# 21

W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

21. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. abrupt pressure increases force them
Fig. Its value
Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric.7 psia.1) where h = capillary rise. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. 21. at sea level. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. ft Capillarity. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Gage pressure. 21. Meniscus. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. In equation form. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. (21. When the liquid is in a closed container. psia. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Absolute pressure.3. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. ft σ = surface tension. as shown in Fig. Inc.2. is concave upward.1. like surface tension. psi. and freezing damage to concrete. Its temperature variation. Thus. All rights reserved. 21.7 psi. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Click here to view. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. as shown in Fig.
face and rises in a small tube. formation of spray from water jets. decreases with increasing temperature.000 ft is shown in Fig. pitting. are significant in others. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Surface tension and capillarity.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube.
.21. is small and insignificant in most problems. although negligible in many water engineering problems. however. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. 21. or liquid surface.4 s Section Twenty-One
at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. respectively. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.

It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h.00001059 ft2/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. on the bottom surface. µ of a fluid. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. or completely turbulent flow exists. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. the pressure acts equally in all directions. ft2/s. and the force due to pressure p2. Inc.
to collapse. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. psf. ft. of length and time. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. transitional. on the top surface. Then. or implode. (Pressures as high as 350. ft2. or dynamic viscosity. which extend into the pores of the metal. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. also called the coefficient of viscosity.3
Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Since the prism is at rest.3 Fluid Pressures
Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.
. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. absolute viscosity. is a measure of its resistance to flow. Viscosity. In hydraulics. ft/s y = depth.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. 21. psf. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Click here to view.2) where τ = shearing stress.8) to determine whether laminar. It is so named because its units. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields
V = velocity. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. and cross-sectional area A. 21. All rights reserved. At any depth. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. 21. and pitting appears.4. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest.5
Fig. as shown in Fig. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. lb/ft3. are a combination of the kinematic units
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. the force due to pressure p1. lb/ft2
21. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

the depth of the centroid.3a) Division of Eq.4).3a) by A yields (21. (21.5)
21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. at depth h. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. Therefore. the depth below the water surface. (21.4. the pressure.4) Equation (21.3b) then becomes (21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. Figure 21. Taking ∆h to be h. All rights reserved.3.7)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. where w is the specific weight of water. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. however. (21. (21.
. ft2.1
Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces
This is important in the design of weirs. p1 is atmospheric pressure. Click here to view. and other water control structures.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. The resultant pressure force P. Thus. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4
Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.6) can be simplified by setting
– – surface. Equation (21. lb/ft3. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. ft. dams.
(21. lb. 21.6) – ∫ydA = y A. then p2 is p. tanks. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. psf. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.6 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. For horizontal surfaces. and y sin θ = h . 21.

It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.p. 21.2° to the horizontal (Fig. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.29). All rights reserved. Hence y . Click here to view. The location of the center of pressure.8) equals –A. Inc. if that locus is a straight line. with
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. The denominator of Eq.7
Fig. (21. (21.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.
Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. psf. represented by the length yp. of the surface about its centroidal axis. 21.
where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. where K is the radius of gyration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. ft.
.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. Example 21.) but acts at a point (c. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . the total force P = whA.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.7). 6.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. Thus.6 (see also Fig. (21. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.7). For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.p. 21.g. (21. Pyp = ∫y dP.8).5). yp may be calculated directly from Eq. (21. 21. Otherwise. – From Eq.).g.) that is below the c.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.

21.8.08/5 = 5.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.g. Note: 1. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the
Thus.42 ft. (21. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. Inc.6
Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.2
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces
The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged
Fig. From Eq.42 = 5.3. P = 62. however. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.9). Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 ft. All rights reserved.7
Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. 21.8 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. (See Example 21. Therefore. K2 = point G. 21. yp = 5.
.0 + 0.08.5 + 1/ (5. Also.0) = 5. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0 + 2.21. Click here to view.) of common shapes. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.

9). Click here to view.7).
Fig.6 ft3. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.
. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. (21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. 21. so the weight of the water is 19. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.6 × 62. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. Inc.9. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. 21. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.14 × 25/4 = 19. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.4°. 2. When water is below the curved surface. (See Example 21.564. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.2. Its angle with the horizontal is known.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. All rights reserved.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6w = 19.5 × 5 = 780 lb. PH = whA = 62. (b) Free-body diagram.9
Fig. Example 21. The corresponding angle is 57. and for a constant-radius surface.4 × 2. – From Eq.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals
The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.

g. or the difference in head. 21. the pressure head.10
Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. ft4
V = volume of displaced liquid. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently
Fig. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. whether floating or submerged.5 Manometers
A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.4). ft. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of
moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. The stability of a ship. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. Manometers indicate h. 21. is indicated by the metacenter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.10a). its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. ft3 ys = distance. 21. (21. p = wh.10 s Section Twenty-One
21. For a body to be in equilibrium. (21. 21. Given in feet by Eq.b.10b.
21. Inc.
. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. Click here to view.10b).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. (21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. All rights reserved..4 Submerged and Floating Bodies
The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.).

(c) differential
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The piezometer (Fig.
Basic types of manometers.
. 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. U-tube manometer. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21. Inc. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. although the latter is most common.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.11a is 2. What is hm?
Fig.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.12c). All rights reserved. and differential manometer.4 lb/ft3.11
accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11): piezometer. 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.11 manometer. However. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (a) Piezometers. (b) U-tube manometer. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.17 psi. 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Example 21. Click here to view.

The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the
Fig. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.11b) is used. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. 21. In this application. including negative gage pressures. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.21. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. Click here to view. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.
. as opposed to a fixed scale. Very low pressures. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12c). 21. 21.12 s Section Twenty-One
For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. A movable scale. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. Inc. the Utube manometer (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances.

40. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. psf.
The pressure at B. ft.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. Example 21. when expressed in feet of water. however.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. such as ft of water or psi. hm1 is 9 in. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. 21. Equation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf. the actual pressure difference.75 + 13. 21. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.4 × 2.0 ft. that is.4 × 2. One factor.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid
21.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. psf w = specific weight of fluid. in the manometer. the total energy per unit weight at 2. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. psf p2 = pressure at 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.6 × 62.11) where Z1 = elevation. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. Above 5.0 and 2.5. All rights reserved.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. if the actual difference is 0. Inc.4 × 0.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.
. and z is 1. however. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.25 ft. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. Most of them. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. is magnified by the differential manometer. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. 21. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. Click here to view.25 ft of water. hi is 2.13
indicating liquid. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. the magnification will be 2. 32.6). The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. 21. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. For example.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. and the right side. The differential manometer (Fig. such as might be required in laboratories. or sump. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. ft.12a. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
For fluid energy. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.

velocity. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. Inc.14
Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.5. velocity head. Usually.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.14. ft.14 s Section Twenty-One
(21.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.
Fig. and pressure. Example 21. 21.11). Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.21. Average velocity. ft3/s. varies with velocity. 21. lb/ft3. Kinetic energy at the section. where Va is the velocity. where W is the weight. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. or the total head ft: (21. Click here to view.13). 21. (21. lb. through friction.14) pa/w is called pressure head. V2/2g.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. (See Example 21. It equals WVa2 / 2g. however. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. The total energy. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This term hf.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2.13. where Q is the quantity of flow. when added to the downstream side of Eq. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. and pressure (Fig.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. All rights reserved. ft. across the area of the section A.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.4 ft3/s. 21. velocity. ft/s. above some arbitrary datum. As indicated in Fig. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.
. ft/s = Q/A. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. ft2. a
Fig. 21.

gate valve.4/ 3. Click here to view. A change in momentum.45 ft.9). The energy grade line. Z2 = 0. (21. respectively. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. 21. All rights reserved. Art.15
Fig. which may result from a change in either velocity. In openchannel flow. The slope
of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. ft. Also.12) yields
where hf is the friction loss. hf = 50 – 1. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. respectively. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Inc. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.14 = 10 ft/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hence. while in pressure flow. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. direction. since the pipe has free discharge.
Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.
. 21. Thus substitution in Eq. and any bends. or magnitude of flow.55 = 48. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. p2 = 0. sometimes called the total head line. is equal to the impulse. 21. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow.15). The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. or impulse-momentum equation:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.

94. Inc.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. (21. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.500 lb. Example 21. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.000 lb.700/82. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.2° + Ry = 1.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.96 sin 53. lb. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. To find F.
.2= 1. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.2° – 0) = 4.
Fig.000 sin 53.16. Click here to view. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. so θ = 60.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.5) = 65.15) first in the X direction.94 × 100 × 4. and at 2.600.600 lb In the Y direction.200 + Rx = 1.11) or (21. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. P2 = ppA2 = 13.1 Rx = –82.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. 21.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. Let R be the force.4/ 32.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.12)] but may be used separately. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. Fy = –181. which is to be determined). since ∆Vy = –(–7. Then.5°.000 cos 53.5 ft/s.2° – 13. With p1 known. then in the Y direction. (21.6. 21.200 lb. since ∆Vx = –(7.21.78.96 cos 53.78 Ry = 145. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. All rights reserved. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. apply Eq. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.94 × 100 × 65. (See Example 21.16 s Section Twenty-One
(21. Fx = 181.1 and the density ρ = 62.332π = 71.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.2° – 71.

usually more complex or built to a much larger scale.17
21. Popular before the advent of digital computers. and surface tension. gravity. In the preceding example. All rights reserved. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. such as a river. employs both physical and mathematical models. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations.7 Water Resources Modeling
A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. It is. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. aquifer. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. however. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. hybrid modeling. Usually. erosional scour. operate. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis
requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. In water resources engineering. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. viscosity. and through execution of the computer program. A fourth mode of modeling. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. Click here to view.1
Similitude for Physical Models
A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. With hybrid models. or proposed works. Physical models are expensive to build. or drainage basin.
21. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. such as storm rainfall. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. simulations of prototype behavior are possible.
. alternative management schemes. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. or prototype. Inc. In most models. 1. droughts. In this way. See also Art. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. For instance. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. momentum. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. to a given set of stimuli. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the capability of the computing resources. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results.7.7.

ft g = acceleration due to gravity.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. (21. the length ratio is the only variable. The Reynolds number is (21. (21. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. entrainment of air in flowing water.21a)
(21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ratios of the forces of gravity. and one other force are made proportional.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. viscosity. The inertial force. The Froude number is (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Then (21. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. respectively. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. ft2/s. The Weber number is (21. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. Reynolds number. Squaring both sides of Eq. Froude number. such as spillways and weirs. Similarly. All rights reserved. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.22) where ρ = density of fluid. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. Therefore. Once the length ratio has been set. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.21.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. such as depth or diameter). and Weber number.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.20) R is dimensionless. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion.18 s Section Twenty-One
the prototype does not introduce serious error. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. Click here to view.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. the model is termed a true model. which is always a predominant force. Inc.
. the formation of drops and air bubbles. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. 32.

All rights reserved. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. Click here to view. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. Rr = Lr. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. For such models. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. viscous. inertial. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. catchment areas. Hence. In some cases. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. in turn. such as a morning-glory spillway. mathematical models are. in particular. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. Sr = 1.23a)
(21. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. (21. such as flow networks.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.19
Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. Inc. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. and infiltration parameters. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The U. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. called a movable-bed model.
21.24). One type of model. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. These expressions.7. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.S. For instance. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. the logical representation of prototypes. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). and through execution of the computer program. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
.
(21. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. This type of model is called a distorted model.2
Types and Applications of Mathematical Models
Used in many applications of water resources engineering.25) In models of rivers and channels. (21.26) where V = mean velocity. are linked together to represent the system as a whole.

