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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Surface tension and capillarity.1) where h = capillary rise. as shown in Fig. In equation form. psia.2. portions of the liquid vaporize. 21. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. face and rises in a small tube.7 psia. 21. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. are significant in others. Its value Fig. 21. Meniscus. respectively. ft Capillarity. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3. formation of spray from water jets. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. Inc.000 ft is shown in Fig. Gage pressure. although negligible in many water engineering problems. like surface tension. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.21. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. at sea level. pitting. is concave upward. Thus. (21. is small and insignificant in most problems. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. or liquid surface. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. 21. and freezing damage to concrete. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. When the liquid is in a closed container.1. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. 21. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. is pressure above or below atmospheric. psi. however. as shown in Fig.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Its temperature variation. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. ft σ = surface tension. Click here to view. Absolute pressure.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. decreases with increasing temperature.7 psi.

At any depth. which extend into the pores of the metal.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. is a measure of its resistance to flow. the force due to pressure p1. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. (Pressures as high as 350.5 Fig. ft2. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. on the top surface. 21. ft2/s. transitional. absolute viscosity. psf. ft. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. ft/s y = depth. and pitting appears. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Then.8) to determine whether laminar. It is so named because its units.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. also called the coefficient of viscosity. the pressure acts equally in all directions. to collapse. or dynamic viscosity.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4. Inc. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. . Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. as shown in Fig. on the bottom surface. and the force due to pressure p2. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. lb/ft3. Viscosity. Since the prism is at rest. lb/ft2 21. and cross-sectional area A.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. µ of a fluid. or implode. In hydraulics. All rights reserved.00001059 ft2/s. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. of length and time. Click here to view. or completely turbulent flow exists.2) where τ = shearing stress. 21. psf. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points.

7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. For horizontal surfaces. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. .6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. the pressure. Figure 21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. the depth of the centroid. p1 is atmospheric pressure.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. The resultant pressure force P. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). the depth below the water surface. dams. (21. (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. ft.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. Equation (21. Thus.3a) by A yields (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.21. Click here to view. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. Therefore.4) Equation (21. ft. and other water control structures. (21.3. ft2. and y sin θ = h . 21.5) 21.4).1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. lb/ft3. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. Inc. Taking ∆h to be h. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. tanks. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. (21. where w is the specific weight of water.6) – ∫ydA = y A. lb.3b) then becomes (21.4. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.3a) Division of Eq. All rights reserved. at depth h. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. then p2 is p.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. however. psf. (21.

represented by the length yp.5). All rights reserved.p.7). The denominator of Eq. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. (21. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if that locus is a straight line. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. Otherwise. of the surface about its centroidal axis. .7 Fig. Click here to view. where K is the radius of gyration. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.g.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.8).1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. 6. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. (21.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.) but acts at a point (c.8) equals –A. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.2° to the horizontal (Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. Example 21. ft. psf.7). 21. Hence y . 21. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . 21.). 21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.) that is below the c. – From Eq. (21.g.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.6 (see also Fig. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. The location of the center of pressure.29).p. the total force P = whA. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Pyp = ∫y dP.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. Inc. 21.

42 ft. Click here to view.42 = 5. Therefore. Also. 21.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.0 ft.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.08/5 = 5. (21. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.08.5 + 1/ (5. All rights reserved.0 + 2. (See Example 21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. however.8. P = 62.g.0 + 0. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.21.9).0) = 5. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. Note: 1.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.1. Inc. .3.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. yp = 5. 21.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.) of common shapes. K2 = point G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. 21. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. From Eq. 21. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.

(b) Free-body diagram. Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. The corresponding angle is 57. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. 21.6 ft3.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and for a constant-radius surface. 21.5 × 5 = 780 lb. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Fig.7). Fig. Inc.564.9). The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. All rights reserved. so the weight of the water is 19.9.4 × 2. (21.6w = 19.14 × 25/4 = 19.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.6 × 62. .4 = 1220 lb = PV. When water is below the curved surface. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. Its angle with the horizontal is known. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. 2.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. – From Eq. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. (See Example 21. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. 21. PH = whA = 62.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.2. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.4°.

The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. (21. Given in feet by Eq. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.b. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. Manometers indicate h.21. The stability of a ship. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. whether floating or submerged.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10b). A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. 21. ft. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. (21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. . It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. p = wh. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. is indicated by the metacenter. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. All rights reserved. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.g. Click here to view. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.4). The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.). 21. For a body to be in equilibrium. 21.10a).10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. or the difference in head. ft3 ys = distance. 21. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. the pressure head. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid..10b.

although the latter is most common. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. Basic types of manometers. (b) U-tube manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid.17 psi. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12c). Click here to view. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. All rights reserved. 21. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.11 manometer. 21. Inc. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).11a is 2. Example 21. 21. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.11): piezometer. The liquid is water with w = 62. and differential manometer. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. (a) Piezometers.4 lb/ft3. The piezometer (Fig.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. 21. U-tube manometer. However. 21. What is hm? Fig. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. In this application. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. the Utube manometer (Fig.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. . All rights reserved. 21. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Click here to view. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity.21. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.11b) is used. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. including negative gage pressures. A movable scale. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. Very low pressures. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.12c). Inc. 21. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. as opposed to a fixed scale.

What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. in the manometer. psf.25 ft. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence.75 + 13.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. the magnification will be 2. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. The pressure at B. ft.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. psf. psf w = specific weight of fluid. 21. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. and z is 1. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.25 ft of water.4 × 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. All rights reserved. 32.4 × 2. hm1 is 9 in. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Inc. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. hi is 2. when expressed in feet of water.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. is magnified by the differential manometer. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.0 and 2. One factor.6).0 ft. Most of them. however. 21. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. and the right side. Above 5. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. that is. such as might be required in laboratories.12a.13 indicating liquid. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. such as ft of water or psi. psf p2 = pressure at 2. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2.4 × 0. The differential manometer (Fig. 21. however. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. . This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. as shown in Fig.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. For example. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. Click here to view. ft. if the actual difference is 0.4: A differential manometer (Fig. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. the actual pressure difference.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11) where Z1 = elevation. the total energy per unit weight at 2.5.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21.40.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. or sump. 21.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.6 × 62. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.

All rights reserved.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. This term hf. a Fig.4 ft3/s. or the total head ft: (21. across the area of the section A. Fig.14) pa/w is called pressure head. ft. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. 21.21.5. lb/ft3.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. (See Example 21. and pressure (Fig. however. varies with velocity. 21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. and pressure. The total energy. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. ft3/s. velocity. velocity. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. As indicated in Fig. It equals WVa2 / 2g.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. Click here to view. velocity head. Kinetic energy at the section. 21. V2/2g. (21. lb. ft. Example 21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Usually. ft/s. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. through friction. where W is the weight.11). ft2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. where Q is the quantity of flow. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where Va is the velocity. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. 21.14. above some arbitrary datum.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. ft/s = Q/A. Inc.13). . 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Average velocity.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.

Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Thus substitution in Eq. In openchannel flow. gate valve. p2 = 0. Inc. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. since the pipe has free discharge.14 = 10 ft/s. respectively. direction. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. (21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. 21.55 = 48.9). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. sometimes called the total head line. All rights reserved. A change in momentum. Click here to view.45 ft. 21.4/ 3. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. ft. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. which may result from a change in either velocity. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. Also. .15). and any bends. The energy grade line. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. is equal to the impulse. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. while in pressure flow. Z2 = 0. Hence. respectively. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Art.15 Fig. or magnitude of flow.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.7. hf = 50 – 1.

To find F. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. Then.600. .000 sin 53. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.12)] but may be used separately. P2 = ppA2 = 13.78 Ry = 145.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.332π = 71. Fx = 181. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.6. so θ = 60.5 ft/s. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.600 lb In the Y direction. which is to be determined).11) or (21. (21.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. 21.15) first in the X direction. Example 21. since ∆Vy = –(–7. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.2° + Ry = 1.2= 1. Fig. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. and at 2. 21. Click here to view. lb. (See Example 21. apply Eq. (21.000 cos 53.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. All rights reserved. With p1 known.16. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. Inc.700/82. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. since ∆Vx = –(7.200 lb.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.4/ 32. Fy = –181. Let R be the force. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.21. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.1 and the density ρ = 62. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.5°.1 Rx = –82. then in the Y direction.5) = 65.000 lb.200 + Rx = 1.2° – 0) = 4.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.78.94 × 100 × 4. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.2° – 13. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.2° – 71. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.500 lb.96 cos 53.96 sin 53.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.94 × 100 × 65.94.

the capability of the computing resources. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. such as a river. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. A fourth mode of modeling.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. 1. momentum. viscosity. and through execution of the computer program. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7. In the preceding example. or prototype. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. employs both physical and mathematical models. operate. Physical models are expensive to build. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. It is. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. erosional scour.7. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. In water resources engineering.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or proposed works. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. such as storm rainfall. For instance. Click here to view. Inc. gravity. In most models. With hybrid models. aquifer. and surface tension. or drainage basin. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. See also Art. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. to a given set of stimuli. All rights reserved. . analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. 21. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model.17 21. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Usually. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. however. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. droughts. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. alternative management schemes. In this way. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. hybrid modeling. Popular before the advent of digital computers.

The Reynolds number is (21.21. such as depth or diameter). ft2/s. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21.21a) (21. Click here to view. such as spillways and weirs. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. Once the length ratio has been set. The Froude number is (21. the model is termed a true model. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. which is always a predominant force. . and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Reynolds number. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. entrainment of air in flowing water. All rights reserved. Inc.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. and one other force are made proportional.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The inertial force. Therefore.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.20) R is dimensionless. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. The Weber number is (21.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Ratios of the forces of gravity. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Similarly. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. (21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. viscosity. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.22) where ρ = density of fluid. Froude number. respectively. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Squaring both sides of Eq. Then (21. the length ratio is the only variable. 32. the formation of drops and air bubbles. and Weber number.

the logical representation of prototypes. inertial.24). These expressions.7. In some cases.S. One type of model. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. Hence. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. in turn. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). (21. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.25) In models of rivers and channels. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Inc. Sr = 1. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. All rights reserved. 21. Rr = Lr. viscous. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. such as a morning-glory spillway. The U. called a movable-bed model.26) where V = mean velocity. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. mathematical models are. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For such models. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. (21. This type of model is called a distorted model. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. and infiltration parameters. (21.23a) (21. and through execution of the computer program. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. For instance. Click here to view.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. in particular. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . such as flow networks. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. catchment areas. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds.

