M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
1) where h = capillary rise. as shown in Fig. ft Capillarity. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Gage pressure.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pitting. ft σ = surface tension. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.7 psi. 21.7 psia. as shown in Fig. although negligible in many water engineering problems.21. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. however. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. Thus. respectively. and freezing damage to concrete. Its value
Fig. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces.1. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Meniscus. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Surface tension and capillarity. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. All rights reserved.
. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. 21. Absolute pressure.000 ft is shown in Fig. psi. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. is concave upward. Its temperature variation. 21. formation of spray from water jets.
face and rises in a small tube. In equation form. psia. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at sea level. (21. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Click here to view. is small and insignificant in most problems. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. portions of the liquid vaporize. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. or liquid surface. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. are significant in others. abrupt pressure increases force them
Fig.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level.2. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. like surface tension.3. is pressure above or below atmospheric.4 s Section Twenty-One
at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Inc. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. When the liquid is in a closed container. decreases with increasing temperature. 21. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. 21.
Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. and the force due to pressure p2. lb/ft2
21. and pitting appears. Click here to view. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.
to collapse. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. At any depth. Since the prism is at rest. It is so named because its units. Viscosity.00001059 ft2/s.3
Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. or dynamic viscosity. and cross-sectional area A. psf. on the top surface. Inc. the pressure acts equally in all directions.3 Fluid Pressures
Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. is a measure of its resistance to flow. on the bottom surface. transitional. ft/s y = depth. psf. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h.Water Resources Engineering s 21. of length and time.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Then. or implode. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. the force due to pressure p1. In hydraulics. 21. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. also called the coefficient of viscosity.5
Fig. 21. which extend into the pores of the metal. or completely turbulent flow exists. µ of a fluid. (Pressures as high as 350. ft2/s. ft2. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0.
. All rights reserved.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. ft. lb/ft3. 21.2) where τ = shearing stress.8) to determine whether laminar. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields
V = velocity. absolute viscosity. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. are a combination of the kinematic units
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies.
3a) by A yields (21. ft.4) Equation (21. ft2. Click here to view. (21. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. The resultant pressure force P. the depth of the centroid. dams. (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. at depth h.
(21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. ft.
. and other water control structures. the pressure.3b) then becomes (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. where w is the specific weight of water.4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. Figure 21. lb/ft3.6) – ∫ydA = y A. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.4). Equation (21. All rights reserved. 21.21. Thus.4
Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. (21. lb. p1 is atmospheric pressure. then p2 is p. the depth below the water surface. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. and y sin θ = h . the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. (21. tanks. (21.5)
21. Inc.6) can be simplified by setting
– – surface.3a) Division of Eq. 21.1
Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces
This is important in the design of weirs.6 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. Taking ∆h to be h. Therefore. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. psf.7)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3. however. For horizontal surfaces.
where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. – From Eq. 21. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.g.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. psf. 21. The location of the center of pressure. 21. All rights reserved. The denominator of Eq. of the surface about its centroidal axis. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.p. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Otherwise. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.29).6 (see also Fig. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. (21. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . the total force P = whA.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. ft.7
. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.7). Inc. Hence y . is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. where K is the radius of gyration. represented by the length yp.7). with
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Click here to view. (21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.).g. Thus. if that locus is a straight line.5).2° to the horizontal (Fig. (21. Pyp = ∫y dP. 21. Example 21.
Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.p.8) equals –A.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. 6. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.8).) but acts at a point (c.) that is below the c. (21. 21.
K2 = point G.7
Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.8. however. Also.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 + 2.42 ft. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. P = 62. From Eq. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.6
Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. yp = 5.0) = 5. (See Example 21.8 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. All rights reserved.) of common shapes.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.42 = 5.9). The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the
Thus. Inc.g. Therefore. 21.2
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces
The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged
.1.3. (21.5 + 1/ (5. 21. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.08.
21. Click here to view. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.0 + 0.0 ft.08/5 = 5.21. Note: 1. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.
so the weight of the water is 19. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.9). Its angle with the horizontal is known.2. (See Example 21. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. 21. Example 21. All rights reserved.6 ft3.6 × 62. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.4 × 2. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.5 × 5 = 780 lb.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. 21. 21.9
Fig. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. 2.4°. Inc.564. PH = whA = 62. (21. (b) Free-body diagram. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. Click here to view. When water is below the curved surface. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals
The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.
. – From Eq.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.14 × 25/4 = 19.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.6w = 19.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The corresponding angle is 57. and for a constant-radius surface. 21.
21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. 21. ft.
.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies
The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of
moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. 21.b. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.10a).21. Click here to view. Manometers indicate h. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10 s Section Twenty-One
21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.10b).10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. All rights reserved. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. whether floating or submerged.4). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. For a body to be in equilibrium.g. (21.. Inc. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. Given in feet by Eq. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. the pressure head.). (21. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently
Fig. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10
Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. ft4
V = volume of displaced liquid. 21. p = wh. 21.5 Manometers
A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. ft3 ys = distance. or the difference in head. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The stability of a ship. is indicated by the metacenter.
Basic types of manometers. U-tube manometer. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. (b) U-tube manometer. and differential manometer.4 lb/ft3. 21. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. (c) differential
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11): piezometer. although the latter is most common. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.11
accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.17 psi. Example 21. (a) Piezometers. What is hm?
Fig. However.11a is 2. 21.12c). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. Inc. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).11 manometer. All rights reserved. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. The piezometer (Fig.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21.
. Click here to view. 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. Inc.21. the Utube manometer (Fig. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. All rights reserved.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A movable scale.12c). 21.12 s Section Twenty-One
For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the
Fig. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.11b) is used. Click here to view.
. 21. In this application. 21. Very low pressures. including negative gage pressures. as opposed to a fixed scale.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. psf w = specific weight of fluid.12a. Equation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if the actual difference is 0. 21. 21. One factor.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
For fluid energy. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. Example 21.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid
21.75 + 13.
. Inc. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.13
indicating liquid. the actual pressure difference. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.6). The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. 21. 21.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. in the manometer.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. psf. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. such as ft of water or psi. however. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. Above 5. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. and the right side. as shown in Fig.40. such as might be required in laboratories. 32. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.25 ft.4 × 2. All rights reserved. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. that is.
The pressure at B. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. psf.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. hm1 is 9 in. is magnified by the differential manometer.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.0 and 2. and z is 1. Click here to view.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. The differential manometer (Fig. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.0 ft. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.6 × 62. For example.11) where Z1 = elevation. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. ft. the magnification will be 2. ft. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. or sump. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.4: A differential manometer (Fig. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.4 × 2. Most of them. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.25 ft of water. when expressed in feet of water. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. however.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.4 × 0. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.5.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the total energy per unit weight at 2. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. psf p2 = pressure at 2. hi is 2.
The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. where Q is the quantity of flow. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. V2/2g. ft/s = Q/A. As indicated in Fig. above some arbitrary datum. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. ft/s. where W is the weight. ft3/s.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where Va is the velocity. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. 21.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. when added to the downstream side of Eq.13).5.21. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. (21. It equals WVa2 / 2g.14. and pressure.14
Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. Average velocity. Usually. lb/ft3. or the total head ft: (21. 21. 21. varies with velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21. Kinetic energy at the section.14) pa/w is called pressure head. Click here to view. 21.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. velocity. velocity.4 ft3/s. All rights reserved.11). velocity head. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21.14 s Section Twenty-One
(21. The total energy. ft. (See Example 21. This term hf. ft2. lb. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.13. through friction. 21. a
Fig.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. Inc.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. and pressure (Fig. across the area of the section A.
Fig. ft.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. however.
of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Inc. sometimes called the total head line.15). or magnitude of flow. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.
Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which may result from a change in either velocity. All rights reserved. A change in momentum. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. hf = 50 – 1.15
Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. Art. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Hence. 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.55 = 48. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.12) yields
where hf is the friction loss. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. and any bends. gate valve. Z2 = 0. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Click here to view. The energy grade line. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. is equal to the impulse.45 ft.4/ 3. ft. respectively. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. since the pipe has free discharge.9). Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Also. 21. (21. while in pressure flow. 21.14 = 10 ft/s. p2 = 0.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. respectively.7. or impulse-momentum equation:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Thus substitution in Eq. direction. In openchannel flow.
Then.000 lb. P2 = ppA2 = 13.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. and at 2.000 sin 53.96 sin 53. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.2° + Ry = 1. Let R be the force. (21.4/ 32.16.2° – 13.12)] but may be used separately. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. Fx = 181.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. lb.16 s Section Twenty-One
(21.200 + Rx = 1.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. since ∆Vx = –(7.2° – 71.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.2= 1. Example 21.94 × 100 × 65. (See Example 21.000 cos 53.
Fig. With p1 known. Inc. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.15) first in the X direction. All rights reserved.11) or (21.5) = 65.700/82. Click here to view.500 lb. apply Eq.6.96 cos 53. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. 21. so θ = 60. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.78.2° – 0) = 4.78 Ry = 145.94 × 100 × 4.
. which is to be determined). It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.21.5 ft/s. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.200 lb.94. since ∆Vy = –(–7. then in the Y direction. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.600 lb In the Y direction.5°.1 and the density ρ = 62. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. To find F. 21. Fy = –181.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.600.332π = 71.1 Rx = –82.
In the preceding example. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize.
21. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. and through execution of the computer program. alternative management schemes. In this way. gravity. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis
requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. 1. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. In most models. Inc. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. and surface tension. It is. See also Art. Popular before the advent of digital computers. momentum. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. With hybrid models. or proposed works. A fourth mode of modeling. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. For instance.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In water resources engineering. hybrid modeling. viscosity. droughts. however. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. complex three-dimensional flow patterns.7. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model.7. such as a river. aquifer. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. or drainage basin. All rights reserved. or prototype. Physical models are expensive to build. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. to a given set of stimuli. such as storm rainfall. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Click here to view. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Usually. operate.17
21. employs both physical and mathematical models.7 Water Resources Modeling
A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. erosional scour.1
Similitude for Physical Models
A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. the capability of the computing resources. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.
and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. (21. which is always a predominant force. Inc. Then (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. The Weber number is (21. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. the formation of drops and air bubbles.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. such as depth or diameter).18 s Section Twenty-One
the prototype does not introduce serious error. All rights reserved. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.20) R is dimensionless. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Similarly.21. Once the length ratio has been set.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.
.22) where ρ = density of fluid. 32. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Squaring both sides of Eq.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. Ratios of the forces of gravity. viscosity. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. such as spillways and weirs. Therefore. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. (21. the length ratio is the only variable. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The Froude number is (21. the model is termed a true model.21a)
(21. entrainment of air in flowing water. ft2/s.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. Reynolds number. The inertial force. and one other force are made proportional. Click here to view. and Weber number. The Reynolds number is (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. Froude number. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid.
the logical representation of prototypes. and through execution of the computer program. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq.
21. The U. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). For such models. in turn. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. in particular. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow.
(21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Inc. inertial. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. such as a morning-glory spillway. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. mathematical models are. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. One type of model. Hence. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. In some cases. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. This type of model is called a distorted model. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. (21. viscous. called a movable-bed model. simulations of prototype behavior are possible.7. such as flow networks.23a)
Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent.
.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. (21.S. Click here to view. These expressions.25) In models of rivers and channels. and infiltration parameters.2
Types and Applications of Mathematical Models
Used in many applications of water resources engineering. Rr = Lr. All rights reserved.24). movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. catchment areas. For instance.Water Resources Engineering s 21.26) where V = mean velocity. Sr = 1. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent.