“Water Resources Planning. This approach.” D. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. 21.)
21.21. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction.
. This. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. As a result. if comparisons of different plans are required. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. S. reservoir regulation. landfill leachate analyses. Inc. R. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. As a general rule. G.” V.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. density. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. or pollution. H. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Whan. when fully implemented.17. and groundwater yield. impacts of dam breaks.” N. hydrodynamics. and is given by
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. sediment or pollutant transport. A. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. New York. and turbulent flow results. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. shown in Fig.)
Pipe Flow
The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. Grigg.2). As this shearing stress increases. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.” McGraw-Hill. wave or tidal analyses. Hoggan. watershed hydrology. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. Walker. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. (J. 1957. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. channel and river hydraulics. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. R. Click here to view. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes.20 s Section Twenty-One
into one entity. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. 3. ecosystem impacts and restoration. flood or drought impacts. All rights reserved. F. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. Art. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. and R. Also. design of hydraulic structures. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. and private sectors. Rothfus. or both. the model output required for design or evaluation. Hasen. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. as in annular passages. For closed conduits other than circular. (D. In object-oriented software. of all databases and software. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.8 Laminar Flow
In laminar flow. and among water resources modelers in the government. 21. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. Maidment. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. seepage. hydrologic forecasting. vol. evaporation and irrigation. flow routing. J. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Zipparo and H. academia. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. quantity and quality of water supply. “Handbook of Hydrology. however.

a disturbance will probably be magnified. (21.17). This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.” 6th ed.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.18.
(21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.29) For laminar flow. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. it is not practical to treat it analytically. 21. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. 32. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Therefore.
(E. (21. laminar flow is unstable.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. New York.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. than for laminar flow (Fig. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. As a result. 21.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity.19. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.l9.)
21. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. flow is laminar in circular pipes.
Fig. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. ft L = length of pipe section considered. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. causing the flow to become turbulent. as shown in Fig. Inc. ft ρ = density of fluid.27) where V = fluid velocity. As the Reynolds number increases. ft/s D = pipe diameter. the flow is completely turbulent. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. In laminar flow. the velocity distribution is more uniform. at completely turbulent flow. 21. 21. In this region.. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. 32.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R.21
Fig. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. These disturbances create eddies.
. 21.9 Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. Brater. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. 21. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. Click here to view. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. F. handbook of Hydraulics. All rights reserved. Eq.

0002 0.003 – 0.) Because Eq.19) to Determine f
ε.003 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. The head loss is independent of the pressure. enamels.1
Darcy-Weisbach Formula
Table 21. All rights reserved. Moody.0005 – 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.22 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. 21.21.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.0002 – 0.008 – 0. F.19) L = length of pipe. (L. Click here to view.001 – 0. 21. 32. ft V = velocity of fluid.00003 0.0005 – 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. 21.0002 0. (21.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. Inc. 21.2 ft/s
2
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.19
Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.
21. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.03 – 0.9.008 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.0005 0. ft D = diameter of pipe. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. (21.001 0. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.
The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.
.00085
One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. November 1944.

the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:
(21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. Click here to view.34b) (21. ft3/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.
This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.34e) where V = velocity. which requires experience in its choice.) Substitution into Eq.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.3. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.32) where n = coefficient.3
Manning’s Formula
Through experimentation.9. where D is the pipe diameter. All rights reserved. ft S = head loss due to friction.4 and 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.33e)
21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. (21.2
Chezy Formula
where Q = flow. Inc.
.33b)
(21.4
Hazen-Williams Formula
This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.11 (p. 21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. Tables 21.
21. ft/s C = coefficient.9.9.23
Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. ft L = length of pipe. ft
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.31) where V = velocity.33d)
(21.34c)
21.31) gives (21. (21. See also Table 22.34d)
(21. (Although based on surface roughness.33c)
(21. dependent on surface roughness.

012 0.015 0. 21. (21. All rights reserved.36) for a check. However.
21. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.013 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.013 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.7.015 0.013 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.013 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.7: Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in short pipelines.017 From 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes
Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.4 Values of n for Pipes.010 0. because
(21. ft3/s hf = friction loss.015 0.014 0.015 0.014 0.015 0. Example 21. Click here to view. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.012 0.011 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.20 ple 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.012 0. bends. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. Inc.010 0.24 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.013 0. enlargements.
.017 0.012 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.017 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. and valves and other pipe fittings.35a)
With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.21.017 Use in designing
Q = discharge.017 0. (21.35c)
(21.) Flow between reservoirs.010 To 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. (See Exam-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.35b)
(21.017 0.016 To 0.035 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.

good workmanship. Gibson. All rights reserved.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Inc. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21.37): (21.21).3 Sudden Contraction
The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.
21. so a full velocity head is lost. H.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. Ltd.25
Table 21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.
. 110 4 in.21 are approximate. (21. London.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. the values of K in Fig.38) A special application of Eq. minor losses must be considered.” Constable & Co. determined experimentally by Brightmore.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. (21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. 21. 120 24 in and over.
21. 110
(21. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).7. 21. 105 30 in and over. is (21. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. regardless of age. 85 16 in. (A. Table 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 140 Large sizes.2 ft/s
2
It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. wood forms.10. 135 In good condition. 120 Centrifugally spun..10. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. ft/s g = 32.2 Gradual Enlargements
The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.)
40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined
21. 120 Large sizes.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula
Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. (21. 80 4 in. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. steel forms. Click here to view. ft.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. where V is the velocity in the pipe. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 10 years older Average value. 115 12 in.10. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.. are presented in Table 21. good workmanship.37):
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 Sudden Enlargements
The following equation for the head loss.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.
Vitrified
these losses may exceed the friction losses.37) or (21.

2 0.9 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.66 0. fully open Gate valve.5 0. such as valves and elbows. D = pipe diameter.0 5.05 K = 0.10.63 0. fully open Swing check valve.89 1.71 0.3 0.2 2.9 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. Click here to view.80 K = 0. 21.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.
Globe valve.26 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.0 1.0
Table 21.
.21.4
21.81 0.50 K = 0.
Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence
Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For these reaTable 21.2 0.0 2.76 0.8 0.64 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. fully open Angle valve.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.25
The values in Table 21. All rights reserved.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.42) Table 21. and at bends is given by (21.21 of the sides. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.6 0.68 0.4 0.62 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses
The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Inc.8 are only approximate.

For low heads.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and angle of bend. 21. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. Hasen. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. (21. although they are usually round. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. this error is corrected by the C values. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.9 for low velocity of approach. If this velocity is significant.” Journal of Research. (V. J. (K. series D. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Beij.11 Orifices
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. 21. 82.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air
Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.22: (21. Click here to view.. 1. McGraw-Hill.44) where Q = discharge. All rights reserved. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients.)
Fig. Equation (21. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. however. not including friction loss in the bend. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Reynolds number. or rectangular. (21. vol. there is disagreement. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. (21. Figure 21. Orifices may have any shape.
.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.
21. vol.45)
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. not including friction loss. The data are in agreement that the head loss.42). H.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. Experiments on smooth pipes. Inc. Inc. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.11. 21. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Ito. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. New York. Zipparo and H. National Bureau of Standards. square. July 1938. no.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1960.42).22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits.” 4th ed..) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. its effect should be taken into account. the bend loss essentially remains constant.27
sons. 21.23.

4 0.602 0.596 0.613 0.615 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.602 0.617 0. the vena contracta.602 0.604 0.04 0.601 0.614 0.616 0.593 0.603 0.21.637 0..594 0.644 0.609 0.655 0.603 0.28 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.602 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.605 0.648 0.94 to 0.592 0.627 0. determined experimentally.622 0.608 0.606 0.595 0.623 0.610 0.599 0.602 0.599 0.648 0.598
* Hamilton Smith.628 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.601 0.600 0.0 Head.619 0.618 0.598 0.618 0.596 0. “Hydraulics.619 0.611 0. Inc.614 0.45) becomes (21.617 0.592
0.604 0.660 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.04 0.46) The actual velocity.610 0.626 0. All rights reserved.605 0.637 0.596 0.607 0. Z1 = h.612 0.631 0.1 0. 21.596 0.632 0.606 0.598 1.602 0.607 0.0
0.621 0.628 0.637 0.
.634 0.02 0.601 0.605 0. Jr.629 0.602 0.593 0.604 0.636 0. and Eq.643 0.593 0.592 1.614 0.600 0. Click here to view.598 0.5 2 2.” 1886.612 0.02 0. ft 0. of circular orifices.641 0.590 0.616 0.596 0. and Z2 = 0.596 0.611 0.607 0. (21. With the reference plane through point 2.630 0.603 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.632 0. V1 = 0.600 0.23
Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.608 0.618 0.595 0. ft 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.608 0.652 0.1 0.605 0.601 0. ft 0.623 0.597 0.594 0.599 0.623 0.599 0.600 0.602 0.603 0.595 0. to
Fig.591 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.99.597 0.6 08 1 1.613 0 610 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.)
21.61 to 0.48) is obtained. With a partly suppressed orifice. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (21. New York.
Discharge through a submerged
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11. In Fig. Eq. F. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. (21.25 orifice. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because
more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. McGraw-Hill Book Company.24b. ft. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. Inc. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 Discharge under Falling Head
The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.. between 1 and 2.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices.67.29
Fig. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.2 Submerged Orifices
Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.
21. 21.47) where hL = losses in head. 21.11.” 6th ed. 21. 21. All rights reserved. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.
the area of the orifice. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Figure 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the
Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.25. Brater.
. see E.

ft h2 = head at the end.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. (21. For simplicity. obtained by solving Eq.56) Fig.50) becomes (21. (21. to time t.57) (21. Inc.
. Eq. (21. (21.11.26): (21.56). 21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. Eq.21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.59). The initial velocity of the jet is (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.50) where a = area of orifice. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. when y = h1.57) for t and substituting in Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2
A = area of reservoir. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. Click here to view.49) Solving for dt yields (21.58) Equation (21. is that for a parabola: (21.55)
21. s The Y coordinate is (21.58)]. (21.58) gives (21.30 s Section Twenty-One
volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.4 Fluid Jets
Where the effect of air resistance is small. All rights reserved.23). (21. (21.
(21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. Rearranging Eq.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. when y = h2.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. 32. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. 21.

the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.75. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes
This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. if one exists). Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. however.11.11. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.00 and the coefficient of veloci-
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. ft2
Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.
21. Inc.
Fig. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. (21.33VT / 2g.82. (21.27.31
ty Cν = 0. 21. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.82.27) but the head loss is larger. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. Click here to view. 21. 21. Equation (21. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21. In the tube or pipe. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.5 a T T Fig.82 VT)2/2g = 0. 21. When this happens. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.67 V2 ) = 0.00 VT / 2g – 0.80. psf w = unit weight of water.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes
When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. 21. For a short tube flowing full. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.67 V T / 2g = 0.67 V2T /2g. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.
. Therefore.28).Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. 21. a K value for Eq.42) of 0.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.29.

30).32 s Section Twenty-One
Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.21. The pipe shown in Fig. The change causes a pressure rise.29. 21. 21. However. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. 21. All rights reserved. either above or below the normal pressure. For this analysis to be valid. Click here to view. this momentum drops to zero.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.31
Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. it causes water hammer.
Fig. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. the water in the pipe is motionless. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. As the water flows into the reservoir. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow.13 Water Hammer
Water hammer is a change in pressure.32). At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. When a valve is closed. either increased or decreased.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. the pressure in the pipe falls. but at a pressure much higher than normal. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon.12 Siphons
A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. 21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21.
Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. Inc. 21.
21. the tube must flow full. Every time the flow rate is
changed. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.
.