General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and groundwater yield. For closed conduits other than circular. and turbulent flow results. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. reservoir regulation. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. As this shearing stress increases. R. H. Walker. density. impacts of dam breaks. watershed hydrology. New York. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. This approach.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. This. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. and R. J. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. . flow routing. Grigg. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Art. of all databases and software. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. shown in Fig. Whan. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. Inc. and private sectors. Rothfus. S. landfill leachate analyses. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. as in annular passages.21. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases.” N. the model output required for design or evaluation. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. channel and river hydraulics. In object-oriented software. or pollution.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. ecosystem impacts and restoration. (J. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. A. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. 21. As a general rule. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.) 21. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. hydrodynamics. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. “Water Resources Planning. seepage. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. academia. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. hydrologic forecasting. As a result. R. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. design of hydraulic structures.” McGraw-Hill. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. evaporation and irrigation. G. and among water resources modelers in the government.” D. All rights reserved. vol. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Hoggan. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. however. when fully implemented. (D. Maidment. flood or drought impacts.” V. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. quantity and quality of water supply. Zipparo and H. 3. or both. 1957. Hasen. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. F. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. sediment or pollutant transport.17. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. Also.2). “Handbook of Hydrology. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. wave or tidal analyses. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. if comparisons of different plans are required.

.28) where hf = head loss due to friction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.29) For laminar flow. Inc. the velocity distribution is more uniform. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.l9. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. 32. Brater. handbook of Hydraulics. Fig. Therefore. In laminar flow. Click here to view. 21. (21.” 6th ed.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. the flow is completely turbulent. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.21 Fig. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. ft ρ = density of fluid.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. 32. it is not practical to treat it analytically. causing the flow to become turbulent. a disturbance will probably be magnified. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. at completely turbulent flow. In this region. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. ft/s D = pipe diameter.19. (21. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.) 21. . Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. 21.27) where V = fluid velocity.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. flow is laminar in circular pipes. 21. as shown in Fig. These disturbances create eddies. All rights reserved. than for laminar flow (Fig. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. 21.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. F. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. As the Reynolds number increases. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.18. To the right of the dashed line in Fig.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. 21. New York. (21. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.17). laminar flow is unstable. As a result. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. ft L = length of pipe section considered. (E. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. 21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic.

22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.008 0.0005 – 0.0002 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.001 – 0. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.03 – 0. enamels.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. (21.0005 – 0. (L.) Because Eq.21. 32. (21. ft D = diameter of pipe. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.0002 – 0. Click here to view.003 – 0.0002 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure.19) to Determine f ε. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.0005 0.001 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. 21.003 0. All rights reserved. 21. 21. 21.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. F.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.9. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. November 1944.008 – 0. Moody. Inc. ft V = velocity of fluid.00003 0.19) L = length of pipe.

9.33c) (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. . where D is the pipe diameter.3. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.9. which requires experience in its choice.31) where V = velocity. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. Tables 21.11 (p.4 and 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. dependent on surface roughness. ft/s C = coefficient.) Substitution into Eq. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. (21.34b) (21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.34c) 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. See also Table 22.33b) (21. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.9. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. (21.32) where n = coefficient.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.33d) (21. All rights reserved.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.33e) 21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft L = length of pipe. ft S = head loss due to friction. Click here to view. ft/s C1 = coefficient. 21.31) gives (21.34e) where V = velocity. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. (Although based on surface roughness. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. ft3/s. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.34d) (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. (21.

35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. bends. and valves and other pipe fittings.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.011 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.015 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. Example 21.035 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.7.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.012 0. (21.015 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. because (21. .013 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. in short pipelines.36) for a check.010 0.013 0.017 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.010 To 0. All rights reserved.015 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. Click here to view.013 0.014 0.21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.017 From 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.017 0.017 0.012 0.20 ple 21.014 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.013 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.017 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.012 0. (21. (21.35b) (21. 21. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.015 0.012 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.015 0. However.7: Figure 21.) Flow between reservoirs.4 Values of n for Pipes.013 0.016 To 0.010 0.35c) (21. Inc. 21. enlargements. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.

) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. 110 4 in. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. is (21. 135 In good condition.38) A special application of Eq. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. 140 Large sizes. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.10.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 21. 105 30 in and over. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). (21. ft/s g = 32.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. (A. Click here to view. 21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. good workmanship. H. 85 16 in. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 80 4 in. 120 Large sizes.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Table 21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21 are approximate. . ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 21.25 Table 21. so a full velocity head is lost.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.” Constable & Co. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.10. Gibson. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. ft.37) or (21. 120 Centrifugally spun. 120 24 in and over. (21. Ltd.7..37): (21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. good workmanship.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. 110 (21.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. are presented in Table 21. the values of K in Fig. steel forms.10. wood forms. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. regardless of age.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. London.21). 115 12 in. All rights reserved. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 10 years older Average value.. minor losses must be considered.

Inc.66 0. such as valves and elbows.80 K = 0. fully open Swing check valve. and at bends is given by (21. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.50 K = 0. Globe valve.1 0. For these reaTable 21.89 1.7 0.64 0. fully open Angle valve.9 0.0 5. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.5 0.8 0.81 0.21.10.2 2.6 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. fully open Gate valve.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.0 2.3 0.71 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.5 0.9 0. D = pipe diameter. Click here to view. All rights reserved.05 K = 0. 21.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 0.4 0.4 21.6 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.8 are only approximate.0 1.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.25 The values in Table 21.42) Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.62 0.68 0.0 Table 21.63 0.76 0. .21 of the sides.2 0.

21. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. Equation (21.23. Ito.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. Reynolds number. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. or rectangular. New York.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.27 sons. vol..42). The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (21. The data are in agreement that the head loss. 1.9 for low velocity of approach. 1960. All rights reserved. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. there is disagreement. vol. McGraw-Hill. 21. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. July 1938.45) 21.” Journal of Research.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11. 21.44) where Q = discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. H. although they are usually round.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. 21. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Hasen.” 4th ed. Inc. Orifices may have any shape. however. Experiments on smooth pipes. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5.22: (21. For low heads. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. (V. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. this error is corrected by the C values. the bend loss essentially remains constant. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. (H. square. Beij.. . not including friction loss. (K. If this velocity is significant. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.) Fig. not including friction loss in the bend. no. National Bureau of Standards. Click here to view. series D. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. its effect should be taken into account. (21.42).” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 82. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and angle of bend. 21. Figure 21.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. (21.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Inc. J.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Zipparo and H.

5 2 2.629 0.21.612 0.613 0 610 0.608 0.618 0.637 0. ft 0.595 0.605 0.652 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.644 0.648 0.599 0.623 0.599 0.601 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.618 0.604 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.613 0.605 0. and Z2 = 0.603 0.602 0. “Hydraulics. Z1 = h.622 0.597 0. 21.607 0.1 0.591 0.618 0.616 0.607 0.596 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.634 0.655 0.02 0.602 0.648 0.602 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.617 0.609 0.637 0.596 0.660 0.597 0.614 0.616 0.604 0.602 0.600 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.617 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.6 08 1 1. to Fig.4 0.598 1.601 0.643 0.612 0..623 0.596 0.628 0.0 0.592 1. ft 0.610 0.608 0.0 Head.614 0.600 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. Click here to view. .600 0.598 0.627 0.593 0.637 0. and Eq.593 0.595 0.606 0.614 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.592 0.596 0.606 0.594 0.1 0.611 0.94 to 0.621 0.599 0. Inc.626 0.605 0. V1 = 0.594 0.641 0. All rights reserved.619 0.593 0.602 0.611 0.602 0.596 0.45) becomes (21. (21.599 0.602 0. ft 0.632 0.632 0.601 0.623 0.608 0.603 0.598 0. determined experimentally.592 0. With the reference plane through point 2.04 0. of circular orifices.46) The actual velocity.636 0. Jr.595 0.600 0.607 0.601 0.602 0.” 1886.628 0.610 0.590 0.603 0.615 0.603 0.04 0.02 0.596 0.630 0.604 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet. the vena contracta.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.631 0.619 0.99.605 0.

Inc. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21.) 21. (21. New York. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.. Figure 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.24b. 21.67. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. Brater.11. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. In Fig.48) is obtained. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25. .61 to 0. see E. 21.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. between 1 and 2. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.11. With a partly suppressed orifice. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.47) where hL = losses in head.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. All rights reserved. 21. F. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. Eq.” 6th ed. the contraction is completely suppressed. the area of the orifice.29 Fig. 21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. ft.25 orifice. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. All rights reserved.50) becomes (21. s The Y coordinate is (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. Eq. (21. (21. 32. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.21. (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. Rearranging Eq.56).57) (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. Inc. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.26): (21. when y = h2. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. (21. 21. 21.56) Fig. obtained by solving Eq.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. to time t.59).23). where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. (21. Eq. ft2 A = area of reservoir.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. is that for a parabola: (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. (21.55) 21. ft h2 = head at the end. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.11. . Click here to view. when y = h1.58) Equation (21.58) gives (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.57) for t and substituting in Eq.58)]. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. (21. (21.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. For simplicity.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.50) where a = area of orifice.

42) of 0. 21.28). ft2 Fig. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. In the tube or pipe. (21. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.31 ty Cν = 0. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.82 VT)2/2g = 0. however. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. Fig. All rights reserved. For a short tube flowing full. Click here to view. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0.67 V2 ) = 0. 21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. psf w = unit weight of water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.11.33VT / 2g.82. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.67 V2T /2g. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. Equation (21. a K value for Eq.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When this happens.5 a T T Fig.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.82. if one exists). Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. 21. 21. 21. 21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Therefore. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. . the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. 21. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.29. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.00 VT / 2g – 0.80.11. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75.27) but the head loss is larger. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. Inc. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. (21. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.27.

the pressure in the pipe falls. Inc. 21.32). But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. 21.21. the water in the pipe is motionless.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. For this analysis to be valid.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. As the water flows into the reservoir.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. The pipe shown in Fig. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir.30). The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. 21. 21. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. All rights reserved. Fig. However. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. this momentum drops to zero. but at a pressure much higher than normal. When a valve is closed. 21. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon.29. . Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. either increased or decreased. the tube must flow full. The change causes a pressure rise. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. Click here to view. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. either above or below the normal pressure.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. it causes water hammer.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. Every time the flow rate is changed. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow.

