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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. In equation form. Surface tension and capillarity. 21. Thus. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.1. are significant in others.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. and freezing damage to concrete. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. or liquid surface. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. as shown in Fig. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. ft Capillarity. face and rises in a small tube. 21. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. although negligible in many water engineering problems.3. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. Inc. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. at sea level. Gage pressure.7 psia. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. When the liquid is in a closed container. . 21. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. like surface tension. Absolute pressure. psia. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal.000 ft is shown in Fig.1) where h = capillary rise. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. however.2.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. portions of the liquid vaporize. pitting. psi. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. respectively. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. (21. Its temperature variation. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.7 psi. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. is concave upward. formation of spray from water jets. Its value Fig. ft σ = surface tension. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Meniscus. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller.21. decreases with increasing temperature. is small and insignificant in most problems. 21. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10.

ft2/s.2) where τ = shearing stress. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. to collapse. 21. psf. .00001059 ft2/s. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. ft/s y = depth. is a measure of its resistance to flow. In hydraulics. 21. It is so named because its units. Since the prism is at rest. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. At any depth.4. and cross-sectional area A.8) to determine whether laminar. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h.5 Fig. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. or dynamic viscosity. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. or completely turbulent flow exists.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Viscosity. lb/ft3. (Pressures as high as 350. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. µ of a fluid.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. the force due to pressure p1. and the force due to pressure p2. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. the pressure acts equally in all directions. Inc. ft. also called the coefficient of viscosity. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. on the bottom surface. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. which extend into the pores of the metal. lb/ft2 21. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as shown in Fig. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. or implode.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. 21. Then. psf. Click here to view. absolute viscosity. of length and time. transitional. on the top surface.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. and pitting appears. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. ft2. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. All rights reserved.

Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. Therefore. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. ft. (21. . 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). (21. Taking ∆h to be h. however. ft. the pressure.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. the depth below the water surface. (21. and other water control structures. where w is the specific weight of water. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4. Figure 21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. 21. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. tanks. at depth h. (21.3a) by A yields (21.4).21. All rights reserved. (21. ft2. Inc. For horizontal surfaces. lb/ft3. Thus. p1 is atmospheric pressure. the depth of the centroid.5) 21. dams. The resultant pressure force P.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) Division of Eq.6) – ∫ydA = y A. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. (21.4) Equation (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.3b) then becomes (21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. and y sin θ = h . then p2 is p.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. Equation (21.3. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb.

(21.) that is below the c. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.7 Fig. The location of the center of pressure. Example 21.) but acts at a point (c. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. 6. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. (21. – From Eq. 21. .Water Resources Engineering s 21.p. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. All rights reserved. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. where K is the radius of gyration. Otherwise. the total force P = whA. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.7).8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. Thus.g. Pyp = ∫y dP. 21.6 (see also Fig. psf. if that locus is a straight line. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. (21.2° to the horizontal (Fig. Hence y . Inc.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. of the surface about its centroidal axis. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. (21. (21.8). The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.5). The denominator of Eq. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . represented by the length yp.29).). ft. 21.g. 21.p. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.7).8) equals –A.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.

21. yp = 5.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. All rights reserved.08. 21.21. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.42 ft. 21.3.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. however.42 = 5.g. Inc. P = 62. (21.9). Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.0 + 2.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. (See Example 21. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.08/5 = 5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. K2 = point G.5 + 1/ (5. From Eq.) of common shapes.8. Note: 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 ft. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Also. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.0) = 5. Therefore.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 + 0. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. .1. Click here to view.

Fig.4 = 1220 lb = PV. PH = whA = 62.5 × 5 = 780 lb.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . (21.4°. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.6w = 19.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. All rights reserved. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.9).) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. 21. Inc.6 ft3. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 × 62. When water is below the curved surface. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.2. Click here to view. 21. – From Eq. The corresponding angle is 57.564. (b) Free-body diagram. 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. (See Example 21.14 × 25/4 = 19. Its angle with the horizontal is known. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.9 Fig. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.7). and for a constant-radius surface. Example 21. 2.4 × 2. so the weight of the water is 19.9. 21.

5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. The stability of a ship. is indicated by the metacenter. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. 21.21. whether floating or submerged. (21. 21. Click here to view. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. Manometers indicate h. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Given in feet by Eq. or the difference in head. 21. 21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. .4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. For a body to be in equilibrium. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight.10b). between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. 21. All rights reserved.g. the pressure head.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. Inc.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance.b. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10a). The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. (21.). ft3 ys = distance. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. p = wh.10b.4). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. (21.

21. and differential manometer.4 lb/ft3.11a is 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. However. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.11 manometer. Click here to view. All rights reserved. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Basic types of manometers.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. U-tube manometer.11): piezometer. The liquid is water with w = 62. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . The piezometer is a sensitive gage.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. What is hm? Fig. The piezometer (Fig.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. although the latter is most common. (b) U-tube manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid.12c). 21. 21. (a) Piezometers. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21. 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Example 21.17 psi.

The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. . 21. Click here to view. A movable scale. In this application. including negative gage pressures. Inc.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. as opposed to a fixed scale. Very low pressures. 21. All rights reserved. 21.11b) is used. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.12c). (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity.21. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. the Utube manometer (Fig.