(J. H. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. evaporation and irrigation. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. watershed hydrology. and groundwater yield. shown in Fig. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. flood or drought impacts. or pollution.2). “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. reservoir regulation. New York. or both. flow routing. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. Click here to view. G. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks.21. as in annular passages.” McGraw-Hill. when fully implemented. academia. As a general rule. “Handbook of Hydrology. and is given by
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if comparisons of different plans are required. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. density. and private sectors. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20 s Section Twenty-One
into one entity. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Art. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. Whan. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected.” V. hydrologic forecasting. J. ecosystem impacts and restoration. Zipparo and H. quantity and quality of water supply. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. of all databases and software. Inc. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Grigg. For closed conduits other than circular. (D. and turbulent flow results. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. vol. channel and river hydraulics.)
The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. 21. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. sediment or pollutant transport. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. All rights reserved. 3. S. landfill leachate analyses. the model output required for design or evaluation.17. Hoggan. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. 1957. As a result.
. A. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. however. and R. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. R. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. seepage. This. Maidment. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. Also. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. R. 21. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. wave or tidal analyses. hydrodynamics. impacts of dam breaks. In object-oriented software. design of hydraulic structures. Hasen. this method gives flows significantly underestimated.8 Laminar Flow
In laminar flow.” D. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics.” N. F. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. “Water Resources Planning.)
21. Walker. and among water resources modelers in the government. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. This approach. As this shearing stress increases. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. Rothfus. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication.
.19. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. handbook of Hydraulics. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. it is not practical to treat it analytically. As a result.
(E. (21. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.17). To the right of the dashed line in Fig.29) For laminar flow. as shown in Fig.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. As the Reynolds number increases.9 Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. causing the flow to become turbulent. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. 21. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. at completely turbulent flow. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. In this region. 21. (21.27) where V = fluid velocity. 21.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. All rights reserved.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. ft/s D = pipe diameter.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. a disturbance will probably be magnified. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.” 6th ed. Brater. ft L = length of pipe section considered. Therefore.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. the velocity distribution is more uniform. Eq.. Click here to view. These disturbances create eddies. flow is laminar in circular pipes.21
Fig.l9.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. laminar flow is unstable. the flow is completely turbulent.
(21. New York. 21.)
21. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. 21.18. In laminar flow.
Fig.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. than for laminar flow (Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. Inc. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. 32. 32. F. ft ρ = density of fluid.
ft V = velocity of fluid. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.19) L = length of pipe. (L. F. Inc.00003 0.21.
. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. 21.003 – 0.19) to Determine f
ε.9.0005 – 0.0002 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.19
Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.
21.001 – 0.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.0005 – 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.2 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. 21. Moody.0002 – 0.00085
One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.0005 0.03 – 0. ft D = diameter of pipe.
The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. (21. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. 32.) Because Eq. enamels.008 0. November 1944.001 0.003 0. 21.1
Table 21. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.0002 0.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. The head loss is independent of the pressure.008 – 0. (21. Click here to view.
ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.34b) (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.33b)
(21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:
(21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.3
Through experimentation. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32) where n = coefficient. 21. dependent on surface roughness. where D is the pipe diameter. (21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.
This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.
21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. See also Table 22.33d)
(21. ft3/s.11 (p.3. (21.4 and 21.34d)
(21. All rights reserved.31) where V = velocity.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.23
Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.) Substitution into Eq.
.9.34e) where V = velocity. Inc. (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft/s C = coefficient.34c)
21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. Click here to view. ft L = length of pipe.2
where Q = flow. ft
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9.9. ft/s C1 = coefficient. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. Tables 21. (Although based on surface roughness. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. ft S = head loss due to friction.33c)
21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.4
This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.31) gives (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which requires experience in its choice.
10 Minor Losses in Pipes
Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.015 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.7: Figure 21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.35b)
(21.017 0.015 0.012 0. (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. However.
.017 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.010 To 0.012 0.20 ple 21.015 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. Click here to view.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.35a)
With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.36) for a check.4 Values of n for Pipes.017 Use in designing
Q = discharge.010 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. enlargements. ft3/s hf = friction loss. bends. because
(21.014 0.013 0.012 0.015 0.013 0.012 0.21. (21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. Inc.015 0.014 0.
(21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.017 0.017 From 0.013 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.7. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.017 0.013 0.016 To 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. 21. All rights reserved.035 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.011 0. (See Exam-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in short pipelines.24 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21. and valves and other pipe fittings. Example 21.013 0.010 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.) Flow between reservoirs.
5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula
Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.
21. Table 21. is (21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. good workmanship. (21. where V is the velocity in the pipe. (21. steel forms. All rights reserved. 80 4 in.21 are approximate. 120 Large sizes.10. wood forms. are presented in Table 21.2 Gradual Enlargements
The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. Ltd.)
40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined
21. 21. 120 Centrifugally spun. Inc. 110 4 in.1 Sudden Enlargements
The following equation for the head loss.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.37) or (21. regardless of age. ft/s g = 32.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.. (A.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. Gibson. H. 10 years older Average value.
these losses may exceed the friction losses.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 21. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 115 12 in.” Constable & Co. 135 In good condition.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 110
(21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 120 24 in and over. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. minor losses must be considered.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 85 16 in. London. Click here to view. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. so a full velocity head is lost.38) A special application of Eq. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. good workmanship. 140 Large sizes.7. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.21). determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).37):
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the values of K in Fig.37): (21.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.25
Table 21. 105 30 in and over. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.10.
It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.3 Sudden Contraction
The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.
3 0.5 0. fully open Angle valve.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. and at bends is given by (21.81 0.7 0.
.71 0.8 0.68 0.05 K = 0.9 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.26 s Section Twenty-One
The values in Table 21.
Globe valve.0 2.89 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence
Table 21.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.10.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 0.50 K = 0.8 are only approximate.0
Table 21. For these reaTable 21.6 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10. Inc. fully open Gate valve.63 0.66 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.42) Table 21. All rights reserved.9 0.2 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.62 0.80 K = 0. D = pipe diameter. 21.76 0.1 0.4 0.4
21. Click here to view.0 5.64 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.21. such as valves and elbows.0 1.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses
The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. fully open Swing check valve.2 2.2 0.21 of the sides.5 0.
Hasen. For low heads. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. there is disagreement. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. however. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. 82. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.42). (21. 21. the bend loss essentially remains constant.” Journal of Research. not including friction loss. Inc. July 1938.Water Resources Engineering s 21. no. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.45)
21. McGraw-Hill. series D. (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.23.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air
Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. (K. or rectangular.11. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.42). Orifices may have any shape. 21. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. Experiments on smooth pipes. this error is corrected by the C values.22: (21. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. The data are in agreement that the head loss. (H.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Click here to view.9 for low velocity of approach. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.
. square. 21. and angle of bend. vol. Ito. Figure 21. although they are usually round. (V. J. If this velocity is significant. 1. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.27
sons. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. National Bureau of Standards.. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Reynolds number. Inc. Beij. Zipparo and H.44) where Q = discharge. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.” 4th ed. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. H. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice.11 Orifices
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. New York. its effect should be taken into account. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. Equation (21.
Fig. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. vol. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. not including friction loss in the bend. 1960. All rights reserved.
615 0.5 2 2.618 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.644 0.628 0.02 0.600 0.632 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.616 0.591 0.28 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.607 0.609 0.1 0.602 0.628 0.607 0. “Hydraulics.613 0 610 0. and Z2 = 0.641 0.596 0. Z1 = h.617 0.598 0.02 0.608 0.616 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.652 0.637 0.619 0.99.632 0.643 0.595 0.601 0.592 0.604 0.634 0.611 0.593 0.598 0.606 0.622 0.600 0.608 0.590 0.648 0.605 0. of circular orifices.595 0..0 Head.596 0.602 0.648 0.593 0.623 0.613 0.655 0.619 0.660 0.594 0.1 0.598
* Hamilton Smith. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.614 0.598 1.603 0.600 0.6 08 1 1.599 0. ft 0.595 0.618 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.593 0.608 0.601 0.614 0.603 0.636 0.618 0.45) becomes (21. and Eq. ft 0.612 0.612 0.611 0.610 0.04 0. With the reference plane through point 2.604 0.604 0.607 0.599 0.623 0.602 0.606 0. determined experimentally.614 0.617 0. Inc.596 0. to
Fig.04 0.602 0. 21. Typical values of Cν range from 0.592
0.600 0.630 0.637 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.627 0.” 1886. V1 = 0.605 0.623 0.0
0.594 0.599 0.596 0. All rights reserved.621 0.23
Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.626 0.602 0.631 0. the vena contracta.603 0.46) The actual velocity.596 0.629 0.21.602 0.94 to 0.603 0.610 0.597 0.601 0.602 0.599 0. (21.605 0.4 0.637 0.
.597 0.592 1.605 0.602 0.596 0. ft 0. Jr.601 0. Click here to view.
” 6th ed. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.Water Resources Engineering s 21.61 to 0. (21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.67. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.2 Submerged Orifices
Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. (21. 21.11. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. the contraction is completely suppressed. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the
Fig. see E.)
21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. “Handbook of Hydraulics. All rights reserved. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.11. New York.25 orifice. Figure 21.48) is obtained. 21. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.47) where hL = losses in head. With a partly suppressed orifice. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.29
the area of the orifice. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because
more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. Inc.24b. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. F. between 1 and 2.
21. Click here to view. 21.25. Brater. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. 21. ft. In Fig.
Discharge through a submerged
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.3 Discharge under Falling Head
The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.
(21. 21. ft h2 = head at the end. For simplicity. s The Y coordinate is (21. Inc. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.
.58) gives (21. when y = h1. 21. (21. All rights reserved. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.55)
21.49) Solving for dt yields (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. (21.58)]. Eq. to time t.56) Fig.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. (21.50) becomes (21.58) Equation (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.57) (21.57) for t and substituting in Eq. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Click here to view.21. ft2
A = area of reservoir.50) where a = area of orifice. Eq.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.11.
(21.51) upon integration becomes (21.56). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.59). (21. Rearranging Eq. 21.26): (21. is that for a parabola: (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.30 s Section Twenty-One
volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. when y = h2.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. (21.4 Fluid Jets
Where the effect of air resistance is small.23). 32.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. obtained by solving Eq.
Inc. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. 21.29. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. Therefore.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes
This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.82 VT)2/2g = 0. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.00 VT / 2g – 0. Equation (21. 21.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67 V2T /2g.
Fig. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. psf w = unit weight of water. Click here to view. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. however.11. 21. 21. ft2
Fig. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. 21.33VT / 2g. (21. 21. For a short tube flowing full.80.
21. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. 21. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.82. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. a K value for Eq. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.82.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 V T / 2g = 0.42) of 0. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes
When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge.27.28).5 a T T Fig. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.
.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.00 and the coefficient of veloci-
21. All rights reserved.75. When this happens.31
ty Cν = 0.27) but the head loss is larger. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.11. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. if one exists). where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. In the tube or pipe.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.67 V2 ) = 0. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.
This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. the tube must flow full. Inc. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the water flows into the reservoir. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21.
Fig. Click here to view. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. The change causes a pressure rise. either above or below the normal pressure.
Fig. However. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. Every time the flow rate is
changed. As the water flows away from the closed valve. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. The pipe shown in Fig. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. this momentum drops to zero.
