M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

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21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

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Its value Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. Inc. In equation form. 21. ft σ = surface tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.21. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise.3. Gage pressure.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. All rights reserved.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. psi. Click here to view. formation of spray from water jets. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Surface tension and capillarity. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.7 psia. When the liquid is in a closed container. are significant in others. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Thus. as shown in Fig. pitting. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. however.7 psi. 21. like surface tension. Its temperature variation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Meniscus. is pressure above or below atmospheric.1) where h = capillary rise. face and rises in a small tube. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. decreases with increasing temperature. or liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. although negligible in many water engineering problems. is concave upward. is small and insignificant in most problems. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. ft Capillarity. Absolute pressure.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level.000 ft is shown in Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. 21. respectively. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. psia. as shown in Fig. 21. . 21.2. at sea level. (21. and freezing damage to concrete.1.

and pitting appears. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. psf. At any depth. lb/ft2 21. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. ft. and the force due to pressure p2. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.8) to determine whether laminar. and cross-sectional area A.5 Fig.2) where τ = shearing stress. Then. 21. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. psf. on the top surface.00001059 ft2/s. absolute viscosity. 21. ft/s y = depth. Click here to view. µ of a fluid.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. the force due to pressure p1. All rights reserved. on the bottom surface. or completely turbulent flow exists.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. is a measure of its resistance to flow. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. of length and time. (Pressures as high as 350. ft2/s.4. or dynamic viscosity.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. transitional. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Since the prism is at rest. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. which extend into the pores of the metal. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. In hydraulics. Viscosity. It is so named because its units. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. as shown in Fig. also called the coefficient of viscosity. the pressure acts equally in all directions. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.Water Resources Engineering s 21. to collapse. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. or implode. . Inc. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. ft2.

6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.3b) then becomes (21.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) Division of Eq. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. dams. Taking ∆h to be h. lb.6) – ∫ydA = y A. tanks.3a) by A yields (21.4. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. at depth h. All rights reserved. Therefore. Inc. ft.4). Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure.5) 21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. (21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. psf. lb/ft3. For horizontal surfaces. then p2 is p. Thus. Click here to view. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. (21. 21. Equation (21.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. and y sin θ = h . acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. the depth below the water surface. . The resultant pressure force P.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). where w is the specific weight of water. however.3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. Figure 21. the pressure. the depth of the centroid.4) Equation (21.21. and other water control structures.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. ft2. 21.

(21.5). The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.6 (see also Fig.).1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.Water Resources Engineering s 21. represented by the length yp. Thus. (21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. Pyp = ∫y dP. The denominator of Eq. Click here to view. (21. (21.g.) that is below the c. 6. of the surface about its centroidal axis.8) equals –A. 21.7 Fig. The location of the center of pressure.2° to the horizontal (Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.) but acts at a point (c.8). 21. Inc. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.p. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. 21. 21. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Hence y . with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 .29).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. Otherwise. (21. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. . yp may be calculated directly from Eq.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.7).7).9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. if that locus is a straight line. Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. where K is the radius of gyration. – From Eq.g. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. the total force P = whA. All rights reserved.p. psf.

3.42 ft. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. yp = 5. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.0 + 2.0 ft. All rights reserved. (See Example 21. 21. K2 = point G.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. Note: 1. .4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. P = 62. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. 21.g. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. From Eq. however. Click here to view.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0) = 5.42 = 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) of common shapes. (21.08/5 = 5. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.21. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. Inc.8. Also.0 + 0. Therefore.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.5 + 1/ (5.08.9).1.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.

2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.7). (21. so the weight of the water is 19. 21. Example 21.9). and for a constant-radius surface. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. 21. 21.5 × 5 = 780 lb. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. Click here to view.6 ft3. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. When water is below the curved surface.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.2.4 = 1220 lb = PV. 2. PH = whA = 62. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.6w = 19.564. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.14 × 25/4 = 19. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.4°. Fig. – From Eq.9. All rights reserved.6 × 62. (See Example 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. (b) Free-body diagram.4 × 2. Inc. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Its angle with the horizontal is known. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. The corresponding angle is 57.

the pressure head. For a body to be in equilibrium. (21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. ft. Manometers indicate h. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. 21. Given in feet by Eq. Inc. is indicated by the metacenter.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. p = wh. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. whether floating or submerged.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. or the difference in head.10b). its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.g. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10a). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The stability of a ship. 21. . All rights reserved. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.4). (21. ft3 ys = distance. 21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10b. (21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.b. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.

Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. What is hm? Fig. (a) Piezometers. and differential manometer. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.4 lb/ft3. Basic types of manometers. U-tube manometer. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Click here to view. 21. 21.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.11): piezometer. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.17 psi. All rights reserved. .11a is 2.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. although the latter is most common. (b) U-tube manometer. Inc.12c). (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The liquid is water with w = 62. The piezometer (Fig.11 manometer. 21. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).Water Resources Engineering s 21. However. Example 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.

12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.12c). . All rights reserved. A movable scale. as opposed to a fixed scale.11b) is used. 21. including negative gage pressures. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. Very low pressures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. the Utube manometer (Fig. Click here to view. 21. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. In this application. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. 21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. Inc.

Click here to view. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 ft of water. ft. the total energy per unit weight at 2. psf p2 = pressure at 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. hi is 2. when expressed in feet of water. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.13 indicating liquid. 21. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.4 × 2. The pressure at B. in the manometer. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. 21. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. the actual pressure difference. .) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.4 × 2. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. The differential manometer (Fig. Example 21.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. psf.75 + 13. however. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. One factor. ft. however.6). Inc. hm1 is 9 in.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.6 × 62. and the right side. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. is magnified by the differential manometer. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. For example. psf w = specific weight of fluid. psf. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. and z is 1. such as might be required in laboratories. or sump.4: A differential manometer (Fig. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.0 and 2.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. if the actual difference is 0. 21. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.0 ft. 21.5. that is. such as ft of water or psi. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Most of them. 32.25 ft. Above 5. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.40.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.4 × 0. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.11) where Z1 = elevation. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. the magnification will be 2. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.12a.

Click here to view. across the area of the section A. where Q is the quantity of flow. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. (See Example 21. 21. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. ft3/s. 21.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. This term hf. varies with velocity. (21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. It equals WVa2 / 2g. 21.11). velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.14) pa/w is called pressure head.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. lb/ft3. above some arbitrary datum. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. where W is the weight. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.21. through friction. . of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. velocity head.5. where Va is the velocity. ft/s = Q/A.13. ft2. a Fig. Example 21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. ft/s.13).14 s Section Twenty-One (21. however. when added to the downstream side of Eq. Fig. Average velocity. As indicated in Fig. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. velocity. V2/2g.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. Usually.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. The total energy. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.4 ft3/s. All rights reserved. ft. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. 21.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.14. and pressure. lb. and pressure (Fig. ft. or the total head ft: (21. Kinetic energy at the section. 21. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21.

it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Z2 = 0. respectively. (21. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Click here to view. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. In openchannel flow. hf = 50 – 1. ft. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. sometimes called the total head line. direction. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.15 Fig. The energy grade line.9). The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.4/ 3. while in pressure flow.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Art. is equal to the impulse. and any bends. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. p2 = 0. Thus substitution in Eq.7.45 ft.55 = 48. which may result from a change in either velocity. 21. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. or magnitude of flow. 21. Hence. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Also. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.15). All rights reserved. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.14 = 10 ft/s. Inc. respectively. since the pipe has free discharge. gate valve. A change in momentum. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.

apply Eq.4/ 32.6. 21.78. (See Example 21. which is to be determined).96 cos 53. 21. Fx = 181. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. All rights reserved.96 sin 53.1 Rx = –82.000 sin 53.000 lb. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.600. since ∆Vy = –(–7. (21.200 lb. (21. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.11) or (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .2= 1.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.700/82.2° + Ry = 1.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.2° – 0) = 4.5°. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.200 + Rx = 1.12)] but may be used separately. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. With p1 known.94 × 100 × 4. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. since ∆Vx = –(7.500 lb.15) first in the X direction.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To find F.2° – 71. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.2° – 13. Click here to view. Fy = –181. Inc.78 Ry = 145.1 and the density ρ = 62.94.000 cos 53. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. Then.600 lb In the Y direction. Fig. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.94 × 100 × 65. P2 = ppA2 = 13.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.5 ft/s. lb.5) = 65.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. Let R be the force.21. Example 21. then in the Y direction.332π = 71. so θ = 60. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.16. and at 2. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.

They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. or drainage basin. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. 21. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. aquifer. alternative management schemes. In this way. such as storm rainfall. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1. . such as a river. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. erosional scour. With hybrid models. hybrid modeling. or proposed works. operate. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. It is. In most models. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Physical models are expensive to build. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. viscosity. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Popular before the advent of digital computers. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. to a given set of stimuli. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. the capability of the computing resources. Inc. All rights reserved. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. In water resources engineering. or prototype. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface.7. For instance. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. gravity. momentum. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. droughts. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. employs both physical and mathematical models. Usually. and surface tension. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system.7. In the preceding example.17 21. and through execution of the computer program. Click here to view. A fourth mode of modeling. See also Art. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results.

20) R is dimensionless.22) where ρ = density of fluid. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. the model is termed a true model.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Once the length ratio has been set. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Therefore. respectively. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Ratios of the forces of gravity.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. such as depth or diameter).21a) (21. Click here to view. The inertial force. (21. viscosity. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. The Reynolds number is (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. the length ratio is the only variable. such as spillways and weirs. Then (21. entrainment of air in flowing water. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. the formation of drops and air bubbles.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.21. Reynolds number. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. and one other force are made proportional. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. . The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The Weber number is (21. ft2/s. The Froude number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. (21. All rights reserved.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. Similarly. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is always a predominant force. Squaring both sides of Eq.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. and Weber number. Inc. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Froude number.

may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. in particular. 21.7.S. Rr = Lr. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. and infiltration parameters. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. and through execution of the computer program.24). Hence. viscous.25) In models of rivers and channels. catchment areas. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. . ft/s R = hydraulic radius. (21. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as a morning-glory spillway. These expressions. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. in turn. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. inertial. All rights reserved.23a) (21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. The U. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. (21. the logical representation of prototypes. called a movable-bed model. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. Sr = 1.26) where V = mean velocity. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. For such models. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Inc.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. (21. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. In some cases.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. Click here to view. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites).Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as flow networks. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. mathematical models are. For instance. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. This type of model is called a distorted model. One type of model.