21. (21.64)
21. All rights reserved. Inc. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.
. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.13. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. (21.1 Instantaneous Closure
The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. Equation (21. (21.33
of flow and the length of the pipeline. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. Click here to view. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. 21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. approximate solution.63a) becomes (21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. s A plot of pressure vs.
Fig. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.63a) In terms of pressure head.63). 1. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. For instantaneous closure: (21.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity)
4
D = diameter of pipe. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. ft
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.2 Gradual Closure
The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. 43. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.13.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.

(21. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. penstock thickness = 1 in. (21. ft L = length of pipeline. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. s T = actual closure time of valve. Inc. where ∆t. the esti-
= 3180 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (21. J.21. each causing an individual pressure wave.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. Once the time interval has been determined. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. 21. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. Inc. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. and Ao the original area of the valve opening.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. the increment of time. Vo the original velocity. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.
. Hasen. Thus. Click here to view.63). head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. then that obtained from Eq. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).) Velocity of pressure wave. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. such as L/aU. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.61)..2 × 108 psf. New York. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. area = 78. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. (21.5 ft2. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. from Eq. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. diameter = 10 ft. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. All rights reserved. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.34 s Section Twenty-One
where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. (21.63). where a equals any integer. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure.32. equals L /aU.) Example 21. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. Zipparo and H.” 4th ed. is
g = acceleration due to gravity. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve.63). length = 3000 ft. With the head known. 32. (V. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. to apply Eq. (21.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. McGraw-Hill.

3 Surge Tanks
It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer.75 s.63).14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis
The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. 21.35
valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. When a valve is suddenly opened.Water Resources Engineering s 21.64) gives the following result:
21. the closure is instantaneous. lb Hence.90 s. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.
. is
Pipe Stresses 21. Click here to view. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. Various types of relief
Fig. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. in
Assuming T = 4. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.13. All rights reserved. 21.34). to prevent water hammer. Fig. in effect. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.
Internal pipe pressure produces hoop
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.33) must still be designed for water hammer. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. Usually.34 tension. When a valve is suddenly closed. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. approximate equation (21. the stress. from Eq. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. The water column. and the pressure rise.66) where p = internal pressure. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. 21. on the pipe material is (21. (21.90 s. psi. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. Inc. it is by no means the only one. floats on the line.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.

psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67). However. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. If D/t is less than 10.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. All rights reserved. (S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. M. Eq. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. Inc. it acts like a beam.” 2nd ed.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints
21. The force diagram in Fig. 21. is (21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends
It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. Equation (21. due to a temperature change is (21. (21. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. However. elastic Stability. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. New York. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. (21. this analysis is approximate. if expansion joints are to be used. P Timoshenko and J.67) for concrete pipe.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe
If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. The stress. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. In this case.6). there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. (21. “Theory of . psi. In Fig. The internal diameter is used in Eq. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. For concrete pipes. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis
If a pipe is supported on piers. (21. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. Art.10). Eq.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. Click here to view.. 21. 21.21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction.
21. In all bends. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter.36 s Section Twenty-One
From the derivation of Eq.
. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. For steel pipes. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g
21. Gere.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. 6. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.

21. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. the joints must also be able to take these forces. In small pipes. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. (21. however. Click here to view. However.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or other embankment.
. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. is usually unwarranted because of the rela-
(21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.71) give a quick solution. Inc.
P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. and slope. All rights reserved. exit conditions. Eqs.35
Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. canal. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.71) where R = resultant force on bend. psf w = unit weight of water.37
Fig. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.70)
Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. an exact theoretical analysis. 32. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. 62.
Culverts
A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.70) and (21. a railroad.

computer software. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. that is.38 s Section Twenty-One
tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. Click here to view. slope is greater than the critical slope.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. charts.30)]. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. For this reason. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. 21.21. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the following equation is obtained: (21. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.38).22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.73)
21.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Inc. (21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge.” EB058W. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.33d) or (21. but they do not cover
Fig. 21.
.23). This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. and the Manning equation for friction loss. 21.37). Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.36).36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the normal depth (Art. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. and the control will still be at the inlet. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. the culvert flows full. All rights reserved. 21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper
In a culvert with a critical slope. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. Portland Cement Association.

When slope is less than critical. for the open-channel condition (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. open-channel flow takes place. Inc.75) Substituting this into Eq. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. The fluid flows under pressure.
. When the slope is less than critical. The discharge.74) yields (21. ft V = velocity in culvert.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.23).39). When slope exceeds critical. ft Equation (21. and dn < dc . Click here to view. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Discharge depends on head H.
Fig. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. 21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.
where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. 21. normal pipe flow occurs.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance.74)
Fig. 21. Discharge is independent of slope.
The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21. (21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. (21. Thus. depending on the head.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. and dn > dc .20)
21. loss at entrance. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. 32.39
Fig. flow depends on inlet condition. and slope of culvert. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 21.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes
Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. 21. All rights reserved.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert.

21. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. If the friction slope approaches critical.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Most culverts.40). ft dn = normal depth of flow. Inc. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig.41).21.18). which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and
Fig. If the head on a culvert is high. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.76). 21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit.40 s Section Twenty-One
S = slope of energy grade line.37).76).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.
. (21. 21. (21.76). ft To solve Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view. (21. When the friction slope is flat.39). it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.72). If this condition exists. however. (21. 21. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. All rights reserved. and discharge is given by Eq. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. 21.

10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. These values are for culverts flowing full. When the entrance is not submerged.41
For entrance control. square edge Concrete pipe. Eq. n = 0. and the entrance will not control. (21. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. (21.19).
. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts
Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. (21. Click here to view.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.6.9 0. But H = 5 + 0. (21. Substitution in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. slope = 0.44) for discharge through an orifice. projecting Concrete pipe.
Application of Eq. Since the culvert is under pressure. and free exit.15 0. groove or bell.5 0.
21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. (21. Inc.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.01. All rights reserved. with Eq.18 and 21.8 ft3/s Table 21.
Fig. Find: size of culvert. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.08
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. length = 300 ft. First find dn.73). 21.10 0. groove or bell.72) yields
Q =Va = 9.72) applies.40).Water Resources Engineering s 21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.
Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.013. Example 21.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. To calculate the hydraulic radius. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.95 × 4 = 39.33a) gives
a pipe flow condition will result. Table 21. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. the flow is under pressure. 21.72) and (21. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. 21.

Click here to view. or the total-head line. ft2 When the discharge is constant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.79). It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. ft. 32. and is given by (21. All rights reserved. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It is expressed in feet as (21.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. ft. (21. within a hydraulic jump.80) where V = average velocity from Eq.77) where V = average velocity. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. Inc. Hence.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. or slope. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Thus. depth of flow is constant throughout. Figure 21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. normally taken as 1. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. however. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. The wetted perimeter is the length.36 for prismatic channels. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance.
Open-Channel Flow
Free surface flow. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.79) The velocity head HV. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The average velocity of flow V is defined
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or open-channel flow.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels
A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. minus the free surface width. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. is generally given by (21. It has uniform flow if the grade.03 to 1. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. (21.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. It is. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations.21. as the discharge divided by the area of flow.
. ft3/s.
21. Equation (21. plus the velocity head at the point.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. In a uniform channel.42 s Section Twenty-One
Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and discharge are known.42
Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.) (21. 21. ft. 21.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. as shown in Fig.43. New York. Inc. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21.84) reduces to
Fig.” 6th ed.
. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.43). and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. for example.83)
Brater. Click here to view. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. (See.44. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. 21. As the depth decreases downstream. Chow. McGrawHill Book Company. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.22 Normal Depth of Flow
The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.. All rights reserved. or to the diameter of a circular channel. 21. roughness. F. (V. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft
2
R = hydraulic radius.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. For a rectangular channel. “Handbook of Hydraulics.
in which T is the top width of the channel. (21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. 21. ft. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.42 is called the normal depth dn. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. slope. E. Eq. the specific energy also decreases.43
Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. normal depth decreases downstream. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. T.84)
where A = area of flow.

(21. (21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. or it may be found directly from tables (E. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. For rectangular channels. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. 21. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. Eq. “Handbook of Hydraulics. and flow is supercritical.84). indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow
The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.43.21.44 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. or conversely. ft3/s d = depth of flow. New York). All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the depth is greater than critical.
21. for a given discharge. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.86)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..
.
(21.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.44).84) may be reduced to (21. For a given value of specific energy. the depth is below critical.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.44). Click here to view. The flow there is called subcritical flow. 21.” 6th ed. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. F. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.
In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. (21. Inc. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.84) is called the critical depth dc. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. Brater. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.

The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.
21. [As indicated by Eq. ft3/s b = width of channel. along with a high loss of energy. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. 21.45. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.52b. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels
One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula.
. (21. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. All rights reserved. 21. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. regardless of slope. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. p.57).] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.87)
Fig. 21. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.45
where dc = critical depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. 21. 21. flow is subcritical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. Such a change occurs gradually. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.44). For every depth greater than critical depth. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. however. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. as indicated in Fig. (21. It can be seen from Fig. 21. a hydraulic jump will occur. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. once calculated. without turbulence. flow is supercritical.85). Critical depth. indicating an irreversible occurrence. Inc.45
Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.

“Open-Channel Hydraulics. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.L.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.
. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. horizontal. at an arbitrary elevation. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.25). therefore. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.21. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. the average n values given in Table 21. T. C for critical. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.46c and d. 21.)
21. are in Table 21.46a and b.46 s Section Twenty-One
where R = hydraulic radius.L. H for horizontal. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).L. The M2 curve forms between the normal.L. E. 21.S.L. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.D. 21. ft V = mean velocity of flow.D. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. S for steep (supercritical). ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.90) where A = area of flow.9 and Table 21. there must be a continuing maintenance program. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. All rights reserved. The N.and critical-depth lines.4. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. New York. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.D. and adverse slope. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. Eq.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. (See also Art.D.11.46. as shown in Fig. 21. and A for adverse. Department of Agriculture. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.23).89) may be written (21. 21. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. (Although based on surface roughness. Chow. Click here to view. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Inc. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. 21. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. Dr. and the N. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. are identical for a channel of critical slope.D. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow
Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. and two types for channels of critical. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. and C. These curves are divided into five groups. and the critical-depth line C. is replaced by a horizontal line.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.