11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.4 × 2. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. 21. 21. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. and the right side.4: A differential manometer (Fig. that is. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. 21.40.13 indicating liquid. such as ft of water or psi. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. as shown in Fig. the total energy per unit weight at 2. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. in the manometer.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. 32. however. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. when expressed in feet of water. Above 5. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.75 + 13. and z is 1.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. ft. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section.11) where Z1 = elevation.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.25 ft. however. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as might be required in laboratories. Most of them.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. Example 21.12a. hi is 2. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.4 × 2.6). ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. Inc. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. or sump. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. One factor. psf. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. The differential manometer (Fig.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.4 × 0. psf. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. if the actual difference is 0. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.25 ft of water. hm1 is 9 in.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. psf w = specific weight of fluid.0 ft. The pressure at B. Click here to view.6 × 62. . For example.5.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the magnification will be 2. the actual pressure difference. All rights reserved. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. is magnified by the differential manometer. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.0 and 2. ft. psf p2 = pressure at 2. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. 21.

ft.14) pa/w is called pressure head. 21. ft. .) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. 21. velocity head.4 ft3/s. velocity. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. This term hf.11).14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. and pressure (Fig.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.13). It equals WVa2 / 2g. (21. lb. 21. Click here to view. ft/s. ft/s = Q/A. (See Example 21. Example 21. where W is the weight. Inc. a Fig. however. where Va is the velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. V2/2g. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. As indicated in Fig. Kinetic energy at the section. where Q is the quantity of flow. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. ft2.5. through friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. varies with velocity.21. 21. velocity. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. ft3/s. Usually. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. 21. and pressure. or the total head ft: (21.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. across the area of the section A. lb/ft3. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. above some arbitrary datum. Average velocity.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. when added to the downstream side of Eq.13. Fig.14. The total energy. All rights reserved.

The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Z2 = 0. A change in momentum. or magnitude of flow. Click here to view.7.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. p2 = 0.14 = 10 ft/s. Inc. while in pressure flow. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. ft. Hence. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.15). Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.45 ft. which may result from a change in either velocity. The energy grade line. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. Thus substitution in Eq.15 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.9). 21.4/ 3.Water Resources Engineering s 21. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. since the pipe has free discharge. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Also. In openchannel flow. . the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. respectively. 21. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. and any bends. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. is equal to the impulse. direction. Art. (21. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. gate valve. sometimes called the total head line. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. respectively. 21. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow.55 = 48. hf = 50 – 1.

21.200 + Rx = 1.12)] but may be used separately.78. Fig.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.4/ 32.5°. To find F.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.332π = 71.96 cos 53. (See Example 21.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. since ∆Vx = –(7.1 and the density ρ = 62.94 × 100 × 4. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. and at 2.1 Rx = –82. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. 21. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.600. apply Eq. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. Inc.2° + Ry = 1.500 lb.000 lb. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.2° – 71. Click here to view.11) or (21. P2 = ppA2 = 13.200 lb. (21. Example 21. then in the Y direction. so θ = 60.2° – 13. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. Fy = –181. lb.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.600 lb In the Y direction. . which is to be determined).94 × 100 × 65. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. since ∆Vy = –(–7.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. Let R be the force.000 cos 53. Fx = 181. With p1 known.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.2° – 0) = 4.21.5 ft/s. All rights reserved.000 sin 53.16. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.94.2= 1.96 sin 53.5) = 65.78 Ry = 145. Then. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.15) first in the X direction.700/82. (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.6. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.

. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. In the preceding example. In water resources engineering. With hybrid models. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. droughts. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. erosional scour. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Click here to view. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. It is. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. alternative management schemes. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. For instance. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. to a given set of stimuli. operate. 1. Usually. such as storm rainfall. or prototype. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Inc. In this way.7. the capability of the computing resources. employs both physical and mathematical models. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system.17 21. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Popular before the advent of digital computers. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. gravity. aquifer. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. See also Art. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. A fourth mode of modeling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. and surface tension. or proposed works. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. or drainage basin. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. however. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. In most models. viscosity.7. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. momentum. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. hybrid modeling. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. and through execution of the computer program.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. such as a river. Physical models are expensive to build. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype.

If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Inc. The inertial force. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The Weber number is (21. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. which is always a predominant force. Reynolds number. Click here to view. and one other force are made proportional. and Weber number. Once the length ratio has been set. respectively. the model is termed a true model.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Froude number. such as spillways and weirs. (21. the length ratio is the only variable. ft2/s.21a) (21.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Similarly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. viscosity. the formation of drops and air bubbles.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.21. Then (21.20) R is dimensionless. entrainment of air in flowing water. The Reynolds number is (21.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. . the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Ratios of the forces of gravity. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. (21. Therefore. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. such as depth or diameter). the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. All rights reserved. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.22) where ρ = density of fluid. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. The Froude number is (21. 32. Squaring both sides of Eq. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.

in turn. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the logical representation of prototypes. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.25) In models of rivers and channels. 21. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. catchment areas. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. ft/s R = hydraulic radius.23a) (21. (21. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.26) where V = mean velocity. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. This type of model is called a distorted model. such as a morning-glory spillway. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. inertial. in particular. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). Click here to view. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. One type of model. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. ft ν = kinematic viscosity.24). are linked together to represent the system as a whole. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. mathematical models are. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. such as flow networks. called a movable-bed model. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. These expressions. Hence. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. viscous.7. For such models.S. The U. .19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Rr = Lr. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. In some cases. (21. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. All rights reserved. Sr = 1. and through execution of the computer program. For instance. and infiltration parameters.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code.

Click here to view. and groundwater yield. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. As this shearing stress increases. Hasen.” D.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. Zipparo and H. ecosystem impacts and restoration. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Inc. watershed hydrology. Walker. 21. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as in annular passages. All rights reserved. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. “Water Resources Planning. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (D. F. and turbulent flow results. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts.2). or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. flow routing. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. New York. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. S. shown in Fig. “Handbook of Hydrology. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. hydrologic forecasting. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. As a result. or pollution. Grigg. This. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. channel and river hydraulics. impacts of dam breaks.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. This approach. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. reservoir regulation.” N. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. wave or tidal analyses. and R. Hoggan. G. sediment or pollutant transport. vol. and among water resources modelers in the government. For closed conduits other than circular.) 21. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. H. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. In object-oriented software. of all databases and software. design of hydraulic structures. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. hydrodynamics. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. or both. 21. R. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. and private sectors.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. however. As a general rule. if comparisons of different plans are required. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. density. J. flood or drought impacts. Whan. . when fully implemented. 1957. Maidment.17. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. the model output required for design or evaluation. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. 3. quantity and quality of water supply.” McGraw-Hill. (J. Art. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. A. landfill leachate analyses.21.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. seepage. Rothfus. evaporation and irrigation. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread.” V. academia. Also.