21. either increased or decreased. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21.21.32).31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.29. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. the water in the pipe is motionless.13 Water Hammer
Water hammer is a change in pressure. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. it causes water hammer. 21.31
Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.32 s Section Twenty-One
Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. but at a pressure much higher than normal.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30).
21. For this analysis to be valid. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.12 Siphons
A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. When a valve is closed. the pressure in the pipe falls. All rights reserved.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. 21.
psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. (21.63).94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity)
D = diameter of pipe.13. For instantaneous closure: (21.63a) becomes (21.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. 21.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.13.2 Gradual Closure
The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. approximate solution. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. 1.1 Instantaneous Closure
The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.
Fig. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft
21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. 43. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.63a) In terms of pressure head. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. s A plot of pressure vs. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. 21. Eq. Equation (21.64)
21. (21. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.33
of flow and the length of the pipeline. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.
. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. (21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.
Zipparo and H. area = 78.21. All rights reserved. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. length = 3000 ft. (21. such as L/aU. diameter = 10 ft. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. s T = actual closure time of valve.5 ft2. New York.” 4th ed.34 s Section Twenty-One
where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. the esti-
= 3180 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the increment of time. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Hasen. is
g = acceleration due to gravity. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. Vo the original velocity. (21.. With the head known. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. Click here to view. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. Thus. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. where ∆t. from Eq. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. (21.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.63). A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). where a equals any integer. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Once the time interval has been determined. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq.63).63).) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. equals L /aU.61). this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. each causing an individual pressure wave. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.) Velocity of pressure wave. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. Inc. ft L = length of pipeline. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. then that obtained from Eq.32. 32. (21. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. to apply Eq. penstock thickness = 1 in.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.
. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements.2 × 108 psf. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.) Example 21. J. (V. McGraw-Hill. Inc..8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. 21. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.
63). The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. it is by no means the only one. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. on the pipe material is (21. approximate equation (21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.90 s. Fig.
Internal pipe pressure produces hoop
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. floats on the line.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. 21.34 tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.13. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. The water column. the stress. (21. Click here to view. the closure is instantaneous. Usually. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. When a valve is suddenly closed. psi. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. 21. is
Pipe Stresses 21.3 Surge Tanks
It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.
. Various types of relief
Fig.66) where p = internal pressure. to prevent water hammer. All rights reserved. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. in effect.35
valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.64) gives the following result:
21. When a valve is suddenly opened. and the pressure rise.75 s. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. in
Assuming T = 4.33) must still be designed for water hammer.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis
The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.34). Inc. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. from Eq.90 s. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. lb Hence.
since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. this analysis is approximate. 21.
. Art. if expansion joints are to be used.10).67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes.21. The stress. (21. 6.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. For concrete pipes.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis
If a pipe is supported on piers.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints
21. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends
It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. P Timoshenko and J. is (21. psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Theory of . ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g
21. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. For steel pipes. however. it acts like a beam. (21.6).
21. Inc. In this case. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. elastic Stability. In Fig. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.36 s Section Twenty-One
From the derivation of Eq. Click here to view. (S. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. (21.” 2nd ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. (21. due to a temperature change is (21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. M. 21..67). Equation (21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. psi. The force diagram in Fig. However. Gere.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. In all bends. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. Eq.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe
If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. All rights reserved. New York. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. If D/t is less than 10. However. Eq. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe.67) for concrete pipe. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.
(21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material.
. psf w = unit weight of water. 62. is usually unwarranted because of the rela-
Fig. Click here to view.71) where R = resultant force on bend. 32. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.71) give a quick solution. a railroad.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. Inc. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.70) and (21. canal. however. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.35
Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.
A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.
P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. the joints must also be able to take these forces. (21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. Eqs. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. All rights reserved.70)
Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. an exact theoretical analysis. and slope. In small pipes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. However. or other embankment. exit conditions. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.
The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance.21.30)]. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. that is. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. 21.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. and the control will still be at the inlet. 21.
. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. 21. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.37). Portland Cement Association. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.” EB058W. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.23). But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.36).) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. and the discharge is independent of the slope.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. All rights reserved. the normal depth (Art.38 s Section Twenty-One
tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. the culvert flows full. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper
In a culvert with a critical slope. charts. 21. the following equation is obtained: (21. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . computer software.73)
21. For this reason. and the Manning equation for friction loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. 21. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21. Click here to view.33d) or (21.38). but they do not cover
ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. Discharge is independent of slope.20)
21. depending on the head. Inc. and dn < dc .
where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. for the open-channel condition (Fig.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. When slope exceeds critical. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. 21. When slope is less than critical. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes
Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. 21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.74)
Fig.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Click here to view.23). (21.
The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. 21. The fluid flows under pressure. 21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.74) yields (21.39
Fig. open-channel flow takes place.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. normal pipe flow occurs.39). When the slope is less than critical. Discharge depends on head H. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The discharge. and dn > dc . Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. ft Equation (21. 21. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21. and slope of culvert. 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75) Substituting this into Eq.
. Thus. flow depends on inlet condition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. loss at entrance. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. (21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If this condition exists. (21. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge.18). 21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. however. ft dn = normal depth of flow. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and
Fig. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. If the head on a culvert is high. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.40). (21.
. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.39).37). When the friction slope is flat. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.76). (21.76). a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.76). 21.21. All rights reserved.40 s Section Twenty-One
S = slope of energy grade line.41). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. 21. Most culverts. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. 21. If the friction slope approaches critical. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. (21. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Click here to view. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. 21. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.72). and discharge is given by Eq. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. Inc. 21. ft To solve Eq. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.
5 0. All rights reserved. First find dn. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.41
For entrance control.01.44) for discharge through an orifice. Eq. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.
. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. (21. Table 21. slope = 0.
21. Find: size of culvert. with Eq. When the entrance is not submerged. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. Substitution in Eq.
Fig.6. and free exit. These values are for culverts flowing full.73). Example 21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.9 0. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. length = 300 ft.19).40). The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.10 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. To calculate the hydraulic radius.72) yields
Q =Va = 9.8 ft3/s Table 21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow is under pressure. (21.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. and the entrance will not control. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. groove or bell.72) and (21. Since the culvert is under pressure.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts
Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. 21.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. (21.
Application of Eq. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. square edge Concrete pipe. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. But H = 5 + 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. n = 0. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. (21.08
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Click here to view.18 and 21. groove or bell. 21. projecting Concrete pipe.013. 21.
Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. (21. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.33a) gives
a pipe flow condition will result.15 0.72) applies.95 × 4 = 39. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.
varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom.
21. ft. In a uniform channel. however. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head.
Free surface flow. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. normally taken as 1. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21.79).21. The average velocity of flow V is defined
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is. The wetted perimeter is the length. or open-channel flow. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. Figure 21. ft3/s. ft2 When the discharge is constant. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels
A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. minus the free surface width. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Equation (21. Thus.03 to 1. or the total-head line.77) where V = average velocity. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. (21. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. plus the velocity head at the point.79) The velocity head HV. and is given by (21. or slope. within a hydraulic jump. It is expressed in feet as (21. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. 32. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. ft. Inc. ft.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. It has uniform flow if the grade.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. is generally given by (21. All rights reserved.42 s Section Twenty-One
Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He.36 for prismatic channels. Click here to view. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. Hence. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. (21.
.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. depth of flow is constant throughout.
21. 21. Click here to view. New York. T.84) reduces to
Fig. All rights reserved. ft.” 6th ed. E.42
Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. F.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. roughness. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.42 is called the normal depth dn. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. McGrawHill Book Company.43). slope. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. 21. 21. the specific energy also decreases. normal depth decreases downstream.. as shown in Fig. (V. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.44.
R = hydraulic radius. ft. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. 21. For a rectangular channel. New York. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. As the depth decreases downstream. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.84)
where A = area of flow. and discharge are known. (21. for example.22 Normal Depth of Flow
The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.43
Fig.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. Chow. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.83)
Brater. or to the diameter of a circular channel. (See. 21. Eq.43.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.
in which T is the top width of the channel.
84) may be reduced to (21. for a given discharge.84) is called the critical depth dc. 21. Eq. (21. (21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.
.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.
In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. Brater. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. and flow is supercritical.
(21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. For a given value of specific energy.44 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. For rectangular channels. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.84). the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.21. or conversely. the depth is greater than critical. or it may be found directly from tables (E. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.44).
21. ft3/s d = depth of flow. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. 21.43. F. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. The flow there is called subcritical flow. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. 21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow
The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.44).86)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. the depth is below critical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. New York). Click here to view. Inc.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.
ft3/s b = width of channel. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. 21.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.
. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. 21. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. (21. as indicated in Fig. however. It can be seen from Fig.
21. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. without turbulence.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. For every depth greater than critical depth. 21. flow is supercritical.85).44). There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. (21. Critical depth.45
Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. Inc. once calculated.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels
One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. All rights reserved. 21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. p.57). if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical.52b. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. [As indicated by Eq. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.45. a hydraulic jump will occur. 21.45
where dc = critical depth. along with a high loss of energy. indicating an irreversible occurrence.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. flow is subcritical. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. Such a change occurs gradually. regardless of slope. 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy.87)
corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).46a and b. the average n values given in Table 21. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.)
21.D.9 and Table 21.
.L. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. (21.4. are in Table 21. and the critical-depth line C. and A for adverse.L. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. at an arbitrary elevation.S. 21. E. 21. and adverse slope. 21. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. and two types for channels of critical.D. therefore. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.D.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.11. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow
Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. there must be a continuing maintenance program. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.25).21. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.L. Eq. C for critical.D. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. These curves are divided into five groups.L. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. ft V = mean velocity of flow. T. H for horizontal.D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.89) Since the discharge Q = VA.89) may be written (21.23). (Although based on surface roughness. Department of Agriculture. as shown in Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.L. Dr. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. Click here to view. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. are identical for a channel of critical slope. All rights reserved. 21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. and C. S for steep (supercritical). Chow. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. 21.90) where A = area of flow. The N. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. (See also Art. and the N.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.46. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. horizontal. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.and critical-depth lines. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.46c and d. 21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). New York.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. The M2 curve forms between the normal. is replaced by a horizontal line.46 s Section Twenty-One
where R = hydraulic radius.
Float finish b.023 0.025 0. Cemented rubble b. Dense weeds.080 0.030 0.025 0.050
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.032 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.100 0. 21. high stage 2. Gunite.015 0. Smooth wood form c.012 0. With short grass. Asphalt a.014 0. untreated 3.011 0.014 0. Metal a.035
0.013 0.016 0. Inc.033 0. after weathering b. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.46a and b. Cement-mortar surface 3.016 0.025 0.017 0. Steel form b.011 0.030 0.013 0.019 0.021 0.013 0.035
0. Click here to view. Unlined channels 1. No vegetation b. 21. straight and uniform a. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Rough wood form B.120 0.017 Max 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.027 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.014 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Gunite.015 0. few weeds c. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical
Table 21. Planed.025 0.033 0.015 Avg 0.016 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.050 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.080 0.024 0. Lined channels 1. Clean.035 0. Masonry a.016
0.022 0. All rights reserved.050 0.47
The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.023 0. high as flow depth d. Corrugated 2.013 0. Smooth and uniform b. Dry rubble 5. Dense brush.060 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.025 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Wood a. Smooth b. 21. Dredged earth a.040
0. Concrete a.
. wavy section 4. commonly called a drawdown curve.020
0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.030 0. Light brush on banks 3.021 0. Rock cuts a. good section c.46i and j.025 0.012 0.028 0.022 0.022 0.014 0.040 0. Excavated earth. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. 21. Jagged and irregular 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.018 0.013 0.035 0.140 0.016
0. respectively). extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.012 0.018 0.012 0. Rough C. The S2 curve.010 0.