Inc. (21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. (21. s A plot of pressure vs. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. . 43. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. 21.63a) becomes (21. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. 1. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. approximate solution. Equation (21. All rights reserved.63).63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Eq. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.13. 21. (21. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.13. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. Fig.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.64) 21.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.63a) In terms of pressure head. ft 21.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. Click here to view. For instantaneous closure: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.

J. (21. Inc. . Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).61).21.2 × 108 psf. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. (21. Thus. the increment of time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. Click here to view. to apply Eq. Vo the original velocity. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. Inc.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.” 4th ed. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. such as L/aU. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. 21. Hasen. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. s T = actual closure time of valve.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. then that obtained from Eq. Once the time interval has been determined.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity.. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. from Eq. (21. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. diameter = 10 ft. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. With the head known.) Example 21. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. where a equals any integer.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.5 ft2. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. each causing an individual pressure wave. (21. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. New York.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where ∆t.63). The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. equals L /aU. McGraw-Hill. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. Zipparo and H. (21. (21.32. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. ft L = length of pipeline. All rights reserved.63).63). initial velocity = 10 ft/s. area = 78. 32. length = 3000 ft. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. (V. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. is g = acceleration due to gravity.) Velocity of pressure wave. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. penstock thickness = 1 in.

it is by no means the only one. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.66) where p = internal pressure. on the pipe material is (21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Various types of relief Fig. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. lb Hence. 21. floats on the line. the closure is instantaneous. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. . Click here to view. to prevent water hammer. (21. approximate equation (21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. 21. The water column. Inc. in Assuming T = 4. 21. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water.13. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Usually. All rights reserved.75 s. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.34). the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.33) must still be designed for water hammer.34 tension. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. and the pressure rise. When a valve is suddenly opened.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. When a valve is suddenly closed.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. from Eq. in effect. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. Fig. is Pipe Stresses 21. the stress.90 s. 21. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.90 s. psi. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.64) gives the following result: 21.63). ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. M.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. Equation (21.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. P Timoshenko and J. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. In all bends. (21. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Eq.. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. Gere. Art. The internal diameter is used in Eq. In this case. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. (S. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. Inc. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. 21.67). This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. “Theory of . If D/t is less than 10. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .21. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. (21. if expansion joints are to be used.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.67) for concrete pipe. For steel pipes. Click here to view. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. due to a temperature change is (21. elastic Stability. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. 21. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. However. Eq. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. psi. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. In Fig.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. 6. (21. but it is usually small enough to be neglected.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. The force diagram in Fig.” 2nd ed. this analysis is approximate. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. However. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.6). it acts like a beam. The stress. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. For concrete pipes. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. (21. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. 21. is (21.10). All rights reserved. New York.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. and slope. 62. Click here to view. 32. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. All rights reserved. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. In small pipes. 21. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. or other embankment. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. exit conditions.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. an exact theoretical analysis. however.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. However. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. Eqs. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.70) and (21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.71) where R = resultant force on bend.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. (21. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. canal.71) give a quick solution. Inc. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a railroad.37 Fig. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. . (21. the joints must also be able to take these forces. psf w = unit weight of water.

21.37). 21. and the discharge is independent of the slope.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.” EB058W. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.30)]. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the normal depth (Art. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. the culvert flows full. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.36).18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. slope is greater than the critical slope. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge.73) 21. . Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. 21. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Inc. that is. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33d) or (21. and the control will still be at the inlet. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Portland Cement Association.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. but they do not cover Fig. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. For this reason. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. charts. 21.23). All rights reserved. and the Manning equation for friction loss. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . computer software.38). 21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case.21. (21. the following equation is obtained: (21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Click here to view.

where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Discharge depends on head H. Inc.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.75) Substituting this into Eq. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and dn > dc . ft V = velocity in culvert. 21. depending on the head. All rights reserved. Discharge is independent of slope. 32.39).38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.23).20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. and slope of culvert.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. normal pipe flow occurs. ft Equation (21.74) Fig. 21. When slope is less than critical. flow depends on inlet condition. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. When the slope is less than critical. 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. 21. (21. The discharge.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. loss at entrance. The fluid flows under pressure.20) 21.39 Fig. Fig. for the open-channel condition (Fig. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. . open-channel flow takes place. When slope exceeds critical. Thus.74) yields (21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. (21. and dn < dc . Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.

Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow.21. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. If the head on a culvert is high.40). If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. 21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. 21. ft dn = normal depth of flow. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. ft To solve Eq. 21.76). however. 21. 21.37). The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. All rights reserved. and discharge is given by Eq. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.39). . If the friction slope approaches critical. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. (21. 21. Most culverts. Click here to view. Inc. When the friction slope is flat. (21. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. If this condition exists. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.72). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.76). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig.18).41). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76). When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. (21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. (21.

since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. and the entrance will not control.5 0.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. .10 0. Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. 21. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.9 0. (21.40).44) for discharge through an orifice. All rights reserved.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.18 and 21. When the entrance is not submerged. groove or bell. (21. n = 0. (21. length = 300 ft. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. Table 21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.72) yields Q =Va = 9. These values are for culverts flowing full.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Since the culvert is under pressure.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. (21. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.01. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Find: size of culvert. 21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. To calculate the hydraulic radius. square edge Concrete pipe.41 For entrance control. Inc.6.19). First find dn.15 0. 21. (21. Application of Eq. Click here to view. with Eq. Eq. 21. and free exit.8 ft3/s Table 21. projecting Concrete pipe. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Example 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. the flow is under pressure. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. Substitution in Eq. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. groove or bell. But H = 5 + 0. slope = 0. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.013.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.73). assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.72) applies.95 × 4 = 39. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.72) and (21.

ft. ft2 When the discharge is constant. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.03 to 1. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. or slope. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. is generally given by (21. and is given by (21. however. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft. It has uniform flow if the grade.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.77) where V = average velocity.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. or open-channel flow. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. Figure 21.21. Click here to view.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. All rights reserved. depth of flow is constant throughout. Equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. (21. 32.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. In a uniform channel. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. or the total-head line.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. minus the free surface width. (21. ft.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. 21. The wetted perimeter is the length. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Thus. Inc. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. ft3/s. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. normally taken as 1. within a hydraulic jump. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. plus the velocity head at the point. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. Hence. . It is. It is expressed in feet as (21. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.36 for prismatic channels.79) The velocity head HV. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point.79).

84) where A = area of flow. 21. McGrawHill Book Company. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel.) (21. (See. ft. Click here to view.” 6th ed.43 Fig. for example. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. . F. ft.42 is called the normal depth dn.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. 21.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. Eq. (21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. slope. in which T is the top width of the channel. New York. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.83) Brater. Inc. 21. New York. as shown in Fig.44. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. T. For a rectangular channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. roughness.43. As the depth decreases downstream. and discharge are known. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.43). “Handbook of Hydraulics. the specific energy also decreases..42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. Chow. (V. E. normal depth decreases downstream. 21.84) reduces to Fig. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.

Brater. . for a given discharge.44).44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. F. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. 21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. For a given value of specific energy. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. The flow there is called subcritical flow. or conversely.84) is called the critical depth dc. All rights reserved. (21. and flow is supercritical. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. (21. New York). the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. Inc. ft3/s d = depth of flow. or it may be found directly from tables (E. the depth is greater than critical.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. 21.84) may be reduced to (21. For rectangular channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.. (21.44). In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. the depth is below critical.84). Eq.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.21. 21. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. (21. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.43.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. flow is subcritical. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. as indicated in Fig. Critical depth. 21. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. All rights reserved. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.45 where dc = critical depth.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. flow is supercritical. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. regardless of slope.85). ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. (21. . For every depth greater than critical depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. without turbulence. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. (21. once calculated.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Such a change occurs gradually. 21.87) Fig. It can be seen from Fig. 21. 21. ft3/s b = width of channel.44).57). Inc. Click here to view. [As indicated by Eq. 21. however. a hydraulic jump will occur. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. indicating an irreversible occurrence.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. p. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. 21.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.45. along with a high loss of energy.52b.

E. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Inc. Click here to view. Eq. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. (See also Art. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. 21. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. S for steep (supercritical). is replaced by a horizontal line. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. The M2 curve forms between the normal. and A for adverse.46a and b. C for critical. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.D. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).90) where A = area of flow. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. 21. 21. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.L. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.4.D. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. All rights reserved. and the N. 21.11. H for horizontal.46c and d. and adverse slope.L.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). (21. . there must be a continuing maintenance program.23).46. ft V = mean velocity of flow.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. New York.9 and Table 21. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.L.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The N.D. at an arbitrary elevation.25).S. Department of Agriculture. horizontal. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. as shown in Fig.D.D. (Although based on surface roughness. 21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. the average n values given in Table 21. and the critical-depth line C. are in Table 21.89) may be written (21. Dr.and critical-depth lines.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. therefore. and C.L. are identical for a channel of critical slope.L. These curves are divided into five groups.) 21. and two types for channels of critical. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. T. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. Chow.

Smooth and uniform b.012 0.140 0.021 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.015 Avg 0. The S2 curve.025 0.023 0.025 0. Unlined channels 1. Lined channels 1.040 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. after weathering b.032 0.011 0. good section c. Smooth b.050 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Planed. 21. Metal a. Gunite. few weeds c. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.011 0.014 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.012 0.080 0.033 0. Masonry a. With short grass.025 0. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.019 0.027 0. Cemented rubble b.46i and j. high as flow depth d.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.080 0. Dry rubble 5.022 0.013 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.013 0. No vegetation b. Inc. respectively). Rough wood form B.035 0.012 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.46a and b.035 0.028 0.017 Max 0. All rights reserved. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Dense weeds. 21.030 0.013 0. Click here to view. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Light brush on banks 3. wavy section 4. commonly called a drawdown curve. Concrete a.018 0. high stage 2.014 0.016 0.013 0. Clean.015 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.035 0. Asphalt a. Float finish b.012 0.010 0. Dense brush.100 0.018 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Jagged and irregular 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Rock cuts a.030 0.014 0. Gunite.025 0.023 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.016 0. Corrugated 2.050 0.120 0.040 0.024 0.017 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.015 0. Wood a.035 0.016 0.022 0.030 0. Rough C.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.060 0.020 0.013 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.016 0.014 0. 21. Smooth wood form c.025 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.025 0. Steel form b.016 0.021 0. straight and uniform a.033 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.022 0. untreated 3. . Excavated earth. Dredged earth a.