These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. S. vol. (J. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. when fully implemented. hydrodynamics. 3. H. Click here to view. Grigg. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. flow routing.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. ecosystem impacts and restoration. shown in Fig. seepage. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. density. Zipparo and H. Maidment. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. Also. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. and R. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication.” N. 1957. 21. “Water Resources Planning. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding.” D.21. quantity and quality of water supply. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. and turbulent flow results. and among water resources modelers in the government. J. (D. F. or both. As this shearing stress increases. As a general rule. if comparisons of different plans are required. academia. evaporation and irrigation. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. and groundwater yield. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. “Handbook of Hydrology. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. G. reservoir regulation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. design of hydraulic structures. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flood or drought impacts. For closed conduits other than circular.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. hydrologic forecasting. Whan. As a result. . as in annular passages.2). “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. channel and river hydraulics. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. In object-oriented software. Art. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. All rights reserved. Inc. impacts of dam breaks. or pollution. Rothfus. watershed hydrology. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. New York. sediment or pollutant transport. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. and private sectors.17. of all databases and software. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software.) 21. however. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. wave or tidal analyses. This approach. R. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. Hoggan. This. Hasen. the model output required for design or evaluation. R.” McGraw-Hill. A. Walker. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. landfill leachate analyses.” V. 21.

.29) For laminar flow. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Eq. at completely turbulent flow. 21. As the Reynolds number increases. laminar flow is unstable. (21.) 21. ft ρ = density of fluid. To the right of the dashed line in Fig.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Fig. Click here to view. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. ft L = length of pipe section considered. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. ft/s D = pipe diameter. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it is not practical to treat it analytically. the flow is completely turbulent.27) where V = fluid velocity. 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. 21. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. flow is laminar in circular pipes.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. 21. 21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the velocity distribution is more uniform. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. (E.17). (21. causing the flow to become turbulent. In laminar flow. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. McGraw-Hill Book Company. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. 21. as shown in Fig. 32. As a result. In this region. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. . Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. All rights reserved. 32. These disturbances create eddies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics.l9. than for laminar flow (Fig. a disturbance will probably be magnified. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.21 Fig. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.19.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. New York. Therefore. F. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” 6th ed. (21.18. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. Inc.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. handbook of Hydraulics. Brater.

3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.0002 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.0002 0. Inc. (21. (21.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. ft D = diameter of pipe. F. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.0005 – 0.0002 – 0. November 1944.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.) Because Eq. (L.03 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.003 – 0.0005 – 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. . and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.001 – 0. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.21.19) L = length of pipe.008 – 0.001 0. 21.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. All rights reserved.0005 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.008 0. 21. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. enamels.19) to Determine f ε.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. Click here to view. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.003 0. Moody. 21.9. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.00003 0. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. 21. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. ft V = velocity of fluid. 21. 32.

34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. (Although based on surface roughness.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.32) where n = coefficient. which requires experience in its choice. . ft L = length of pipe. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. See also Table 22. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.9. ft/s C1 = coefficient. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.31) gives (21.3.4 and 21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. ft/s C = coefficient. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.34e) where V = velocity. ft S = head loss due to friction. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.9. Click here to view.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. dependent on surface roughness. ft3/s. where D is the pipe diameter.34d) (21.34c) 21.33c) (21.33b) (21.33e) 21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.34b) (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.) Substitution into Eq.31) where V = velocity.9.33d) (21. Tables 21. (21. 21. All rights reserved. 21. Inc.11 (p.

If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.012 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. bends. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.4 Values of n for Pipes.35b) (21.013 0. (21.20 ple 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.015 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. Example 21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. However.017 From 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.014 0.014 0. in short pipelines. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.012 0. Click here to view.010 0. 21. 21.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.21. Inc.015 0.7: Figure 21.017 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.017 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.010 To 0.013 0.017 0.035 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.010 0.015 0.015 0.7.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.012 0. because (21.016 To 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.013 0.) Flow between reservoirs.013 0.013 0. .35c) (21. (21.36) for a check. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. All rights reserved.015 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.012 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. (21.011 0.017 0. enlargements.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.

6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. London. good workmanship.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. the values of K in Fig.38) A special application of Eq.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 115 12 in. Gibson. are presented in Table 21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. Click here to view. (21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. where V is the velocity in the pipe. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. (21. 10 years older Average value. Inc.37): (21. good workmanship.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.10. 140 Large sizes. 85 16 in..37) or (21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. ft. 80 4 in. H. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 21. .40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.21). The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 120 Centrifugally spun.Water Resources Engineering s 21.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 21. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 135 In good condition.” Constable & Co. All rights reserved. so a full velocity head is lost. regardless of age. 120 Large sizes. 110 4 in.7. 120 24 in and over. Ltd. minor losses must be considered. ft/s g = 32.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. (21. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.10.. wood forms. 21.21 are approximate. 21. 105 30 in and over. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. (A.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.25 Table 21. is (21. 110 (21. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.10. steel forms. Table 21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.

05 K = 0.8 are only approximate.2 2. 21. .5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0. Click here to view. D = pipe diameter.4 0.25 The values in Table 21.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.64 0.5 0.50 K = 0.21 of the sides.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.62 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.68 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 21.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.7 0.89 1.81 0.9 0.3 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Globe valve. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.80 K = 0. For these reaTable 21. such as valves and elbows.2 0. All rights reserved.66 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.2 0.42) Table 21. and at bends is given by (21.71 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10. fully open Gate valve.10.6 0. Inc.9 0.6 0.76 0.8 0.5 0. fully open Angle valve.0 1.0 5. fully open Swing check valve.21.63 0.0 Table 21.0 2.1 0.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. 21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. National Bureau of Standards. not including friction loss. Inc. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice.11. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. no. Orifices may have any shape.) Fig. Ito. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. If this velocity is significant.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. Figure 21. vol. The data are in agreement that the head loss. H. 21. although they are usually round. McGraw-Hill.” Journal of Research. 82. (V. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. New York. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. Reynolds number.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. its effect should be taken into account.” 4th ed. Experiments on smooth pipes.23.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. this error is corrected by the C values.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. 21. July 1938. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.42). measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. not including friction loss in the bend.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. and angle of bend. 1.42). (H. For low heads. Hasen. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. there is disagreement. vol. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. Inc. or rectangular. 21. the bend loss essentially remains constant.. Zipparo and H. Equation (21.27 sons. Beij. J.45) 21.22: (21. square. 21. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.44) where Q = discharge. . (21. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.9 for low velocity of approach. (21. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Click here to view. All rights reserved. 1960.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. series D. (K.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. however. (21.

602 0.21.605 0.596 0. All rights reserved.599 0.598 0.605 0.594 0.607 0. Inc.602 0.601 0.611 0.594 0.643 0.46) The actual velocity.600 0.596 0.644 0.596 0.622 0.632 0.600 0. the vena contracta.618 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.630 0. to Fig.602 0.598 1.617 0.602 0.598 0.610 0.637 0.614 0.604 0.621 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.618 0.603 0. With the reference plane through point 2.607 0.652 0. ft 0.04 0. ft 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.605 0.596 0.610 0. and Eq.601 0.623 0.593 0.612 0.599 0.601 0.604 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.593 0. Jr.1 0. (21.613 0 610 0.602 0.1 0.600 0.627 0.614 0. .601 0.619 0.648 0.0 0.608 0.599 0. Click here to view. 21.595 0.619 0.602 0.593 0.595 0.616 0.655 0.631 0.629 0.” 1886. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.599 0.602 0.634 0..04 0.611 0.606 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.609 0.94 to 0.591 0.597 0.604 0.596 0. Z1 = h. V1 = 0.603 0.602 0. and Z2 = 0.606 0.605 0.615 0.4 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.592 0.592 0.603 0.628 0. of circular orifices.613 0.0 Head.590 0.628 0.45) becomes (21.99.595 0.600 0.660 0.6 08 1 1.617 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path. ft 0.603 0.02 0.623 0.592 1. Typical values of Cν range from 0.626 0.5 2 2.637 0.623 0.636 0.608 0.608 0.607 0.648 0.616 0.632 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.637 0. determined experimentally.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.597 0.02 0. “Hydraulics.641 0.618 0.596 0.614 0.612 0.

“Handbook of Hydraulics. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. between 1 and 2.67. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. the contraction is completely suppressed. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Brater.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.47) where hL = losses in head. (21. .24b. Eq. 21. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. see E.” 6th ed. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.25. McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved. 21. F.25 orifice. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. (21.61 to 0.) 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. With a partly suppressed orifice. (21.11. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.48) is obtained. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. ft. 21. Inc. 21.. New York. In Fig.11.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. Figure 21. the area of the orifice. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.29 Fig. 21.

54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. ft h2 = head at the end. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. For simplicity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57) (21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.49) Solving for dt yields (21. Eq.58) Equation (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. obtained by solving Eq. when y = h2.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. to time t.55) 21.51) upon integration becomes (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. 21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.57) for t and substituting in Eq.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eq. (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Click here to view.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. Inc. (21. .59). 32.50) becomes (21.11.56) Fig.23). The initial velocity of the jet is (21. All rights reserved. ft2 A = area of reservoir.58)]. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. 21.26): (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21.56).58) gives (21. is that for a parabola: (21. Rearranging Eq. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. 21.21. (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. when y = h1.50) where a = area of orifice. s The Y coordinate is (21.

5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.27) but the head loss is larger.67 V2T /2g. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0.82.82. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.11. When this happens. Therefore. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. a K value for Eq. All rights reserved. 21.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.42) of 0. if one exists). the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.27. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. ft2 Fig. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. Equation (21. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. In the tube or pipe. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.67 V2 ) = 0.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.67 V T / 2g = 0. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. 21.5 a T T Fig.80. (21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. (21. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.75. however.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. Click here to view. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. psf w = unit weight of water. 21.28). If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. 21. 21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.11.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a short tube flowing full.29.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. .31 ty Cν = 0.33VT / 2g.00 VT / 2g – 0. 21. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. Inc.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.