060 0. few weeds c.035
0. Click here to view. 21.035
0. The S2 curve.018 0. Gunite.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.014 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.140 0.040
0.025 0.010 0. commonly called a drawdown curve. Jagged and irregular 0. Rough C.033 0.022 0.025 0.025 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.022 0.023 0. Dry rubble 5.016 0. good section c. Unlined channels 1. high stage 2.050 0. respectively). Concrete (unfinished) a.017 0. 21. Rock cuts a.021 0.021 0.020
0.015 0. Gunite.015 0.030 0.035 0.016
0. No vegetation b. Light brush on banks 3.47
The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.050 0.040 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.011 0.014 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.120 0.016 0.013 0. All rights reserved. Asphalt a. Lined channels 1. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Clean. Planed.050
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Dense brush.46i and j. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.014 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Cement-mortar surface 3.027 0. straight and uniform a. Dense weeds.025 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical
Table 21.015 Avg 0.016
0.030 0.011 0.033 0. 21.022 0. Rough wood form B. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.100 0.014 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.024 0. Corrugated 2.017 Max 0. Steel form b. Wood a.023 0.012 0. Smooth b. Dredged earth a.46a and b. Masonry a.012 0. untreated 3. after weathering b.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.013 0.080 0.035 0. Cemented rubble b. Concrete a.025 0.013 0.013 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Float finish b.019 0.028 0.025 0. Metal a.016 0.032 0.018 0.030 0.012 0. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.012 0.013 0.
. Smooth and uniform b. With short grass.080 0. high as flow depth d. Smooth wood form c. wavy section 4. Excavated earth.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved..46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at
Fig. 21.
.48 s Section Twenty-One
depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.D. 21.L. indicates normal-depth line. The curves in Fig.21.D.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21.L.46k and l. Click here to view. H. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. N.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. and A profiles. critical-depth line. Examples in Fig. 21. C.

which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. For the section of channel in Fig. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. (21.
.77) if the depth were zero.)
21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). or reaches.5. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. For subcritical flow conditions. each reach is solved in succession. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.27. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. depending on the type of flow. ft/ft of channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. free overfall. known as its celerity. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. dam. All rights reserved. New York. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. Inc. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21.26 Backwater-Curve Computations
The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. Chow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.49
a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. 21. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. (R. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. The wave travels at a speed. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. New York. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. For step-method computations. H. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Inc. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. 21. and step methods.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill.. T. weir. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. See Art. the channel is divided into short lengths. French. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. Explanations of both the graphical. with relatively small variation. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.51). 32. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve.47. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method.and direct-integration methods are in V. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. direction-integration. gate.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. Click here to view.

and vice versa. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. 21. as given by Eq.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line.93) where R = hydraulic radius. rearranged as follows:
Fig. Inc. is negligible and can be ignored. and – SL = hf. hi. 21. Therefore. Click here to view.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. (For uniform. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 s Section Twenty-One
So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2.21. (21.91) for L gives (21. due to friction in the same reach. The smaller the value of n.93).47
Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. not the channel bottom.92) (21. (21.22) but
where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. ft.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the longer the backwater curve profile. (21. respectively. the – eddy loss. 21. the change in elevation. Solving Eq. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. All rights reserved. ft. prismatic channels. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope.82). ft n = roughness coefficient (Art.
. the head loss.

94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities.2 for diverging reaches. (21. Next. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. (21. (21. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. referred to a horizontal datum. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. the average friction slope for the reach.
. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. which. For lined channels. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. 21. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. Click here to view.93). Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. (21. grade. Since this step method is a converging process.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. ft. is obtained from Eq. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. and about 0. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. ft/s. (21. Eddy loss.92).95) The coefficient k is 0.93).97) must agree with the value of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Inc. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. ft.47. (21. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. the friction loss. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. (21. The value of total head computed from Eq. in natural channels. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. Then. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. computations progress toward the initial section. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. becomes (21. Therefore. by a slight increase in Manning’s n.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Then. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. S.94). respectively. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. after substitution of H from Eq.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Next. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.96). Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. and it is therefore often accounted for. total head H. (21. or roughness. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Finally.95). at sec– tions 1 and 2.1 for converging reaches.51
may be some intermediate depth. from 0 to 0. Z2. sometimes called impact loss. respectively. ft. All rights reserved.

48
Hydraulic jump. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. Bradley. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. Federal Highway Administration.. known as the length of jump. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.S. 1970. If the two values of total head do not agree. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. however.
21.” Hydraulics Design Series no. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.1 ft in elevation. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. known as the roller. and J. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. Bureau of Public Roads. 2nd ed. a gate. bridge piers. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.27 Hydraulic Jump
This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. or other obstruction.52b. Utilizing the above data. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. 21. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.48). U. All rights reserved. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. However. N. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. French. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. 1. respectively.23). The upstream surface of the jump.27. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). and determine the discharge. approach roadways. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.51 and 21. The effect of bridges. as shown in Figs. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. velocity. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area).21. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. 21. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir.
21. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.
Fig.52 s Section Twenty-One
total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. is a turbulent mass of water. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel.
. 21. 21. New York. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. Department of Transportation. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways.

ft
g = acceleration due to gravity. ft w = unit weight of water. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. in Eq.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. All rights reserved. ft d2 = depth after jump.100). (21. Click here to view.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels
The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.99) where M = mass of water. (21. (21. (21. For rectangular channels. ft/s2.105) where A = area of flow. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft/s.104) = discharge. ft3/s = unit of time. 21.82). V is the mean velocity.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. Inc.100) Equation (21. or alternate depths.98) and (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.16)]. and g = acceleration due to gravity. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. (21. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.102) Equation (21.53
which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. For open-channel flow.98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. 32. s (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft2 T = width of free surface. this resultant pressure force is (21. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.27. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. ft.101)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99). where L is a characteristic length. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation
dc = critical depth for the channel. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. This difference (Fig. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
21.
. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. d2 must also equal dc.49) is given by (21.

Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.23). In either case. there are undulations on the surface.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. which gives discharge vs. which. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface.5. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.S. 21. The jump is called an undular jump. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. depth after the jump.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. For F1 = 9. If the tailwater is too low. for example.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator
A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art.5 to 9. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. Inc.0 and larger. Click here to view. The jump is well-balanced. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. If the tailwater is too high.5. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump. 21. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. This jump may be called a strong jump. For F1 = 1. and the performance is at its best.5 to 4.7. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur.49. For F1 = 4. were classified by the U. depending on local conditions. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating
Fig. This jump may be called a weak jump.21. For F1 = 1. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. the jump will be drowned out. All rights reserved. very commonly in canals. and energy dissipation may reach 85%.
21. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. This jump may be called a steady jump. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. The jump action is rough but effective.7 to 2. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. can travel for miles. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. For F1 = 1 to 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.0. For F1 = 2. chute. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. below a spillway. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.27.
. 21.54 s Section Twenty-One
For rectangular channels.

21. prepared by V. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the
Fig. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. T. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The curve.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.51.55
curve involve changing the crest length. All rights reserved. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. The resulting curve (Fig. 21.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump
The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. But it has been determined experimentally.27. therefore. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Inc. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.Water Resources Engineering s 21.105). Chow from data gathered by the U. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. Accessories. These features are expensive to build.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. changing the apron elevation. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Click here to view. and sloping the apron.27.
21.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump
It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.
21. 21.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. 21. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. This length (Fig.

5% of critical depth. It is assumed. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. As depth d2 is lowered. if the downstream depth is lowered.75h in the absence of better information. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. curves AB and ED in Fig. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. (21.52.51.52b. as shown in Fig. that flow is uniform. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. Click here to view. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. between lines CB′and EO. respectively (Fig. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. the jump moves to a new location downstream. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.21. equal in length to L.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. as theory would indicate. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. (21. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. Conversely. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap.46e and c). using the step methods of Art. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. 21. equal to the computed length of the jump. for simplicity.23) to mild. the jump occurs in the steep region. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. CB. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break.51
Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. (21.
The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. The actual depth at the brink is 71. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. as shown in Fig.52a. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. computed from Eq. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. Inc. which occurs near the channel drop-off. 21. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.7dc for simplicity. but it is normally assumed to be 0. the jump moves downstream to a new position. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. 21. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.26. 21. 21. computed from Eq. 21.101). A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. the computed length of jump.101) with d1 given. the 1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. A horizontal intercept FG.102). less than. If d2 is less than d′ . is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. All rights reserved.
. 21. The jump may be expected to form between the
points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.56 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. 21.

. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.3 for one with squared ends. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. or (b) below it. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. the entrance loss. H. Then.” McGraw-Hill. then the assumed discharge is correct. From Q = AV. All rights reserved. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.” 6th ed. ft. ignoring entrance loss.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the
Fig.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.
. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. if not. Brater.53a). the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. 21. F. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). Inc. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. and discharge is at a maximum. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.82) and (21. is (21.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel
The discharge Q.51. and the slope of the channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. Inc. 21. ft. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity
the discharge for rectangular channels. New York. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.. ft. (R.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance.57
jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where He is the specific energy head. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.85)].
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs.23). to which the resulting entrance loss is added. a new discharge is assumed. ft.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.106) where b is the channel width. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. Click here to view. 21. 21. ft3/s. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero.
sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. (21.)
21. French. on the channel entrance. “Handbook of Hydraulics. If the entrance loss must be considered. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.53). or (a) above it.

ft. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.21. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.53
Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. ft2. a new discharge is chosen.33). and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. He is the specific energy head. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves.53b).2 ft/s2. Inc. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. 21. (21. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. (b) mild-slope channel. 21.58 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. then the discharge is correct.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope
When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21. where He – d is the actual head. producing flow. ft. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21.53b.22). 32. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. All rights reserved. ft3/s.23). d is normal depth. and g is acceleration due to gravity. (In Fig. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. ———— charge.
. if not. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.83). Click here to view.

of the center line of the channel. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The error will not be great. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.107) The theoretical difference y.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. ft. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art.
21. when a stream enters a curve. or mV2 /rc for m. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. Therefore. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration.59
21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a
Fig. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency
If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle.Water Resources Engineering s 21.83)]. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. the true value of y would be only a few inches. In this range. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. ft. 21. ft /s. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius.
. Inc. Click here to view. 21.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels
Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. and rc the radius of curvature.
curve (Fig. If the bend continues long enough. All rights reserved.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. (21. where V is its average velocity. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. (21. 21. Thus. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.108). a unit mass of water.23). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. however. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width.

(21.
.” U. Click here to view. by (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. “The Flow of Water in Flumes.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.23). It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. 21.111). Department of Agriculture. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. Two waves form at the start of the curve.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Inc.60 s Section Twenty-One
Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.S. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. (21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. C. Technical Bulletin 393.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. The cross slope required for
21. 21. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. This angle may be found from (21. All rights reserved. however. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.21. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. (F. a series of standing waves are produced. and continue crossing and recrossing. depths along the inside wall. with sufficient accuracy.16)] .55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. flows around a bend in a channel. recross as shown.110) for θ in Eq.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.
Fig. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels
When water. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. His values have not been evaluated completely. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.55). Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. phase. and should be used with discretion. These waves cross at M. (21. One is a positive wave. The second is a negative wave. Scobey. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. an increase in friction loss results.

2 ft/s2. For outlet-type structures.2 for welldesigned transitions. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve.113) angle of about 12. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. ft/s.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. 21. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The transition loss. therefore.8[∆(V2/2g)]. 21. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump.1 [∆(V2/2g)].57). The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.1 for an inlet-type structure. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. 21.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. Click here to view. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. To place a transition properly between two open channels. If friction is ignored.
.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.44. the average velocity decreases. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.54). After the design has been completed for maximum flow. Straight. as shown in Fig.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. When proceeding downstream through a transition. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. ft. Inc. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. is given by K(∆V2/2g). 21. the loss factor. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an
Fig. ∆V is the velocity change. where K. wall roughness. low-head-loss transfer of flow. equals about 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. change from subcritical to supercritical.61
equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.44. or change from supercritical to subcritical. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. and channel shape and slope. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. respectively. 21. 21. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.33 Transitions in Open Channels
A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.
21. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. plus any transition and friction losses. and g = 32. p. Many variables. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. 21.56. such as flow-rate changes. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. In this range. if friction is ignored.23).