21. All rights reserved.D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. The curves in Fig.46k and l.D. Click here to view. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Inc. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.L. C. . 21.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. critical-depth line.L. N. 21. and A profiles.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. indicates normal-depth line. H. Examples in Fig.21.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.

“Open-Channel Hydraulics. gate. direction-integration. 21.5. weir. Explanations of both the graphical. 21. 21. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. For step-method computations. New York.77) if the depth were zero. The wave travels at a speed. T. Click here to view. For the section of channel in Fig. (R. . or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. For subcritical flow conditions. free overfall. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. H. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. New York. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Chow. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. Inc.and direct-integration methods are in V. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. and step methods. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. depending on the type of flow. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). “Open-Channel Hydraulics. or reaches. each reach is solved in succession.27. (21. Inc.47. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. known as its celerity.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 21. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. See Art. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. dam. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. with relatively small variation.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. 32.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2.” McGraw-Hill. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. French. the channel is divided into short lengths. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.51).

Therefore. the change in elevation. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. not the channel bottom.93) where R = hydraulic radius.92) (21. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. 21. 21. the longer the backwater curve profile. hi. respectively. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. prismatic channels.91) for L gives (21. (For uniform.82). the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. All rights reserved.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. The smaller the value of n. is negligible and can be ignored. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. ft.93). the – eddy loss. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. Click here to view. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. Solving Eq.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. (21. as given by Eq. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. Inc. (21. the head loss. due to friction in the same reach. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and vice versa. rearranged as follows: Fig. (21. .) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. and – SL = hf. ft. 21.

The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq.92). (21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. from 0 to 0.95) The coefficient k is 0. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. All rights reserved.51 may be some intermediate depth. (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. referred to a horizontal datum. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions.1 for converging reaches. Next.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section.2 for diverging reaches. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. respectively. (21.95). sometimes called impact loss. in natural channels. ft. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. and about 0. the friction loss. Finally. . becomes (21. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. ft. computations progress toward the initial section. which. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Therefore. (21.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.93). such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. The value of total head computed from Eq. Then. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Z2. For lined channels. (21. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Inc. grade. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. (21. or roughness.94). total head H. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. the average friction slope for the reach. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Next.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. ft. S. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.93). depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. after substitution of H from Eq. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. respectively. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. is obtained from Eq. and it is therefore often accounted for. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Then. Click here to view. (21. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. ft/s.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.47. Eddy loss. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.96). Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. 21. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. (21. Since this step method is a converging process.

respectively. is a turbulent mass of water.1 ft in elevation. 21. If the two values of total head do not agree. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. however. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.27. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Click here to view. The effect of bridges. H. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. . because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). bridge piers.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.51 and 21. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. and J. or other obstruction. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. approach roadways. 21.. Bureau of Public Roads. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis.48). a gate.21.23). Federal Highway Administration. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.52b. Utilizing the above data. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. New York. Inc.” Hydraulics Design Series no. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. French. However. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. known as the length of jump.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. known as the roller. as shown in Figs. 21.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. 21. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. velocity. Bradley. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. 21. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. N. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. All rights reserved. Fig. U. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. The upstream surface of the jump. Department of Transportation.48 Hydraulic jump. 1970. 21. 1. and determine the discharge. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 2nd ed. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).

2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. this resultant pressure force is (21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.105) where A = area of flow. in Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21.82). ft3/s = unit of time. V is the mean velocity. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.99). depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. Click here to view. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. s (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. (21.98) and (21. For rectangular channels. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.102) Equation (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump.99) where M = mass of water.104) = discharge.16)]. (21. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.49) is given by (21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. 21. . ft w = unit weight of water. or alternate depths. All rights reserved. ft d2 = depth after jump. This difference (Fig.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.100). The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. (21.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. d2 must also equal dc. 32.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity. Inc. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. 21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. where L is a characteristic length. (21. ft/s. ft/s2.27. For open-channel flow. ft2 T = width of free surface.100) Equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head.49.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. 21. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. If the tailwater is too low. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig.S. The jump action is rough but effective.5. The jump is well-balanced.27.5 to 9. for example. For F1 = 4.7 to 2. were classified by the U. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. the flow is critical and there is no jump. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.21. which gives discharge vs. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. This jump may be called a weak jump. For F1 = 2. All rights reserved. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. depending on local conditions. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. which. This jump may be called a strong jump.0. 21. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. 21. For F1 = 1. chute. For F1 = 9.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. The jump is called an undular jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. In either case.5 to 4. can travel for miles.7.23). Click here to view. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there are undulations on the surface. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. This jump may be called a steady jump. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. 21. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. . the jump will be drowned out. depth after the jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%.0 and larger. For F1 = 1 to 1. below a spillway. and the performance is at its best.5. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. For F1 = 1. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. Inc. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. very commonly in canals. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the tailwater is too high. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.

4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.S. T.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. Inc. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. and sloping the apron.27. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21. therefore. Accessories. Chow from data gathered by the U. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. changing the apron elevation. 21. 21. The curve. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. These features are expensive to build. But it has been determined experimentally. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. The resulting curve (Fig.105). not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin.Water Resources Engineering s 21. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. This length (Fig.51.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.55 curve involve changing the crest length.27. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Click here to view. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . 21. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. (21. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. All rights reserved.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. prepared by V.

Inc. Click here to view. 21. if the downstream depth is lowered. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. 21. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. curves AB and ED in Fig. which occurs near the channel drop-off. (21. If d2 is less than d′ .101). but it is normally assumed to be 0. 21. 21.102). It is assumed. the computed length of jump. the jump occurs in the steep region.26. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. A horizontal intercept FG. CB.52b. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art.51. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. as theory would indicate.46e and c). except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. 21. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.52. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. that flow is uniform.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems.7dc for simplicity. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. less than. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. the jump moves downstream to a new position. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. using the step methods of Art. 21. computed from Eq. for simplicity. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. As depth d2 is lowered. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.21.75h in the absence of better information. Conversely. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. equal in length to L. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. respectively (Fig. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. equal to the computed length of the jump.52a.5% of critical depth. as shown in Fig. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. as shown in Fig. .23) to mild. computed from Eq. 21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. between lines CB′and EO. the jump moves to a new location downstream. (21. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.101) with d1 given. 21.

ft3/s. then the assumed discharge is correct. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. (R. 21. French.82) and (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or (b) below it. ft. where He is the specific energy head.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill.53).” 6th ed. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.23).) 21. From Q = AV. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. on the channel entrance. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. a new discharge is assumed. or (a) above it. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). Click here to view. if not. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.51.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. Inc. ignoring entrance loss. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. New York. Inc. 21. the entrance loss. Brater.85)]. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. 21. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. Then. F. is (21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. 21..28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. H.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels.53a). and the slope of the channel. ft. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. All rights reserved. If the entrance loss must be considered. . the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs.106) where b is the channel width. New York. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water.3 for one with squared ends. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. (21. and discharge is at a maximum.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. ft.

———— charge. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. 32. 21.33). ft3/s.21. where He – d is the actual head. d is normal depth. (In Fig. a new discharge is chosen. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.2 ft/s2.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.23).22). (b) mild-slope channel. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.53b). The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. if not. Click here to view. ft. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.83). All rights reserved. ft2. producing flow. (21. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. Inc. 21. then the discharge is correct. 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).53b. 21. He is the specific energy head. 21. ft. .

although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. a unit mass of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.59 21. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. the true value of y would be only a few inches. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. All rights reserved. Thus. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. when a stream enters a curve.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. (21. ft. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. (21. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. where V is its average velocity. .54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. and rc the radius of curvature. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. ft. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. or mV2 /rc for m. The error will not be great.108). The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. In this range. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. 21. If the bend continues long enough. (21. ft /s. ft. 21. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. 21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. 21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow.83)]. of the center line of the channel. Click here to view. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23). however. Inc. curve (Fig. Therefore. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction.107) The theoretical difference y. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel.

recross as shown. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.110) for θ in Eq.55). (21. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.S. The second is a negative wave. All rights reserved. and should be used with discretion. 21. phase. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. One is a positive wave. Technical Bulletin 393. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. depths along the inside wall. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. (F. a series of standing waves are produced. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Inc.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. 21. .111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. His values have not been evaluated completely. These waves cross at M. Click here to view. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.21. Department of Agriculture.” U. Two waves form at the start of the curve. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.23). “The Flow of Water in Flumes. by (21. Fig. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. with sufficient accuracy. flows around a bend in a channel.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. an increase in friction loss results.111). however. This angle may be found from (21. Scobey. of greater-than-average surface elevation. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. 21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.16)] . The cross slope required for 21.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. (21. and continue crossing and recrossing. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. (21. C. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.

56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. All rights reserved. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. plus any transition and friction losses. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. wall roughness. 21. the loss factor. if friction is ignored. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. change from subcritical to supercritical. Click here to view. as shown in Fig. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. where K. 21. Inc. ft. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. p. or change from supercritical to subcritical. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.57).113) angle of about 12. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. . low-head-loss transfer of flow. Straight.8[∆(V2/2g)]. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. ∆V is the velocity change. such as flow-rate changes. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. 21. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The transition loss. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. Many variables. 21. equals about 0. To place a transition properly between two open channels.23). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 for welldesigned transitions. and g = 32. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. the average velocity decreases. respectively. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. When proceeding downstream through a transition. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.1 for an inlet-type structure. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head.56. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. ft/s. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. 21. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. 21.2 ft/s2. and channel shape and slope.44.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. therefore. If friction is ignored.54). The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.44. is given by K(∆V2/2g).5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. For outlet-type structures.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21. In this range.