The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. The change causes a pressure rise. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21.32). Fig. Fig. When a valve is closed. 21.29. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. the pressure in the pipe falls. Every time the flow rate is changed. . The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.30).32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Click here to view.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. As the water flows into the reservoir. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. As the water flows away from the closed valve. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. However.21. it causes water hammer. either above or below the normal pressure. All rights reserved. either increased or decreased. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21. this momentum drops to zero. 21.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. Inc. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. the tube must flow full. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. The pipe shown in Fig. 21. For this analysis to be valid. but at a pressure much higher than normal.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. the water in the pipe is motionless. 21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.

2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. 21. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.63a) becomes (21. . psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. (21. Eq. ft 21. 1.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. (21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.13. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.63a) In terms of pressure head.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. (21. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. All rights reserved.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Inc. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. approximate solution. Equation (21. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.64) 21. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. 21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. Click here to view. For instantaneous closure: (21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.63).62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. s A plot of pressure vs. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. 43.13.

the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time.5 ft2..61). length = 3000 ft. then that obtained from Eq. J. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. is g = acceleration due to gravity.” 4th ed. 21. Hasen.. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. All rights reserved.63). (V. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. (21.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. s T = actual closure time of valve. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.) Example 21. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. from Eq.21. McGraw-Hill. diameter = 10 ft.) Velocity of pressure wave.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. penstock thickness = 1 in. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. to apply Eq. where ∆t. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).2 × 108 psf. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. equals L /aU. (21. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. . (21. Zipparo and H. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. Inc. ft L = length of pipeline. 32. Thus. where a equals any integer. the increment of time. Inc. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. (21. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. area = 78. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. such as L/aU. (21. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure.63). The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. each causing an individual pressure wave.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63).) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. New York.32. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. Vo the original velocity. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. Once the time interval has been determined. (21. With the head known.

14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. (21.34 tension. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63).3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. the stress. to prevent water hammer. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Usually. is Pipe Stresses 21. lb Hence.66) where p = internal pressure.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. it is by no means the only one. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Various types of relief Fig.13. 21. in Assuming T = 4.34).33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. the closure is instantaneous. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. .33) must still be designed for water hammer. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. 21. approximate equation (21. and the pressure rise. The water column. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.90 s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. from Eq. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer.64) gives the following result: 21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. 21. psi. floats on the line.90 s. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. Inc. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. All rights reserved. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. When a valve is suddenly opened. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed.75 s. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. on the pipe material is (21. in effect.

67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. In all bends. Gere.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. For steel pipes. is (21. due to a temperature change is (21.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. In this case.6). this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. 21. (21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. 21. P Timoshenko and J. “Theory of . M. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. 21. 6. For concrete pipes. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. Inc.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21.. (21. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. Eq. Click here to view.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. If D/t is less than 10. The internal diameter is used in Eq. (21. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. All rights reserved.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. (S. it acts like a beam. this analysis is approximate. psi.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.” 2nd ed. however. The stress. . When a pipe has external pressure acting on it.21. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. elastic Stability. However. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. 21. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.67) for concrete pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. Art.10). The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided.67). the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. Equation (21. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. New York. Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The force diagram in Fig. In Fig. However. if expansion joints are to be used.

in many cases the pipe material takes this force.71) where R = resultant force on bend. an exact theoretical analysis. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. 62. Inc. .37 Fig. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. However. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.71) give a quick solution. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. however. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. exit conditions.70) and (21. canal. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or other embankment. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Click here to view. a railroad. In small pipes. psf w = unit weight of water. Eqs.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. 32. All rights reserved. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and slope. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. the joints must also be able to take these forces. (21.

the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. and the Manning equation for friction loss.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.” EB058W.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. 21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. computer software. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Click here to view. Portland Cement Association. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Inc. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. the culvert flows full. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. the following equation is obtained: (21.21.38). and the control will still be at the inlet. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. that is. but they do not cover Fig. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. For this reason. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. . 21. charts. 21. All rights reserved. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.37). Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.73) 21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.23). slope is greater than the critical slope. the normal depth (Art.30)].22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.36).33d) or (21. (21.

for the open-channel condition (Fig.39).37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. When slope is less than critical. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. and slope of culvert. 21. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.39 Fig.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. and dn < dc . . The fluid flows under pressure.23). Thus.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depending on the head. All rights reserved. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. ft Equation (21. flow depends on inlet condition. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. 32.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.20) 21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. (21.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Click here to view.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Inc. 21. 21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. The discharge. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21.75) Substituting this into Eq. Discharge is independent of slope. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. loss at entrance. 21. Discharge depends on head H. When the slope is less than critical.74) Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. normal pipe flow occurs. open-channel flow takes place. and dn > dc . ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. When slope exceeds critical. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.74) yields (21. Fig.

The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.40). 21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.76). ft To solve Eq. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. 21. and discharge is given by Eq. . 21. If the head on a culvert is high. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. If this condition exists. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. Inc. however. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge.18). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. If the friction slope approaches critical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. 21.39).76). and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.76). If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.72).37). Most culverts.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. When the friction slope is flat. ft dn = normal depth of flow. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. Click here to view. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. (21. (21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. All rights reserved.41). 21. (21.

it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.73).15 0. (21. Example 21.19). length = 300 ft. slope = 0. When the entrance is not submerged. (21. the flow is under pressure. groove or bell. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. (21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. groove or bell.44) for discharge through an orifice.72) applies. n = 0.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.40).Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.18 and 21. Inc. (21. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.01.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. projecting Concrete pipe. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Eq. Find: size of culvert. 21. Since the culvert is under pressure.6. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. Table 21. Click here to view. These values are for culverts flowing full.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. (21.013. and the entrance will not control. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. with Eq. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.95 × 4 = 39.72) and (21.72) yields Q =Va = 9.41 For entrance control. But H = 5 + 0. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. First find dn.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.10 0. Fig. 21. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. and free exit.8 ft3/s Table 21. 21.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Substitution in Eq.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Application of Eq. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. square edge Concrete pipe. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.9 0. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.

It is expressed in cubic feet per second. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. plus the velocity head at the point.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. ft.79) The velocity head HV. within a hydraulic jump. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. . ft2 When the discharge is constant. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. Figure 21. normally taken as 1. Equation (21. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. or open-channel flow.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. ft3/s. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.36 for prismatic channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depth of flow is constant throughout. (21. ft.79).2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. In a uniform channel. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. The wetted perimeter is the length. It is. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. or the total-head line. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. All rights reserved. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. however.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. Hence.77) where V = average velocity. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. or slope.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. is generally given by (21.21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. and is given by (21. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. 32. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. ft. It is expressed in feet as (21. Inc.03 to 1. (21. minus the free surface width. Click here to view.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. It has uniform flow if the grade. 21.

New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. For a rectangular channel. (V. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. roughness. New York. 21. All rights reserved. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. in which T is the top width of the channel.84) reduces to Fig.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.44.. McGrawHill Book Company.” 6th ed.42 is called the normal depth dn. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. 21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. normal depth decreases downstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. the specific energy also decreases. T. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.) (21. F. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.43). 21. as shown in Fig.43. (See. 21. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. Inc. E. “Handbook of Hydraulics. ft.83) Brater. Chow. ft. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. and discharge are known. slope. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.84) where A = area of flow. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. As the depth decreases downstream. 21.43 Fig. for example. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. (21. Eq.

” 6th ed.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.84) is called the critical depth dc. Eq. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.44). the depth is greater than critical. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. and flow is supercritical. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. All rights reserved. Click here to view. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.44). (21. the depth is below critical.. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. 21. ft3/s d = depth of flow. for a given discharge.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.84) may be reduced to (21. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. “Handbook of Hydraulics. New York). or conversely. or it may be found directly from tables (E. For a given value of specific energy.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Brater.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.43. For rectangular channels. (21.21. (21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.84). 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. F. 21. The flow there is called subcritical flow. Inc.

however. flow is subcritical. as indicated in Fig. 21. regardless of slope. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. (21. (21. For every depth greater than critical depth. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. Critical depth.45. It can be seen from Fig. Inc. once calculated. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. 21. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21.44). ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump.85). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.45 where dc = critical depth. 21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. 21. All rights reserved. ft3/s b = width of channel. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .87) Fig. p.57). Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. a hydraulic jump will occur. 21. 21. Such a change occurs gradually.52b.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. along with a high loss of energy. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. without turbulence. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. flow is supercritical. [As indicated by Eq. indicating an irreversible occurrence.

at an arbitrary elevation.46c and d. and C. 21. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.11. and two types for channels of critical. 21. 21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).89) may be written (21.90) where A = area of flow. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.L. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. Chow. as shown in Fig.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. . T.23).25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. 21. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.D. Click here to view.D.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. horizontal.46a and b. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.S. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. These curves are divided into five groups. and A for adverse. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.L. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. and adverse slope. Eq.L. are identical for a channel of critical slope.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.4. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. C for critical. The M2 curve forms between the normal. The N.L. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).and critical-depth lines. New York. H for horizontal. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. is replaced by a horizontal line.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.21.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.25). Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.D.D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (See also Art. there must be a continuing maintenance program. ft V = mean velocity of flow.9 and Table 21.46. are in Table 21.) 21. All rights reserved. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. the average n values given in Table 21. E. and the critical-depth line C. (21. Dr.D. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. therefore. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Department of Agriculture. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. 21. 21. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Inc. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. (Although based on surface roughness. and the N.L.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. S for steep (supercritical).

Masonry a. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.027 0. Lined channels 1.010 0. Asphalt a.014 0. Gunite. All rights reserved. The S2 curve. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.015 Avg 0. 21.030 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Smooth wood form c. respectively). Clean. commonly called a drawdown curve. Cement-mortar surface 3. Dry rubble 5.035 0.032 0.014 0.011 0.018 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.013 0. straight and uniform a.022 0.013 0.014 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.020 0. Click here to view. 21. untreated 3. Steel form b.100 0.025 0. after weathering b.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cemented rubble b.016 0.025 0.016 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.46i and j.012 0.015 0. Rock cuts a.011 0. Wood a. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.080 0. high as flow depth d. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.025 0. Concrete a.012 0. Gunite.013 0.023 0. few weeds c.015 0.023 0.021 0.024 0. No vegetation b.46a and b. Corrugated 2.013 0.012 0. high stage 2.120 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.050 0.035 0. With short grass. 21.040 0.033 0. Dense brush.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.021 0. Smooth b. Light brush on banks 3. Float finish b.030 0.017 0. Excavated earth.140 0. good section c. .47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.030 0.016 0.012 0.080 0.035 0. Dredged earth a. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.019 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.013 0.025 0.028 0.022 0. Unlined channels 1.033 0. Planed. Dense weeds. Smooth and uniform b.016 0. Rough wood form B. Rough C.025 0. Metal a.050 0. Jagged and irregular 0.017 Max 0.025 0.040 0.016 0.014 0.060 0. wavy section 4.035 0.022 0. Inc. 21.018 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.