than for laminar flow (Fig. as shown in Fig. at completely turbulent flow. (21. As a result.21 Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. Inc. Brater. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. handbook of Hydraulics. it is not practical to treat it analytically. Click here to view.” 6th ed.) 21. 32. 32. Therefore. 21. 21. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. the velocity distribution is more uniform. (21. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.18.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. These disturbances create eddies. . In this region. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. As the Reynolds number increases. Fig. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. ft/s D = pipe diameter. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. F. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. 21. Eq. 21. a disturbance will probably be magnified. All rights reserved. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. To the right of the dashed line in Fig.27) where V = fluid velocity.17). it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. In laminar flow. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. laminar flow is unstable. flow is laminar in circular pipes. the flow is completely turbulent.19. ft L = length of pipe section considered. (21.l9.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. (E.. ft ρ = density of fluid. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.29) For laminar flow. causing the flow to become turbulent. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. New York.

ft f = friction factor (see Fig. All rights reserved. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.0005 – 0. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.00003 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.21.) Because Eq. (21.0002 – 0. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.003 – 0.0005 – 0.19) L = length of pipe. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. The head loss is independent of the pressure. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. 21. F. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.001 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. November 1944.0002 0.001 0. Inc.19) to Determine f ε. 21.008 0. ft V = velocity of fluid. 21.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. enamels. 21. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. Moody.003 0. Click here to view. (21.008 – 0. ft D = diameter of pipe. (L.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0005 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. .03 – 0. 32.9.0002 0.

which requires experience in its choice. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. ft S = head loss due to friction.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. ft3/s. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. where D is the pipe diameter.9. (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.34e) where V = velocity. All rights reserved. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. See also Table 22. 21. Inc.34b) (21.) Substitution into Eq.33c) (21.3. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. (Although based on surface roughness.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. Click here to view.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.34d) (21.34c) 21.31) gives (21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.31) where V = velocity.9. ft L = length of pipe. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. Tables 21.33e) 21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. dependent on surface roughness. (21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.33d) (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. . They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s C = coefficient.4 and 21.11 (p. (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.32) where n = coefficient. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.9.33b) (21.

4 Values of n for Pipes.015 0.013 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.017 0. bends. 21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.35b) (21.36) for a check. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. .010 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. However.014 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.20 ple 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.7: Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. enlargements.011 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.21. (21. 21. because (21.017 From 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.7.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. (21.35c) (21.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.013 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.015 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. Inc.015 0.) Flow between reservoirs. in short pipelines. (21. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.017 0.017 0.016 To 0. All rights reserved.035 0. Click here to view.012 0.013 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.012 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.013 0.014 0.013 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.012 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. Example 21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.017 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.010 0.010 To 0.015 0.015 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.012 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.

.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.21 are approximate. so a full velocity head is lost. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 105 30 in and over.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. good workmanship. 21.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. 110 4 in. 140 Large sizes.10.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. ft. (A.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. Inc. 21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. (21.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.38) A special application of Eq. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 80 4 in. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. Gibson. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. wood forms. H. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. 85 16 in. ft/s g = 32.” Constable & Co.37): (21. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 115 12 in.25 Table 21. 120 Large sizes. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. All rights reserved. Ltd. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. 21. 10 years older Average value. the values of K in Fig.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.10.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 21. 110 (21. is (21.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.21).38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.. 135 In good condition. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). (21. are presented in Table 21. minor losses must be considered. steel forms. 120 Centrifugally spun. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. where V is the velocity in the pipe. .37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. London. Click here to view.7. regardless of age. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.10. (21. 120 24 in and over. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. good workmanship.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Table 21.37) or (21.

8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.6 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Globe valve. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.2 0.9 0.80 K = 0.3 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.63 0.2 0. Click here to view.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.1 0.50 K = 0.68 0. All rights reserved. Inc. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.21 of the sides.5 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21. fully open Swing check valve.0 2.66 0.89 1.25 The values in Table 21.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 are only approximate. .5 0.6 0.0 Table 21.76 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.62 0. For these reaTable 21.0 1.71 0.64 0.10. and at bends is given by (21.9 0.81 0.4 0. D = pipe diameter. fully open Angle valve. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 0.05 K = 0. fully open Gate valve.2 2.8 0.4 21.42) Table 21. such as valves and elbows.21.0 5.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.

1. Zipparo and H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. (H. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. McGraw-Hill. the bend loss essentially remains constant..27 sons. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.) Fig. there is disagreement. H. All rights reserved. vol.9 for low velocity of approach.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 1960. July 1938.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. J. .43) where ∆ = deflection angle. however. (21. 21. Beij. Reynolds number. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. although they are usually round.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. square. Experiments on smooth pipes. 21. 21.11. Inc. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. (21.44) where Q = discharge. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. series D. For low heads. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. Equation (21.42). Ito. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. 21.22: (21. (K..23. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Figure 21. not including friction loss in the bend. New York. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. 21. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. National Bureau of Standards. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.42). this error is corrected by the C values. or rectangular. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. no. and angle of bend. (V. (21. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. Inc. not including friction loss. The data are in agreement that the head loss. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. its effect should be taken into account. Hasen.” 4th ed. If this velocity is significant. Click here to view.45) 21. 82.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.” Journal of Research. vol. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Orifices may have any shape.