For Fig. measured from A or B. 21. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.000556(10)2 = 0. 21. y = ax2. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.59
Weir not sharp-crested. All rights reserved.5 = a(30)2.222 ft. the weir has free discharge. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.000556. as shown in Fig.
. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. trapezoidal weirs.21.59. such as broad-crested weirs.62 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. and parabolic weirs. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into
21. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Fig. triangular weirs. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.58). Click here to view. Inc. In contrast. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.57
Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.000556(20)2 = 0. If the discharge is partly under water. trapezoidal weirs. and. 21. from which a = 0.
21.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. such as rectangular weirs. 21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.34 Weirs
A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.
The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. 21.58
Sharp-crested weir. 2
If the nappe discharges into the air. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.57.1 Types of Weirs
A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. the weir is submerged or drowned. triangular or Vnotch weirs.34. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.
Fig.

All rights reserved.34. Equation (21. Inc. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. One such equation.
. 21.58) (V. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft The head should be measured at least 2. If P is less than
Fig.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. To be fully ventilated. 2.115) where Q = discharge. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. Click here to view. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. T. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. below the crest. Hence. contraction of the nappe. New York).5H for a complete crest contraction to form. A V-notch weir (Fig.116) corrects for the effects of friction. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. Chow. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.5H upstream from the weir. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided.5H.
21.63
hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.60
V-notch weir. At very low heads. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs
Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. thus causing a contraction of the flow. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. 21.

This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.34. Discharge is given by (21. there are two end contractions and N = 2.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. McGraw-Hill Book Company. measured from notch bottom. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.21.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.5H upstream from the weir.34. (21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. 21. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. 1943). All rights reserved. His values were summarized by Brater.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.119) where Q = discharge.64 s Section Twenty-One
where θ = notch angle H = measured head. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. vol. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.2) when low discharges are to be measured. F.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs
The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. New York).3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs
The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. Inc.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. T. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.” 6th ed.
21.118)
Fig. Lenz.
The effective length L. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. 69. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.62
Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. 21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. 21. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. ft H = head. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length..
Fig. ft.
.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Click here to view. there is one end contraction and N = 1.61) (E. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.118)]
21.34.

2
21.
.65
b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. Villemonte. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. From this total head. for such weirs. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. Eq.59).81) g = acceleration due to gravity. 25.122) where H = measured head. neglecting the velocity head. Click here to view.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.115) is rewritten in the form (21. and finally total head.
its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. velocity head of approach. (21.
Fig. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. All rights reserved. which may be done as follows: First. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.63
Submerged sharp-crested weir. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft V = velocity of approach. but
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 1947. Where great accuracy is essential.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Thus. (J. The discharge Qs. 32. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. Dec. using this discharge.) Equation (21.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. 866. ft.34. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs
The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. 21. R. 21. p. heavily constructed devices. ft3/s. Then.121) where Q = discharge. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. velocity head. or both. 21.) To use the Villemonte equation. ft
No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. using this rate and the required depths. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.” Engineering News-Record. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. Typically. ft/s V /2g = Hν.34. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.
21.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
These are sturdy. and then. ft3/s. compute the velocity of approach. (21.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.

ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.S. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the head in relation to the design head. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.12.” Government Printing Office. ft L′ = net crest lengths. (3) Broad-crested
Table 21.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.02 0. For conditions of design head Table 21. Therefore. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. head in relation to design heads.13. Washington. and approach velocity. DC 20402.66 s Section Twenty-One
compute the first corrected discharge. where approach velocities are high. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. But the process should be repeated.34.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Department of the Interior. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.2 of the head.10
H.123) where L = effective crest length. starting with the corrected discharge. thickness of pier.21. “Design of Small Dams. ft (U. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.20 0. All rights reserved.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp
0. and the approach velocity. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.
. The effect is most critical for low heads. For each change of nappe shape. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. Inc. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.
21. F.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.5Hd > r* > 0. Click here to view. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.01 0
0
* r = radius of abutment rounding. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. For conditions of design head Hd.

This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.5H upstream. Click here to view. at the point of maximum contraction. 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. (21. and therefore of an ogee crest. for a sharp-crested weir. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. called the design head Hd. The ogee-crested weir (Fig.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir
The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested.66 of the head. Department of the Interior. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. This crest pressure reduces
the discharge below that for ideal flow. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. T. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement.
21. This manual and V.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. According to Chow.122). 21. “Design of Small Dams. 1. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.67
Fig. Figure 21. Chow. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. however.34. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. This relationship is shown in Fig.65. Of the above rules.S. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. 21. Washington. Inc. DC 20402. 2. 21. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.” Government Printing Office.
Fig.
. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. depends on the head producing the discharge.64) has such a shape.
weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. All rights reserved. New York). Chow. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. where discharge is given by Eq. The shape of this nappe.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. Consequently. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For flow at heads lower than the design head. T. “Open-Channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (U.

67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.” U. (From “Design of Small Dams.)
Fig. Inc. Figure 21.S. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (From “Design of Small Dams. Bureau of Reclamation. All rights reserved. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Fig. the flow differs from ideal.S. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.66. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.” U. 21.21. Click here to view.68 s Section Twenty-One
Hydraulics.
. New York.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. has contraction of the nappe. Inc. Bureau of Reclamation.69
Fig. and sharp right-angled edges. compiled by King. Values of the discharge coefficient.
the coefficient of discharge.” 6th ed. “Handbook of Hydraulics. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Brater. E. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.S.34. Brater.)
Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.67 and 21.)
If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. Weirs of irregular section.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.10
Weirs of Irregular Section
21. a plane horizontal crest. fairly common in waterworks projects.)
21.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine
This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. is determined from Fig. if flow is at other than the design head. (From “Design of Small Dams. Figure 21.” U. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. because of its sharp upstream edge.69
Broad-crested weir.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. F. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. New York. Unless otherwise noted. 21. Figure 21. 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir
This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.. F. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. 21.68. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are used as spillways and control structures.. the nappe springs free. (E.34.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.14.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
. where the velocity of approach is not high. therefore. for example. (21. (See. appear in Table 21. New York. “Handbook of Hydraulics.

77 2.32 3. ft 0.32 4.14 3.89 3.60 2.38 2.64 2.74 2.68 2.32 3.32 3.70 2.32 3. All rights reserved.63 2.0 2.28 3.69 2.2 0.21.86 2.64 2.04 3. Click here to view.76 2.63 2.00 2.88 2.54 2.00 2.66 2.2 1.0 5.67 2.0 4.65 2.64 2.65 2.32 3.00 2.
21.32 3.49 2.60 2.98 3.68 2.32 3.67 2.32 3.32 3.20 3.8 1. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.32 1.70 2.68 2.0 3.30 3.68 2. valves.69 2.08 3.63 2.88 10.32 3.68 2.70 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.07 3. which are often of equal consequence.89 2.32 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs
Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a
body of still water.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.03 3.97 3.66 2.68 2.32 3.32 3.32 3.64 2. those forming the bed load.35.63 2.
.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.85 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.32 1.64 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.68 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam. erosion.64 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.29 3.56 2.5 2.64 2.64 2.64 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.75 2.60 2.75 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.32 3. A density current.32 3.32 2.32 2.31 3. Heavier silt sizes.60 2.32 5.63 2.32 3.00 2. such as gates.65 2.73 2.67 2.58 2.62 2.6 1.00 2. and turbines.66 2.64 2.69 2.07 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.34 2.4 0.66 2.63 2. ft 0.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.80 2.5 4.32 3. such as a reservoir.67 2.32 3.81 2.70 2.85 3.61 2. The smaller silt sizes.07 3.65 2.69 2.32 3.5 3.79 1.80 2.08 3.00 2.64 2.70 2.50 2.63
21.05 3.44 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.68 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.70 2.32 3.32 3.32 3.4 1.88 3.64 2.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.65 2. or soil.07 3.50 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.8 2.67 2.63 2.74 2. Inc.54 2.64 2.92 2. This incoming water.72 2. with its load of suspended silt.79 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.92 3.32 3.65 2.0 1. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.32 3.92 3.32 3.63 2.32 3.50 H.68 2.00 2.75 2.32 3.68 2.07 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels
Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.30 3.64 15.65 2.72 2. those carried in suspension.32 3.20 3.68 2.32 3.68 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.75 2.64 2.5 5.28 3.32 3.63 2. once formed.61 2.6 0. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.64 2.19 3.32 3.72 2.66 2.50 2.31 3.31 3.32 3.75 2.64 2.26 3.32 3.32 3.20 3.89 3.70 2.32 3.76 2.48 2.63 2.64 2.

once formed.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. These currents are stable. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. because of variations in rainfall. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. Click here to view. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. are coarsegrained.71
Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density.35. When neither can be done. 21. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. on the other hand. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. All rights reserved. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. However. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. overtopping. formed from the bed load. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. The most common manner of destruction.
21.39. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. see Art. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. By this method. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. Inc. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur.Water Resources Engineering s 21. landslide. however.
. or from year to year. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. Of course. or failure of materials.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate
Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. the rate is not uniform during the year.

According to Witzig.0 ft/mi. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. ft qo = critical discharge. But for the most part. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. and boulders. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well.21. gravel. Click here to view. Therefore. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Frequently.1). The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. however. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. (21. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. which varies with both slope and discharge. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. ft3/s b = width of river. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. 21. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. Inc. discharge. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. Therefore.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope.35. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. which generally occurs only during a storm. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. All rights reserved.124) where Gb = total bed load. Therefore. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.
.72 s Section Twenty-One
Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. A mean grain size of 0. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art.

For instance. discharges into streams. contour plowing. (See H. Current data. Inc. recharges groundwater. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. if the dam is raised at a later date. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Weather Bureau. infiltration. The second type is a nonrecording gage. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin.36 Erosion Control
The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. Use of vegetation screens. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Click here to view. A major concern is the cir-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. infiltrates into the soil. and distribution. New York. water evaporation from oceans. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. (21-124).S. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. Einstein. A. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. It continually records. groundwater flow. day. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. their chemical and physical properties. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. on or near the land surface. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. and their reaction with their environment. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir.) culation. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. by ink pen and revolving drum. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. evaporation. such as wind. (W.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. Weather Bureau is 24 h. such as an hour. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. planting of burned-over areas. are published daily by the U. In this cycle. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes
21. H. debris barriers. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. circulation. or digital microchip technology. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind.
. and stream flow
21. Department of Agriculture. including their relation to living things.S. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size.
Hydrology
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. their occurrence. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Such screens. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. runoff.73
dation. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. Graf. which are of two types. or year. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. lakes. check-dam construction.37 Precipitation
The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. and the stream velocity. All rights reserved. rivers. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. and pressure. temperature. through whose interaction precipitation is produced.S.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. in the form of synoptic weather charts. or a combination of the two.” U.

and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. called interception. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff.38 Evaporation and Transpiration
These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. and plantleaf surfaces. equal to 15 for small. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. Maidment. Click here to view. plant. New York. This phenomenon.126) where E = evaporation rate. (21. ground. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate.. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. on a long-term basis. has a relatively large surface area.74 s Section Twenty-One
that are too small. This relation is known as Dalton’s law.21.” McGraw-Hill. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor
21. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. in of mercury. see D. In transpiration. All rights reserved. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Evaporation may occur from free-water. A portion may evaporate as it falls. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. Inc. branches. Evapotranspiration. especially if the reservoir is shallow. while another portion may be caught on leaves. Inc. shallow pools and 11 for large. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. water changes from liquid to gaseous form.125)]. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.125)
(21. in of mercury. “Handbook of Hydrology. (21. and it increases as wind velocity increases. R. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Not all rain reaches the ground. tropical and subtropical regions. and other vegetation surfaces. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. In evaporation. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. Evapotranspiration is important because. or ground surfaces. On an annual basis. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. The Meyer equation [Eq. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. commonly termed consumptive use. Of the three. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.
. developed from Dalton’s law.