Examples in Fig. C.21. Inc. indicates normal-depth line. 21. and A profiles. The curves in Fig.D. 21.L.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46k and l. Click here to view.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. N. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.L. . critical-depth line. All rights reserved. H. 21.D. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.

Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. 32. dam. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location.51). (R.and direct-integration methods are in V. Inc. each reach is solved in succession. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. direction-integration. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Explanations of both the graphical. H. free overfall. . The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. or reaches. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. New York. For the section of channel in Fig. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). Chow. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. and step methods. French. with relatively small variation. For step-method computations. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.27. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Click here to view. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. For subcritical flow conditions. The wave travels at a speed.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. gate..91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. depending on the type of flow. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form.) 21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. (21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. weir. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. 21. New York. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. All rights reserved. known as its celerity. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. See Art.5. T. 21.” McGraw-Hill. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. Inc. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.77) if the depth were zero. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. 21.47. the channel is divided into short lengths.

ft Note that SoL = ∆z.21. prismatic channels. not the channel bottom.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. respectively. Click here to view. and vice versa. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. All rights reserved. the change in elevation.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. ft. (21. (21. 21.92) (21. the head loss. and – SL = hf. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. rearranged as follows: Fig. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.93). the – eddy loss.91) for L gives (21.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.93) where R = hydraulic radius. as given by Eq. hi. ft. 21.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. 21.82). Solving Eq. due to friction in the same reach. the longer the backwater curve profile. (21. . is negligible and can be ignored. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. The smaller the value of n. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. (For uniform. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. Therefore. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. is obtained from Eq. Since this step method is a converging process. Then. which. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. respectively. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. ft.93). or roughness.1 for converging reaches.95) The coefficient k is 0.2 for diverging reaches. Click here to view. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. For lined channels. Z2. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. ft. (21. 21. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. respectively. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. ft. Next. . becomes (21. S. (21.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Eddy loss. from 0 to 0. computations progress toward the initial section. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.47.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. referred to a horizontal datum. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. at sec– tions 1 and 2.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf.95).11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.94). and about 0.93).96). (21. Then.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Therefore. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. (21. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. The value of total head computed from Eq. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Finally. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities.92). in natural channels. grade. the friction loss. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. sometimes called impact loss. ft/s. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. (21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. and it is therefore often accounted for. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the average friction slope for the reach. (21. (21. Next.51 may be some intermediate depth. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Inc. total head H. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. All rights reserved. after substitution of H from Eq.

velocity.1 ft in elevation. . N. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. Department of Transportation. approach roadways. If the two values of total head do not agree. 21..” Hydraulics Design Series no. Bradley. known as the length of jump. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. known as the roller. Utilizing the above data. 21. Federal Highway Administration.S. and determine the discharge. a gate. bridge piers. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. and J. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas.52b. All rights reserved. Click here to view. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). 1970.48). 21.51 and 21.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.48 Hydraulic jump.21. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Fig. 21. The upstream surface of the jump. The effect of bridges. however.27. New York. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. However. 1. or other obstruction.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. U. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. 21. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. Inc. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. French. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. 2nd ed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. respectively. as shown in Figs. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. is a turbulent mass of water. Bureau of Public Roads. H. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.23). or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area).

or alternate depths.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. where L is a characteristic length. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. (21.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.82). The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. s (21.98) and (21. ft3/s = unit of time. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. For rectangular channels. in Eq.16)]. (21. (21.102) Equation (21. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft d2 = depth after jump. d2 must also equal dc. This difference (Fig.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. ft w = unit weight of water.49) is given by (21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. 21. (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.100). The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. Click here to view. ft. ft/s. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. (21. For open-channel flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21.99). lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. V is the mean velocity. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. 21. this resultant pressure force is (21.105) where A = area of flow.98) where d1 = depth before jump. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21.100) Equation (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.104) = discharge. ft/s2. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.99) where M = mass of water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.27. 32. All rights reserved. Inc. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2.

hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The jump is well-balanced. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. For F1 = 1. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. Click here to view. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.23). can travel for miles.27. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. for example. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head.49.5. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 4. This jump may be called a strong jump.0. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. were classified by the U. which gives discharge vs.7 to 2. there are undulations on the surface. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. very commonly in canals.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 to 4.5. depth after the jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. For F1 = 1 to 1. All rights reserved. Inc.7. 21. and the performance is at its best. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. chute.S. 21. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. This jump may be called a steady jump. depending on local conditions. If the tailwater is too low. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. In either case. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. 21.0 and larger.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.21. This jump may be called a weak jump. The jump action is rough but effective. 21. the jump will be drowned out. below a spillway. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. The jump is called an undular jump. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.5 to 9. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. . dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. the flow is critical and there is no jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the tailwater is too high. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. For F1 = 9.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. For F1 = 1. which.

105).5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Accessories. (21. 21.27. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U. changing the apron elevation. 21. . prepared by V. The resulting curve (Fig.27. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. All rights reserved. Inc.51. therefore. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.S. But it has been determined experimentally. and sloping the apron. This length (Fig. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. The curve. T. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.55 curve involve changing the crest length. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. These features are expensive to build. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. Click here to view. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. Bureau of Reclamation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. 21.

101) with d1 given. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.52. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. as shown in Fig. 21. (21. (21.51. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. less than. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h.21. for simplicity. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. 21. Click here to view. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the jump moves to a new location downstream. which occurs near the channel drop-off. 21. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig.52b. but it is normally assumed to be 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. A horizontal intercept FG. the jump occurs in the steep region. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. curves AB and ED in Fig.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. The actual depth at the brink is 71.5% of critical depth.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. If d2 is less than d′ . .52a. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. between lines CB′and EO. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. using the step methods of Art. computed from Eq. that flow is uniform. equal in length to L. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. as theory would indicate. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. computed from Eq.7dc for simplicity. 21. 21.26. Conversely. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. if the downstream depth is lowered. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. Inc. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. equal to the computed length of the jump. CB. All rights reserved. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. (21. as shown in Fig.75h in the absence of better information.102). 21. respectively (Fig.23) to mild.101). the computed length of jump. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. It is assumed.46e and c). the jump moves downstream to a new position. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. As depth d2 is lowered. 21.

) 21.85)].28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. All rights reserved.. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.51. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. If the entrance loss must be considered. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. French. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. then the assumed discharge is correct. or (a) above it. ft. ft.. 21.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope.53a). If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. New York. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. where He is the specific energy head. Inc.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. 21.82) and (21.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. on the channel entrance. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). ignoring entrance loss.106) where b is the channel width. the entrance loss.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. ft. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. Click here to view. is (21. (R. Brater. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. a new discharge is assumed. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. Then.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 for one with squared ends.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.53). Inc. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. (21. . ft.23). where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. H. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. or (b) below it. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” McGraw-Hill. 21. and the slope of the channel. if not. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. From Q = AV. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. ft3/s. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. 21. and discharge is at a maximum.” 6th ed. F. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.

producing flow. 21. 21. All rights reserved. ft. .23). then the discharge is correct. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. (b) mild-slope channel. 21. and g is acceleration due to gravity. ———— charge.53b. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. 21. 21. 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.33).) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. (21. ft2.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. Click here to view.53b). ft3/s. 21. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. Inc.22).58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. d is normal depth. (In Fig. a new discharge is chosen. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.83).29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where He – d is the actual head.2 ft/s2. He is the specific energy head. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. ft. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). if not.21.

ft. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. (21. of the center line of the channel.23). A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. curve (Fig. . The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. ft. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. Therefore. Thus. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. ft. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.59 21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. (21. (21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. 21.107) The theoretical difference y. In this range. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve.83)]. 21. 21. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. ft /s. a unit mass of water. 21. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and rc the radius of curvature. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. The error will not be great. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the bend continues long enough. the true value of y would be only a few inches. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. All rights reserved. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Inc. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. or mV2 /rc for m. when a stream enters a curve.108). where V is its average velocity. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon.

are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. 21. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. with sufficient accuracy. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Technical Bulletin 393.21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. 21. . an increase in friction loss results. C. however.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. recross as shown. These waves cross at M. a series of standing waves are produced. by (21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. and continue crossing and recrossing.111). 21. phase. All rights reserved. of greater-than-average surface elevation.23). The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. depths along the inside wall. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.S. The second is a negative wave. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Two waves form at the start of the curve. flows around a bend in a channel.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. Fig. One is a positive wave.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. and should be used with discretion. His values have not been evaluated completely. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.16)] . It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. The cross slope required for 21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. This angle may be found from (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.55). (F. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.” U.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. Scobey. Inc.110) for θ in Eq. (21. Click here to view. Department of Agriculture. (21.

21. . A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. respectively. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Many variables.54). 21. ∆V is the velocity change. plus any transition and friction losses. For outlet-type structures. Straight.44. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. wall roughness. p.2 for welldesigned transitions. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. as shown in Fig. where K.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. ft. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.8[∆(V2/2g)]. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. the average velocity decreases. Inc. 21. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. low-head-loss transfer of flow.113) angle of about 12. is given by K(∆V2/2g). and channel shape and slope. 21.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. equals about 0. When proceeding downstream through a transition. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. 21.56.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1.2 ft/s2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this range. 21. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. The transition loss. ft/s. or change from supercritical to subcritical. Click here to view. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. and g = 32.1 for an inlet-type structure. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. All rights reserved. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. To place a transition properly between two open channels.44. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. If friction is ignored.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides.23). such as flow-rate changes. therefore. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth.57). 21. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. change from subcritical to supercritical. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. if friction is ignored. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. the loss factor.