632 0.600 0.619 0.” 1886.614 0. ft 0.644 0.596 0.623 0.607 0.637 0.591 0..602 0.600 0. With the reference plane through point 2. Click here to view.597 0. ft 0. “Hydraulics. Z1 = h.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.597 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.637 0. V1 = 0.613 0.622 0.598 0.593 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.621 0.617 0. determined experimentally. the vena contracta.655 0.605 0.627 0.637 0.612 0.603 0.1 0.618 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.604 0. 21.616 0.592 0. Jr.610 0.601 0.648 0.614 0.631 0.590 0.628 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.614 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.602 0.615 0.600 0.1 0.618 0.99.596 0.605 0.599 0.634 0.613 0 610 0.0 0.594 0.606 0.21.04 0.0 Head.608 0.593 0.594 0.609 0.04 0.602 0.603 0.601 0.630 0.4 0.602 0.626 0.652 0.602 0.602 0. All rights reserved.611 0.599 0.595 0.604 0. and Eq.593 0.595 0.592 0.623 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.595 0.600 0.596 0.611 0.660 0.606 0.628 0.603 0. ft 0.601 0. to Fig.6 08 1 1.643 0.603 0.648 0.598 0.604 0.623 0.596 0.616 0.618 0.5 2 2.592 1. .641 0.602 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.596 0.45) becomes (21.46) The actual velocity.617 0.608 0.610 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.94 to 0.607 0.02 0.607 0.636 0.602 0. and Z2 = 0.599 0.596 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.598 1.612 0.605 0.02 0.599 0. of circular orifices. (21.619 0.632 0. Inc.601 0.629 0.608 0.605 0.

Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.24b. Brater. 21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.48) is obtained. between 1 and 2. New York. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. Eq.67. Click here to view.. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. (21.61 to 0. (21.11.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. see E.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.11. Figure 21. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. With a partly suppressed orifice. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.25 orifice. the area of the orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. 21.29 Fig. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. All rights reserved. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. McGraw-Hill Book Company. In Fig. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. . ft. “Handbook of Hydraulics.47) where hL = losses in head.” 6th ed. Inc. F. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. 21. the contraction is completely suppressed. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.25. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.) 21. (21.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.

ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.23). 21. (21. Inc.59). (21. (21. when y = h1. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.56) Fig. . 32.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. (21. to time t. (21. Eq.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. All rights reserved.57) for t and substituting in Eq. For simplicity.50) where a = area of orifice.58) Equation (21. Eq.56).52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. is that for a parabola: (21.26): (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir.21.58) gives (21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.11. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. Rearranging Eq.49) Solving for dt yields (21. s The Y coordinate is (21.57) (21.58)]. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. when y = h2. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.55) 21. 21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. obtained by solving Eq. (21. ft h2 = head at the end.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. (21. Click here to view.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.50) becomes (21.51) upon integration becomes (21.

This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. 21. 21. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. (21.00 VT / 2g – 0. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.82.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0. For a short tube flowing full. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. 21. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. All rights reserved.27. . Therefore.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.11.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. Click here to view.75.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. Equation (21.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. 21.5 a T T Fig.42) of 0. Inc.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. In the tube or pipe. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.80. Fig.67 V2T /2g. ft2 Fig.31 ty Cν = 0. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.67 V2 ) = 0. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.Water Resources Engineering s 21.67 V T / 2g = 0.29. 21. 21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. if one exists).82.33VT / 2g. When this happens. a K value for Eq.28). however. 21. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.27) but the head loss is larger. psf w = unit weight of water.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. (21.11. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved. 21. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. but at a pressure much higher than normal. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. As the water flows away from the closed valve. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. 21. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. the water in the pipe is motionless. The pipe shown in Fig. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. either increased or decreased. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop.32). The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. Click here to view. the pressure in the pipe falls.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig.21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. 21. The change causes a pressure rise. 21.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. For this analysis to be valid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. As the water flows into the reservoir. it causes water hammer. However. Fig. the tube must flow full. When a valve is closed. this momentum drops to zero. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. . and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. Inc.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. 21.29. Every time the flow rate is changed.30). Fig. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. either above or below the normal pressure. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit.

63a) In terms of pressure head. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. Eq. . ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. (21. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. 21. Click here to view. ft 21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.63a) becomes (21. (21. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. (21. 43. All rights reserved.64) 21.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.13. 21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. s A plot of pressure vs. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. approximate solution. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.13. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.63). 1. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Equation (21. For instantaneous closure: (21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.63). (21. from Eq. Thus. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft.. (21. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. (21. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. New York. area = 78.) Example 21. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. to apply Eq. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. (21. Hasen. Zipparo and H. Inc. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. ft L = length of pipeline. With the head known. . The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. penstock thickness = 1 in. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. then that obtained from Eq. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. 32. equals L /aU. McGraw-Hill.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. J. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. diameter = 10 ft. Vo the original velocity. the increment of time. (21.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.21. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. where a equals any integer. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. (21.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. where ∆t.32. (V. Inc.2 × 108 psf. each causing an individual pressure wave. s T = actual closure time of valve.” 4th ed. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity.61). ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. length = 3000 ft. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. Once the time interval has been determined.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. is g = acceleration due to gravity..63). 21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. such as L/aU.5 ft2. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.63). this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. All rights reserved.) Velocity of pressure wave.

in effect. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. and the pressure rise. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. approximate equation (21.90 s.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. from Eq. on the pipe material is (21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.33) must still be designed for water hammer. psi. 21. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. When a valve is suddenly closed. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. the stress.13. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. it is by no means the only one.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. The water column. 21. to prevent water hammer. Inc.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.90 s. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.34 tension. All rights reserved. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in Assuming T = 4. 21. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. lb Hence. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. Various types of relief Fig. When a valve is suddenly opened. (21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. 21.66) where p = internal pressure.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. floats on the line.64) gives the following result: 21. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.75 s. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.63). the closure is instantaneous. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. is Pipe Stresses 21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. . Usually. Click here to view. Fig.34).

McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Theory of . it acts like a beam. All rights reserved. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. is (21. (21. psi.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. For concrete pipes. (S. 21. due to a temperature change is (21. If D/t is less than 10. 21. The internal diameter is used in Eq. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. (21. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.” 2nd ed.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. In this case.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. Equation (21.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. However. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. In Fig. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. New York. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe..10). Eq. M. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. elastic Stability.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. . The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. 6. P Timoshenko and J. however. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Click here to view. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. (21. Inc. 21. (21. if expansion joints are to be used. For steel pipes.6). psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. However.67). there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. 21. In all bends.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.21. Eq.67) for concrete pipe. The stress. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. this analysis is approximate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. Art.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. Gere. The force diagram in Fig. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.

no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. an exact theoretical analysis. 21.70) and (21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. canal. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the joints must also be able to take these forces. All rights reserved. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. psf w = unit weight of water. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. a railroad. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. 62. In small pipes. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. However.71) where R = resultant force on bend. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.37 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . 32. (21. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. exit conditions. Eqs. (21.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. Inc. and slope. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. or other embankment. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. however.71) give a quick solution. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.

Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. but they do not cover Fig.23). and the Manning equation for friction loss. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.” EB058W. that is. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.38).22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. All rights reserved.73) 21.33d) or (21. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. 21. slope is greater than the critical slope. computer software. 21. and the control will still be at the inlet. the following equation is obtained: (21. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . For this reason.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. the culvert flows full. 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. 21.36). Inc.30)]. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. Click here to view.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. Portland Cement Association. charts. the normal depth (Art. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.37). (21.21. 21. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20) 21. 21. Click here to view. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. and slope of culvert. When slope exceeds critical. (21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. Inc. 21. 21. open-channel flow takes place. When slope is less than critical. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The fluid flows under pressure.74) yields (21. ft V = velocity in culvert.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. 21. 21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. for the open-channel condition (Fig. 32.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flow depends on inlet condition. .74) Fig. (21. Discharge is independent of slope. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23).20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. Discharge depends on head H. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. When the slope is less than critical. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.39 Fig. and dn < dc . 21. loss at entrance.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.39). Fig.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. ft Equation (21. normal pipe flow occurs. and dn > dc . Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. The discharge.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. depending on the head.75) Substituting this into Eq. All rights reserved. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21.

This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. If the friction slope approaches critical. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths.21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. (21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. . Inc. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. All rights reserved.72). ft dn = normal depth of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. If this condition exists. however. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge.40).76). Most culverts. 21. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. 21. 21. 21. ft To solve Eq. (21. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. When the friction slope is flat. (21. (21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. If the head on a culvert is high. Click here to view. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.76). The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. and discharge is given by Eq.39).40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76). and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.37).40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. 21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. 21.18). it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.41).

72) yields Q =Va = 9.40). discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.44) for discharge through an orifice. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. n = 0. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.8 ft3/s Table 21. Eq. Substitution in Eq. First find dn. groove or bell. These values are for culverts flowing full. Fig. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.013. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.15 0. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. To calculate the hydraulic radius.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.72) and (21. Application of Eq. Click here to view. Inc. 21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.10 0.5 0. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Table 21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. groove or bell. . But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. slope = 0. (21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. All rights reserved.9 0.95 × 4 = 39. (21.01. length = 300 ft. and free exit.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. with Eq.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. (21. Find: size of culvert. and the entrance will not control. (21.73).08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 and 21.41 For entrance control. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. (21. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. When the entrance is not submerged. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. 21. projecting Concrete pipe. Since the culvert is under pressure. Example 21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. square edge Concrete pipe. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. But H = 5 + 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2.6. 21.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.72) applies. the flow is under pressure.19). 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.

Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. within a hydraulic jump. and is given by (21. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. Figure 21. Thus. It has uniform flow if the grade. normally taken as 1.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Hence. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. ft.77) where V = average velocity. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. as the discharge divided by the area of flow.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. depth of flow is constant throughout. is generally given by (21. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The wetted perimeter is the length. (21. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. ft3/s. Inc. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. It is.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. however.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. ft2 When the discharge is constant. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.79). minus the free surface width.79) The velocity head HV.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. In a uniform channel. Click here to view.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.03 to 1. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. or the total-head line. or slope. 21. (21.36 for prismatic channels. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. All rights reserved.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft. 32. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. It is expressed in feet as (21. or open-channel flow. plus the velocity head at the point. Equation (21.

44. 21. Eq. E. As the depth decreases downstream. (21. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft.43. for example. and discharge are known. roughness. (V. Chow..” McGraw-Hill Book Company. T. 21. All rights reserved. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.43). . as shown in Fig. normal depth decreases downstream. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.84) reduces to Fig. in which T is the top width of the channel. “Handbook of Hydraulics. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. Inc.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.42 is called the normal depth dn.83) Brater. slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. 21. New York. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.43 Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.” 6th ed.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. (See. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. For a rectangular channel. 21. McGrawHill Book Company.84) where A = area of flow. the specific energy also decreases. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. F.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Click here to view. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.) (21. New York.

ft3/s d = depth of flow. For rectangular channels. Eq. 21. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. or conversely. Brater. 21.84) is called the critical depth dc. for a given discharge.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. (21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.43.21. the depth is greater than critical. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. (21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.84).44). .44). He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. F. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The flow there is called subcritical flow. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. and flow is supercritical.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. or it may be found directly from tables (E.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. For a given value of specific energy. 21.84) may be reduced to (21.” 6th ed. (21. the depth is below critical. 21. New York). Inc. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.

All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. 21. ft3/s b = width of channel. along with a high loss of energy.45. a hydraulic jump will occur. regardless of slope.87) Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. 21. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.85). ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.52b. 21. . flow is supercritical. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. indicating an irreversible occurrence. (21. however. Inc. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. Such a change occurs gradually. 21. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. (21.57). There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. Critical depth. as indicated in Fig. Click here to view. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.44). there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. For every depth greater than critical depth. It can be seen from Fig.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. 21. 21. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. once calculated. without turbulence. [As indicated by Eq. flow is subcritical. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. p. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.45 where dc = critical depth.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.

and critical-depth lines.11. Inc. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. and C. and the N. New York. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.L. 21.D. Eq.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. as shown in Fig. The M2 curve forms between the normal.21. E. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. and A for adverse. horizontal. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.D. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.L.D. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. and adverse slope. T.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and two types for channels of critical.L. therefore. C for critical. the average n values given in Table 21.S.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). (See also Art.46. These curves are divided into five groups. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. ft V = mean velocity of flow.L. are in Table 21. and the critical-depth line C. S for steep (supercritical). Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.) 21. (Although based on surface roughness. Department of Agriculture.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. are identical for a channel of critical slope. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.4. Chow.23). 21.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).90) where A = area of flow.25). at an arbitrary elevation.L. The N. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. is replaced by a horizontal line.D. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. H for horizontal. 21. All rights reserved.9 and Table 21. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. 21. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.46c and d. Click here to view. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.89) may be written (21. 21. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. 21. Dr. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.46a and b.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.D. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. there must be a continuing maintenance program. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.