.21. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at
Fig.L. H. 21. Examples in Fig. critical-depth line. All rights reserved.D. and A profiles. indicates normal-depth line. The curves in Fig. Inc.D.48 s Section Twenty-One
depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. C.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. Click here to view.. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. N.L. 21.46k and l.
A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. ft/ft of channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dam. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. French. the channel is divided into short lengths. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. Chow. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.” McGraw-Hill. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. and step methods. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. free overfall. with relatively small variation. See Art.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. The wave travels at a speed. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. New York. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. 21.5.26 Backwater-Curve Computations
The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. For the section of channel in Fig. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.51). gate. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. 21. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. known as its celerity.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Click here to view. direction-integration.and direct-integration methods are in V. (21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. depending on the type of flow. or reaches. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). 32. T. Explanations of both the graphical. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. For subcritical flow conditions. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. Inc. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth.27.77) if the depth were zero. All rights reserved.49
a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. H. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. weir.. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow.)
21.47. (R. Inc.
. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. For step-method computations. each reach is solved in succession. New York.
the head loss.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. ft. and – SL = hf. respectively.22) but
where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. Click here to view.92) (21. Solving Eq. Therefore. 21. hi.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. the change in elevation. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. not the channel bottom. (21. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. rearranged as follows:
Fig.50 s Section Twenty-One
So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. the – eddy loss. and vice versa.
. All rights reserved. due to friction in the same reach. 21. ft. The smaller the value of n.21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art.91) for L gives (21.82).47
Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. 21. (21. prismatic channels. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as given by Eq. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. is negligible and can be ignored. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.93) where R = hydraulic radius. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve.93). the longer the backwater curve profile. (For uniform. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. Inc. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope.
the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. ft.
. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. referred to a horizontal datum.1 for converging reaches. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. (21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump.47. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Inc. (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. after substitution of H from Eq. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. Finally.2 for diverging reaches. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.93). respectively. computations progress toward the initial section.96). S. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. total head H.97) must agree with the value of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.93).95).95) The coefficient k is 0. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. and it is therefore often accounted for. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.94).Water Resources Engineering s 21. Z2. (21. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. ft. is obtained from Eq. ft/s. grade. Next. (21. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. respectively. (21. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. sometimes called impact loss.92). in natural channels. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. Then. 21. which. the average friction slope for the reach. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Since this step method is a converging process. Click here to view. and about 0. (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Eddy loss. Next. becomes (21. (21. from 0 to 0. For lined channels. (21. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. the friction loss. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. The value of total head computed from Eq. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss.51
may be some intermediate depth. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. All rights reserved. Then. or roughness. Therefore.
Department of Transportation. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways.
Fig. 21.” Hydraulics Design Series no.. Bradley. 21. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). as shown in Figs. 1970.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52b. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. known as the roller. 21. French. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. bridge piers. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas.52 s Section Twenty-One
total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.1 ft in elevation.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.S.48). some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.48
Hydraulic jump. H. is a turbulent mass of water. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. 1. 21. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. The effect of bridges.27. and determine the discharge. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. New York. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. a gate.
21. If the two values of total head do not agree. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. However. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R.51 and 21.
. and J. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. Federal Highway Administration. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. however. respectively. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. N. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. U.27 Hydraulic Jump
This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. or other obstruction.21. Inc. Utilizing the above data.23). Bureau of Public Roads. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir.
21. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. 2nd ed. approach roadways. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. All rights reserved. known as the length of jump. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). Click here to view. The upstream surface of the jump. velocity.
depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. (21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. or alternate depths.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. in Eq.82). The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels
The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.99) where M = mass of water. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.105) where A = area of flow. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. ft w = unit weight of water.
21.104) = discharge.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. s (21.49) is given by (21.98) and (21. 32. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. 21. For rectangular channels. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. Click here to view. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. ft/s. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. (21.100) Equation (21. ft. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.53
which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.99). (21.100). where L is a characteristic length. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. d2 must also equal dc. This difference (Fig. ft3/s = unit of time.27. ft/s2. ft d2 = depth after jump. this resultant pressure force is (21. Inc.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity.16)].102) Equation (21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft
g = acceleration due to gravity.101)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. V is the mean velocity. ft2 T = width of free surface.
. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. For open-channel flow. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation
dc = critical depth for the channel. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. (21. All rights reserved.
and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head.
.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. For F1 = 1. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.0 and larger. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. depth after the jump. For F1 = 9.5. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. 21.7 to 2. For F1 = 4. and the performance is at its best.
21. the jump will be drowned out.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator
A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. which. were classified by the U. If the tailwater is too high.5 to 9. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.54 s Section Twenty-One
For rectangular channels. All rights reserved. there are undulations on the surface. This jump may be called a strong jump. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. The jump action is rough but effective. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. This jump may be called a weak jump. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump. For F1 = 2. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. Click here to view. for example. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur.5. Various forms of hydraulic jump. Inc. The jump is called an undular jump. below a spillway.5 to 4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For F1 = 1 to 1. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. 21. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1.23). If the tailwater is too low. very commonly in canals.7. can travel for miles. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. which gives discharge vs. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating
Fig.27.21. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. For F1 = 1. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. depending on local conditions. chute. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.S.0. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. 21. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. This jump may be called a steady jump. The jump is well-balanced. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. In either case. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump.49.
The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. Accessories. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. prepared by V.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.51. Inc. All rights reserved. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.27. Chow from data gathered by the U. 21.48) defies accurate mathematical expression.
21. changing the apron elevation. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. therefore. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.55
curve involve changing the crest length. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. (21.
.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump
It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. 21. and sloping the apron.S. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. Bureau of Reclamation. Click here to view. These features are expensive to build. The resulting curve (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. T. But it has been determined experimentally. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the
Fig.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump
The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.27.105). but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. This length (Fig. The curve. 21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.
21. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. between lines CB′and EO. 21. As depth d2 is lowered. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.52a. (21. but instead occurs a short distance upstream.101). 21.51
Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. (21. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. equal in length to L. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. Conversely.56 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. less than. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. respectively (Fig. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. the jump occurs in the steep region. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. as theory would indicate. which occurs near the channel drop-off.52b. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. curves AB and ED in Fig. The jump may be expected to form between the
points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.23) to mild.
. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. as shown in Fig. It is assumed. but it is normally assumed to be 0. 21. (21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.102). equal to the computed length of the jump. 21. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.51. Inc. CB. if the downstream depth is lowered. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. All rights reserved. the jump moves to a new location downstream. the computed length of jump.
The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. 21. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. computed from Eq. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than.101) with d1 given. If d2 is less than d′ . the curve of depths sequent to curve AB.26. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig.52. 21. for simplicity.46e and c).5% of critical depth. computed from Eq. that flow is uniform. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. using the step methods of Art. The actual depth at the brink is 71.75h in the absence of better information.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. 21. the jump moves downstream to a new position. the 1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7dc for simplicity. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. A horizontal intercept FG.
21. or (a) above it.” 6th ed. “Handbook of Hydraulics. and the slope of the channel. 21..51. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. F. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water.
sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. Inc. From Q = AV. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. 21. (21. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. on the channel entrance. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.
. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g).28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel
The discharge Q.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the
Fig. ft. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity
the discharge for rectangular channels. the entrance loss. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.53a).82) and (21. Brater. then the assumed discharge is correct.. is (21. New York. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. (R. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. and discharge is at a maximum. Then. French.53).85)]. ft. Click here to view. ft3/s.106) where b is the channel width. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. if not. a new discharge is assumed. If the entrance loss must be considered. All rights reserved. 21. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. where He is the specific energy head.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. ft. or (b) below it. H. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.23). the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.)
21. New York. 21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft.3 for one with squared ends. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. ignoring entrance loss. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company.57
jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where He – d is the actual head. d is normal depth.83). ft3/s.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope
When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. ft. All rights reserved.33).53b). 21. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. ———— charge. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. a new discharge is chosen. if not.23).21. (In Fig. producing flow. ft2. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. Click here to view.53b. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. He is the specific energy head. 21.
. then the discharge is correct. (b) mild-slope channel.58 s Section Twenty-One
Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. (21. 21. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.
21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21. 21. Inc.2 ft/s2. ft.22).
54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T.108).107) The theoretical difference y.
curve (Fig. a unit mass of water. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.
. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. 21. When water is forced to flow in a curved path.
21. ft /s. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. the true value of y would be only a few inches. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. Inc. Therefore. All rights reserved. and rc the radius of curvature. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. In this range.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. or mV2 /rc for m. ft. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. The error will not be great. where V is its average velocity. when a stream enters a curve. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels
Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. of the center line of the channel. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. (21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. however. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. If the bend continues long enough.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. (21.83)]. Click here to view.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.23). but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. Thus.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency
If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. ft.59
21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. ft. 21. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a
Fig. (21. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.
One is a positive wave. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. phase.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. and should be used with discretion.16)] .” U.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels
When water. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. This angle may be found from (21.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. All rights reserved. (21.55). depths along the inside wall. (21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. His values have not been evaluated completely.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. and continue crossing and recrossing. The cross slope required for
21. Click here to view. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. a series of standing waves are produced. recross as shown. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Inc. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.110) for θ in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. Technical Bulletin 393.23). Scobey. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.60 s Section Twenty-One
Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.
. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. Department of Agriculture. These waves cross at M. C.
Fig. flows around a bend in a channel. by (21. (F. The second is a negative wave. (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. 21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. with sufficient accuracy.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.21.S.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.111). 21.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. 21. an increase in friction loss results.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. therefore. the average velocity decreases. is given by K(∆V2/2g). After such a water-surface profile is chosen. where K. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump.44. ∆V is the velocity change.54). 21. In this range.1 for an inlet-type structure. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. 21.23).1 [∆(V2/2g)]. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. equals about 0. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. If friction is ignored. Straight. Click here to view.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. 21.2 for welldesigned transitions. and g = 32.2 ft/s2.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In design of an inlet-type transition structure.33 Transitions in Open Channels
A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. 21. plus any transition and friction losses. such as flow-rate changes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the loss factor. The transition loss. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. When proceeding downstream through a transition. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. For outlet-type structures. All rights reserved.
21. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. 21. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.8[∆(V2/2g)]. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an
Fig. p. ft/s. 21. wall roughness. or change from supercritical to subcritical. change from subcritical to supercritical. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. Many variables. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. Inc. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. as shown in Fig.113) angle of about 12.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides.56. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. To place a transition properly between two open channels. low-head-loss transfer of flow. ft.61
equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. if friction is ignored. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. and channel shape and slope. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow.
y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.57.000556.000556(20)2 = 0. the weir has free discharge. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. 21. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.
21. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. as shown in Fig.62 s Section Twenty-One
Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. and parabolic weirs. 21. y = ax2.
The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.34 Weirs
A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21. Inc. from which a = 0.
Fig. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.58). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. trapezoidal weirs. Click here to view. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. In contrast. 21. If the discharge is partly under water. such as rectangular weirs.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. 21.58
Sharp-crested weir. measured from A or B.59. trapezoidal weirs.59
Weir not sharp-crested.34. such as broad-crested weirs. the weir is submerged or drowned. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.