although it may vary between 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. tropical. After joining stream flow. also known as interflow. snow. subsurface. Commonly. Classified by the path taken to a channel. New York. Maidment. Inc. or groundwater flow. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. natural or manmade. perhaps several years. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. It appears in surface channels.70. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. time distribution. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. to reach a channel. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. (D. effective rain includes subsurface flow. is in widespread use. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. birds. hail. Subsurface flow. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. In practice. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Precipitation—form (rain. Hexadeconal.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and storm seepage. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. subsurface storm flow. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. frost. and biologic attrition. runoff may be surface. Inc. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. R. duration. Thus.. depending on the geographical region. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. wind tends to push the film to the shore.75
As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface.
. aquatic life. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. subsurface runoff. or excess rain. Groundwater flow.39 Runoff
This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. except in arid. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. dew).” McGraw-Hill. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Click here to view.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. On large reservoirs. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. Climatic characteristics a.80. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. or groundwater runoff. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Moving laterally. called a Class A Level Pan. All rights reserved. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. intensity. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined.
21. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. insects. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. or cetyl alcohol. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers.60 and 0. where it continues as channel or stream flow. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft.

artificial drainage. direction of storm movement b. duration d. Temperature—variation. Weather Bureau. Geologic—soil type. direction. International Boundary Commission. permeability. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. both published and unpublished. snow storage. stratification Fig. Agricultural Research Service.
. and statisti-
cal data pertaining to the entire record. Inc. special-interest items. shape. channels (size. Click here to view.S. mean flow. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. antecedent precipitation. slope. Geological Survey. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. elevation. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features.S. groundwater formations. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. detail. Atmospheric pressure f. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. lakes and other bodies of water. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. and Weather Bureau. Drainage-basin characteristics a. 21. areal distribution.S.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data
The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Topographic—size. and completeness of the hydrologic records. the detail required in the final answer.21. slope. as shown in Fig. extremes during precipitation c.S. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Humidity e. Solar radiation 2. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals.70. the quantity and type of data available.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. Wind—velocity. and various state and local agencies. frozen ground during storms. Geological Survey. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred.S. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. length) b.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations
The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. soil moisture. the U.76 s Section Twenty-One
seasonal distribution. and the accuracy desired. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. yearly flow volume. Geological Survey. These papers contain records of daily flow.
21. general location. roughness. shape of cross section. TVA. drainage net. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.
21. recurrence interval. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. orientation.” U. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. land use and cover. All rights reserved. extremes of flow.

deep culverts under vital highways and railways. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.128)
21. 2.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. As an example. others give the complete hydrograph. in/h A = drainage area.or 100-year-frequency storm. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. for example. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.77
found in the determination of flood runoff. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. 3. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. 5.127) where Q = peak discharge. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Click here to view. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. great importance. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. the second to major hydraulic structures.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Chow. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. T. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 4. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. All rights reserved.41. 1962). a 50. The values of C in Table 21. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.
. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Inc.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures
The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and large downstream damage potential.

50 – 0. 7% Heavy soil.70 0.20 – 0.80 0.128) or Eq.30 – 0.60 0. 21.40 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.127). (21.90 0. Maidment.129)
Table 21. or ditches.13 – 0.60 – 0..
.70 0. Click here to view. is a convenient. and the flow time in conduits. After determining the time of concentration.21.85 0.22 0. avg.25 0.17 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. ditches. New York. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.10 – 0. or any equivalent method. coefficient. R.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.) The flow time in gutters. (See D.40 – 0.10 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. Inc. years duration of storm. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. 21. steep. n.
21. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. Inc.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. in/h respectively.30 0. flat. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. streets.75 – 0.70 – 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.129). Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.70 – 0. factor. Sherman.15 0. Equation (21.40 0. the flow time in streets. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. steep. 2% Sandy soil.20 0. b.” McGraw-Hill. gutters.50 – 0.95 0.10 – 0.71 and Table 21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.89)] .35
where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.
K.18 – 0. min time of concentration Fig.70 – 0.85 0. avg. “Handbook of Hydrology. 2% Heavy soil.75 0.95 0.05 – 0.41.15 – 0. (21.78 s Section Twenty-One
where I = = rainfall intensity.16).80 – 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.25 – 0. (21.50 – 0. widely accept-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.75 – 0.50 0.95 0. and n1
F t
= = =
Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. flat.35 0. All rights reserved. (21.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures
The unit-hydrograph method.20 – 0.60 – 0. detached Multiunits. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.95 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.25 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

that is. easier. 2. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Sherman. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. JanuaryJune 1932. pp. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Click here to view. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10
ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.79
Table 21. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. Inc. vol. 3. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. The method is summarized by the formula (21. 108. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. Thus. If the watershed is very large. 4. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. subdivision may be required.130)
The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. usually 1 acre). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. This requires that a storm of short duration.” Engineering News-Record.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. (Leroy K.
. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. termed a unit period. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. All rights reserved. termed a unit storm.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. the time of storm runoff. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. 501-505. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in.

Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds.80 s Section Twenty-One
by each hydrograph. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). 21.72.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. Then. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. 21. Click here to view. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit
Fig. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.
. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. All rights reserved. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.73). A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. Usually. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Illustrated in Fig. because of storm variations. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. For ease of manipulation. 21. 5.

The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.. This loss. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.42 Groundwater
Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Linsley et al. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration.)
Fig.” McGraw-Hill. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. 19. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water.) where Q = flow rate. pp. Click here to view. Inc. pt.81
21. McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology. R. (R. vol. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.
. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. I.. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. 447–454).74)..131) period. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.
Fig. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. perpendicular to direction of flow. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. New York. Inc. (See D. Also. “Hydrology for Engineers.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Maidment. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Inc. This method was developed by Franklin F. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity.. All rights reserved. 21. during heavy storms.” 3rd ed. K. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.

21. (A base period is a period of time. Click here to view. present and future water demands should be determined. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. safe yield. is a confined or artesian aquifer. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. quality.
. quantity. need for excessive pumping lifts. rather than a change in volume. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. wastewaters. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. and indirect water-quality use costs. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Regardless of how it is defined. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. and quality of water supply.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Frequently. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. and methods of wastewater disposal. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. groundwater levels. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. source. among others. Following the preceding preliminary work. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Deteriorating water quality. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Inc. because of impermeable layers above and below it. and location of artificial replenishment. quantity. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cost of replenishment water. poor-quality replenishment waters. or other causes. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.82 s Section Twenty-One
Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. and overdraft. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. alternative management plans should be formulated. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. water softening costs. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. recycling. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. usually a number of years. These costs include increased soap costs.

I. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. and natural and artificial replenishment. financially feasible. commercial. (“Ground Water Management.. and treatment works. 1987. distribution. industrial. Inc. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Estimation of future population. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. Bear. land speculation. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. and age of the city. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. Click here to view.
Water Supply
A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake.. however. J. or other unforeseen emergency. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. no. fire. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. decreasing percentage increase. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. and environmental factors. culinary. New York. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as industrial development. and public. and sanitary purposes. fire-fighting. institutional. Grigg. industrial. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Therefore. surface-water delivery facilities. motels. apartments.
21. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. pumping. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors.83
Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. percentage increase. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. S. water used. wastewater disposed. “Groundwater Engineering. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. “Water Resources Planning. irrigation. and hotels for drinking. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. McGraw-Hill Book Company. amount and location of groundwater extractions.” 3rd ed. All rights reserved. 40. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. Hydrology for Engineers. washing. Kashef. sanitary.
. flood. bathing. Linsley et al. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. legal.” R. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. graphical comparison with other cities. geographical boundaries.” N. transmission. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. The smaller the system. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. American Society of Civil Engineers. K. is a very difficult task.” A.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.43 Water Consumption
The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. storage.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice.

Public Health Service Report. Click here to view. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cost. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. reservoir evaporation. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Public use of water for parks. Calif. meter malfunctions. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. lawn sprinkling. and cleaning. are the average of a range of values. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. as presented in Table 21. The “California Water Atlas.S. public buildings. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. pressure. Mo. and air conditioning purposes. size of the city. but because of the high rate at which it is required. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago.84 s Section Twenty-One
Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. influence the demand rate for water. the demand for it decreases. cost. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Demand rates vary with time of day. Normally. The national demand-rate data. Table 21. standard of living.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. valves. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. and pressure. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. and quality of the water. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and year. Inc. degree of industrialization. type of service (metered or unmetered). janitorial. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. degree of industrialization. quality. All rights reserved. if the cost of water increases. such as the climate.” 1979. presents
Table 21.21. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. air conditioning. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. and unauthorized uses. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. it may control the design of the facilities. month. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. especially if portions of the city are unsewered.
. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. and faucets. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. cooling.17. and time of day.

ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. such as lakes.
.000 12.000 40. † MGD = million gallons per day. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.4 3.8 7.000 70. however. Hydrant Spacing. however.000 4.000 55.000 48.85
average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.9 4.000 10.3 5.000 85. In selection of a source of supply. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. quality. and in some cases.000 4. and streams.000
Population
Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 17.000 5.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000
* American Insurance Association. valley cities. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 40.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 80. Click here to view. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.8 2.6 4. In the atlas.44 Water-Supply Sources
The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.132) where G = fire-demand rate. legality.4 2.0 1.000 6. cost.000 8.6 11. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 40. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.000 40. to a large extent. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.000 110. Total dependence on a single source.000 90. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 60. Cost. In the past. The source must
Table 21. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. Moreover.000 100.000 120.000 1. the effect of warm. MG† 0. climate. interdependent.0 3. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 40.2 2. rivers.3
Duration. industrialization.
21. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.0 7.000 80. In some local areas.18.000 10. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. gal/min P = population.8 6. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.6 1. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.3 0. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.000 40. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 3.5 14.18 Required Fire Flow.000
1.000 200.000 125.2 8.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. inland.000 2.000 90. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 85.000 40. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. MG = million gallons. All rights reserved. Inc. is frequently undesirable.4 17. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. diversification is essential for reliability.500 2.000 28. but the demand rate is high. and politics. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

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calcium hardness.21. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. The measurements should include pH. In addition. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Inc.
.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. total dissolved solids. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. (See also Art. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. American Water Works Association. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.3 mg / L 0. such as sulfates and chlorides. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.) At the discretion of the state. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.21.90 s Section Twenty-One
When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. and Water Pollution Control Federation. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. temperature. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.S. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.5 mg / L 0.) Source Protection s The U. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. and calculation of the Langelier index.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards
Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” U. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. 21. dependent on local conditions. as indicated by the following extract:
Table 21.5 – 8.22. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.” American Public Health Association. Click here to view. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. alkalinity. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.S. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. All rights reserved.