016 0.016 0.140 0. 21.032 0.060 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.035 0. Planed. Excavated earth.023 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.024 0. untreated 3.013 0.015 0. Dense weeds.021 0.012 0. straight and uniform a. Concrete (unfinished) a. respectively). Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Unlined channels 1. Light brush on banks 3.46a and b.050 0.040 0.016 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Jagged and irregular 0.028 0.030 0.021 0.016 0. Lined channels 1. 21. high as flow depth d. . Metal a.025 0.011 0. high stage 2.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.022 0. Rock cuts a.025 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. good section c.012 0.025 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Smooth and uniform b. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.080 0. The S2 curve. All rights reserved. Rough wood form B. Cemented rubble b. Dry rubble 5. With short grass. Wood a. 21.025 0.033 0.022 0.080 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.023 0.013 0. Float finish b. Steel form b.030 0.035 0. Dredged earth a. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. No vegetation b.022 0. few weeds c.050 0.013 0.011 0.014 0.120 0. Concrete a.027 0.016 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.035 0.015 Avg 0. wavy section 4. Smooth b. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.100 0.014 0.012 0.025 0. Gunite. Inc. after weathering b. Rough C. Corrugated 2. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Click here to view. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.035 0.033 0.017 Max 0.018 0.014 0. Asphalt a. Clean.018 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Masonry a. 21. Gunite. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.012 0.46i and j.020 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. commonly called a drawdown curve.019 0. Dense brush.014 0.017 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21. Smooth wood form c.013 0.040 0.013 0.030 0.015 0.010 0.025 0.

. Examples in Fig. 21.D. Click here to view..D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. H.46k and l. The curves in Fig.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. 21. and A profiles. 21.21. indicates normal-depth line. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Inc.L.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. C. critical-depth line. N.L.

Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. For step-method computations. For the section of channel in Fig. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. each reach is solved in succession.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. weir.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. known as its celerity. French. For subcritical flow conditions.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. 21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. H. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. (R. In a series of steps starting from a point of control.) 21.47. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. depending on the type of flow. dam. T.and direct-integration methods are in V. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. New York. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. direction-integration. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. 32. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. 21. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. . The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. or reaches. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. Inc. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. with relatively small variation. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. gate. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.27. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. The wave travels at a speed. Click here to view. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. Inc.77) if the depth were zero. All rights reserved. and step methods. the channel is divided into short lengths. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21.. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. free overfall. Explanations of both the graphical. See Art.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5.51). Chow. 21. New York. (21.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form.

rearranged as follows: Fig. and vice versa. ft. (21.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. is negligible and can be ignored.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. Inc. The smaller the value of n. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.82). 21. due to friction in the same reach. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. hi. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. Solving Eq. prismatic channels. the longer the backwater curve profile. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. 21.93) where R = hydraulic radius. 21. (21. (For uniform.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.93). ft. All rights reserved.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. not the channel bottom. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. the change in elevation. and – SL = hf. (21.92) (21. .91) for L gives (21. as given by Eq. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. respectively.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.21. the head loss. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Therefore. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the – eddy loss.

Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. ft/s. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. (21. total head H. respectively. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.47. at sec– tions 1 and 2. in natural channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eddy loss. is obtained from Eq. Then. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Then. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station.95) The coefficient k is 0. from 0 to 0. Since this step method is a converging process. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. S. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section.96).95).1 for converging reaches. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. computations progress toward the initial section. Therefore. (21. 21. grade. (21. sometimes called impact loss. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. ft. For lined channels. after substitution of H from Eq. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Click here to view.93). (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. The value of total head computed from Eq. respectively.51 may be some intermediate depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. or roughness. ft.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. and about 0. Next. referred to a horizontal datum. Finally. the average friction slope for the reach. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Z2. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.2 for diverging reaches. which.94). The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing.92). the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. becomes (21. Inc. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. the friction loss. and it is therefore often accounted for. ft. Next. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. (21.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. (21. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. (21. All rights reserved.93). and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical.

27. All rights reserved. or other obstruction. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. Inc.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. 1970. 21. The upstream surface of the jump.23). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. as shown in Figs. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. Department of Transportation. known as the length of jump. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. . French. and J. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. If the two values of total head do not agree. Utilizing the above data.” Hydraulics Design Series no. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0.. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Bradley. however. 21. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. The effect of bridges. Bureau of Public Roads.1 ft in elevation. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). a gate.51 and 21. approach roadways.48).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. 21. H. 21. 1.48 Hydraulic jump. Federal Highway Administration. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). Click here to view. U. 2nd ed. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.52b.21. N.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. known as the roller. and determine the discharge. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. 21. bridge piers. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. New York. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. 21.S. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. velocity. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. Fig. is a turbulent mass of water. However. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel.

ft. ft2 T = width of free surface. V is the mean velocity. this resultant pressure force is (21.104) = discharge. Inc. This difference (Fig. ft w = unit weight of water. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.102) Equation (21. 21.99). (21.16)]. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. . d2 must also equal dc. (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. For rectangular channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.105) where A = area of flow. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.27.100). Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. ft/s.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. in Eq. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.99) where M = mass of water. ft3/s = unit of time.100) Equation (21. 32.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. All rights reserved.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. ft/s2. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. s (21. or alternate depths.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.49) is given by (21.98) and (21. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. 21. (21. For open-channel flow.82). lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. where L is a characteristic length.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. ft d2 = depth after jump. (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. Click here to view. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.