Fig. and. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.5 = a(30)2.1 Types of Weirs
A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. All rights reserved. triangular or Vnotch weirs. 21.21.000556(10)2 = 0. For Fig.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. triangular weirs. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into
21. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. 2
If the nappe discharges into the air. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.
21. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. below the crest.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.5H. 21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. One such equation. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs
Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. 21. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. T. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Inc. Chow. Hence. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. New York).5H for a complete crest contraction to form. thus causing a contraction of the flow.116) corrects for the effects of friction.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. At very low heads. Equation (21.
. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. ft The head should be measured at least 2. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. All rights reserved. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. If P is less than
Fig. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. 2. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.115) where Q = discharge.34.5H upstream from the weir. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.Water Resources Engineering s 21. contraction of the nappe. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. Click here to view.60
V-notch weir. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The height of weir P must be at least 2.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.63
hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.
21. To be fully ventilated. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.58) (V. A V-notch weir (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
New York). If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.34. 21.118)]
21. 69. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.5H upstream from the weir.34. ft H = head. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. (21.
21. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs
The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. vol.61) (E. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.
. His values were summarized by Brater.
The effective length L. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.2) when low discharges are to be measured.21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. Lenz. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. 21.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.64 s Section Twenty-One
where θ = notch angle H = measured head.. 21. Inc. 21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. All rights reserved. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.119) where Q = discharge. F.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.118)
Fig.” 6th ed. there are two end contractions and N = 2. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.
Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. (21. 21. measured from notch bottom. 21. 1943).4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs
The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. T. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Click here to view. ft. Discharge is given by (21.34.
Dec. which may be done as follows: First. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. neglecting the velocity head. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.
its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.65
b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. R. ft3/s. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.63
Submerged sharp-crested weir. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.34. The discharge Qs.
. velocity head of approach. using this rate and the required depths. velocity head. (21.34. ft/s V /2g = Hν. 32. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.
Fig.) To use the Villemonte equation.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.59). ft
No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. 1947. (J. 21. for such weirs. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. 866. and finally total head.) Equation (21. compute the velocity of approach. Villemonte. Inc.
21.121) where Q = discharge.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs
The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. Then. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. using this discharge.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged.122) where H = measured head. p. From this total head. heavily constructed devices. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. (21. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. Thus. or both.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
These are sturdy. ft3/s. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. Where great accuracy is essential. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. 21.115) is rewritten in the form (21.
21. 21. Typically.Water Resources Engineering s 21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. ft V = velocity of approach. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%.” Engineering News-Record. Click here to view. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. 25. and then. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Eq. ft. All rights reserved. but
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.
Click here to view. and approach velocity. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.12. The effect is most critical for low heads. the head in relation to the design head.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. head in relation to design heads. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. ft (U.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. For conditions of design head Hd. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. DC 20402.5Hd > r* > 0. For conditions of design head Table 21. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. where approach velocities are high.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.S. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.” Government Printing Office. But the process should be repeated.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp
0. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Department of the Interior. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.21. thickness of pier. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. Inc. Therefore.123) where L = effective crest length.01 0
* r = radius of abutment rounding.02 0. starting with the corrected discharge. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. Washington. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. “Design of Small Dams.2 of the head.10
H.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.
21. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. (3) Broad-crested
Table 21.20 0.13. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. and the approach velocity.34.
.66 s Section Twenty-One
compute the first corrected discharge. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. ft L′ = net crest lengths. For each change of nappe shape.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. F. All rights reserved.
T. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. DC 20402. Consequently. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.64) has such a shape.34. Inc. Chow. at the point of maximum contraction. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Click here to view. New York).64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. Department of the Interior. According to Chow. depends on the head producing the discharge. 2. (21. 21. 21.67
Fig. 21. (U. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The shape of this nappe.65. 1.S. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.122). The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency.
weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. This crest pressure reduces
the discharge below that for ideal flow. Figure 21.
. This manual and V.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir
The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. Chow.” Government Printing Office. This relationship is shown in Fig.
Fig. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. for a sharp-crested weir. 21. All rights reserved. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5H upstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. “Open-Channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Washington.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. and therefore of an ogee crest. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. Of the above rules. however. “Design of Small Dams. where discharge is given by Eq.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. T. For flow at heads lower than the design head.66 of the head. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. called the design head Hd. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht.
New York.” U.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.S. Inc. the flow differs from ideal.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Figure 21.S.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. Bureau of Reclamation.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (From “Design of Small Dams. 21.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.68 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.66. All rights reserved. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.” U.21. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. 21. Click here to view.)
Fig.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.
appear in Table 21. Weirs of irregular section. Unless otherwise noted. (See. a plane horizontal crest.” U.
the coefficient of discharge. Bureau of Reclamation. Figure 21.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. All rights reserved. Click here to view.” 6th ed. Brater.)
If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.69
Fig. 21. the nappe springs free. fairly common in waterworks projects. 21.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.)
Weirs of Irregular Section
21. and sharp right-angled edges. (21. for example.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine
This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. McGraw-Hill Book Company. E. (From “Design of Small Dams. New York. New York. is determined from Fig. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes..34. Inc. therefore. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.14. Figure 21. Values of the discharge coefficient. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. 21. F. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.Water Resources Engineering s 21. compiled by King. Brater.69
Broad-crested weir. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. where the velocity of approach is not high.” 6th ed.)
21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.68. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.67 and 21.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.34. 21.S. F.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.
. McGraw-Hill Book Company. are used as spillways and control structures. “Handbook of Hydraulics. has contraction of the nappe. (E. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. because of its sharp upstream edge.9 Broad-Crested Weir
This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. “Handbook of Hydraulics. if flow is at other than the design head.
00 2.48 2.20 3. A density current.68 2.32 3.32 5.64 2.31 3.07 3.32 2.49 2.65 2.76 2.32 3.68 2.60 2.67 2.64 2.26 3.74 2.
21.67 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.67 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.32 3. ft 0.32 3.64 2.69 2.70 2.32 2.03 3.70 2.88 2.54 2.92 3.89 3.64 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging. Click here to view.00 2.07 3.58 2.50 2.32 3.88 10.32 3. This incoming water.32 3.0 3.32 3.32 3.64 2. with its load of suspended silt.72 2.32 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.69 2.32 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.8 2.54 2.70 2.5 2.32 4.6 1.81 2.32 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.00 2.63 2.32 3. those forming the bed load. erosion.00 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.30 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs
Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a
body of still water.32 3.32 3.32 3.64 2.61 2.34 2.63 2.2 0.63 2. once formed.21.4 0.64 15.08 3.0 1.32 3.63 2.63 2.68 2.67 2.65 2.69 2.70 2.63
21.32 3. ft 0.68 2.32 3.68 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.08 3.64 2.68 2.64 2.98 3.68 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.07 3.75 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.68 2.65 2.64 2.19 3.63 2.64 2.20 3.32 3.38 2.89 2.88 3.5 3.64 2. such as a reservoir.0 2.8 1.63 2.66 2.66 2.75 2.86 2.72 2.32 3.63 2.31 3.64 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.20 3. or soil.32 3.66 2. Inc.64 2. All rights reserved.32 Breadth of crest of weir.76 2.79 2.04 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.75 2. which are often of equal consequence.32 3.00 2.32 3. The smaller silt sizes. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.05 3.35.5 4.00 2.14 3.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.68 2.07 3.85 2.32 3.32 3.97 3.0 5.64 2.73 2.32 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.66 2.60 2.80 2.63 2.50 2. and turbines.0 4.65 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels
Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.66 2.79 1. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.85 3.2 1.00 2.29 3.32 3.67 2.32 3.31 3.65 2.75 2.07 3.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.92 2.56 2.64 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.30 3.44 2.32 3.28 3.70 2.32 3.6 0.89 3. those carried in suspension.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 5.68 2.92 3.50 H.70 2.32 1.65 2.64 2.28 3.60 2.32 1.50 2. valves.69 2.32 3.75 2.60 2.62 2.32 3.65 2.68 2.32 3. such as gates.74 2.70 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.68 2.63 2.72 2.80 2.77 2.32 3.61 2.
.4 1.64 2.32 3.
The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. All rights reserved. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. on the other hand. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits.35. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. The most common manner of destruction. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. overtopping. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur.71
Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. see Art. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. 21. landslide. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents.
. By this method. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. formed from the bed load.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate
Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. or failure of materials. the rate is not uniform during the year. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. or from year to year. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. However. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. because of variations in rainfall. however. These currents are stable.39. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. When neither can be done. once formed. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. are coarsegrained. Click here to view. Of course. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level.
21. Inc. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.
the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Therefore.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. Therefore. however. A mean grain size of 0. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. All rights reserved. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. ft3/s b = width of river.124) where Gb = total bed load. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. But for the most part. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. Therefore.0 ft/mi. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course.
. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. (21. Inc. which varies with both slope and discharge. 21. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. gravel. Click here to view. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. ft qo = critical discharge. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. this silt comes from land-surface erosion.72 s Section Twenty-One
Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.35. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Frequently. According to Witzig. which generally occurs only during a storm.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge.21. and boulders. discharge. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data.1). The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion.
Department of Agriculture. rivers. day. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. (21-124).” U. infiltrates into the soil. or year.
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. A major concern is the cir-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. and the stream velocity.S. It continually records. Graf. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. New York.S. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Inc. Weather Bureau. planting of burned-over areas. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. water evaporation from oceans. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. and their reaction with their environment. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes
21. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. temperature. in the form of synoptic weather charts. (W. and pressure. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. Click here to view. Use of vegetation screens. discharges into streams. which are of two types.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. and distribution. Weather Bureau is 24 h. Current data. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. recharges groundwater. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.
. or a combination of the two. Such screens. their chemical and physical properties. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. (See H. groundwater flow. such as an hour. H. by ink pen and revolving drum. Einstein.36 Erosion Control
The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. their occurrence.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) culation. runoff. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. All rights reserved. such as wind. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport.73
dation. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. are published daily by the U. including their relation to living things. check-dam construction. lakes. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. on or near the land surface. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. infiltration. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. or digital microchip technology. contour plowing. circulation.S. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. For instance.37 Precipitation
The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. In this cycle. if the dam is raised at a later date. A. debris barriers. and stream flow
21. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. evaporation. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. in of mercury. In transpiration. New York. has a relatively large surface area. and it increases as wind velocity increases. tropical and subtropical regions.125)
(21. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. Not all rain reaches the ground.
. A portion may evaporate as it falls. commonly termed consumptive use. The Meyer equation [Eq. shallow pools and 11 for large. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. called interception. Maidment. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. This relation is known as Dalton’s law.” McGraw-Hill. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. This phenomenon. “Handbook of Hydrology. (21. Evapotranspiration.126) where E = evaporation rate. while another portion may be caught on leaves. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. or ground surfaces.21. in of mercury. developed from Dalton’s law. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Evapotranspiration is important because. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Inc. and is located in a semiarid or arid region.. In evaporation. Click here to view. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. (21. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor
21. Inc. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. R. Of the three. Evaporation may occur from free-water. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it.74 s Section Twenty-One
that are too small. equal to 15 for small. plant. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see D. All rights reserved. ground. and other vegetation surfaces. and plantleaf surfaces. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. branches. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage.125)]. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. on a long-term basis. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.38 Evaporation and Transpiration
These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. On an annual basis. especially if the reservoir is shallow. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground.
This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Inc. “Handbook of Hydrology. It appears in surface channels. perhaps several years. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. subsurface storm flow. Groundwater flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. subsurface runoff.60 and 0. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. (D. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Moving laterally. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife.