1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Click here to view. and. . from which a = 0. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.59 Weir not sharp-crested. trapezoidal weirs. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.34. y = ax2. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola.222 ft. In contrast.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.000556. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. as shown in Fig. Fig. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. and parabolic weirs. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. such as broad-crested weirs. the weir is submerged or drowned.21. Fig.57.000556(20)2 = 0. triangular weirs. the weir has free discharge. If the discharge is partly under water. All rights reserved. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. measured from A or B.58). The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. trapezoidal weirs. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.000556(10)2 = 0. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 21. 21.58 Sharp-crested weir. 21.59. such as rectangular weirs. For Fig.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section.5 = a(30)2. triangular or Vnotch weirs. 21.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. 21. Inc.

Hence. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. A V-notch weir (Fig.34. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.5H. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. The height of weir P must be at least 2. contraction of the nappe. 2.5H upstream from the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.115) where Q = discharge. One such equation. Inc. .116) corrects for the effects of friction. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. 21. New York). A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. 21. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Equation (21. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.60 V-notch weir. ft The head should be measured at least 2. 21. 21. At very low heads. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. below the crest. To be fully ventilated. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chow. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.58) (V. If P is less than Fig. thus causing a contraction of the flow. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. All rights reserved. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. T.

119) where Q = discharge. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. there are two end contractions and N = 2.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. 21. New York). ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 69.61) (E. 21. His values were summarized by Brater. measured from notch bottom. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. Fig.” 6th ed. vol. Discharge is given by (21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. T. All rights reserved. Lenz. McGraw-Hill Book Company.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Inc. 21. ft.2) when low discharges are to be measured. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. F. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.118)] 21. 1943).. 21.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head.34.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. ft H = head. Click here to view. The effective length L. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. 21. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. (21. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.118) Fig.5H upstream from the weir. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq.34. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. (21.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. .34.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 21.21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir.

or both.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. 1947. ft3/s. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. for such weirs. Dec. 21. heavily constructed devices.) To use the Villemonte equation. 21. ft. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. Thus.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. and then. Typically. velocity head of approach. using this rate and the required depths. From this total head.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.34. which may be done as follows: First.121) where Q = discharge.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. velocity head. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. 21. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. Then. and finally total head.34. Click here to view. Eq.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. neglecting the velocity head. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. The discharge Qs. All rights reserved. (J. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Fig. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. Where great accuracy is essential. (21.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. p. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.” Engineering News-Record. R. ft/s V /2g = Hν. ft3/s. (21. 866.122) where H = measured head. 32. compute the velocity of approach. 21. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. using this discharge. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q.Water Resources Engineering s 21. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. Villemonte.115) is rewritten in the form (21. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. Inc.59). 25. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft V = velocity of approach. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. 2 21.) Equation (21.

use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.34. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. head in relation to design heads.10 H. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.21. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.123) where L = effective crest length. But the process should be repeated. thickness of pier.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. ft (U. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.S. starting with the corrected discharge. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. For conditions of design head Hd. For conditions of design head Table 21.02 0. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.12.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. DC 20402. “Design of Small Dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.13. For each change of nappe shape. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. All rights reserved. Therefore.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.” Government Printing Office. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. F. . there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.5Hd > r* > 0. Washington. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. the head in relation to the design head.20 0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. Inc. ft L′ = net crest lengths. and approach velocity. and the approach velocity. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. Department of the Interior.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. The effect is most critical for low heads. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. 21. where approach velocities are high.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.2 of the head. Click here to view. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding.

” Government Printing Office. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. 1. Of the above rules. T. (21. Fig. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.122). New York).64) has such a shape.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. at the point of maximum contraction. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. “Design of Small Dams. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. According to Chow. DC 20402. 21. 21. 21. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Figure 21. called the design head Hd. however.S. 2. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.65. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. Chow. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Click here to view. All rights reserved.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. Department of the Interior. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Washington.34.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. and therefore of an ogee crest. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5H upstream. 21. (U. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where discharge is given by Eq. For flow at heads lower than the design head. Consequently. 21. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. T. for a sharp-crested weir. Chow. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. . This manual and V. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. This relationship is shown in Fig. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. The shape of this nappe.66 of the head.67 Fig. depends on the head producing the discharge. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.

and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.21.66. Inc. 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bureau of Reclamation.” U. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. the flow differs from ideal.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.) Fig. Figure 21. New York. 21. Bureau of Reclamation. (From “Design of Small Dams.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.S. .” U.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. (From “Design of Small Dams.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.S.

) 21. All rights reserved.. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.67 and 21. (See. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are used as spillways and control structures.. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Values of the discharge coefficient. E. . compiled by King.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. Bureau of Reclamation. Unless otherwise noted. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.68.34. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.) Fig. is determined from Fig. 21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.” U. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Weirs of irregular section. has contraction of the nappe. Brater. F. and sharp right-angled edges. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. Brater. New York. “Handbook of Hydraulics.69 Fig. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. Click here to view. 21. (21.S. Figure 21. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams. the coefficient of discharge.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. McGraw-Hill Book Company.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Figure 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. therefore.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. where the velocity of approach is not high. 21.” 6th ed. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.14. Inc. for example. “Handbook of Hydraulics.34. the nappe springs free. fairly common in waterworks projects. if flow is at other than the design head. F.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. appear in Table 21. a plane horizontal crest.” 6th ed.69 Broad-crested weir.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. because of its sharp upstream edge. New York. (E. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.

32 3.69 2.5 3.64 2.68 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.72 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment. valves.68 2.85 3.32 2.5 5.67 2. those carried in suspension.68 2.54 2.64 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.00 2.34 2.2 0.5 4. such as gates.32 3.89 3.28 3.32 3.68 2.32 3.68 2.65 2.63 2. 21.32 5.0 1.32 3.61 2.50 H.66 2.89 3.00 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.72 2.70 2.32 3.63 2.44 2.68 2.73 2. once formed.32 3.64 2.32 1.07 3.32 3.65 2.64 2.32 3. and turbines.32 3.32 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.65 2.30 3.31 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.63 2.86 2.32 3.70 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.0 2.61 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.04 3.6 0.32 3.88 10. those forming the bed load.32 3.88 2.70 2.32 3.64 2.64 2.63 2.63 2.64 2.79 1.32 3.32 3. or soil.75 2.65 2.63 2.68 2.19 3.32 3.31 3. Inc.64 2.32 3.64 2.32 3.64 2.50 2.81 2.32 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.60 2.63 2.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. with its load of suspended silt.00 2.54 2.32 3. which are often of equal consequence.00 2.76 2. This incoming water.32 3.07 3.5 2.07 3.60 2. .64 15.32 3.50 2.29 3.64 2.75 2.65 2.92 2.56 2.60 2.4 0. Click here to view.0 4.32 3.68 2.2 1.92 3. All rights reserved.32 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.63 2.66 2.64 2.68 2.49 2.85 2.68 2.32 3.32 3.80 2. Heavier silt sizes.70 2.32 3.20 3.21.63 2.64 2.62 2.50 2.66 2.07 3.07 3.32 3.32 3.0 3.0 5.89 2.72 2.63 21.30 3.32 3.80 2.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.4 1.66 2. erosion.32 4.67 2.75 2.69 2.66 2.00 2.08 3.08 3.64 2.76 2. ft 0.26 3.88 3.31 3.14 3.68 2.48 2.20 3.75 2.32 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt. The smaller silt sizes. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.20 3.65 2.97 3.69 2.67 2. such as a reservoir.32 3.75 2.6 1.32 3.58 2.32 2.00 2.64 2.32 3.98 3. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.64 2.8 1.64 2.77 2.00 2.67 2.68 2.65 2.32 1.60 2.63 2.32 3.05 3.74 2.69 2.67 2. A density current.79 2. ft 0.92 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.38 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.70 2.8 2.74 2.35.70 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.03 3.28 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.

Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. overtopping. or failure of materials. When neither can be done. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. are coarsegrained.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density.35. because of variations in rainfall.39. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. 21. Click here to view. Inc. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The most common manner of destruction. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. landslide. Of course. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. on the other hand. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. . normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. or from year to year. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. the rate is not uniform during the year. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. All rights reserved. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. However. formed from the bed load. These currents are stable. By this method. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. however. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. see Art. once formed. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area.

The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.1). The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. Therefore. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. Inc. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. ft3/s b = width of river. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. discharge. which varies with both slope and discharge. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy.35. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. which generally occurs only during a storm. and boulders.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Frequently. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. A mean grain size of 0. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. Click here to view.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. All rights reserved.21. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. (21.0 ft/mi. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. According to Witzig. But for the most part.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. gravel. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.124) where Gb = total bed load. Therefore. . Therefore. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. ft qo = critical discharge. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. however. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. 21.

and pressure. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. planting of burned-over areas. water evaporation from oceans. and distribution.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. Click here to view. and stream flow 21. Weather Bureau is 24 h. such as an hour. rivers. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. or a combination of the two. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. runoff. H. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. Current data.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. (W. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. . and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.73 dation. Weather Bureau. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. All rights reserved. including their relation to living things.) culation. their occurrence.” U. if the dam is raised at a later date. (21-124). For instance.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. evaporation. In this cycle. or digital microchip technology. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth.S. and their reaction with their environment. recharges groundwater. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. debris barriers. Inc. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. their chemical and physical properties. on or near the land surface. by ink pen and revolving drum.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. and the stream velocity. lakes. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. infiltration.S. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. day. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. are published daily by the U. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. discharges into streams.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. groundwater flow.S. infiltrates into the soil. contour plowing. Such screens. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Graf. A. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. Department of Agriculture. such as wind. The second type is a nonrecording gage. It continually records. check-dam construction. temperature. Use of vegetation screens. Einstein. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. circulation. (See H. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. which are of two types. New York. or year. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. from which evaporation restarts the cycle.

and plantleaf surfaces. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. Of the three. All rights reserved.21. shallow pools and 11 for large. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. branches. “Handbook of Hydrology. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. developed from Dalton’s law. and it increases as wind velocity increases.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. Inc. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. Not all rain reaches the ground. (21. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. equal to 15 for small. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. The Meyer equation [Eq. commonly termed consumptive use. plant..125) (21. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. (21. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. has a relatively large surface area. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Click here to view. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. R.” McGraw-Hill. Maidment. or ground surfaces. tropical and subtropical regions. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. Inc. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. In transpiration. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin.126) where E = evaporation rate. Evapotranspiration. In evaporation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. ground.125)]. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Evapotranspiration is important because. . On an annual basis. on a long-term basis. in of mercury. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. called interception. Evaporation may occur from free-water. see D. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. while another portion may be caught on leaves. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. and other vegetation surfaces. A portion may evaporate as it falls. This phenomenon. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. in of mercury.