Inc.5. there are undulations on the surface.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. chute. below a spillway. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The jump is well-balanced.21. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. 21. The jump is called an undular jump.0. If the tailwater is too high. depending on local conditions. 21. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. 21. The jump action is rough but effective. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. This jump may be called a strong jump. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. This jump may be called a weak jump. and energy dissipation may reach 85%.5 to 4. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. very commonly in canals.7 to 2. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. depth after the jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. and the performance is at its best.0 and larger.5 to 9. the flow is critical and there is no jump. were classified by the U. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. which. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.S. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. . If the tailwater is too low. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. This jump may be called a steady jump. For F1 = 1. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. 21.27. For F1 = 2.5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In either case. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. For F1 = 9. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. All rights reserved. For F1 = 1.49. for example.7. For F1 = 1 to 1. which gives discharge vs. For F1 = 4. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected.23). Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. Click here to view.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. can travel for miles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. the jump will be drowned out.

(21. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed.27. 21.105). But it has been determined experimentally. This length (Fig. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. . These features are expensive to build. changing the apron elevation. T. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.51.55 curve involve changing the crest length. All rights reserved. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin.27.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. therefore. 21. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. prepared by V. and sloping the apron.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. 21.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Bureau of Reclamation. The resulting curve (Fig. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.S. 21. Click here to view. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. The curve. Chow from data gathered by the U. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. 21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Accessories. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.

52a. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.7dc for simplicity. for simplicity. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art.75h in the absence of better information. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. equal in length to L.101) with d1 given. equal to the computed length of the jump. but it is normally assumed to be 0. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. the jump moves downstream to a new position. the jump occurs in the steep region. If d2 is less than d′ . 21. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.21. 21. less than. which occurs near the channel drop-off. (21. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.52b. (21. as shown in Fig.52.51. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. . The actual depth at the brink is 71. Conversely. 21. curves AB and ED in Fig. computed from Eq. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. computed from Eq. 21. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. All rights reserved. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. It is assumed. that flow is uniform. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc.102). the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. 21.46e and c). CB. Click here to view. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. respectively (Fig. if the downstream depth is lowered. the computed length of jump. As depth d2 is lowered.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Inc. as theory would indicate. using the step methods of Art. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump.23) to mild. 21. 21. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. as shown in Fig. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap.5% of critical depth. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge.101). If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. the jump moves to a new location downstream. 21. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate.26. between lines CB′and EO. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. A horizontal intercept FG. (21. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h.

21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. . Click here to view. or (b) below it. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels.51. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. 21. All rights reserved. From Q = AV. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. or (a) above it. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. New York. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.53a). in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. ft3/s. H.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.106) where b is the channel width. a new discharge is assumed.” McGraw-Hill. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.Water Resources Engineering s 21. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g).. French. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. the entrance loss. ft. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) 21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53). Then. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. and discharge is at a maximum. on the channel entrance. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. ft.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. is (21. then the assumed discharge is correct. F. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. 21. Brater. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. Inc.23). the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. where He is the specific energy head. If the entrance loss must be considered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. ft. 21. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d)..82) and (21.” 6th ed. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. (R. if not. New York.3 for one with squared ends. ignoring entrance loss. (21. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. ft. and the slope of the channel.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope.85)]. 21.

21. ft. ft. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. He is the specific energy head.21. where He – d is the actual head. then the discharge is correct. ft3/s. ———— charge. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. 21.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. a new discharge is chosen. 21. . (b) mild-slope channel. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. and g is acceleration due to gravity. All rights reserved. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. ft2. 21.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. 21. if not. 21. (In Fig. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53b. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.33).83). The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.23). This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.22). is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). A is the cross-sectional area of flow. 32.2 ft/s2. Click here to view. (21. producing flow. Inc. d is normal depth.53b).

(21. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. 21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches.Water Resources Engineering s 21. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. All rights reserved. Inc. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. ft. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. ft /s. ft. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art.108). in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.59 21. of the center line of the channel. Therefore. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. 21.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. curve (Fig. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. Click here to view. The error will not be great. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. .54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. or mV2 /rc for m. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. however. the true value of y would be only a few inches. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. 21. In this range. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Thus. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. If the bend continues long enough. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water.83)].108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow.23).107) The theoretical difference y. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. ft. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. when a stream enters a curve. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. 21. and rc the radius of curvature. where V is its average velocity. a unit mass of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. His values have not been evaluated completely.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. Scobey. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. 21. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. depths along the inside wall.S. Technical Bulletin 393. with sufficient accuracy. Click here to view. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. .55).23). and should be used with discretion. recross as shown. an increase in friction loss results.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. however.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. phase. 21. Inc. One is a positive wave.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a series of standing waves are produced. 21. These waves cross at M.” U.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.21. flows around a bend in a channel. Department of Agriculture. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. by (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. (F. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. and continue crossing and recrossing. C. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. This angle may be found from (21. (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. Two waves form at the start of the curve.110) for θ in Eq.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. (21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.111). All rights reserved.16)] . The cross slope required for 21. Fig.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. of greater-than-average surface elevation. The second is a negative wave.

The transition length that produces a smoothflowing.44. When proceeding downstream through a transition.44. 21. 21. ft/s. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. and g = 32. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. and channel shape and slope. or change from supercritical to subcritical. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. 21. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. If friction is ignored.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21. the average velocity decreases. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. the loss factor. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. For outlet-type structures. therefore. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. low-head-loss transfer of flow.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this range. . plus any transition and friction losses. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. equals about 0.1 for an inlet-type structure. where K.2 ft/s2. is given by K(∆V2/2g). Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth.113) angle of about 12. ∆V is the velocity change.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. wall roughness. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. ft. such as flow-rate changes. 21. Straight.54). the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 for welldesigned transitions. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. Many variables. To place a transition properly between two open channels. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. if friction is ignored. respectively. Inc. 21. as shown in Fig.56. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.8[∆(V2/2g)]. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section.23). Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. change from subcritical to supercritical. The transition loss. Click here to view. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. 21. p. 21. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.57).