. hail. Maidment.
21. or groundwater runoff. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. snow. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. subsurface. or excess rain. effective rain includes subsurface flow. Subsurface flow. frost. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. duration. Climatic characteristics a. aquatic life.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. called a Class A Level Pan. intensity. where it continues as channel or stream flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. to reach a channel. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Thus. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.70. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. birds. insects. Click here to view. runoff may be surface. Hexadeconal. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep.” McGraw-Hill. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. natural or manmade. On large reservoirs. Classified by the path taken to a channel.. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. or groundwater flow. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path.80. also known as interflow. In practice. R. and storm seepage. depending on the geographical region. and biologic attrition. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. After joining stream flow. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. although it may vary between 0. is in widespread use. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. wind tends to push the film to the shore. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Commonly. or cetyl alcohol.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. except in arid. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. dew). time distribution. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. tropical. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Inc. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Precipitation—form (rain.75
As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. All rights reserved. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. New York.
frozen ground during storms. and the accuracy desired. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. elevation.S. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. Atmospheric pressure f. both published and unpublished. the U. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. 21. areal distribution. Geologic—soil type. extremes during precipitation c. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. TVA. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. general location. slope. Agricultural Research Service. 21.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. and statisti-
cal data pertaining to the entire record.21. Wind—velocity. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. length) b. These papers contain records of daily flow. and completeness of the hydrologic records. detail.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations
The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Humidity e. direction. and Weather Bureau. soil moisture. roughness. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Inc. Weather Bureau. stratification Fig. as shown in Fig. International Boundary Commission. artificial drainage.70.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data
The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data.
21. Topographic—size. duration d. permeability. the quantity and type of data available.S.
21. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts.” U.76 s Section Twenty-One
seasonal distribution. extremes of flow.S. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. yearly flow volume. groundwater formations. the detail required in the final answer. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.S. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. All rights reserved. Geological Survey. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. snow storage. Temperature—variation. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. special-interest items. Geological Survey. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. drainage net. Drainage-basin characteristics a. lakes and other bodies of water.S. channels (size. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. mean flow. direction of storm movement b. and various state and local agencies. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. Solar radiation 2. Click here to view. recurrence interval. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. land use and cover. slope. shape. shape of cross section. antecedent precipitation. orientation. Geological Survey. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. The principal source of precipitation data is the U.
The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 4. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. deep culverts under vital highways and railways.127) where Q = peak discharge. in/h A = drainage area. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. others give the complete hydrograph. Click here to view. a 50. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.or 100-year-frequency storm. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. The values of C in Table 21. 5. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. 2.128)
21. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. the second to major hydraulic structures. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. Several methods yield only peak discharge. and large downstream damage potential. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures
The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Inc. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. 3. All rights reserved. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. for example. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.41. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. 1962). Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. As an example.77
found in the determination of flood runoff.Water Resources Engineering s 21.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. great importance. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Chow. T.
30 0.95 0.
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and n1
= = =
Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.70 0. 2% Sandy soil. Maidment.89)] . and the flow time in conduits. Equation (21.15 – 0. min time of concentration Fig.05 – 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.30 – 0.22 0. (21.50 – 0. the flow time in streets.20 – 0.13 – 0.128) or Eq. R.71 and Table 21. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.70 – 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. or ditches.50 – 0.21. flat.35
where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. (See D. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. detached Multiunits.15 0.18 – 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. n.17 0. gutters. After determining the time of concentration.10 – 0.80 0.41. 21. 2–7% Sandy soil. steep.) The flow time in gutters. b. All rights reserved.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.78 s Section Twenty-One
where I = = rainfall intensity.40 0.40 – 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.25 – 0. (21. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.75 – 0. Inc.90 0.80 – 0.50 0. streets. is a convenient.75 – 0. New York.10 0.70 – 0.129).
.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures
The unit-hydrograph method. factor.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. 2–7% Heavy soil. avg. in/h respectively. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. “Handbook of Hydrology. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.60 – 0. years duration of storm.16).70 – 0. (21.50 – 0. Sherman. ditches.35 0.85 0. Inc.60 0. or any equivalent method. widely accept-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.95 0.75 0. 2% Heavy soil. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.95 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. flat.10 – 0.” McGraw-Hill.10 – 0.95 0. (21.25 0. 21. coefficient.127).25 – 0.20 – 0.40 0.129)
Table 21. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. Click here to view.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. 7% Heavy soil.85 0. avg. steep.20 0.70 0.60 – 0.
vol. usually 1 acre). the time of storm runoff. Click here to view. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. and more accurate than any such set of factors. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. 3. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. All rights reserved. termed a unit period.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. Sherman. pp. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Inc. 4.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. 2. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. If the watershed is very large. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.79
Table 21. The unit hydrograph is much quicker.130)
The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. 108. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. (Leroy K. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. termed a unit storm. that is. 501-505. easier.” Engineering News-Record.Water Resources Engineering s 21. subdivision may be required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. This requires that a storm of short duration. The method is summarized by the formula (21. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10
ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. JanuaryJune 1932.
It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Inc. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit
Fig. Then. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length.72. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. Usually. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. For ease of manipulation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80 s Section Twenty-One
by each hydrograph. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. because of storm variations.
. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. which is of fixed intensity and duration. 21. Illustrated in Fig.21. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. 5. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. 21. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Click here to view.73). the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. 21. All rights reserved.
Water Resources Engineering s 21. McGraw-Hill. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Maidment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol.. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.81
21. Inc. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined.42 Groundwater
Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. This loss. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Inc. 21. Click here to view.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. pp.74). Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. New York. (See D. R. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) where Q = flow rate. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture.131) period. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. New York. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. “Handbook of Hydrology. All rights reserved. Inc. 447–454).” McGraw-Hill. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. I. 19. This method was developed by Franklin F. (R. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Linsley et al. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. “Hydrology for Engineers. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union..)
Fig.. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. during heavy storms. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. pt. 21. K. Also.
. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.” 3rd ed. perpendicular to direction of flow..73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.
Fig. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.
Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. present and future water demands should be determined. is a confined or artesian aquifer. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. or other causes. quantity. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil.21. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. alternative management plans should be formulated. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. quantity.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and overdraft. water softening costs. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. because of impermeable layers above and below it.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. need for excessive pumping lifts. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. among others. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. and quality of water supply. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. (A base period is a period of time. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Deteriorating water quality. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. safe yield. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. rather than a change in volume. usually a number of years. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. cost of replenishment water. source. Inc. wastewaters. Regardless of how it is defined. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. recycling.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. poor-quality replenishment waters. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. and indirect water-quality use costs. Frequently. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. All rights reserved. and methods of wastewater disposal. and location of artificial replenishment. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters.82 s Section Twenty-One
Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Click here to view. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Following the preceding preliminary work. groundwater levels. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. quality.
Hydrology for Engineers. is a very difficult task. “Water Resources Planning. All rights reserved. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. distribution. pumping. commercial. storage. no. percentage increase. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. flood. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates.
A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. and sanitary purposes. New York. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. and natural and artificial replenishment. Click here to view. amount and location of groundwater extractions. industrial. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme.” A. however. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. financially feasible. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. and hotels for drinking. washing. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan.83
Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. K. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. decreasing percentage increase. such as industrial development. apartments.” R. 40. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. I.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. Kashef. surface-water delivery facilities. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction.. graphical comparison with other cities. and age of the city.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Linsley et al.. and public. Inc. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. bathing. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. “Groundwater Engineering. sanitary. 1987. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. land speculation. and environmental factors. motels.
. transmission. Grigg. institutional. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. or other unforeseen emergency. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. wastewater disposed. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. irrigation. Bear.” N. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. legal. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase.” 3rd ed. fire-fighting. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Therefore. J. Estimation of future population. water used. fire. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. The smaller the system. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. S.43 Water Consumption
The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. (“Ground Water Management.Water Resources Engineering s 21. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. and treatment works. industrial. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. geographical boundaries. culinary.
21. American Society of Civil Engineers.
84 s Section Twenty-One
Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. degree of industrialization. Mo. The “California Water Atlas. type of service (metered or unmetered). the demand for it decreases. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. janitorial. presents
Table 21. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions.” 1979. degree of industrialization. All rights reserved. it may control the design of the facilities. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. quality. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. standard of living.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. reservoir evaporation. air conditioning. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. lawn sprinkling. month.S. Public Health Service Report. if the cost of water increases.21. Inc. and time of day. Table 21. The national demand-rate data. influence the demand rate for water. pressure. Calif. as presented in Table 21. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. cooling. Public use of water for parks. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. and air conditioning purposes. Click here to view. such as the climate. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and quality of the water. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. size of the city.17.
. valves. are the average of a range of values. Normally. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. cost. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. State of California Office of Planning and Research. and year. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. and faucets. public buildings. and pressure. Demand rates vary with time of day. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. cost. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. and unauthorized uses. meter malfunctions. but because of the high rate at which it is required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. and cleaning. especially if portions of the city are unsewered.
Water Resources Engineering s 21. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 40.000 85. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.6 4. to a large extent. † MGD = million gallons per day.4 2. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 120.0 7. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.2 2.000 3.500 2. In selection of a source of supply. however. inland. the effect of warm. interdependent. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.000 12.000 40. Click here to view.000 10.000 48.000 110. Hydrant Spacing.8 2. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 40.000 5.000 28.3
Duration. gal/min P = population. and in some cases.000
Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. MG = million gallons.000 200. and streams. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. is frequently undesirable.6 1. diversification is essential for reliability.85
average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.18.000 6.000 90. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.2 8.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 6.
. legality. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. quality. such as lakes.000 4. In the atlas.000 70.000 4.4 17.000 100. Inc.0 1. In the past.000 80. and politics. but the demand rate is high.3 0.000 85. All rights reserved. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. The source must
Table 21. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 125.000 40.000 80. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 2.0 3.000
1.000 8. rivers. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.4 3. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 1. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. however.132) where G = fire-demand rate. Moreover. Total dependence on a single source. industrialization. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.3 5. In some local areas. climate.000 40. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.5 14.000 55.000 40.000 60. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.
21.8 7.18 Required Fire Flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cost.44 Water-Supply Sources
The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 10.000 40. valley cities.000 17. MG† 0.9 4. Cost.6 11.000
* American Insurance Association.000 90.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. (See also Art. Click here to view. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. total dissolved solids. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. 21.5 mg / L 0. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. and Water Pollution Control Federation. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. All rights reserved. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.22. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.5 – 8. The measurements should include pH. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.” American Public Health Association. as indicated by the following extract:
Table 21. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.) Source Protection s The U.90 s Section Twenty-One
When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.3 mg / L 0. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. calcium hardness. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. and calculation of the Langelier index.” U. American Water Works Association. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. dependent on local conditions. In addition.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards
Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. temperature. Inc. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21.S.21.21.) At the discretion of the state. alkalinity. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. such as sulfates and chlorides.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. velocity is constant.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. and specific gravity of the suspended particles.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.51). (21.0 < R < 2000. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. Reynolds numbers.001 and 5.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. particulate and colored matter. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. shape.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. V the flowthrough velocity.1 Plain Sedimentation
The ideal settling basin (Fig.134). such as those mentioned above.
21.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. to be used in Eq. 21.91
The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Newton’s law applies: (21. slow and rapid sand filtration. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.
. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Inc. Figure 21. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Pojasek. For this ideal basin. 21. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Figure 21.
Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. mm If R > 2000.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.0. Inc. (21. and width B. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Ann Arbor. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. disinfection. Mich.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal.46. Click here to view. (Usually. and size and shape of the settling basin. B. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . calculated with ν = νs. coagulation-sedimentation. In the region where 1. however. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. is equal to or less than 1. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. temperature and viscosity of the water. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. All rights reserved. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.
21. and softening (see also Art.46 Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. depth ho .133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. (See R. unpleasant tastes and odors.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (Observed curves.92 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.21. 21. 897. at 10 °C.76
Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Inc. Click here to view. 1946.)
Fig. after Camp. vol. All rights reserved. 103.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Inc. 27. or other indicator to pass through the basin. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Click here to view. 1.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.” McGraw-Hill. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. Geyer.Water Resources Engineering s 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo .” John Wiley & Sons. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. A. Fair. 21.5 ft/min (most common velocity.46. and D. Inc.
. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. 21. The tubular settler (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. are removed in this basin.8c. 21.. finely
Fig. J. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. All rights reserved. New York. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Without coagulants. rectangular (Fig. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. for example.93
Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Okun. coagulants are added to the water..)
21. and eddy currents. short circuiting. M. G.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation
To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Multistory tanks. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. 21. 21. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. C.78a) or circular (Fig. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. salt.77
Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.78b). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. New York. Inc.
Click here to view. 21. (d) Tubular settler.21. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Circular clarifier. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.94 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. All rights reserved.
temperature. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. polymers have a minor effect on pH. production of a smaller volume of sludge. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. The filtering process has many components. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). however. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. however. (G. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. “Water Quality and Treatment. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.” 4th ed. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. settling. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. T. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. American Water Works Association. ferric chloride (FeCl3). in some instances.” McGraw-Hill. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. and hardness. however. or negatively charged. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. and easier dewatering. L. Corbitt. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.
. Click here to view. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Polymers are long-chain. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles.47 Filtration Processes
Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply.95
divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. L. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. Inc. Anionic polymers. A. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. plankton. New York. centrifugal pumps. All rights reserved. highmolecular-weight. McGhee. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. They are available in three types: cationic. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. turbidity..” R. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Also. color.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants.to 60min range. and air jets. color. Culp. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. coliform organisms. or positively charged. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. and suspended solids. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. or neutral in charge. chemical and biological reactions. such as physical straining. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Inc. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Culp and R. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. and nonionic. such as mechanical stirrers. such as pH.. organic polyelectrolytes. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). 18H2O]. such as paper fiber.)
21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. J. consequently. anionic. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. considering both cost and performance. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Thereby. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. New York.
addition of a polymer as a filter aid. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min.21. 21. through the sand and gravel layers.25. All rights reserved. Click here to view.to 12-in layer of gravel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. by weight. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The wash-
Fig. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.79. depending on the turbidity.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. of the sand. Usually.or mixed-media filtration.to 0. in millimeters. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.35-mm range. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.79
Gravity-type rapid sand filter.
. 21. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The process requires rapid mixing. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.96 s Section Twenty-One
a polymer as a flocculant aid. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. that will pass 10%. and dual. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Inc. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.
water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand.25 to 1. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.005:1 range. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. or anthracite coal. or deep coarse-media filters. Immediately after washing. All rights reserved.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. such as rakes.35 to 0. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. bed cracking. creating a high head loss across the filter. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. may be more advantageous. water sprays. Dual-media. diatomaceous earth. As clogging begins to occur in the filter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. gal/min b = width of trough.
. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers.20 to 1. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. mixed-media. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. filters pass water at a high rate. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. which produces an undertreated effluent. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. or sand incrustation will be encountered. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Click here to view.002:1 to 0. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. and air jets. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. however. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. which is drained to waste. The filtering medium may be sand. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases.
48 Water Softening
Presence of the bicarbonates. Regeneration requires between 0. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. “Water Quality and Treatment. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. “Water Treatment Plant Design. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Geyer. American Water Works Association.136) (21.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.)
(21. and American Society of Civil Engineers.. New York.3 and 0. or open-joint pipes. and (3) total hardness.” 4th ed. Click here to view. where 1 gpg = 17. In the lime-soda process.98 s Section Twenty-One
Filter galleries are made up of horizontal.” 4th ed. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. A.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. McGhee. “New Concepts in Water Purification.. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. “Water Quality and Treatment.)
21. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. and American Society of Civil Engineers. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. gas. Okun. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. sulfates. in clear wells. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. and D. however.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. L. New York. M. carbonates. All rights reserved.1 mg/L. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed.” John Wiley & Sons.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Culp and R. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. respectively. L. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. lime (CaO). perforated. These materials remove cations. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. such as calcium and magnesium. and R is the zeolite material. G.137)
Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. (G. (American Water Works Association.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Culp.
. C. Inc. Fair. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.” and T. J. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.” 6th ed. New York. Some.. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.138)
(21.49 Disinfection with Chlorine
Chlorine in either the liquid. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. New York. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.139)
21. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Inc. J.
2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. and lime. despite its low solubility. J. water supply. “Water Treatment Plant Design.1 or 0. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. Geyer. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. All rights reserved..
. New York. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Fair. “Water Treatment Plant Design.” John Wiley & Sons. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h.)
21. New York. and D. A. 21. odor.50 Carbonate Stability
Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. ozone. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with
Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Other disinfectants are iodine.)
21. detergents. Okun. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.” McGraw-Hill. 21. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. iron. (G. McGhee. Filter both solutions. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. reverse osmosis. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. C. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.” and T.. Inc. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. activated carbon. and electrodialysis. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. and recreation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Chlorine residuals of 0.52 Reservoirs
The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.) respect to carbonates. chlorine dioxide.. M. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. then. excessive fluorides. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.99
water supplies. lime softening. Inc. cation exchange. ultraviolet light. flood control. J. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. anion exchange. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. manganese. New York. Click here to view. taste. Inc. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter.51 Miscellaneous Treatments
Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. irrigation. bromine. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal.45).141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.
Inc. Click here to view. 21. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period.80
Mass diagram of stream flow.21. All rights reserved.100 s Section Twenty-One
(see also Art. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.80. minimum flows will be critical. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. whereas for flood-control reservoirs.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. 21. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. 21. maximum flows will govern.52. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig.1). areavolume curves (Fig. as is the case for many water-supply projects. 21. 21.
. The mass diagram (Fig. Aeri-
Fig. Once a reservoir site has been selected.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. The plot of volume vs. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. When the demand rate is known. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Also. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. 21. A mass dia-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In deep reservoirs. When the demand drops off. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. Click here to view. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. 21. odor. is called the thermocline. All rights reserved. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. but there is no circulation across this zone. give special attention to water quality.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. Major sources of supply for some cities. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. the flow refills the reservoir. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. perature drops in the fall. During hours of maximum demand. which may be only a few feet thick.81
Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. and Los Angeles.
.2). and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. are large distances from the city. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate.Water Resources Engineering s 21.52. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. San Francisco. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35 and 21. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.1 Distribution Reservoirs
The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination.101
Fig.52. such as New York. When the tem-
21. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. pumping plants. Inc.
21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.
.102 s Section Twenty-One
gram (Fig. Brune. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.83). For the correct hydraulic grade.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. 21. 21.53 Wells
A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. vol.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency
The methods of Art. A flowing artesian
Fig.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.82) (G. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Click here to view. June 1953).82
Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.84). no. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.
21. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. 3. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.35. 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.52. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.21. Inc. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 21. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-
21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. M. Brune. 21. M. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. All rights reserved. For any given storage reservoir. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. 34.
Fig. Click here to view. 21. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84
Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.83
Gravity well in a free aquifer. 21.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.53.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.4 Well Equipment
Essential well equipment consists of casing..) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. or hydraulic rotary methods. hollow-core. no. Okun. ft h = H minus drawdown.84).” John Wiley & Sons.143)
21. Inc. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.
21. J. vol. ditch. p. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. (C. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.142) where Q = flow. 72. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. pump (Art. Inc. New York. Hence. J. Theis. 21. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer.
.53. eductor or riser pipe.. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.
21. gal/day. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer.57). A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established.53. December 1938. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. bored. All rights reserved. ft The steady flow. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. 5.” Economic Geology.2 Flow From Wells
The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21..” 6th ed. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. screen. “Water Supply and Sewerage.53. ft (Fig. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. (G. 889. McGhee. The pump. and motor. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. M. Fair. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. New York. C. T. Jacob.21. 33. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. 629. 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. McGraw-Hill. C. Click here to view. motor. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. 1940. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. waterjet.3 Excavation of Wells
Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. vol. Inc. A.83). or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. 21.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. from an artesian well is given by (21. p. Geyer.1 Drawdown
When water is pumped from a well. and D. E.104 s Section Twenty-One
well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. V. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. or driven. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. ft d = diameter of well. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
riveting. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. plastic. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. contact between acids and metals. bacteria in water. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. steel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and other appurtenances. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. but wood is rarely used in new installations. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. polyethylene. Click here to view. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. valves. and sulfur compounds.) At the anode. however.
21. dollars/hp per year
Qa = average discharge. rubber.
(21. or Dresser-type couplings. zinc. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Metals can
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.54. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. sand. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145.21. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. If it is cement-lined. concrete. Copper. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure.108 s Section Twenty-One
Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. tanks. and meters destroyed by corrosion. hydrants. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. and plastic are materials used in small pipes.6 Pipe Materials
Cast iron. lead. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. and ability to withstand external loads. ft
21. Under favorable conditions. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Wood pipelines are still in existence.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems
Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. an anode and a cathode. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. and plastics. sealed flanges. brass. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)
Ha = average head on pipe. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. Inc. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. pumps. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics.146) where D = pipe diameter. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. bronze. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. A machine that produces a monolithic. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. polybutylene. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. valves. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. Since steel is stronger than iron. are present. impurities and strains in metals. In unlined pipes.
. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. such as polyvinyl chloride. All rights reserved. stray electric currents.
Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. and the more ions. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. for example. and treatment of the water. the faster electrons can move through the water. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. the corrosion process continues (Fig. When selecting materials. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. such as soda ash. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.86). and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered.
. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. caustic soda. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Inc. water may be treated with bases. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Also. Strains. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. 21. to prevent corrosion. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. use of protective coatings. Aluminum. At the cathode. zinc. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. where e is an electron.109
be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Click here to view. 21. and
Fig. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. cracks.86
Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal.
Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump.87). Inc.
. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.21. To prevent cavitation. magnesium. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. hydroxides. psia. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates.87
Cathodic protection of a metal. Inc. McGraw-Hill. Water enters at the center. 21. psia. by (21. Click here to view. “Water Quality and Treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. ft.. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. or eye. and the head-discharge relationship.88
Volute-type centrifugal pump. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. oxides. horsepower. efficiency. The centrifugal pump. however. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater
21. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. graphite.” 4th ed. Corrosion. 21.)
w = unit weight of liquid. and so on on the walls of the pipes. To have practical meaning. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. 21.147) where pa = pressure.
lime. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. All rights reserved. called a volute (Fig. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. in feet. or impeller. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. ft of water z = elevation difference. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing
Fig. New York. 21. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.56 Centrifugal Pumps
The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. z is negative. between pump center line and water surface
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Zinc.. (American Water Works Association. the most common waterworks pump. accomplishes that in two steps.110 s Section Twenty-One
by centrifugal force. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer.88).