Inc. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.134). particulate and colored matter. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. depth ho . shape. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping.001 and 5. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. In the region where 1.0 < R < 2000. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . g/mm3 d = particle diameter. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. however. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.46. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Figure 21. velocity is constant.
21.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. Figure 21. 21. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. 21. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.
Water Treatment
Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. temperature and viscosity of the water. All rights reserved. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.1 Plain Sedimentation
The ideal settling basin (Fig. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. to be used in Eq.51). coagulation-sedimentation. and width B.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.
21.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. slow and rapid sand filtration. Pojasek. V the flowthrough velocity. Mich. Click here to view. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. For this ideal basin.91
The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. mm If R > 2000. Inc. (21. is equal to or less than 1. (21. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.
. (Usually. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. unpleasant tastes and odors. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. Ann Arbor.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. calculated with ν = νs. and specific gravity of the suspended particles.46 Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. and softening (see also Art. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Reynolds numbers. Newton’s law applies: (21. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. and size and shape of the settling basin. B. such as those mentioned above. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. disinfection. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. (See R.0.134) where CD is the drag coefficient.

p. 21.)
Fig. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. at 10 °C. (Observed curves. Inc. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 897. 1946.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.92 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.76
Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. All rights reserved. 103.
. after Camp.21. 21.

A. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. 21. G. Inc. Fair. are removed in this basin. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. and eddy currents. 21.78a) or circular (Fig.93
Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . occupy less site area than the single-story basin. finely
Fig. “Water Treatment Plant Design.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.)
21.” McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. salt. New York. short circuiting. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Geyer. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.. C. 27. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. Inc. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. 21. 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.5 ft/min (most common velocity. New York. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. for example. coagulants are added to the water. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. 21.8c.78b).77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . M. The tubular settler (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. 1.77
Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. All rights reserved. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.46.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents..2 Coagulation-Sedimentation
To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Multistory tanks. rectangular (Fig.” John Wiley & Sons. and D. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Without coagulants. or other indicator to pass through the basin. Okun. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. J.

.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.94 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler. Click here to view. Inc. 21. (b) Circular clarifier.

)
21. Thereby. and nonionic. such as physical straining. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. L. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Anionic polymers. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply.” 4th ed. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. T. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. consequently. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. All rights reserved. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. turbidity. J. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Inc. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. and easier dewatering. L. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ferric chloride (FeCl3). 18H2O]. chemical and biological reactions. considering both cost and performance. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O).” R. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. New York. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. highmolecular-weight. coliform organisms. The filtering process has many components. Polymers are long-chain. such as paper fiber. or neutral in charge. McGhee.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. anionic. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Inc. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. however.to 60min range.. “Water Quality and Treatment. settling.” McGraw-Hill. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. New York.47 Filtration Processes
Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. organic polyelectrolytes. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. A. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. “Water Supply and Sewerage. or positively charged. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. polymers have a minor effect on pH. temperature. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Culp and R. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.. however. Also. in some instances. American Water Works Association. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. however. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. color. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. such as mechanical stirrers. plankton. (G. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. centrifugal pumps.
. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. They are available in three types: cationic.95
divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. color. Culp. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. “New Concepts in Water Purification. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. and air jets. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. or negatively charged. and suspended solids. Click here to view. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. and hardness. such as pH. Corbitt.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

The wash-
Fig. through the sand and gravel layers. 21. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.
. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. by weight. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Inc.79. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The process requires rapid mixing. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. 21. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. and dual.25. Click here to view. in millimeters. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. of the sand. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35-mm range.to 12-in layer of gravel.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. depending on the turbidity. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.21. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size.or mixed-media filtration. Usually. that will pass 10%. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.79
Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU.96 s Section Twenty-One
a polymer as a flocculant aid. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.to 0. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. All rights reserved.

which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. may be more advantageous. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.002:1 to 0. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. mixed-media. diatomaceous earth. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. All rights reserved. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. which produces an undertreated effluent. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. Immediately after washing. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. however. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates.
. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0.25 to 1. which is drained to waste. As clogging begins to occur in the filter.35 to 0. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. bed cracking. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. creating a high head loss across the filter. Dual-media.20 to 1. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. water sprays. or anthracite coal. Click here to view. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. filters pass water at a high rate. Inc.005:1 range. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. such as rakes. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.97
water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. The filtering medium may be sand.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. gal/min b = width of trough. or deep coarse-media filters. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. and air jets.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. C. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit.3 and 0. New York. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Some. J. Culp and R.
.98 s Section Twenty-One
Filter galleries are made up of horizontal.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water Treatment Plant Design. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity.136) (21. Fair. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. New York. McGhee.” 4th ed. American Water Works Association. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. G. and American Society of Civil Engineers. respectively. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. gas. perforated. L. “Water Treatment Plant Design. A. (American Water Works Association.137)
Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. or open-joint pipes.. Culp. lime (CaO).. where 1 gpg = 17. New York. and D. Inc.” and T.48 Water Softening
Presence of the bicarbonates. however. and American Society of Civil Engineers. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. “Water Quality and Treatment. “Water Supply and Sewerage. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Regeneration requires between 0. Click here to view. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. carbonates. such as calcium and magnesium. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.1 mg/L.” 4th ed. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.21. sulfates. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).)
21. (G. New York. and R is the zeolite material. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness.” 6th ed. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. “Water Quality and Treatment.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.” John Wiley & Sons.)
(21. Inc.138)
(21. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. In the lime-soda process.49 Disinfection with Chlorine
Chlorine in either the liquid. L. Geyer. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Okun. and (3) total hardness. J. All rights reserved.139)
21. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. M. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in clear wells. These materials remove cations.

If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. M. lime softening. New York. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.50 Carbonate Stability
Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. cation exchange.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. All rights reserved. C.)
21. New York. flood control.52 Reservoirs
The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. J. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. McGhee. chlorine dioxide.” McGraw-Hill. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.” McGraw-Hill. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.
. Click here to view. irrigation. Inc. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.. A. ultraviolet light. water supply. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. reverse osmosis. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.” and T. J. then. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. Filter both solutions. ozone. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. and electrodialysis.. Inc. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.) respect to carbonates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Chlorine residuals of 0. anion exchange. “Water Supply and Sewerage. detergents. manganese. excessive fluorides. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. taste. Geyer. 21. “Water Treatment Plant Design. despite its low solubility. and recreation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Inc. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. bromine. iron. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. odor. 21. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with
Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. and D.45). The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.1 or 0.. activated carbon.” John Wiley & Sons. Fair. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Okun. and lime. Other disinfectants are iodine.99
water supplies. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. (G.)
21. New York.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.51 Miscellaneous Treatments
Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80
Mass diagram of stream flow. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs.
. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. 21. Click here to view. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. All rights reserved. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. 21. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Also. When the demand rate is known. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. whereas for flood-control reservoirs.52.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. minimum flows will be critical.80. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. maximum flows will govern.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. 21. Inc.100 s Section Twenty-One
(see also Art. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.1). A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development.21. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. 21. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. Aeri-
Fig. The plot of volume vs. The mass diagram (Fig.

perature drops in the fall. In deep reservoirs. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir.1 Distribution Reservoirs
The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. but there is no circulation across this zone. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. Major sources of supply for some cities. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.52. Click here to view. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. pumping plants. Inc. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods.
. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.101
Fig. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. During hours of maximum demand. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. the flow refills the reservoir. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. If possible. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as New York.2). San Francisco. and Los Angeles. When the demand drops off. is called the thermocline. 21. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color.35 and 21. are large distances from the city. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.52. A mass dia-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.81
Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. 21. odor. When the tem-
21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. which may be only a few feet thick. give special attention to water quality. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir.

” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Click here to view.
21. Brune. 21. 21.82) (G.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. 21.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed.
. For any given storage reservoir. 3. All rights reserved.84).102 s Section Twenty-One
gram (Fig. June 1953). It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. 34. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.52. Inc. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 21. Brune. 21. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.21. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency
The methods of Art.35. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. no. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. M. For the correct hydraulic grade.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-
21.82
Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. A flowing artesian
Fig.53 Wells
A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.83). The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. vol. 21. M.

Fig. All rights reserved.84
Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.83
Gravity well in a free aquifer.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.103
Fig. 21. Click here to view.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.

Okun. J..)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fair. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference.53. Inc. Theis. 1940. E. or driven. and motor. and D. (G.53. The pump.. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.” 6th ed. 21. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. ft d = diameter of well.21. J. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.” Economic Geology. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. T. waterjet. Geyer.84).143)
21. Click here to view. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. Inc. screen. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. p.
. A. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. bored. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. hollow-core. Jacob.1 Drawdown
When water is pumped from a well. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. New York.4 Well Equipment
Essential well equipment consists of casing. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. 72. ft The steady flow. ft h = H minus drawdown. p. gal/day. December 1938.53. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. C. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. M. Inc. pump (Art.
21. All rights reserved. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). McGraw-Hill. motor. “Water Supply and Sewerage.
21. V. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. 889. ft (Fig. New York. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. McGhee.53.83).2 Flow From Wells
The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.. or hydraulic rotary methods. 21. 33. eductor or riser pipe. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. (C. Hence. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. ditch. 5. 629. no. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer.3 Excavation of Wells
Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth.57). 21. C. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. vol.” John Wiley & Sons. from an artesian well is given by (21. vol.142) where Q = flow. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models.104 s Section Twenty-One
well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping.
21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

valves. If it is cement-lined. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. sealed flanges. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete.
(21. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. bronze. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. dollars/hp per year
Qa = average discharge. Since steel is stronger than iron. polybutylene. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe.54. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. Inc. and ability to withstand external loads. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil.146) where D = pipe diameter. impurities and strains in metals. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. Wood pipelines are still in existence. tanks. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. bacteria in water. Metals can
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. sand. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. A machine that produces a monolithic. brass. hydrants.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems
Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. rubber. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe.
. and plastics. or Dresser-type couplings. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)
Ha = average head on pipe. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. stray electric currents. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. lead. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. and sulfur compounds. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. but wood is rarely used in new installations. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Under favorable conditions. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. valves. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. contact between acids and metals.21. In unlined pipes. Copper. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. are present. ft
21. pumps. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. such as polyvinyl chloride. however. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. zinc. polyethylene. plastic. and other appurtenances. All rights reserved. riveting. concrete. steel. Click here to view.6 Pipe Materials
Cast iron.) At the anode. and meters destroyed by corrosion. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage.
21. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle.108 s Section Twenty-One
Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. an anode and a cathode. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets.

the corrosion process continues (Fig. for example. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. and
Fig. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. such as soda ash. At the cathode. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. When selecting materials. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines.86).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Aluminum. water may be treated with bases. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. 21. the faster electrons can move through the water. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. and the more ions. where e is an electron. caustic soda. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. zinc. and treatment of the water. use of protective coatings. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. 21. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Inc. to prevent corrosion.86
Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Strains. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Also.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. All rights reserved.
. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal.109
be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. cracks. Click here to view.

and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. psia. called a volute (Fig. To prevent cavitation. To have practical meaning. oxides. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. the most common waterworks pump. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. Water enters at the center. 21. and the head-discharge relationship.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.56 Centrifugal Pumps
The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. (American Water Works Association..
lime. between pump center line and water surface
Fig.” 4th ed. Click here to view. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. 21. however. accomplishes that in two steps. z is negative. Corrosion. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. horsepower.21. or impeller..88). Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. ft of water z = elevation difference.88
Volute-type centrifugal pump. magnesium. or eye. in feet. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer.110 s Section Twenty-One
by centrifugal force. Zinc. and so on on the walls of the pipes. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. Inc. hydroxides. psia. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. efficiency. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. Inc. “Water Quality and Treatment. McGraw-Hill. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater
21. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. by (21.147) where pa = pressure. 21. graphite. ft.)
w = unit weight of liquid. The centrifugal pump. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing
Fig.
. 21.87). New York.87
Cathodic protection of a metal. All rights reserved. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.

head. Karassik et al. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. pump discharge.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. 21. J.89. (Also included in Fig. (I. New York.58.. below 200 gal/min. See also Art. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. 21. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. McGraw-Hill Book Company. rotary.
Fig. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. however. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics.89
Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump.57 Well Pumps
These are classified as centrifugal. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. and air lift. propeller. 21. helical. Click here to view.)
21. For that reason. In a typical water-system analysis. as shown in Fig. “Pump Handbook. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. All rights reserved. 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.57 and check valves in Art. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. jet. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.
. 21. depending on the number of stages.111
than the required NPSH.” 2nd ed. reciprocating.