After joining stream flow. R. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.” McGraw-Hill.70. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. or cetyl alcohol. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. or excess rain.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. where it continues as channel or stream flow. On large reservoirs. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. or groundwater runoff. Precipitation—form (rain. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. intensity. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0.60 and 0. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Inc. Climatic characteristics a. aquatic life. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. except in arid. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. natural or manmade. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. duration. also known as interflow. subsurface storm flow. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration.. although it may vary between 0. snow. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. is in widespread use. depending on the geographical region. time distribution. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. effective rain includes subsurface flow. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain.80. Moving laterally. Commonly. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. subsurface runoff. runoff may be surface. Inc. or groundwater flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. . Runoff is supplied by precipitation. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. and biologic attrition. birds. dew). hail. It appears in surface channels. Subsurface flow. Click here to view. and storm seepage. subsurface. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. tropical. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. perhaps several years. All rights reserved. 21. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. called a Class A Level Pan. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Classified by the path taken to a channel. In practice. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. to reach a channel. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Maidment. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. insects. (D. Hexadeconal. wind tends to push the film to the shore. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. frost. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Groundwater flow. New York. “Handbook of Hydrology.

those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. All rights reserved. 21. Weather Bureau. and the accuracy desired. snow storage.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. direction of storm movement b.S. lakes and other bodies of water. Geological Survey. slope. elevation. 21. shape.S. and various state and local agencies. extremes during precipitation c. Humidity e. Agricultural Research Service. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Click here to view. slope. direction. the U. extremes of flow. yearly flow volume.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. stratification Fig. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. detail. length) b. both published and unpublished. orientation. Solar radiation 2. permeability. Geological Survey.S. Atmospheric pressure f. and completeness of the hydrologic records. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. roughness. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. frozen ground during storms. Wind—velocity. land use and cover. . as shown in Fig. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. mean flow. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. These papers contain records of daily flow. Topographic—size. Inc. Geological Survey. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. areal distribution. the quantity and type of data available. special-interest items. 21. artificial drainage. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Geologic—soil type. recurrence interval. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. groundwater formations.” U. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. and Weather Bureau. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. antecedent precipitation. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. TVA. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. general location. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Temperature—variation.S. shape of cross section. soil moisture. International Boundary Commission. 21.70. channels (size. Drainage-basin characteristics a. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. drainage net.S. duration d. the detail required in the final answer. The principal source of precipitation data is the U.

Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. 4. All rights reserved. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. 3.127) where Q = peak discharge.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. 1962). The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. and large downstream damage potential. As an example. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. in/h A = drainage area.128) 21. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential.41. Chow. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Click here to view. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. The values of C in Table 21. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. a 50. for example. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. others give the complete hydrograph. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. T. Inc. 5. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. 2. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. deep culverts under vital highways and railways.or 100-year-frequency storm. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. great importance. the second to major hydraulic structures. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

avg. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. detached Multiunits.) The flow time in gutters.95 0.10 – 0.30 0. min time of concentration Fig.13 – 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. Inc. 21.75 0.127). and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.75 – 0.10 0.85 0. Equation (21.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.25 – 0.75 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.20 – 0.10 – 0.95 0.128) or Eq. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. is a convenient. steep.60 – 0.21. 21. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. (See D. b. 21. (21.50 – 0. (21. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80 0.50 – 0. avg.60 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. steep.20 0.10 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. 2–7% Sandy soil. factor. and the flow time in conduits. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. ditches. (21. the flow time in streets.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. gutters. Click here to view.41.18 – 0. All rights reserved.22 0.129) Table 21. n. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. streets.70 0. . Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.89)] . flat.95 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.15 – 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.40 0. or ditches.95 0.70 0. coefficient. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. 7% Heavy soil.15 0.71 and Table 21. K. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.40 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. (21.80 – 0.60 – 0. New York.50 0. After determining the time of concentration.20 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or any equivalent method.70 – 0.05 – 0.25 0.90 0.16).25 – 0..70 – 0.17 0. 2% Heavy soil. years duration of storm. flat.” McGraw-Hill. Inc.85 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. Maidment.129).35 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. 2% Sandy soil.70 – 0. R.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. in/h respectively.50 – 0. Sherman.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.40 – 0.30 – 0.

that is. 3. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. vol. pp. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. termed a unit period. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. Thus. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. 2. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Inc. the time of storm runoff. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. Click here to view. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method.79 Table 21. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. usually 1 acre).2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. JanuaryJune 1932. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. easier. . (Leroy K. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. All rights reserved. termed a unit storm.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The method is summarized by the formula (21. Sherman. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. 4. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration.” Engineering News-Record. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. 108. 501-505. This requires that a storm of short duration. and more accurate than any such set of factors.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. subdivision may be required. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If the watershed is very large. The unit hydrograph is much quicker.

For ease of manipulation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.72.73). 21. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. All rights reserved. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. which is of fixed intensity and duration. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Then.21. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Usually. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Click here to view. 21. Inc. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. because of storm variations. . this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. 5. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. 21. Illustrated in Fig.

Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. Inc. Also. 19. This method was developed by Franklin F. Maidment. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. (See D. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.) where Q = flow rate. vol. “Handbook of Hydrology.81 21. New York. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. (R. Click here to view. R. “Hydrology for Engineers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined.131) period. during heavy storms. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Inc.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.) Fig..74). This loss. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. 21.. pp.Water Resources Engineering s 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. perpendicular to direction of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig.. Linsley et al. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. 447–454). McGraw-Hill. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. I.. All rights reserved.” McGraw-Hill. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. pt. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. 21. 21. . K.” 3rd ed.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. New York. Inc. Fig.

(Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. quantity. water softening costs. Frequently. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. Click here to view.21. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. and overdraft. Regardless of how it is defined. usually a number of years. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. is a confined or artesian aquifer. and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. quality. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and indirect water-quality use costs. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. and location of artificial replenishment. safe yield.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. alternative management plans should be formulated. and methods of wastewater disposal. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. rather than a change in volume. or other causes. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. because of impermeable layers above and below it. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. need for excessive pumping lifts. cost of replenishment water. present and future water demands should be determined. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Inc. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. source. . An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. wastewaters. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. groundwater levels. (A base period is a period of time. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Following the preceding preliminary work. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. poor-quality replenishment waters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Deteriorating water quality. quantity. These costs include increased soap costs. recycling. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. among others. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities.

1987. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. commercial. distribution. land speculation. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. pumping. K. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. motels. storage. Therefore. percentage increase. or other unforeseen emergency. and treatment works. and natural and artificial replenishment. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. water used. Kashef. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. I. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. wastewater disposed. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. Bear. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. and public. J. 40. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Click here to view. sanitary. graphical comparison with other cities. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. and sanitary purposes. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. legal.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. decreasing percentage increase. culinary. American Society of Civil Engineers. and environmental factors. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” A. bathing. All rights reserved. no. industrial. New York. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. fire. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. (“Ground Water Management. Estimation of future population. 21. “Groundwater Engineering. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. McGraw-Hill Book Company. amount and location of groundwater extractions.” N. S. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions.” 3rd ed. “Water Resources Planning. institutional. and age of the city. fire-fighting.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. washing. Linsley et al. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. financially feasible. .. geographical boundaries. flood. apartments. such as industrial development. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. is a very difficult task. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and hotels for drinking. irrigation. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Inc. The smaller the system. transmission.Water Resources Engineering s 21.. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” R. surface-water delivery facilities.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. industrial. Hydrology for Engineers. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. Grigg. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. however.

if the cost of water increases.17. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Calif. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. presents Table 21. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. and air conditioning purposes.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. cooling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and pressure. Public Health Service Report. as presented in Table 21. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. air conditioning. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. the demand for it decreases. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. influence the demand rate for water. janitorial. degree of industrialization. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Normally. are the average of a range of values. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. pressure. All rights reserved. month. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. and time of day. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. standard of living. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. degree of industrialization.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. and unauthorized uses. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Table 21. valves. Mo. size of the city. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. and faucets.S. meter malfunctions. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Inc. and quality of the water. lawn sprinkling. such as the climate. quality. cost. cost. The national demand-rate data. but because of the high rate at which it is required. it may control the design of the facilities. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. and cleaning. . Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. The “California Water Atlas. Public use of water for parks. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. reservoir evaporation. and year. type of service (metered or unmetered). Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. public buildings. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Demand rates vary with time of day.” 1979.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Click here to view. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver.21. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago.

85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. but the demand rate is high.000 40. and streams. climate.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. In selection of a source of supply.6 1. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. 21.2 8.3 0. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. Click here to view. however.000 100.000 12.000 200.000 55.000 40.000 70.4 3.18 Required Fire Flow.2 2. the effect of warm. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. and in some cases. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 120.3 5.6 11.000 80.8 2.18. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Hydrant Spacing.9 4. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. legality.000 1. All rights reserved. The source must Table 21.000 2. interdependent.000 8.3 Duration.000 10. gal/min P = population. In the atlas. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. valley cities. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. Moreover. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.6 4.000 40.0 3. is frequently undesirable. In the past. cost. diversification is essential for reliability. Total dependence on a single source. rivers.000 90. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.0 1.000 4.000 28. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. and politics.000 90. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 4.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. to a large extent.000 10.000 40.000 6.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.5 14. Cost.000 125.000 85. Inc.000 40. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. however.000 17. .8 6.000 60. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.000 48.000 85. In some local areas.000 * American Insurance Association.000 40.000 3. such as lakes.000 1.8 7.000 5.000 110. MG = million gallons. industrialization. quality.000 40. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.4 2.132) where G = fire-demand rate. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.4 17. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. MG† 0. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 80. inland.0 7.500 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. and calculation of the Langelier index. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. 21. alkalinity. calcium hardness. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.22. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. total dissolved solids. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.S.” American Public Health Association. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Inc. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.” U. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 – 8. Click here to view. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. American Water Works Association. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. (See also Art.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. In addition.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.21. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.21. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.3 mg / L 0. temperature. dependent on local conditions. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. such as sulfates and chlorides. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.5 mg / L 0. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.S. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. .20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. The measurements should include pH.) At the discretion of the state.) Source Protection s The U. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. All rights reserved.