(Also included in Fig. Inc. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. as shown in Fig. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.57 Well Pumps
These are classified as centrifugal. Karassik et al. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. See also Art. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. “Pump Handbook. New York. discharge curve with the brake horsepower.58. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. propeller. In a typical water-system analysis.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For that reason. and air lift. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
than the required NPSH. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.89. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view.” 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (I.)
21. pump discharge. below 200 gal/min. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. helical. 21.. All rights reserved.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.. jet. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. 21.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.57 and check valves in Art. head. however. 21.
Fig. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. J.89
Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. 21. 21. depending on the number of stages. rotary. reciprocating. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.
which is a function of specific speed. Jet pumps (Fig. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. utilize piston action to move water. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. All rights reserved. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. vanes. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Click here to view. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. r/min Q = discharge. Inc. cams. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. either hand. they can be used only for sediment-free water. which are located at the well bottom. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. so that the entire lift is suction.90 fied). especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. (21. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Because of the close tolerances.112 s Section Twenty-One
Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used.148) where n = impeller speed. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.
. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. and for Ns above 7500.21. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. At sea level. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-
Fig. Reciprocating pumps.or motordriven. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. gal/min H = head. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. 21.
Section through a jet pump (simpli-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. They have a fixed chamber in which gears.
Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Inc. Usually. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). one just upstream of the meter. “Pump Handbook. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are the major advantages of plug-type valves.
. The major types of isolating valves are gate. in-service lubrication features. Check. But these valves cost more than gate. Karassik et al. applied through a gear-reduction device. fast operation.” 2nd ed. sluice gate. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. large pressure differences. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. which are water. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. If sand is carried out with the water. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. and low head loss when fully open. and butterfly valves. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. rotates the disk. needle. respectively. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Hand or motor power. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and easy. All rights reserved. globe.. availability. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. globe. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. one at the service connection. and butterfly. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Low head loss. (I. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. solids deposition. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. pumps. pressure-regulating. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. or Neoprene.58 Valves
Water facilities use many different types of valves.) drives to permit manual operation. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings.or oil-lubricated. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. cone. New York. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. three valves must be used. Also. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. primarily because of their low cost. curb. plug. or corporation cocks. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. pressure-relief. tubercle formation. air-relief. rubber. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Simplicity of construction and quick.. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Corrosion. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff.113
tion. J. Plug. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Needle valves are used for accurate
21. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves.
such as pressure regulators and altitude. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel.
. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads.59 Fire Hydrants
A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. The wetbarrel. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. For example. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The most common check valve is the swing type. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. rivers. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only.
21. such as trunk lines
21. All rights reserved. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. which connects the barrel to the main. Furthermore. Often. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. check. Inc. Usually. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Interior-differential. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. tube. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or California type. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. and large pipes. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves.21. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices.60 Metering Devices
Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. and relief valves. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Many automatic control valves. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure.114 s Section Twenty-One
control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. When the valve is in a closed position. Because of high head losses.
The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Brater. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. such as meters for individual customer connections. durability. nozzle.149) Hydraulics. see E. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. The nutating disk is used. which do not affect propeller meters.91. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. However.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. “Handbook of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or nutating-disk types.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. ft h1 = pressure in main section. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. rotary. are the most common velocity-type devices. and cost. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. F.5% within the normal test-flow limits. for metering domestic-service connections. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter
d1 = diameter of main section. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems.. or modifications thereof. vertical velocity components. The standard venturi meter (Fig. A clicking noise.150) where Q = flow rate. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired.
(21. respectively. 21. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss.” 6th ed. 21. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. called a Price meter. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.115
of distribution systems. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. amount of head loss through the meter. The cup-type meter. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.) As in venturi meters. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Click here to view. Inc. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston.
. but they are used primarily in laboratories. New York. simplicity and ease of repairs. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. All rights reserved. ft d2 = diameter of throat.
Rate structures are typ-
ically based on demand. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. (b) Nozzle meter. All rights reserved.116 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. flat rate is falling into disuse. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This type of charge tends to encourage waste.91 plate meter. Click here to view. and development of the system. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. step rate. and block rate.
. fire use.
Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. or to some other recognized system. (c) Orifice-
21. 21. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. seasonal use. load factors. if any. utility-type enterprises. fixed charges on capital investment. peak rates of use. and similar items. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Inc. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.61 Water Rates
The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained.
1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. This charge is usually small. called the commodity component. canals. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities.117
With step rate. draft tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. tunnel. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cost component 2. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. buying water from a wholesale supplier.152a)
Hydroelectric Power and Dams
Hydroelectric plants. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Cost component 1. including metering and billing. S. When fixing a system of rates. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more.746 kW 1 kW = 1. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. generators and exciters. called the demand component. of serving an individual customer. where applicable. All rights reserved. For most distribution systems. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. where the majority of small users are. and. Cost component 3. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. treatment chemicals. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. called the customer component. a building to house the machinery and equipment. and (3) cost.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation
Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. pumping energy. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. tunnels. and transformers. switching equipment. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. Inc.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. penstocks. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. It is generally recognized that residential areas. depends on the peak usage of a customer. turbines and governors. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system.
21. Click here to view. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized.
Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. weekly. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. weekly. All rights reserved.92). On a weekly cycle. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Storage can be provided for a daily. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity.
. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. If the minimum flow is very low. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. to be used at some future time. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. 21.118 s Section Twenty-One
(21. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. power production being only incidental.21. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. or seasonal cycle. On a daily cycle. such as navigation. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. or yearly basis. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Therefore. and peak-load plants. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. base-load plants. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. Click here to view. run-of-river plants with storage. Then. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. On a seasonal cycle. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from
Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. It can be computed on a daily. Inc. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river.
which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. Hasen.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high
power demand. 21. Force F2 represents silt pressure. and rock-fill.92). Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. arch.119
Fig. the energy loss may make it uneconomical.. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. buttress. This silt pressure can be cal-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.)
Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure.
.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Los Angeles. Zipparo and H. Its distribution is triangular. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Calif. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. (V. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Click here to view. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle.92
Daily load curves for generating plants. (Department of Water and Power. earth. New York. The main classifications are gravity. 21. Figure 21. J. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 4th ed. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Inc. it usually is not as economical. McGraw-Hill Book Company. When needed. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. All rights reserved.)
steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.
) (21. A method of calculating these forces. A close approximation of the force.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 434.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Most dams in seismically active regions in
the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.
culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0.425h above the base. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.” discussion by von Karman. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. These accelerations occur in every direction. ice pressures as high as 50. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. p.153). Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. given by Eq. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 1933. presented by Edwin Rose.1 g. which forms on the reservoir surface. vol. May 1946. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam.93 by forces F4 and F5.93
Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. ice. today it is realized these values are much too high.120 s Section Twenty-One
. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. In cold climates. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. (21. Rose. In the past. 98.000 psf. 21. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. Inc.21. which create forces on any object resting on it. however.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. was developed by von Karman. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.153) where w = unit weight of water. 21. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.
but its formwork is more expensive. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. and uplift forces are smaller. The modes of failure are also the same. because of bearing contact. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their relative importance is much different. and clay. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. engineers assumed that. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. They are not suited to most sites. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. or failure of the foundation material. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. First. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the membrane is a series of concrete arches.
. Hence. Although there are many types of buttress dams. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. overturning by rotating about the toe. but the structural design is much more critical. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. All rights reserved. On arch dams. however. However.121
imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. If the deflections are not equal. however. When the base is not drained. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. Recent belief. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. If a large quantity of pervious material. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. sand. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. such as sand and gravel. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. rock flour. silt. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. In the multiple-arch. Click here to view. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. In the past. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. however. but it does not pro-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. is available and clayey materials must be imported. uplift is not so important. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. Inc.
determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult.
. Bureau of Relamation. S.122 s Section Twenty-One
vide the flexibility of clay materials. although steel has been used occasionally.3 on 1.” U. 21. however. The downstream face is usually 1. Inc. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Today. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. If pervious material is not available. (V. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. onto the fill. Temporary facings are usually of wood. S. Leakage should be expected. bonding into the dumped rock. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Army Corps of Engineers. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. the natural angle of repose of rock. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Click here to view. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. The facing is usually concrete. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. New York. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel.” 4th ed.64 Hydraulic Turbines
In the past. providing power. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. and an upstream impervious facing. U. sometimes from as high as 175 ft.3 on 1.94). therefore. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. bearing on the rubble cushion. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. J. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.. Zipparo and H. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Hasen. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. All rights reserved. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.” EM 1110-2-2300. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. For some types of soil. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. or wood over concrete. For dams over 200 ft high. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing.)
21. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work.21.
runner.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.94 turbine. All rights reserved. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. Inc. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft.95a). 21. runner. At heads above 1000 ft. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. such as the Kaplan turbine. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. it changes direction. Hasen.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs
Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (V. In such installations. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. When the power demand on the turbine changes. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York.123
bine. The propeller turbine (Fig. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.” 4th ed.)
Fig.. In these. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. However. As the water flows through the tur-
21. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. J. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. At heads below 100 ft. and draft tube. The wicket gates. and draft tube. and the fixed-blade type. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. 21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. Zipparo and H. wicket gates. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their efficiency decreases rapidly. if the load drops below 50%. however. the propeller-type (Fig.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. however.95c). 21.
Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic
In most impulse turbines. Click here to view. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. wicket gates. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. This creates a force on the runner. control the amount of water that enters the turbine.
. located just outside the perimeter of the runner.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. 21.
21. the dam will not be damaged by the water. This type of spillway is
Fig. All rights reserved. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. widely used for concrete dams because.21.65.124 s Section Twenty-One
out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. Click here to view.
. Inc. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. (c) axial flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Kaplan. if designed correctly.95
Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis.1 Spillways
An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.
S.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. In a shaft spillway. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways.96
Siphon spillway. lined. The weir can be sharp-crested. Click here to view. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. 21. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. flared. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. 21. All rights reserved. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir.125
The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. The air vent shown in Fig. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.” Government Printing Office. open channel. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. In a side-channel spillway. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. When the head is relatively low. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. model tests are usually employed. called an ogee spillway. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. Inc. 21. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. As the head increases. Bureau of Reclamation. Once this second condition is reached. DC 20402). (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. In a chute spillway. siphon spillways hold the water
Fig. This type of spillway. or ogee in cross section. “Design of Small Dams. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Washington. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. A siphon spillway (Fig. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. the siphon’s intake is sealed.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. both depending on the head on the weir. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power.
. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. 21. Thus.34).
the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the pipes fail. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.98
Taintor gate. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. On large stop-log installations. making removal difficult. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter.
Fig. and providing support for the conduit.126 s Section Twenty-One
The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. 21. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers.21. Click here to view. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.
level of a reservoir within close limits. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them.
21. In a taintor gate (Fig. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.
. Inc.5 ft/s. causing damage and hampering operation. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. controlling flow. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. All rights reserved. To do this. In contrast.97). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack.2 Intake Structures
The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir.3 Crest Gates
These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.65.
99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. The drum gate (Fig.99 Drum gate. 21.” 4th ed. To raise a bear-trap gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Fig. All rights reserved. Babbitt. New York. Zipparo and H. (V. Hasen.
. Because of the large recess required in the dam.127
Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. J. as shown in Fig. and J. and H. Doland. 21. 21.98.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Click here to view. J..” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. “Water Supply Engineering. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up.Water Resources Engineering s 21. L. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. drum gates are not suited to small dams. E. J. Cleasby.
All rights reserved. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.blank page 21.128
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.