The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.000556(20)2 = 0.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. triangular weirs. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. For Fig. Click here to view. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.59. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. and parabolic weirs.222 ft.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In contrast. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. All rights reserved.57.5 = a(30)2.000556. such as rectangular weirs. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. 21.34. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. Fig. . such as broad-crested weirs. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21.58). and. trapezoidal weirs. 21. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. from which a = 0.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. triangular or Vnotch weirs. 21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.58 Sharp-crested weir. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. Fig.59 Weir not sharp-crested. the weir is submerged or drowned. y = ax2. trapezoidal weirs. 21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. the weir has free discharge. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as shown in Fig.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. If the discharge is partly under water. Inc. measured from A or B. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. 21.000556(10)2 = 0. 21.21.

58) (V.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.5H upstream from the weir. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. 2. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.5H. 21. All rights reserved. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.116) corrects for the effects of friction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. One such equation.60 V-notch weir. Hence. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. The height of weir P must be at least 2. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.115) where Q = discharge. At very low heads. thus causing a contraction of the flow. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Click here to view. .2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. New York).63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. below the crest. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. If P is less than Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. contraction of the nappe. Equation (21. ft The head should be measured at least 2.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. Chow. Inc. 21.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.34. T. To be fully ventilated. A V-notch weir (Fig.

ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. 21. ft. 69. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. His values were summarized by Brater.34.” 6th ed. 21. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. (21. Fig. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. New York).3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.118)] 21. T. 21.118) Fig. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. vol.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . there are two end contractions and N = 2.2) when low discharges are to be measured. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. Inc. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. ft H = head. Discharge is given by (21.34. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. 21.21. 1943). F. Click here to view. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. The effective length L. Lenz. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21.34.61) (E.. All rights reserved.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.5H upstream from the weir.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.119) where Q = discharge.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. there is one end contraction and N = 1. measured from notch bottom. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. 21.

32. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. using this rate and the required depths. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. velocity head. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. which may be done as follows: First. 21.115) is rewritten in the form (21.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. 25.Water Resources Engineering s 21.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. velocity head of approach. ft/s V /2g = Hν. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.121) where Q = discharge. From this total head. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. Villemonte. 2 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. The discharge Qs. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. or both. 866.34.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. ft3/s. neglecting the velocity head.” Engineering News-Record. p. (21. 21. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use.34. compute the velocity of approach.59). but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. All rights reserved. and then. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Inc. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge.122) where H = measured head.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. Typically. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. Thus. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. (J. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. Click here to view. ft V = velocity of approach. Then. and finally total head. Eq. using this discharge. 21.) Equation (21. Fig. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. ft3/s. (21. 21.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. for such weirs. R. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.) To use the Villemonte equation. heavily constructed devices. ft. Dec. Where great accuracy is essential.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. 1947.

Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. . “Design of Small Dams.02 0.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. ft (U. where approach velocities are high. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.2 of the head. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. For conditions of design head Table 21. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.10 H. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration.21. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. and the approach velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. the head in relation to the design head. Click here to view. (3) Broad-crested Table 21.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. Inc. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. For conditions of design head Hd. ft L′ = net crest lengths. 21. starting with the corrected discharge. For each change of nappe shape. F. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. DC 20402. The effect is most critical for low heads. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.5Hd > r* > 0. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. thickness of pier. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.20 0. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Washington. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding.S. Department of the Interior.123) where L = effective crest length. head in relation to design heads. But the process should be repeated. All rights reserved.12.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.34. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. Therefore. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. and approach velocity.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.13.” Government Printing Office.

Department of the Interior. 21. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. This relationship is shown in Fig. 1. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. 21. Consequently. however.65. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.66 of the head. at the point of maximum contraction.122).” Government Printing Office. Of the above rules. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. . Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. and therefore of an ogee crest.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. T. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 21. depends on the head producing the discharge.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. called the design head Hd. 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. (U. for a sharp-crested weir. (21.64) has such a shape. Inc. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.5H upstream. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. All rights reserved. According to Chow. where discharge is given by Eq. 2. Figure 21.34. The shape of this nappe. Chow. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. T. For flow at heads lower than the design head.67 Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. New York). “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. This manual and V. 21. DC 20402.S. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. Washington. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. “Design of Small Dams.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Chow.

Bureau of Reclamation. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. Fig. . (From “Design of Small Dams. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.” U.21. New York.66.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. the flow differs from ideal. 21.S. Figure 21.S. Bureau of Reclamation.) Fig.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.” U. Inc. All rights reserved. (From “Design of Small Dams.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. Click here to view.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.

(21.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics. therefore. (From “Design of Small Dams. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. (See. 21. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes.Water Resources Engineering s 21.68. if flow is at other than the design head. fairly common in waterworks projects. E. a plane horizontal crest.S. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.” U. “Handbook of Hydraulics.67 and 21. and sharp right-angled edges. the nappe springs free.. Values of the discharge coefficient. New York.) 21. Figure 21. are used as spillways and control structures. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.34. 21. Brater. Figure 21. (E. where the velocity of approach is not high.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.14. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.” 6th ed. for example. Unless otherwise noted. 21.69 Fig. has contraction of the nappe.34. All rights reserved. the coefficient of discharge.” 6th ed. is determined from Fig. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. Weirs of irregular section. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. appear in Table 21. 21. F.) Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Brater.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. Click here to view. compiled by King. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Bureau of Reclamation..69 Broad-crested weir.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. because of its sharp upstream edge. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Inc.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. New York. . F.

07 3.79 1.63 2.07 3.32 3. once formed.88 10. This incoming water.64 2.31 3.63 2.32 3. which are often of equal consequence.14 3.98 3.32 3.07 3.97 3.70 2.62 2.32 3.92 2.74 2.63 2.67 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.68 2.28 3.32 3.68 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.60 2.32 3.75 2.32 3.32 3. and turbines.68 2.70 2.58 2.92 3.32 3.32 3.6 1. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.63 21.32 Breadth of crest of weir.26 3.32 3.63 2.5 3. such as a reservoir.32 3.80 2.54 2.66 2.32 3.5 4.69 2.00 2.0 1.77 2.64 2.60 2.49 2.05 3.63 2. those forming the bed load.75 2.32 3.04 3.68 2.66 2.32 3.63 2.80 2.32 3.72 2.75 2.32 3.38 2.64 2.85 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.68 2.32 5.64 2.64 2. ft 0. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.00 2.89 3. ft 0.20 3.50 2.68 2.0 5.64 2. A density current.0 4. Inc.92 3.32 2.32 3.34 2.76 2.69 2.68 2.32 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.00 2.89 3. 21.20 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .32 3.74 2.07 3.32 3.72 2.0 3.32 3.70 2.32 3.07 3.66 2.70 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.79 2.32 3.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. All rights reserved. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.19 3.63 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.66 2.64 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.75 2.89 2.32 3.72 2.32 1.32 3.85 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.60 2.32 1. valves.64 2.4 0. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. or soil.65 2.65 2.73 2.64 2.63 2.66 2.67 2.68 2.5 5. those carried in suspension.5 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.61 2.54 2.32 3.32 3.0 2.32 3.08 3. The smaller silt sizes.70 2.50 2.32 3.32 3.32 3.65 2.4 1.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.2 1.00 2.65 2.63 2.75 2.50 2.32 3.65 2.64 2.64 15.35. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.76 2.68 2.32 4.67 2.28 3.88 2.81 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 3.21.69 2.64 2.31 3.67 2.68 2.68 2.8 1.8 2.6 0. Click here to view. erosion.00 2.29 3.86 2.32 3. with its load of suspended silt.08 3.64 2.88 3.65 2.20 3.68 2.63 2. Heavier silt sizes.61 2.60 2.56 2.65 2.64 2.64 2.32 3.67 2. such as gates.44 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.30 3.31 3.48 2.03 3.32 3.64 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.2 0.69 2.00 2.64 2.00 2.70 2.64 2.50 H.32 2.30 3.

39. 21. on the other hand. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. overtopping. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. because of variations in rainfall. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or failure of materials.35. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. When neither can be done. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. Inc. All rights reserved. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. are coarsegrained. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. These currents are stable. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. The most common manner of destruction. however. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. see Art. once formed. Of course. landslide. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. formed from the bed load. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. 21.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. However. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. or from year to year. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. By this method. the rate is not uniform during the year. . The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined.

an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. Therefore. which generally occurs only during a storm. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. Therefore. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. But for the most part. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes.0 ft/mi. discharge. A mean grain size of 0. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. which varies with both slope and discharge.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. (21. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment.1). Frequently.35.124) where Gb = total bed load. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. According to Witzig. Click here to view. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. gravel. 21. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. ft3/s b = width of river. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. ft qo = critical discharge. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles.21. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. This size range includes particles of coarse sand.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. . the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. however. and boulders. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. Inc. All rights reserved. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. Therefore. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations.

and distribution. (21-124). if the dam is raised at a later date. and pressure. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. infiltrates into the soil. infiltration.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. or digital microchip technology. Current data. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period.S. Click here to view. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. on or near the land surface. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. It continually records. day. by ink pen and revolving drum. rivers. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Einstein. such as an hour. groundwater flow. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. check-dam construction. Weather Bureau. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. runoff. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. . the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. their occurrence. and stream flow 21. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. including their relation to living things. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. such as wind. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. H. evaporation. and their reaction with their environment. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. from which evaporation restarts the cycle.S. (See H. Weather Bureau is 24 h. in the form of synoptic weather charts. or a combination of the two. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. contour plowing. are published daily by the U. New York.) culation. Inc. circulation. planting of burned-over areas. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. which are of two types. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. and the stream velocity. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. (W. A. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens.S. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. their chemical and physical properties. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. water evaporation from oceans. Such screens.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. discharges into streams. temperature. Graf. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations.73 dation. Use of vegetation screens.” U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For instance.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. recharges groundwater. In this cycle.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Department of Agriculture. The second type is a nonrecording gage. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. or year.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. lakes. debris barriers.

