. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. the corrosion process continues (Fig. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Strains. All rights reserved. where e is an electron. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. use of protective coatings. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. 21. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. horsepower. Water enters at the center.87). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or impeller.) w = unit weight of liquid. z is negative. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.21. magnesium. efficiency. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. 21. New York. 21. 21.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. called a volute (Fig. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. lime. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.147) where pa = pressure.88). To have practical meaning.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. however. The centrifugal pump. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. ft. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. psia. Inc. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.” 4th ed. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. oxides. hydroxides. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. (American Water Works Association. psia. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. Inc. McGraw-Hill. the most common waterworks pump. . ft of water z = elevation difference. All rights reserved. “Water Quality and Treatment.. between pump center line and water surface Fig. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig.. Click here to view. and the head-discharge relationship. and so on on the walls of the pipes. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Zinc. Corrosion. To prevent cavitation. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. in feet. or eye. 21. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. accomplishes that in two steps. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. graphite. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. by (21.

rotary.89. 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. jet. 21. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. 21. reciprocating. “Pump Handbook. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. For that reason. depending on the number of stages. Karassik et al.. Click here to view. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. head.57 and check valves in Art. pump discharge.) 21. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. J. 21. as shown in Fig.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. All rights reserved. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. below 200 gal/min. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.58.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. however. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. New York. (I. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. . helical. circumstances may dictate one of the other types.111 than the required NPSH.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and air lift. Inc. In a typical water-system analysis. (Also included in Fig. 21. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. Fig. discharge curve with the brake horsepower.” 2nd ed.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. propeller. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. See also Art. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter.

Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. they can be used only for sediment-free water.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Jet pumps (Fig. Click here to view. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. utilize piston action to move water. either hand. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. (21. Inc.148) where n = impeller speed. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%.90 fied). Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. which is a function of specific speed. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. which are located at the well bottom. Reciprocating pumps. r/min Q = discharge. gal/min H = head. Because of the close tolerances. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. cams. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. and for Ns above 7500. 21. vanes. . so that the entire lift is suction. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. All rights reserved.or motordriven. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. At sea level. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well.21. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. 21. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design.

plug. air-relief. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. Low head loss. . McGraw-Hill Book Company. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Corrosion. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. large pressure differences. applied through a gear-reduction device. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. pressure-relief. cone. curb. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. rotates the disk.. and butterfly. Plug.113 tion. solids deposition. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Usually. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. “Pump Handbook. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. All rights reserved. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. sluice gate. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. and easy. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. needle. one at the service connection. Inc. Hand or motor power. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. (I. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes.or oil-lubricated. fast operation. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. primarily because of their low cost. pumps. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). availability. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. or corporation cocks. If sand is carried out with the water. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. and low head loss when fully open. pressure-regulating. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. or Neoprene. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Check. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Click here to view. one just upstream of the meter. which are water. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells.Water Resources Engineering s 21. globe. and butterfly valves. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation.) drives to permit manual operation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. The major types of isolating valves are gate.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. New York. three valves must be used. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Also. J.” 2nd ed. in-service lubrication features. Simplicity of construction and quick. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. tubercle formation. or it may be at the bottom of the well. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. rubber. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Karassik et al. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. But these valves cost more than gate.. globe. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems.

Click here to view. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. check. Usually. For example. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. All rights reserved. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Often. tube. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Because of high head losses. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Interior-differential. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Many automatic control valves. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. When the valve is in a closed position. or California type. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. 21. The most common check valve is the swing type. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. and relief valves. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. such as pressure regulators and altitude. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. The wetbarrel.21. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. which connects the barrel to the main.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. such as trunk lines 21. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Inc. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Furthermore. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. and large pipes. rivers. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads.

F.91. or modifications thereof. for metering domestic-service connections. . ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.149) Hydraulics. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as meters for individual customer connections. A clicking noise. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. which do not affect propeller meters.150) where Q = flow rate. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. 21. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk.) As in venturi meters. rotary. Inc. (21. respectively.” 6th ed. New York. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. The nutating disk is used. durability. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation.. Brater. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. The standard venturi meter (Fig. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Click here to view. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. amount of head loss through the meter. simplicity and ease of repairs. or nutating-disk types. McGraw-Hill Book Company. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston.5% within the normal test-flow limits. vertical velocity components. All rights reserved. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. nozzle.115 of distribution systems. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. However. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. called a Price meter. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. and cost. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. see E. The cup-type meter. 21. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. are the most common velocity-type devices.

(c) Orifice- 21.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. fire use. or to some other recognized system. and similar items. step rate.91 plate meter. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. All rights reserved. . (b) Nozzle meter. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. peak rates of use. if any. load factors. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and development of the system. fixed charges on capital investment. Inc. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered.21. seasonal use. flat rate is falling into disuse. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. utility-type enterprises. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. and block rate.

When fixing a system of rates. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. called the demand component. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. treatment chemicals. For most distribution systems. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. switching equipment. and (3) cost. Click here to view. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. generators and exciters. buying water from a wholesale supplier. S. where applicable. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. Cost component 1. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. pumping energy.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. . have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. and transformers. Cost component 2. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. a building to house the machinery and equipment. draft tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. called the customer component. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. canals. All rights reserved. of serving an individual customer.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. This charge is usually small. 21. called the commodity component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. tunnels.117 With step rate. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. penstocks. turbines and governors. It is generally recognized that residential areas. where the majority of small users are. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. depends on the peak usage of a customer.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. tunnel. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. including metering and billing. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. and. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. Cost component 3. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes.746 kW 1 kW = 1. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.

Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. On a weekly cycle. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. Storage can be provided for a daily. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Then. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. run-of-river plants with storage. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. It can be computed on a daily. or yearly basis. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. On a daily cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. On a seasonal cycle. such as navigation.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Inc. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. and peak-load plants. weekly. Therefore.21. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. weekly. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. If the minimum flow is very low. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. or seasonal cycle. 21. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage.92). base-load plants. to be used at some future time. power production being only incidental. . The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Click here to view. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. All rights reserved.

21. The main classifications are gravity. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand.” 4th ed. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. 21. Calif. New York. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Inc. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. buttress. and rock-fill. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam.. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Force F2 represents silt pressure. J. .) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hasen. All rights reserved. earth. Zipparo and H.92 Daily load curves for generating plants.92). (V. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Figure 21. it usually is not as economical. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.) 21. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its distribution is triangular. arch. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. (Department of Water and Power. Click here to view. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Los Angeles. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. When needed.119 Fig.

Rose. however.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. May 1946. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. which forms on the reservoir surface. 1933. Click here to view.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. In cold climates.” discussion by von Karman.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. These accelerations occur in every direction.) (21.153) where w = unit weight of water. 434. A method of calculating these forces.000 psf. ice pressures as high as 50.1 g. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. was developed by von Karman. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.153). Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. which create forces on any object resting on it. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. In the past. 98. (E. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Inc. 21. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. p. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. today it is realized these values are much too high. (21. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. .21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A close approximation of the force.425h above the base.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. vol. given by Eq. 21.93 by forces F4 and F5. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. All rights reserved. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. ice. presented by Edwin Rose.

the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. because of bearing contact. however. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. On arch dams. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. silt. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site.Water Resources Engineering s 21. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. The modes of failure are also the same. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. or failure of the foundation material. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. If a large quantity of pervious material. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. . It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. is available and clayey materials must be imported. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. In the multiple-arch. Although there are many types of buttress dams. However. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. but its formwork is more expensive. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. uplift is not so important. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. In the past. They are not suited to most sites. If the deflections are not equal. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. First. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. engineers assumed that. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. their relative importance is much different. rock flour. and uplift forces are smaller. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. and clay. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. Hence. Click here to view. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. but the structural design is much more critical. Inc. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. such as sand and gravel. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. When the base is not drained. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. overturning by rotating about the toe. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. All rights reserved. however. Recent belief. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. sand. however.

Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.) 21. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. however. All rights reserved.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Bureau of Relamation. onto the fill.3 on 1. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Inc. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams.. bonding into the dumped rock. Temporary facings are usually of wood. providing power. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. S. J.21. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. or wood over concrete. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. For dams over 200 ft high. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Zipparo and H. The downstream face is usually 1. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. although steel has been used occasionally.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. (V. Hasen. McGraw-Hill Book Company. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations.” EM 1110-2-2300. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. 21. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1.3 on 1. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. For some types of soil. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. therefore.” 4th ed. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. S. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. and an upstream impervious facing. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Today. U. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. If pervious material is not available. Army Corps of Engineers. the natural angle of repose of rock. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. The facing is usually concrete. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Leakage should be expected. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York.94). bearing on the rubble cushion. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams.” U. Click here to view.

the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. At heads above 1000 ft. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.95c). In these. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. In such installations. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their efficiency decreases rapidly.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. and draft tube.) Fig. Zipparo and H. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. 21.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21.94 turbine. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. and the fixed-blade type. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. and draft tube.95a). if the load drops below 50%. wicket gates. Inc. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.. the propeller-type (Fig. wicket gates. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. (V. it changes direction. All rights reserved. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. Hasen. runner. This creates a force on the runner. runner. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. However. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The propeller turbine (Fig.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. J. Click here to view. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. 21. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. 21.” 4th ed. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. however. At heads below 100 ft. The wicket gates. As the water flows through the tur- 21. New York. 21.123 bine.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.

65. 21.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. widely used for concrete dams because. All rights reserved.21. . (c) axial flow. Click here to view.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. (b) Kaplan. 21. if designed correctly.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the dam will not be damaged by the water. Inc. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This type of spillway is Fig.

Click here to view. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. This type of spillway. DC 20402). “Design of Small Dams. . although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. As the head increases. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. In a chute spillway. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. 21. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. In a side-channel spillway. model tests are usually employed. Once this second condition is reached. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. called an ogee spillway. A siphon spillway (Fig. 21. flared. In a shaft spillway. 21. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. When the head is relatively low. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam.96 Siphon spillway. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Bureau of Reclamation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The weir can be sharp-crested. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. 21. lined. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The air vent shown in Fig. or ogee in cross section.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Thus.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Washington. All rights reserved. both depending on the head on the weir. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit.34). the siphon’s intake is sealed.” Government Printing Office. Inc. open channel. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir.

are 395-fthigh concrete towers. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. and providing support for the conduit. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. level of a reservoir within close limits.97 Taintor gate. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. On large stop-log installations. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 ft/s. making removal difficult. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. To do this.97). Inc. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. the pipes fail.65. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.65. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. . 21. 21. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. controlling flow. All rights reserved. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.21. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. 21.98 Bear-trap gate. In a taintor gate (Fig. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. causing damage and hampering operation. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Fig. In contrast. Fig.

21. Doland. All rights reserved. Cleasby.99 Drum gate. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. E. J. Babbitt. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J.. as shown in Fig.) Fig. To raise a bear-trap gate. The drum gate (Fig. Because of the large recess required in the dam.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.98. drum gates are not suited to small dams. 21. New York. Inc.” 4th ed. L. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. J. Hasen. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. 21. (V.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. Zipparo and H. and H.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. “Water Supply Engineering.

blank page 21. Inc.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

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