Inc. Reciprocating pumps. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. and for Ns above 7500. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Click here to view.
. which is a function of specific speed. vanes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.148) where n = impeller speed. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level.or motordriven. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. so that the entire lift is suction. gal/min H = head. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head.90 fied). At sea level. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. either hand. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications.
Section through a jet pump (simpli-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. they can be used only for sediment-free water.21.112 s Section Twenty-One
Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. All rights reserved. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. r/min Q = discharge. 21. utilize piston action to move water. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Because of the close tolerances. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-
Fig. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. (21. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Jet pumps (Fig. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. which are located at the well bottom. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. cams.

even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. The major types of isolating valves are gate. rubber. pressure-regulating. globe. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. and easy. in-service lubrication features. All rights reserved. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. But these valves cost more than gate. respectively. Karassik et al. which are water. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. plug. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..Water Resources Engineering s 21. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. If sand is carried out with the water. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. large pressure differences. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. solids deposition. pumps. cone. or Neoprene. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. one at the service connection. air-relief. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Also.or oil-lubricated. Simplicity of construction and quick. and butterfly. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. one just upstream of the meter. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. primarily because of their low cost.113
tion. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. globe. Low head loss. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. or corporation cocks. Corrosion.” 2nd ed. applied through a gear-reduction device. needle. Hand or motor power. Inc. and butterfly valves. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. Click here to view.
. pressure-relief. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Plug. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. three valves must be used. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. fast operation. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open.58 Valves
Water facilities use many different types of valves. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. availability. tubercle formation.) drives to permit manual operation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Check. These are generally classified according to the function they perform.. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. “Pump Handbook. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. (I. rotates the disk. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Usually. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). sluice gate. Needle valves are used for accurate
21. curb. and low head loss when fully open.

A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes.59 Fire Hydrants
A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams.
. The wetbarrel. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. or California type. All rights reserved. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. rivers. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Usually. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Often. Furthermore. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line.60 Metering Devices
Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. For example. Interior-differential. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. When the valve is in a closed position. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Many automatic control valves. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this.21. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. which connects the barrel to the main. Because of high head losses.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as pressure regulators and altitude. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes.114 s Section Twenty-One
control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. and relief valves. The most common check valve is the swing type. Inc. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. check. and large pipes. tube. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Click here to view. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. such as trunk lines
21. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant.
21. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms.

flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters.) As in venturi meters. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Brater. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. called a Price meter.
(21.149) Hydraulics.. such as meters for individual customer connections.150) where Q = flow rate. rotary. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. which do not affect propeller meters. simplicity and ease of repairs. The cup-type meter. All rights reserved. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. 21. for metering domestic-service connections. ft h1 = pressure in main section. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter.91. or nutating-disk types. A clicking noise. 21.
. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. respectively. The standard venturi meter (Fig.115
of distribution systems. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. Click here to view. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. The nutating disk is used. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it.” 6th ed. F.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. and cost. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. nozzle. but they are used primarily in laboratories. or modifications thereof.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. durability.5% within the normal test-flow limits. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. amount of head loss through the meter. ft d2 = diameter of throat. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. are the most common velocity-type devices. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. see E. However. “Handbook of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter
d1 = diameter of main section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. vertical velocity components. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Inc.

step rate. and similar items.116 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. and block rate. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. seasonal use. and development of the system. flat rate is falling into disuse. load factors. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers.61 Water Rates
The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained.21. if any. or to some other recognized system. All rights reserved. utility-type enterprises. Rate structures are typ-
ically based on demand. peak rates of use. (c) Orifice-
21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.
. Inc. Click here to view. 21. fire use. (b) Nozzle meter.
Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.91 plate meter. fixed charges on capital investment. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses.

and a forebay to convey water to turbines. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. tunnels. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. and (3) cost. including metering and billing.
. For most distribution systems. and. Cost component 2. S. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. buying water from a wholesale supplier. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. a building to house the machinery and equipment. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. turbines and governors. where applicable.152a)
Hydroelectric Power and Dams
Hydroelectric plants. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. called the demand component. treatment chemicals. Inc.117
With step rate. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.Water Resources Engineering s 21.746 kW 1 kW = 1. Cost component 1. This charge is usually small. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. Click here to view. called the commodity component. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. of serving an individual customer. generators and exciters. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. called the customer component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. and transformers. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. penstocks. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. where the majority of small users are. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. Cost component 3. All rights reserved. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.
21. It is generally recognized that residential areas. depends on the peak usage of a customer. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation
Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. draft tube. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. tunnel. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. pumping energy. switching equipment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. canals. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. When fixing a system of rates.

This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. All rights reserved. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. power production being only incidental. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from
η
Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence.118 s Section Twenty-One
(21. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. weekly. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration.21. 21. On a weekly cycle. weekly. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. to be used at some future time. Therefore. Storage can be provided for a daily. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Then. Inc. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. run-of-river plants with storage. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. On a seasonal cycle.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand.
. or seasonal cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants.92). Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. On a daily cycle. and peak-load plants. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. or yearly basis. Click here to view. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. It can be computed on a daily. If the minimum flow is very low. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. base-load plants. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. such as navigation.

The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Inc. Hasen. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.119
Fig. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. (Department of Water and Power.. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. When needed. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. This silt pressure can be cal-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. it usually is not as economical.63 Dams
Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve.92). earth. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. arch. buttress.)
21. Its distribution is triangular. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. and rock-fill. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high
power demand. The main classifications are gravity. Calif.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Zipparo and H.92
Daily load curves for generating plants.)
steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. All rights reserved. Figure 21. Los Angeles. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. New York. Force F2 represents silt pressure. (V. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Click here to view.” 4th ed.

) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. May 1946.120 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. A close approximation of the force. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.93
Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. (21. 21.21. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. 21. vol. presented by Edwin Rose. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. (E. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. which create forces on any object resting on it. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. In cold climates.000 psf. p. Most dams in seismically active regions in
the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. 1933. which forms on the reservoir surface. was developed by von Karman. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. These accelerations occur in every direction. 98.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. A method of calculating these forces. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.
culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. today it is realized these values are much too high. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.) (21. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. In the past.425h above the base.
.153).1 g. Rose.” discussion by von Karman. 434. ice. Click here to view. ice pressures as high as 50.153) where w = unit weight of water. given by Eq. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Inc. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. All rights reserved.93 by forces F4 and F5. however.

Recent belief. uplift is not so important. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. sand. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. however. However. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. but it does not pro-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. and uplift forces are smaller. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. On arch dams. but its formwork is more expensive. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. overturning by rotating about the toe. such as sand and gravel. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. If the deflections are not equal. Hence. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. All rights reserved. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. When the base is not drained. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. however. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. If a large quantity of pervious material. Click here to view. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. their relative importance is much different. In the past. because of bearing contact. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Inc. but the structural design is much more critical. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. They are not suited to most sites. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. engineers assumed that. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The modes of failure are also the same. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. is available and clayey materials must be imported. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure.Water Resources Engineering s 21.121
imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. rock flour. or failure of the foundation material. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. First. silt. In the multiple-arch. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. and clay. Concrete has been used for an impervious core.
. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. however.

however.” EM 1110-2-2300. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Inc. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. New York. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. bonding into the dumped rock. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. (V. All rights reserved. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Army Corps of Engineers. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. bearing on the rubble cushion. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing.)
21. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. onto the fill. or wood over concrete. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.3 on 1. Zipparo and H. Temporary facings are usually of wood. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. U. Today. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. McGraw-Hill Book Company. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. providing power. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. 21. The downstream face is usually 1.” 4th ed. although steel has been used occasionally.64 Hydraulic Turbines
In the past. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. therefore. J. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. Bureau of Relamation. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams.. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. S.3 on 1. Leakage should be expected. S. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock.” U. Hasen. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy.122 s Section Twenty-One
vide the flexibility of clay materials.94).21. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical.
. For dams over 200 ft high. If pervious material is not available. Click here to view. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. For some types of soil. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. and an upstream impervious facing. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. the natural angle of repose of rock. The facing is usually concrete.

wicket gates. J. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. This creates a force on the runner. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. All rights reserved. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. Inc. At heads above 1000 ft.95a). 21.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs
Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hasen. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. if the load drops below 50%. 21. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.95c).123
bine. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. (V. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. However. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The wicket gates.)
Fig. 21. 21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles.94 turbine. 21. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.
Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic
In most impulse turbines. Click here to view. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. however. it changes direction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. At heads below 100 ft. The propeller turbine (Fig. As the water flows through the tur-
21. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft.” 4th ed.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. In such installations.Water Resources Engineering s 21. runner. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. the propeller-type (Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Zipparo and H. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. wicket gates.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.
. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. runner. however. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case.. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. their efficiency decreases rapidly. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. and the fixed-blade type. and draft tube. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. and draft tube. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. New York. In these. such as the Kaplan turbine. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load.

To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. (b) Kaplan. 21.1 Spillways
An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. widely used for concrete dams because.95
Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis.124 s Section Twenty-One
out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.
. (c) axial flow. the dam will not be damaged by the water. Click here to view. This type of spillway is
Fig.21. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65. Inc. if designed correctly. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section.
21.

the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. In a chute spillway. Bureau of Reclamation. model tests are usually employed. 21. Washington. As the head increases. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. 21. The weir can be sharp-crested. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. flared. The air vent shown in Fig. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. Inc.34). (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Thus. siphon spillways hold the water
Fig. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. or ogee in cross section. All rights reserved. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. 21.
.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Once this second condition is reached. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. In a shaft spillway. A siphon spillway (Fig. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. In a side-channel spillway. When the head is relatively low. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. 21. called an ogee spillway.125
The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway.S. This type of spillway.96
Siphon spillway. DC 20402).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. both depending on the head on the weir. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. lined. “Design of Small Dams. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. open channel.” Government Printing Office.

2 Intake Structures
The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. In contrast. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.65.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.
.65.126 s Section Twenty-One
The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.98
Bear-trap gate.97). the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. In a taintor gate (Fig. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the pipes fail. controlling flow.
Fig.
21. On large stop-log installations. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. 21. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required.21. Inc. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. All rights reserved. 21. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. causing damage and hampering operation.97
Taintor gate. Click here to view. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. and providing support for the conduit. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.
level of a reservoir within close limits. making removal difficult.3 Crest Gates
These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. 21.5 ft/s. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. To do this. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.
21. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest.
Fig. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.

The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.
.98. Zipparo and H. Doland. L.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 4th ed. To raise a bear-trap gate. Click here to view.) Fig. 21. Babbitt. The drum gate (Fig.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use.127
Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. 21. All rights reserved. Hasen. Because of the large recess required in the dam. and H.99 Drum gate. and J. (V. Inc. New York. 21. E. J. J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. as shown in Fig.. drum gates are not suited to small dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. Cleasby. “Water Supply Engineering.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. Inc. Click here to view.
.blank page 21.128
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.