The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. in of mercury. called interception.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Evapotranspiration is important because. In transpiration. branches. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. on a long-term basis. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. (21. plant. and other vegetation surfaces. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. see D. Evaporation may occur from free-water. and plantleaf surfaces. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. ground. and it increases as wind velocity increases.125)]. “Handbook of Hydrology. (21. Of the three. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Maidment. commonly termed consumptive use. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Click here to view. All rights reserved. tropical and subtropical regions. A portion may evaporate as it falls. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. The Meyer equation [Eq. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. Not all rain reaches the ground. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. On an annual basis. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. R. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. In evaporation. . water changes from liquid to gaseous form.125) (21. in of mercury. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. developed from Dalton’s law. This phenomenon. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. New York.. or ground surfaces.21. equal to 15 for small. has a relatively large surface area. while another portion may be caught on leaves.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. shallow pools and 11 for large. Inc.126) where E = evaporation rate. Evapotranspiration.

” McGraw-Hill. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. runoff may be surface. where it continues as channel or stream flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. “Handbook of Hydrology.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. or cetyl alcohol. All rights reserved. or groundwater flow. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. wind tends to push the film to the shore. depending on the geographical region. birds. Groundwater flow. subsurface runoff. subsurface. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. tropical. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. effective rain includes subsurface flow. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. aquatic life. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. After joining stream flow. subsurface storm flow. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. insects. called a Class A Level Pan. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. natural or manmade. and storm seepage. Inc. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Thus. 21. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. except in arid. In practice. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Classified by the path taken to a channel. dew). frost. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers.70. to reach a channel. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Subsurface flow. Precipitation—form (rain. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. It appears in surface channels. Maidment. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. It is positioned 6 in above the ground.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir.. snow. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow.60 and 0. Click here to view. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. hail. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. On large reservoirs. although it may vary between 0. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. or excess rain. perhaps several years. R. Climatic characteristics a. also known as interflow. and biologic attrition. intensity. New York. time distribution. Hexadeconal. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. or groundwater runoff. . it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. duration. Moving laterally. Commonly. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. (D.80. is in widespread use.

S. shape of cross section. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. orientation. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. mean flow. lakes and other bodies of water. frozen ground during storms. Solar radiation 2. and the accuracy desired. 21. 21. slope. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. soil moisture. Temperature—variation. elevation. direction of storm movement b. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. 21. the detail required in the final answer. and various state and local agencies. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. extremes of flow. Weather Bureau. TVA. Agricultural Research Service.” U. general location. extremes during precipitation c. recurrence interval. and Weather Bureau. as shown in Fig. both published and unpublished. Atmospheric pressure f. Geological Survey. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. permeability.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. special-interest items. International Boundary Commission. Geologic—soil type. Click here to view. areal distribution. Wind—velocity. drainage net. land use and cover. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. channels (size.S. and completeness of the hydrologic records. Inc. Geological Survey. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. length) b. stratification Fig. artificial drainage. roughness. Humidity e.S. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. which may be either precipitation or stream flow.S. slope.S. snow storage. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. . shape. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. duration d. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Geological Survey. direction. Drainage-basin characteristics a. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.70. 21.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. the U. detail. yearly flow volume. These papers contain records of daily flow. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. the quantity and type of data available.21. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. All rights reserved. Topographic—size. groundwater formations. antecedent precipitation. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.

All rights reserved. in/h A = drainage area. deep culverts under vital highways and railways.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.41. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. 1962). The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Chow. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. 3. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. and large downstream damage potential. 4. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. 2. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. others give the complete hydrograph. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. The values of C in Table 21. T. for example. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.or 100-year-frequency storm. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.128) 21. . As an example. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Click here to view. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21.127) where Q = peak discharge. 5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Inc. a 50. the second to major hydraulic structures. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. great importance. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost.

89)] . calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. (21.80 – 0.20 0.35 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . (21.21.20 – 0.85 0. detached Multiunits. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. streets. or any equivalent method.10 – 0.128) or Eq. K.18 – 0. 2% Sandy soil. 21.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.75 – 0.15 – 0.60 – 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. (See D.10 – 0. min time of concentration Fig.16). steep. n.129). All rights reserved.40 – 0. factor. steep. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. in/h respectively.41.80 0.22 0.50 – 0. and the flow time in conduits. b.70 – 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. 21.95 0.60 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil..85 0. Inc.71 and Table 21.05 – 0.25 – 0. the flow time in streets. flat. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. ditches. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. Equation (21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. 2% Heavy soil.90 0.10 – 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.95 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.20 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.30 – 0.70 – 0. Maidment.15 0. is a convenient.75 – 0. coefficient.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.25 0.13 – 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. Inc.30 0. 7% Heavy soil. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. avg. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. years duration of storm.129) Table 21.) The flow time in gutters.75 0. New York.17 0. gutters. Click here to view.40 0. (21. Sherman. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. After determining the time of concentration. “Handbook of Hydrology.40 0. avg.127). The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.70 0. or ditches.” McGraw-Hill. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.25 – 0.70 0.95 0.50 0. (21. flat.10 0.95 0.50 – 0. R. 21.60 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.50 – 0.70 – 0.

termed a unit period. 4. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. If the watershed is very large. and more accurate than any such set of factors. 2. the time of storm runoff. This requires that a storm of short duration. JanuaryJune 1932. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. .130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. that is. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 108. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. Thus. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. pp. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. (Leroy K. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. Sherman. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. 3. Click here to view. All rights reserved. termed a unit storm. Inc. subdivision may be required. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made.” Engineering News-Record. 501-505. usually 1 acre). easier. The unit hydrograph is much quicker.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.79 Table 21. The method is summarized by the formula (21.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. because of storm variations.73). Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. All rights reserved. 5. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. . It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Inc. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. For ease of manipulation. 21. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. which is of fixed intensity and duration. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. Then. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72. Usually. Illustrated in Fig. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 21.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm.21. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Click here to view.

73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.. “Handbook of Hydrology.. Inc. 447–454).” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. perpendicular to direction of flow. pp. This loss. Maidment.) Fig. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. I. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. . “Hydrology for Engineers. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. during heavy storms.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity..74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. K. Fig.81 21.” 3rd ed. All rights reserved. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. (See D. 21. Linsley et al. pt. vol. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. Inc. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. This method was developed by Franklin F.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. R. 21. New York.131) period. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. 21. (R. McGraw-Hill. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. Also. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. New York. Click here to view.74). Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Inc.) where Q = flow rate. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. 19. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.

Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. source. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer.21. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. water softening costs. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. present and future water demands should be determined. Click here to view. These costs include increased soap costs. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. . These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). safe yield. quantity. Regardless of how it is defined. quantity. poor-quality replenishment waters. cost of replenishment water. and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. and indirect water-quality use costs. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. and methods of wastewater disposal. usually a number of years. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. is a confined or artesian aquifer. Deteriorating water quality. groundwater levels.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. because of impermeable layers above and below it. among others. and location of artificial replenishment.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. or other causes. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. recycling. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. wastewaters. rather than a change in volume. need for excessive pumping lifts. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. Inc. and overdraft. (A base period is a period of time. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Following the preceding preliminary work. Frequently. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. alternative management plans should be formulated. quality.

1987. (“Ground Water Management. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. Water-supply facilities consist of collection.” A. 40. and public. S. irrigation. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan.” R. industrial. storage. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. J. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. and environmental factors. “Groundwater Engineering. is a very difficult task. land speculation. transmission. “Water Resources Planning. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. and sanitary purposes. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. commercial. bathing. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. decreasing percentage increase. Kashef. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. sanitary. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. water used. Bear. The smaller the system. such as industrial development. wastewater disposed. and natural and artificial replenishment.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. Grigg. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. financially feasible. Hydrology for Engineers. . and hotels for drinking. fire-fighting. and age of the city. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. American Society of Civil Engineers. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. K. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. surface-water delivery facilities. graphical comparison with other cities. pumping. Therefore.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies.” N. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Inc. motels. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. Estimation of future population. washing. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. Linsley et al.. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. amount and location of groundwater extractions.. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. however. culinary. legal. 21. no. apartments. New York. I. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flood.” 3rd ed. and treatment works. institutional. fire. geographical boundaries. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. percentage increase. industrial. distribution. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. or other unforeseen emergency. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented.

Normally. degree of industrialization. Inc. Public use of water for parks.17. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community.S. the demand for it decreases. and quality of the water. and cleaning. . lawn sprinkling. cost. and year. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. such as the climate.” 1979. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Public Health Service Report. and unauthorized uses. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. influence the demand rate for water. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. The “California Water Atlas. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. public buildings. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. presents Table 21. Table 21. if the cost of water increases. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. The national demand-rate data. quality. and time of day. Click here to view. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. and faucets. janitorial. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. valves. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. but because of the high rate at which it is required. it may control the design of the facilities. Demand rates vary with time of day. month. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. pressure. reservoir evaporation. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. air conditioning. cost. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. and air conditioning purposes. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use.21. standard of living. meter malfunctions.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Mo.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. degree of industrialization. and pressure. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. cooling. size of the city. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Calif. as presented in Table 21. are the average of a range of values. type of service (metered or unmetered). mainly because of the lack of large industries.

000 5. industrialization.000 4. In the atlas. In some local areas.000 60. gal/min P = population.000 40.6 11.4 3.000 40.000 1.000 6.000 40.000 40. valley cities.000 55. however. climate.000 40.18 Required Fire Flow. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 4.6 1. such as lakes. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 10.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 125.000 17.000 40. Click here to view.000 100. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 8.0 7.4 17.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. All rights reserved.000 120. but the demand rate is high.000 12. Cost. Hydrant Spacing.3 5. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 3. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The source must Table 21. diversification is essential for reliability.000 90. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. however.3 Duration. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 1.000 85.000 85. inland. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 70. to a large extent.18.5 14.0 1. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. MG = million gallons.000 40.6 4.000 28.000 90.3 0. MG† 0.500 2. and streams. † MGD = million gallons per day. and politics.4 2. interdependent. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 * American Insurance Association. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 80. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. rivers.000 200. 21. cost.8 2.9 4.000 10. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. Moreover.2 2. is frequently undesirable.0 3. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 110. quality. and in some cases.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.8 6. In selection of a source of supply. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Total dependence on a single source.8 7.000 80. the effect of warm. legality.000 48. .000 2. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.132) where G = fire-demand rate.2 8.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In the past.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.5 – 8. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.21. and Water Pollution Control Federation. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Inc. alkalinity.” American Public Health Association.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.22. dependent on local conditions. (See also Art.) At the discretion of the state. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. Click here to view. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. American Water Works Association. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. calcium hardness. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In addition. 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.21.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.S.” U. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.5 mg / L 0.S.3 mg / L 0. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. All rights reserved. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. total dissolved solids. temperature. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Source Protection s The U. . When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. such as sulfates and chlorides. The measurements should include pH. and calculation of the Langelier index. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.

the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. .134) where CD is the drag coefficient. 21. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. velocity is constant. calculated with ν = νs.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. to be used in Eq. coagulation-sedimentation. mm If R > 2000. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.001 and 5. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.0.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. For this ideal basin. disinfection. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Inc. (21. 21. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Reynolds numbers. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. B.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. temperature and viscosity of the water. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Figure 21. Ann Arbor. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. All rights reserved. and softening (see also Art. Newton’s law applies: (21. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.134). Mich. Pojasek.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. 21.51). can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. 21.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. (See R. unpleasant tastes and odors. and size and shape of the settling basin. and width B. (Usually. shape. Click here to view. V the flowthrough velocity. such as those mentioned above.0 < R < 2000. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. In the region where 1. Figure 21. particulate and colored matter. is equal to or less than 1.46. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. slow and rapid sand filtration. however. Inc. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. depth ho .