In the region where 1. Mich. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. slow and rapid sand filtration. temperature and viscosity of the water.134).51). mm If R > 2000. however. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Newton’s law applies: (21. is equal to or less than 1. 21. such as those mentioned above. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. Inc. particulate and colored matter. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. Ann Arbor. and width B. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. and softening (see also Art. (21. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. Reynolds numbers. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. 21.0. (See R. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Figure 21. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. depth ho . For this ideal basin. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. (Usually. shape. disinfection. Click here to view. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. 21. and size and shape of the settling basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. . to be used in Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Figure 21. velocity is constant. Inc. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. unpleasant tastes and odors. calculated with ν = νs.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.001 and 5. B. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means.46. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. V the flowthrough velocity. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. All rights reserved. coagulation-sedimentation.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. (21. Pojasek.0 < R < 2000. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.

21. 897. after Camp. Click here to view. p.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. 103. 1946. .75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.21. vol. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) Fig. (Observed curves. Inc. All rights reserved. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at 10 °C.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig.

Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. M. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. or other indicator to pass through the basin.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.46. All rights reserved. 21. finely Fig. 21. rectangular (Fig. 21. 27. 21. Inc. and D.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Geyer.5 ft/min (most common velocity. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Multistory tanks. G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21. short circuiting. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension.” John Wiley & Sons. C. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. Inc.78b). New York. for example.. 1. are removed in this basin. New York.” McGraw-Hill.8c. coagulants are added to the water. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . J. Fair. and eddy currents. salt. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. Inc. The tubular settler (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. A. 21. . Okun. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.78a) or circular (Fig. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Click here to view. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . Without coagulants..

21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (b) Circular clarifier. 21. Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (d) Tubular settler. . Click here to view.

“Water Supply and Sewerage. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). in some instances. polymers have a minor effect on pH. L. or positively charged. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin.. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. or neutral in charge. Click here to view. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. such as pH. temperature. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. The filtering process has many components. J. and nonionic. and air jets.. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. however. Inc. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. organic polyelectrolytes. Culp and R. however. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.” McGraw-Hill. coliform organisms. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. production of a smaller volume of sludge. All rights reserved. or negatively charged.” R. Anionic polymers. T. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. turbidity. ferric chloride (FeCl3). and easier dewatering.to 60min range.” 4th ed.) 21. settling. centrifugal pumps. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. anionic. Also. New York. Corbitt. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. consequently. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). McGhee. 18H2O]. such as mechanical stirrers. such as physical straining. considering both cost and performance. highmolecular-weight. color. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. chemical and biological reactions. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. plankton. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Polymers are long-chain. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. Culp. “Water Quality and Treatment. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. They are available in three types: cationic. . such as paper fiber. L. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. and hardness. A. Thereby. and suspended solids. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. American Water Works Association. Inc.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. to get the small floc to agglomerate. (G. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. “New Concepts in Water Purification. however.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. New York. color.

25. Usually.21.to 12-in layer of gravel. in millimeters. 21.79. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The wash- Fig. All rights reserved. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. of the sand. Inc. and dual. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Click here to view. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. depending on the turbidity. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. 21. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35-mm range. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.to 0. The process requires rapid mixing. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. through the sand and gravel layers. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. by weight. that will pass 10%.or mixed-media filtration. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. . The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.

Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. which is drained to waste.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. . As clogging begins to occur in the filter. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. mixed-media. bed cracking.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. such as rakes. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. may be more advantageous.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.005:1 range. creating a high head loss across the filter. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. however.002:1 to 0. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.35 to 0. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21.20 to 1. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. Inc. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. gal/min b = width of trough. All rights reserved. or deep coarse-media filters. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. which produces an undertreated effluent. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. filters pass water at a high rate. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. The filtering medium may be sand. or anthracite coal. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. and air jets. Immediately after washing. Dual-media. diatomaceous earth. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. water sprays.25 to 1. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Click here to view.

139) 21..” 6th ed. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. These materials remove cations. “Water Treatment Plant Design. A. (G.. gas.” John Wiley & Sons. Regeneration requires between 0. Fair. lime (CaO).000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Okun. Some. New York. however. Culp and R. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. . The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.) (21.136) (21. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. Culp. Geyer. “Water Quality and Treatment.21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.) 21.. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.” and T. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. L.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and American Society of Civil Engineers. and D. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. such as calcium and magnesium. New York. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. “Water Quality and Treatment. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. American Water Works Association. M. sulfates. Click here to view. and (3) total hardness. “New Concepts in Water Purification.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. “Water Supply and Sewerage. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.138) (21. G. J. Inc.” 4th ed. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. All rights reserved. and R is the zeolite material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. perforated. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.3 and 0. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].” 4th ed. New York. L. where 1 gpg = 17. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. (American Water Works Association. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. or open-joint pipes. C.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. McGhee. carbonates. in clear wells. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. New York. J. In the lime-soda process. respectively.1 mg/L. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.

Chlorine residuals of 0.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric.” McGraw-Hill.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. J. activated carbon. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. and D. reverse osmosis. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. water supply. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. and electrodialysis. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. New York. iron. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. Fair. Geyer. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water Supply and Sewerage. despite its low solubility.) 21. 21.. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. cation exchange.” John Wiley & Sons. manganese. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.45). Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.. . bromine. and lime. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. A. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. then. (G. irrigation. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. lime softening.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. detergents. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. All rights reserved. New York. ultraviolet light. Okun. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Other disinfectants are iodine. chlorine dioxide.” and T.99 water supplies. excessive fluorides. ozone. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. odor.) 21. Click here to view. anion exchange. Inc.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. New York. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. McGhee. J. M.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.1 or 0. taste. Filter both solutions. flood control. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. C.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.) respect to carbonates. 21.

The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Also. minimum flows will be critical. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Inc. Once a reservoir site has been selected. The plot of volume vs. 21. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Aeri- Fig.52.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The mass diagram (Fig. 21. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. 21.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. . 21.1). A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. When the demand rate is known. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.80. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Click here to view. All rights reserved. areavolume curves (Fig. maximum flows will govern.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs.

pumping plants. but there is no circulation across this zone. are large distances from the city. When the tem- 21. . which may be only a few feet thick. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. When the demand drops off. In deep reservoirs.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color.52. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.101 Fig. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required.2). Inc. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. Major sources of supply for some cities. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. San Francisco. such as New York. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. If possible. odor. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. Click here to view. 21. During hours of maximum demand.52. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. All rights reserved. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. the flow refills the reservoir. and Los Angeles. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. is called the thermocline. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct.35 and 21. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. perature drops in the fall. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. give special attention to water quality. 21.

ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. Inc. 21. vol.52. Click here to view. 3. 21. 21. . the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. 21. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Brune. For any given storage reservoir. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.35. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. M. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. All rights reserved. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21.82) (G. M. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. June 1953). 21. A flowing artesian Fig.83). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. 21. no. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG.21.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. 34. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. Brune. For the correct hydraulic grade. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.84). so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.

All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.103 Fig. . Click here to view. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Fig.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.

to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.84). J. 629. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. 1940. or hydraulic rotary methods.53. A.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. 21. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. Jacob.57). 21.” Economic Geology.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well.53. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping.143) 21. vol. 33. 21. New York.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. pump (Art. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Inc. no. waterjet. ft h = H minus drawdown. M. p.53. screen. Fair. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. V. (C. McGraw-Hill. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K.. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Click here to view. p. from an artesian well is given by (21. ft The steady flow. and D. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). “Water Supply and Sewerage. ft (Fig. C. . eductor or riser pipe. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. J. hollow-core. All rights reserved. (G. T. Inc. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. 72.21. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. Theis. bored. December 1938. ft d = diameter of well.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. C. ditch. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous.83).4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. 21.53. 21. Inc.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. 5.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. and motor. 889..” John Wiley & Sons. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. New York. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. McGhee. or driven.142) where Q = flow. Hence. Geyer. gal/day. Okun. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. E. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.” 6th ed. The pump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. motor. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. 21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

and ability to withstand external loads. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Copper. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. bronze. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. an anode and a cathode. and sulfur compounds. such as polyvinyl chloride. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. zinc. but wood is rarely used in new installations. sealed flanges. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron.54. lead. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. Inc. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. If it is cement-lined. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. are present. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. Under favorable conditions. and other appurtenances. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Since steel is stronger than iron. rubber. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. (21. valves. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. impurities and strains in metals. hydrants. riveting. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. brass.) At the anode.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. pumps. polyethylene. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. A machine that produces a monolithic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. ft 21. contact between acids and metals. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. and meters destroyed by corrosion. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. In unlined pipes. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Click here to view. steel. sand. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. valves. however. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film.21. polybutylene. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. tanks. concrete. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. plastic. 21. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost.146) where D = pipe diameter.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. stray electric currents. All rights reserved. and plastics. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. bacteria in water. . or Dresser-type couplings. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cracks.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. When selecting materials. the faster electrons can move through the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. and Fig. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. such as soda ash. for example. use of protective coatings. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. to prevent corrosion. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Also. where e is an electron. Click here to view. 21. water may be treated with bases. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Aluminum. caustic soda. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. At the cathode. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. 21. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Strains. zinc. and the more ions. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films.86). the corrosion process continues (Fig. Inc. All rights reserved. and treatment of the water. .

110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Corrosion. by (21. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.88). or eye. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. hydroxides.” 4th ed. horsepower. 21. New York.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. ft. Zinc. To prevent cavitation. Click here to view. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. efficiency. Inc. “Water Quality and Treatment. z is negative.21.. psia. in feet. psia. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. graphite. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. 21. The centrifugal pump. .88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. however. Inc. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. between pump center line and water surface Fig. Water enters at the center.. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. 21. magnesium. the most common waterworks pump. called a volute (Fig.87). Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode.) w = unit weight of liquid. and so on on the walls of the pipes. McGraw-Hill. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. To have practical meaning. oxides. All rights reserved. lime.147) where pa = pressure. and the head-discharge relationship. 21. ft of water z = elevation difference. (American Water Works Association. or impeller. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. accomplishes that in two steps.

Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. 21.57 and check valves in Art.111 than the required NPSH.. 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.. pump discharge. . The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. “Pump Handbook. however. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.) 21. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. reciprocating. below 200 gal/min. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. For that reason. rotary. jet. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. helical. as shown in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. New York. See also Art. Inc. Click here to view. J. 21. Fig. Karassik et al.” 2nd ed. (I. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. depending on the number of stages. In a typical water-system analysis. and air lift. propeller. 21.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal.58. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. head.89. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. (Also included in Fig.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. 21.

90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. 21. Reciprocating pumps. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. utilize piston action to move water. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Click here to view.148) where n = impeller speed. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. r/min Q = discharge. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. At sea level. 21. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. either hand. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. cams. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Inc. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. .or motordriven. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. gal/min H = head. which is a function of specific speed. Because of the close tolerances. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. which are located at the well bottom. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications.90 fied). They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. and for Ns above 7500. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. so that the entire lift is suction. Jet pumps (Fig. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. All rights reserved. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. vanes.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. (21.21.

If sand is carried out with the water. or Neoprene. applied through a gear-reduction device. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Click here to view. rubber. pressure-relief. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. or it may be at the bottom of the well. in-service lubrication features. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. respectively. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. (I. and butterfly. Corrosion. plug. Inc. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat.Water Resources Engineering s 21. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. needle. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. “Pump Handbook. Also. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Usually. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. primarily because of their low cost. globe. or corporation cocks. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. The major types of isolating valves are gate. air-relief. availability. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. Plug. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. sluice gate. cone. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. and butterfly valves. All rights reserved. Low head loss. which are water. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. three valves must be used. fast operation. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft.. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Karassik et al. pumps. large pressure differences. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. But these valves cost more than gate.) drives to permit manual operation. Hand or motor power. and low head loss when fully open. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. . The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). and easy. New York. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. J.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. globe. one at the service connection. Check.. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. Simplicity of construction and quick. solids deposition. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. rotates the disk. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. curb. pressure-regulating. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems.113 tion.” 2nd ed. tubercle formation. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. one just upstream of the meter. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates.or oil-lubricated. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.

Many automatic control valves. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. which connects the barrel to the main. Because of high head losses. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. For example. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. The wetbarrel. Usually. and relief valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. and large pipes. All rights reserved. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. The most common check valve is the swing type.21. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Interior-differential. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as trunk lines 21. Often. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. rivers. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. 5 in for a three-way hydrant.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. or California type. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. tube. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. 21. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. . A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Furthermore. When the valve is in a closed position. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Click here to view. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. check. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Inc.

nozzle. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Click here to view. which do not affect propeller meters. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. or modifications thereof. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. such as meters for individual customer connections. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Brater. 21. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.115 of distribution systems. for metering domestic-service connections. or nutating-disk types. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems.) As in venturi meters. simplicity and ease of repairs. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. A clicking noise. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. The nutating disk is used. called a Price meter. (21. but they are used primarily in laboratories. respectively. . ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. amount of head loss through the meter. McGraw-Hill Book Company. However. Inc. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. rotary.5% within the normal test-flow limits. All rights reserved. The cup-type meter. ft h1 = pressure in main section. New York. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. and cost. The standard venturi meter (Fig. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. ft d2 = diameter of throat. almost to the exclusion of the two other types.91.150) where Q = flow rate.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss.” 6th ed. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. are the most common velocity-type devices. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. 21. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see E. vertical velocity components. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. F. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. durability. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters.149) Hydraulics.

116 s Section Twenty-One Fig.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. . The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. and development of the system. step rate. seasonal use. or to some other recognized system. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. flat rate is falling into disuse. Inc.91 plate meter. if any. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. utility-type enterprises. fixed charges on capital investment. fire use.21. (c) Orifice- 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. (b) Nozzle meter. 21. and block rate. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. peak rates of use. and similar items. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. load factors. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.

341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . called the commodity component. penstocks. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. of serving an individual customer. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. draft tube.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities.746 kW 1 kW = 1. generators and exciters. a building to house the machinery and equipment. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. Click here to view. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. buying water from a wholesale supplier. tunnels. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. called the customer component. where applicable. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. treatment chemicals. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. When fixing a system of rates. and transformers. S. depends on the peak usage of a customer. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers.117 With step rate. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. It is generally recognized that residential areas.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. For most distribution systems. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. Cost component 3. called the demand component. tunnel. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. switching equipment. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Inc. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. Cost component 1. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. This charge is usually small. 21. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. Cost component 2. turbines and governors. and (3) cost. and. canals. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pumping energy. All rights reserved. including metering and billing. where the majority of small users are. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. On a seasonal cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. power production being only incidental. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Storage can be provided for a daily. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. base-load plants. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It can be computed on a daily. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river.21.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Click here to view. or yearly basis. run-of-river plants with storage. Therefore. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. If the minimum flow is very low. On a weekly cycle. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. and peak-load plants.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. On a daily cycle. Inc. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. such as navigation. to be used at some future time. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. . only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. or seasonal cycle. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects.92). Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. weekly. 21. weekly. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. All rights reserved. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. Then. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage.

it usually is not as economical. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Calif. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. . Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. When needed. Los Angeles. Inc. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.119 Fig. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. buttress. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit.Water Resources Engineering s 21. earth. All rights reserved. Hasen.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure.. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. New York. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. Zipparo and H.92).) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. Click here to view. 21. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. The main classifications are gravity.) 21. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Its distribution is triangular. and rock-fill. J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. (V. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. 21. arch. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Force F2 represents silt pressure. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (Department of Water and Power. Figure 21.

This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. today it is realized these values are much too high.21.” discussion by von Karman. 98. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. 21. 434.153) where w = unit weight of water. however. given by Eq.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. 21. 1933. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. vol.153).93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. p. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.425h above the base. These accelerations occur in every direction. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.1 g. . May 1946. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. was developed by von Karman. (21. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. presented by Edwin Rose. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. which forms on the reservoir surface. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Inc.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Rose. All rights reserved. In the past.) (21. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ice pressures as high as 50. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. which create forces on any object resting on it. Click here to view. ice. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. A close approximation of the force.93 by forces F4 and F5. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. In cold climates. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. A method of calculating these forces.000 psf. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. (E.

the dam would have a small impervious clay core. First. their relative importance is much different. and clay. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. or failure of the foundation material. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. rock flour. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. engineers assumed that. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. Click here to view. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. sand. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. overturning by rotating about the toe.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. All rights reserved. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. On arch dams. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Recent belief. If the deflections are not equal. and uplift forces are smaller.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If a large quantity of pervious material. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. In the past. however. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. silt. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Inc. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. In the multiple-arch. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. However. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. The modes of failure are also the same. however. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. because of bearing contact. Hence. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. but the structural design is much more critical. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. but its formwork is more expensive. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. . uplift is not so important. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. is available and clayey materials must be imported. such as sand and gravel. When the base is not drained. however. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. They are not suited to most sites. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam.

bearing on the rubble cushion. J. Temporary facings are usually of wood. therefore. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench.3 on 1. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage.” EM 1110-2-2300. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Army Corps of Engineers. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. S. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons.94). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations.) 21. Inc. Click here to view. onto the fill. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines.” 4th ed.21. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. Leakage should be expected. Zipparo and H. S. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Hasen. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.3 on 1.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. For dams over 200 ft high. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The facing is usually concrete. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. the natural angle of repose of rock. however.” U. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. although steel has been used occasionally. providing power. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. U. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Bureau of Relamation. Today. . or wood over concrete. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. The downstream face is usually 1. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. (V. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. bonding into the dumped rock. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. If pervious material is not available. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. and an upstream impervious facing. New York. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. For some types of soil. All rights reserved. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams.

Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. and draft tube. In such installations. however. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. However. such as the Kaplan turbine. 21. At heads below 100 ft. runner. In these. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. When the power demand on the turbine changes. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. 21. if the load drops below 50%. wicket gates. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water.95a). so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. All rights reserved. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate..94 turbine.) Fig. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. and draft tube.123 bine.95c). Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. New York.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. (V.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. This creates a force on the runner. however. runner. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. As the water flows through the tur- 21. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Zipparo and H. The propeller turbine (Fig.” 4th ed. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. Inc. 21. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. J. and the fixed-blade type. The wicket gates. it changes direction. Hasen. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. 21. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. . 21. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. At heads above 1000 ft. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the propeller-type (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their efficiency decreases rapidly.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. wicket gates. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.

the dam will not be damaged by the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Inc. 21. (b) Kaplan. Click here to view. widely used for concrete dams because.65. (c) axial flow.21. All rights reserved. if designed correctly. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This type of spillway is Fig. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.

“Design of Small Dams. A siphon spillway (Fig. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. When the head is relatively low. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. or ogee in cross section. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. the siphon’s intake is sealed. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. In a side-channel spillway. Bureau of Reclamation.” Government Printing Office. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. In a chute spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96 Siphon spillway. In a shaft spillway. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. model tests are usually employed. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. All rights reserved. flared. open channel. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. This type of spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway.S. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Inc. As the head increases. DC 20402). 21. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. called an ogee spillway. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. Washington. 21. The air vent shown in Fig. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Click here to view. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. lined. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment.34). When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. 21. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. both depending on the head on the weir. Thus. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. The weir can be sharp-crested. Once this second condition is reached.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam.

3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. In contrast. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. Inc. Fig. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. 21. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply.97 Taintor gate. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. the pipes fail. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter.5 ft/s. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. controlling flow. .2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir.21.65. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. 21. 21. To do this. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Click here to view. and providing support for the conduit. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. making removal difficult. On large stop-log installations. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. All rights reserved.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. Fig. level of a reservoir within close limits. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. In a taintor gate (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.97).98 Bear-trap gate. 21. causing damage and hampering operation.65.

J. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. Hasen. Doland. and J.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. 21. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21.. and H. To raise a bear-trap gate. Inc. J.99 Drum gate. drum gates are not suited to small dams. E. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Fig. Cleasby.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.” 4th ed. 21. J. as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. Zipparo and H. .98. Babbitt. (V.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. L. The drum gate (Fig. Because of the large recess required in the dam. “Water Supply Engineering.

All rights reserved. Click here to view. Inc.blank page 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

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