) Fig. vol. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.21. 21. Inc. (Observed curves. All rights reserved. 103. p. at 10 °C. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. after Camp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 1946. 21.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 897.

77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. for example.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. Fair. Inc. 1.” McGraw-Hill.78a) or circular (Fig. A.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.8c. short circuiting. rectangular (Fig. salt. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye.5 ft/min (most common velocity.. 21. Inc.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . Inc. Click here to view. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. and D. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.46. . The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. G. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Okun. All rights reserved. coagulants are added to the water. or other indicator to pass through the basin.” John Wiley & Sons. are removed in this basin. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. New York. J. Geyer. 21. Multistory tanks. finely Fig.78b). The tubular settler (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. M. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and eddy currents. 27. Without coagulants. C. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. New York. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. “Water Treatment Plant Design.) 21.

78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (b) Circular clarifier.21. .

Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. color. such as pH. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. American Water Works Association. Inc.) 21. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Corbitt. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. in some instances. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. and hardness. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. however. “New Concepts in Water Purification. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc.” R. polymers have a minor effect on pH. however. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. McGhee. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also. color. and easier dewatering. Thereby. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Inc. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. “Water Supply and Sewerage. such as physical straining. All rights reserved. or positively charged. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. however. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. and nonionic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. and air jets. They are available in three types: cationic. The filtering process has many components. considering both cost and performance. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. such as mechanical stirrers. (G.. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. consequently. L.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. J. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 18H2O]. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and suspended solids. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Anionic polymers. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. organic polyelectrolytes. highmolecular-weight. Polymers are long-chain. . Click here to view. or neutral in charge. temperature. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. settling. Culp and R. plankton. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Culp. chemical and biological reactions. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. anionic. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing.to 60min range. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter.” McGraw-Hill. such as paper fiber. New York. coliform organisms. centrifugal pumps. “Water Quality and Treatment. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). or negatively charged. T. L. New York. turbidity. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. A.” 4th ed.

21. of the sand. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection.25. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters.79. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. 21. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. . agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Inc. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.21. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. in millimeters.to 12-in layer of gravel. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. that will pass 10%. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.to 0. depending on the turbidity. All rights reserved.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.or mixed-media filtration. and dual. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.35-mm range. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Usually. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. by weight. The wash- Fig. Click here to view. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. through the sand and gravel layers. The process requires rapid mixing.

25 to 1. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. such as rakes. Immediately after washing. may be more advantageous. gal/min b = width of trough. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. or deep coarse-media filters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. filters pass water at a high rate. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.002:1 to 0. . The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.005:1 range.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. and air jets. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.35 to 0. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. however. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. which is drained to waste.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. All rights reserved. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. diatomaceous earth. Click here to view. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. The filtering medium may be sand. or anthracite coal. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. mixed-media.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. creating a high head loss across the filter. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. which produces an undertreated effluent. Dual-media. bed cracking. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. water sprays. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.20 to 1.

J. carbonates. sulfates. gas. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. “Water Quality and Treatment.1 mg/L. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. L. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. All rights reserved. C. Regeneration requires between 0. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. perforated. Culp.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment.) (21. “New Concepts in Water Purification. lime (CaO). and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. and American Society of Civil Engineers. L.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. A. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. or open-joint pipes.139) 21.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).) 21. New York. Okun. New York. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. These materials remove cations. M. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water Quality and Treatment.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates..” 6th ed. and D. Some. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.3 and 0. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. such as calcium and magnesium. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Culp and R.” 4th ed. in clear wells.” John Wiley & Sons. and R is the zeolite material.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. where 1 gpg = 17. McGhee.138) (21. American Water Works Association. and (3) total hardness. . “Water Supply and Sewerage. respectively.. Click here to view. G. “Water Treatment Plant Design. New York. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. (American Water Works Association. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. Inc. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. Geyer.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Inc..21. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. In the lime-soda process. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. J. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.” 4th ed. New York. however.136) (21.” and T. Fair. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (G.

Inc. . New York. anion exchange. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Geyer. iron. ozone. J. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. ultraviolet light. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. odor. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. J.” McGraw-Hill. taste. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. C. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. 21. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water.) respect to carbonates. A. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide.. manganese. then. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive.99 water supplies. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. chlorine dioxide. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) 21. New York.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. bromine. All rights reserved. cation exchange.. water supply.” John Wiley & Sons.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Filter both solutions. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. flood control. reverse osmosis.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. and D.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. and lime. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Chlorine residuals of 0. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water Supply and Sewerage. irrigation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. excessive fluorides. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. Other disinfectants are iodine. M. activated carbon. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. McGhee. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. (G. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples.) 21.. Inc. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. Fair. and electrodialysis. New York.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. Okun. Click here to view. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.” and T.1 or 0.” McGraw-Hill. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply.45). detergents. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. lime softening. despite its low solubility. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes.

water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. Aeri- Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Also. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.21. maximum flows will govern. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.80. minimum flows will be critical. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. as is the case for many water-supply projects. 21. Once a reservoir site has been selected. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. 21. areavolume curves (Fig.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. . 21. Inc. The mass diagram (Fig. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. All rights reserved.1). For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Click here to view. When the demand rate is known. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The plot of volume vs. 21. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.

Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. 21. 21. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. If possible. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate.52. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. . Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. When the demand drops off. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. During hours of maximum demand. San Francisco. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods.2). water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required.52.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. Click here to view. pumping plants.101 Fig. Major sources of supply for some cities. odor. In deep reservoirs. such as New York. give special attention to water quality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. When the tem- 21. the flow refills the reservoir. is called the thermocline. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. All rights reserved. are large distances from the city. Inc.35 and 21. perature drops in the fall. which may be only a few feet thick. but there is no circulation across this zone. and Los Angeles. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.

52. For the correct hydraulic grade.83). 3.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. . “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. Brune. Brune. Click here to view. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. M. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.82) (G.84). 21. 21. 34. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. no. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. June 1953). 21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. 21. 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. vol. For any given storage reservoir. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. All rights reserved.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.35. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. M. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Inc.21. A flowing artesian Fig. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. 21. 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. Click here to view. 21. Inc. 21.103 Fig. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill. ft (Fig.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. or hydraulic rotary methods. The pump. 5. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 33.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. bored. V. Inc. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. 21.143) 21. T. motor. 21. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Jacob.” 6th ed.53.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). All rights reserved. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. and motor. 21. no. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. hollow-core. J. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. Fair. ditch. and D. McGhee. from an artesian well is given by (21. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Geyer.83).53. “Water Supply and Sewerage.142) where Q = flow. screen. waterjet.53.21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. ft h = H minus drawdown.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.57). 21. eductor or riser pipe. Inc. 21.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. E. p.” Economic Geology. Theis. Click here to view. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. C.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. 629. New York.. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. C.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. J. 1940.. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. pump (Art. ft d = diameter of well. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. ft The steady flow. 889.” John Wiley & Sons. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. (G. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. p. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. gal/day. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. or driven. Okun.84). Hence. December 1938. . 21.. Inc. vol. New York. 72. (C. A. vol. M.53.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

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21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).




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Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

an anode and a cathode. Copper. Since steel is stronger than iron. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures.) At the anode. If it is cement-lined. pumps.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. lead.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. are present. In unlined pipes. riveting. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. 21. and other appurtenances. bacteria in water. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. (21. steel. but wood is rarely used in new installations.54. hydrants. Click here to view. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. valves. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. A machine that produces a monolithic. brass. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. polybutylene.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. sand. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. polyethylene. contact between acids and metals. such as polyvinyl chloride. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. concrete. ft 21. or Dresser-type couplings. All rights reserved. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and meters destroyed by corrosion. and plastics. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. tanks. plastic. zinc. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. sealed flanges. impurities and strains in metals. however. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. Under favorable conditions. valves. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. and ability to withstand external loads. .146) where D = pipe diameter. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally.21. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. rubber. Inc. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and sulfur compounds. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. bronze. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. stray electric currents.

Aluminum. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. the faster electrons can move through the water. All rights reserved. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. 21. Inc. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. At the cathode. to prevent corrosion. 21. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. and treatment of the water. water may be treated with bases. and Fig. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. and the more ions. and chromium are examples of this type of metal.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. When selecting materials. the corrosion process continues (Fig. . such as soda ash. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. cracks. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. caustic soda. where e is an electron. zinc. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. for example. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Strains.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Also. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe.86). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Click here to view. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. use of protective coatings. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe.

All rights reserved. the most common waterworks pump.. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. hydroxides. efficiency. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Water enters at the center. or impeller. graphite.88). and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. New York. 21. psia. oxides.” 4th ed. Zinc. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. or eye. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. z is negative. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. The centrifugal pump. psia.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.) w = unit weight of liquid. “Water Quality and Treatment. 21. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. ft. To prevent cavitation. 21. accomplishes that in two steps. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.21.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. magnesium. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. and the head-discharge relationship. horsepower. Corrosion. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. (American Water Works Association. called a volute (Fig. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. by (21. in feet.147) where pa = pressure. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. Inc. between pump center line and water surface Fig.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force.87). . lime. however. To have practical meaning. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. and so on on the walls of the pipes. ft of water z = elevation difference.

the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Click here to view. discharge curve with the brake horsepower.. and air lift. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.58. 21. (Also included in Fig. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. as shown in Fig.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.111 than the required NPSH. Fig. head. Karassik et al. “Pump Handbook. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump.57 and check valves in Art.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. 21. . jet. propeller. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. 21.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. For that reason. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. helical. rotary. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.89. depending on the number of stages. J. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. (I. below 200 gal/min. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Inc. In a typical water-system analysis.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. See also Art. 21. 21. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. All rights reserved. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. pump discharge. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.” 2nd ed. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. reciprocating.

and for Ns above 7500. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. vanes. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. either hand. gal/min H = head. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. All rights reserved. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Reciprocating pumps. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. so that the entire lift is suction.21. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. (21.148) where n = impeller speed. utilize piston action to move water. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Jet pumps (Fig. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type.90 fied).or motordriven. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. At sea level. 21. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Because of the close tolerances. . The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. r/min Q = discharge. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. they can be used only for sediment-free water. cams. which are located at the well bottom. which is a function of specific speed. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Inc. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. 21. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head.

or corporation cocks. pumps. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. rubber. tubercle formation. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. needle. primarily because of their low cost. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. globe.) drives to permit manual operation. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. fast operation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump.or oil-lubricated. rotates the disk. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat.113 tion. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. New York. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. three valves must be used. But these valves cost more than gate. one just upstream of the meter. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. All rights reserved. air-relief. J. large pressure differences. Plug. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. and butterfly valves. Hand or motor power. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages.. and easy. Check. or Neoprene. pressure-relief. The major types of isolating valves are gate. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. cone. and low head loss when fully open. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. respectively. Inc. If sand is carried out with the water. (I. Low head loss. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. and butterfly. Karassik et al. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Simplicity of construction and quick. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. “Pump Handbook. or it may be at the bottom of the well. which are water. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. plug. Usually. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. curb. in-service lubrication features. globe. applied through a gear-reduction device.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Also. solids deposition. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. one at the service connection. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. pressure-regulating. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 2nd ed. availability. sluice gate. Corrosion. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations.. Click here to view. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves.

Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. When the valve is in a closed position.21. and relief valves. and large pipes. rivers. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Often. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. The most common check valve is the swing type. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Furthermore. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. or California type. The wetbarrel. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Inc. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Usually. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Interior-differential. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. tube. check. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. . A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. For example. such as trunk lines 21.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Click here to view. 21. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Many automatic control valves. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. All rights reserved. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Because of high head losses. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. which connects the barrel to the main. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms.

115 of distribution systems. ft d2 = diameter of throat.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. and cost. called a Price meter. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.” 6th ed. The cup-type meter. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or nutating-disk types. respectively. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. durability. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. A clicking noise. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Brater. or modifications thereof. see E. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. are the most common velocity-type devices. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. New York. However.91. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. ft h1 = pressure in main section. for metering domestic-service connections. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions.149) Hydraulics. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. but they are used primarily in laboratories. F. almost to the exclusion of the two other types.) As in venturi meters.150) where Q = flow rate. McGraw-Hill Book Company. . its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. All rights reserved. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. such as meters for individual customer connections. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. rotary. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. amount of head loss through the meter. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. nozzle. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. vertical velocity components. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.. Inc. The nutating disk is used. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. 21.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Click here to view. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. simplicity and ease of repairs. which do not affect propeller meters. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. The standard venturi meter (Fig. 21.

and development of the system. Click here to view. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. or to some other recognized system. load factors. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. if any.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. fire use. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. utility-type enterprises.21. . Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. flat rate is falling into disuse. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. (c) Orifice- 21. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.91 plate meter. and block rate. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. seasonal use. 21. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. step rate. peak rates of use. All rights reserved. and similar items. fixed charges on capital investment. (b) Nozzle meter. Inc.

is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. tunnels.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. of serving an individual customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. including metering and billing.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. Cost component 3. where the majority of small users are. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. where applicable.117 With step rate. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. When fixing a system of rates. All rights reserved. Cost component 1. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. canals. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. draft tube. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. Click here to view. and transformers.746 kW 1 kW = 1. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. depends on the peak usage of a customer. a building to house the machinery and equipment.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. turbines and governors. . called the demand component. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. This charge is usually small. It is generally recognized that residential areas. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. treatment chemicals. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. Cost component 2. generators and exciters. buying water from a wholesale supplier. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. called the commodity component. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. For most distribution systems. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. penstocks.Water Resources Engineering s 21. switching equipment. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. and. and (3) cost. S. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. called the customer component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. pumping energy. 21. tunnel. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component.

during periods of peak power demand (Fig. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Then. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. weekly. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. or yearly basis. such as navigation. On a weekly cycle.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. If the minimum flow is very low. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. Therefore. . run-of-river plants with storage. It can be computed on a daily. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. base-load plants. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. 21.92). only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. All rights reserved. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. or seasonal cycle. On a daily cycle. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available.21. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Storage can be provided for a daily. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. to be used at some future time. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. and peak-load plants. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. power production being only incidental. weekly. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. On a seasonal cycle. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Click here to view.

This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) 21. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Click here to view. The main classifications are gravity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc. (Department of Water and Power. All rights reserved. buttress. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. J. Its distribution is triangular. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. (V. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit.92). But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. McGraw-Hill Book Company.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Figure 21. Los Angeles. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. . New York. Hasen.92 Daily load curves for generating plants..) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. and rock-fill. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.” 4th ed. Force F2 represents silt pressure. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. 21. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. earth. arch. Calif. When needed. Zipparo and H. it usually is not as economical.119 Fig.

) (21. . (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Rose. presented by Edwin Rose. 21. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. which create forces on any object resting on it.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. In cold climates. was developed by von Karman. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.153) where w = unit weight of water. p. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. A close approximation of the force. (E. given by Eq. Inc. A method of calculating these forces.000 psf. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. All rights reserved. ice.425h above the base. May 1946. today it is realized these values are much too high. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. These accelerations occur in every direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. 98.” discussion by von Karman. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.93 by forces F4 and F5. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1933. 21.153). Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. In the past. vol. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. ice pressures as high as 50.1 g. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. however.21. (21.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. which forms on the reservoir surface. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. 434.

In the past. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. engineers assumed that. They are not suited to most sites. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. however. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. such as sand and gravel. overturning by rotating about the toe. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Hence. or failure of the foundation material. Inc. However. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The modes of failure are also the same. uplift is not so important. and clay. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. but its formwork is more expensive. Recent belief. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. In the multiple-arch. however. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. their relative importance is much different. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. however. silt. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. rock flour. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. and uplift forces are smaller. If a large quantity of pervious material. but the structural design is much more critical. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. sand. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. When the base is not drained. is available and clayey materials must be imported. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. because of bearing contact. On arch dams. Click here to view. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. If the deflections are not equal. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. . The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. First.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations.

The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The facing is usually concrete. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. J. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. and an upstream impervious facing. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available.) 21. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. or wood over concrete. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Temporary facings are usually of wood. . McGraw-Hill Book Company. however. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. S. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. therefore. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. sometimes from as high as 175 ft.3 on 1. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Bureau of Relamation. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Today. For dams over 200 ft high.21. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. bonding into the dumped rock. For some types of soil. U. New York. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. the natural angle of repose of rock. If pervious material is not available. Zipparo and H. bearing on the rubble cushion. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. All rights reserved. Hasen. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. providing power. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. Army Corps of Engineers. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.94). The cutoff wall is usually concrete.” EM 1110-2-2300. Inc. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.” 4th ed..122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. S. although steel has been used occasionally. onto the fill. Click here to view. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Leakage should be expected. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. (V.” U. The downstream face is usually 1. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.3 on 1. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage.

. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. 21.94 turbine. Zipparo and H. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. runner. Click here to view. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. New York. however. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.95a). . But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. runner.123 bine. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. McGraw-Hill Book Company.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their efficiency decreases rapidly.) Fig. As the water flows through the tur- 21. At heads above 1000 ft. Inc. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. however. J. if the load drops below 50%. and draft tube. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. 21. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. the propeller-type (Fig. 21. All rights reserved. (V. 21.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. The wicket gates. At heads below 100 ft. it changes direction. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. wicket gates. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. The propeller turbine (Fig. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. In such installations. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. When the power demand on the turbine changes. 21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. However. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case.” 4th ed.95c). In these.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. wicket gates. such as the Kaplan turbine. This creates a force on the runner. and draft tube. Hasen. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. and the fixed-blade type. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. widely used for concrete dams because. All rights reserved. 21. Inc. if designed correctly. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. the dam will not be damaged by the water. . it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. Click here to view. 21.65.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.21. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. This type of spillway is Fig. (b) Kaplan. (c) axial flow.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

A siphon spillway (Fig. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice.96 Siphon spillway. In a chute spillway. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. All rights reserved. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Washington. Once this second condition is reached. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. flared. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. 21. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. or ogee in cross section. DC 20402). The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Inc. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art.” Government Printing Office. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. . In a side-channel spillway. As the head increases. The weir can be sharp-crested. called an ogee spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. model tests are usually employed. 21. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows.S. siphon spillways hold the water Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. lined. 21.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. When the head is relatively low. In a shaft spillway. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. The air vent shown in Fig. This type of spillway. Click here to view. open channel. 21. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. Thus. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section.34). both depending on the head on the weir.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. Bureau of Reclamation. “Design of Small Dams. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit.

Fig. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.98 Bear-trap gate. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. All rights reserved. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. In a taintor gate (Fig.5 ft/s.97 Taintor gate. 21. the pipes fail. . Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Inc. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.65. Click here to view. level of a reservoir within close limits. 21. On large stop-log installations. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. and providing support for the conduit. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter.21.65. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. controlling flow. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. In contrast. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. To do this. 21. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. making removal difficult. 21.97). causing damage and hampering operation. 21.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir.

98. Zipparo and H. . “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use.” 4th ed. “Water Supply Engineering. and J. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. and H.) Fig. drum gates are not suited to small dams. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. Hasen. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (V. 21. All rights reserved. J. 21. J. Inc. E. The drum gate (Fig.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.. Click here to view. Doland. Babbitt. 21. L.99 Drum gate. New York. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of the large recess required in the dam. To raise a bear-trap gate. J.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Cleasby.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Inc.blank page 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

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