21.222 ft. If the discharge is partly under water.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.34. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. and. the weir has free discharge. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. 21.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. such as rectangular weirs.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 21. All rights reserved. and parabolic weirs. Fig. . y = ax2. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.000556(10)2 = 0. Click here to view.58 Sharp-crested weir. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.57. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. In contrast.5 = a(30)2. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.59. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. 21. from which a = 0.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. the weir is submerged or drowned. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening.21.59 Weir not sharp-crested. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. 21. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.000556.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. trapezoidal weirs. measured from A or B. trapezoidal weirs. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. 21. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Fig.000556(20)2 = 0. triangular or Vnotch weirs. Inc. as shown in Fig. triangular weirs. For Fig. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. such as broad-crested weirs. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.58). The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used.

the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. To be fully ventilated. New York). The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. One such equation. 2. Chow. If P is less than Fig. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. 21. 21. Equation (21.5H.60 V-notch weir.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. . Click here to view. below the crest.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. ft The head should be measured at least 2. Inc. 21. Hence. T. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21.58) (V. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.116) corrects for the effects of friction. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.34. contraction of the nappe. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. All rights reserved. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. The height of weir P must be at least 2.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.5H upstream from the weir. At very low heads.115) where Q = discharge.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. thus causing a contraction of the flow. A V-notch weir (Fig.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. 21. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. F.34. 1943).62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.118) Fig.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 69.21.5H upstream from the weir.2) when low discharges are to be measured.” 6th ed. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. All rights reserved. (21. T. there is one end contraction and N = 1. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. 21.34. 21.61) (E. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. Click here to view. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. there are two end contractions and N = 2.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. 21. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. Fig. Discharge is given by (21. Inc. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. His values were summarized by Brater. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.118)] 21. 21. . (21. measured from notch bottom. ft. ft H = head.119) where Q = discharge. New York). who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. The effective length L. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. vol.34. 21. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. 21. 21. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Lenz.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Villemonte. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. p. R. 21. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.115) is rewritten in the form (21. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. ft3/s.59).63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. velocity head of approach. Click here to view. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. ft3/s.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 21. ft V = velocity of approach. and then. All rights reserved. (J. which may be done as follows: First. 866. ft. 21. heavily constructed devices. 32. From this total head.34. Where great accuracy is essential. 1947.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. using this discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. or both. 25.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. Eq. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. Inc. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. (21. Then.” Engineering News-Record.122) where H = measured head. for such weirs. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. The discharge Qs. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Dec. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Fig. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. compute the velocity of approach. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. 21. 2 21. neglecting the velocity head. using this rate and the required depths. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.121) where Q = discharge. velocity head. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. Typically. and finally total head. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q.) To use the Villemonte equation. (21.) Equation (21. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.34. Thus.

12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. “Design of Small Dams. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.2 of the head. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.20 0. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. 21.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.S. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. starting with the corrected discharge.10 H. (3) Broad-crested Table 21.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. Click here to view. But the process should be repeated. For each change of nappe shape. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.5Hd > r* > 0.” Government Printing Office. thickness of pier. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. For conditions of design head Hd.21. and the approach velocity. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. F. the head in relation to the design head. and approach velocity. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.13. Inc. Washington. Department of the Interior. head in relation to design heads.34. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. Therefore. DC 20402. The effect is most critical for low heads. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. where approach velocities are high. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. For conditions of design head Table 21. ft L′ = net crest lengths. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. ft (U.02 0. All rights reserved. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.12.123) where L = effective crest length.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.

21. Of the above rules. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. 21. 2. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. T. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. 1. . an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.66 of the head. 21. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 21. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. Figure 21.” Government Printing Office. where discharge is given by Eq. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. All rights reserved. depends on the head producing the discharge.64) has such a shape. at the point of maximum contraction. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Click here to view. The shape of this nappe.34.65. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for a sharp-crested weir. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Fig. called the design head Hd. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. “Design of Small Dams. and therefore of an ogee crest.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. DC 20402.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow. Department of the Interior.S. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. New York). and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 21.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (U. This relationship is shown in Fig. Inc. Chow. T. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.5H upstream. (21. however.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Washington. This manual and V. According to Chow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Consequently. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency.122).67 Fig. For flow at heads lower than the design head. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.

21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. 21.” U. Click here to view.S.66.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.S. . (From “Design of Small Dams. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. Figure 21. 21. Inc.” U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. the flow differs from ideal. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.) Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. All rights reserved. Fig.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. Bureau of Reclamation.

” U. (See. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. New York. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. compiled by King. McGraw-Hill Book Company.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.34. Brater. .68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. has contraction of the nappe. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. appear in Table 21. New York. the nappe springs free. (E. 21. (21. Unless otherwise noted. F. Figure 21. Values of the discharge coefficient.69 Broad-crested weir. Weirs of irregular section.” 6th ed. if flow is at other than the design head. for example. are used as spillways and control structures. and sharp right-angled edges. 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. E..9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Brater. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. where the velocity of approach is not high. 21. the coefficient of discharge.69 Fig. is determined from Fig. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.34. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.Water Resources Engineering s 21.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. All rights reserved. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Click here to view.” 6th ed. fairly common in waterworks projects. (From “Design of Small Dams. because of its sharp upstream edge. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.S. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Bureau of Reclamation. therefore. McGraw-Hill Book Company.14. 21. Figure 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.68.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. F.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. a plane horizontal crest. Inc.67 and 21..) 21.) Fig.

32 3.68 2.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.70 2.0 4.60 2. 21.32 3.4 1. The smaller silt sizes.62 2.68 2.32 3.32 3.32 3. those carried in suspension.70 2.60 2.80 2.75 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.65 2.64 2. All rights reserved.26 3. those forming the bed load. which are often of equal consequence.04 3.75 2.68 2. Click here to view.5 3.35.72 2. Heavier silt sizes. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.5 5.68 2.00 2.32 3. ft 0.89 3.20 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.70 2.75 2. A density current.38 2.32 3.31 3.49 2.63 21.32 3.64 2.50 2.68 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.64 2.32 3.98 3.68 2.64 2.05 3.75 2.00 2.70 2.0 1.77 2.72 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.74 2.32 2.64 2.61 2.66 2.07 3.07 3.64 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. once formed.65 2.20 3.32 3.0 2.32 3.68 2.66 2.6 1.07 3.89 3.50 H.32 3.66 2.07 3.64 2.30 3.63 2.30 3.08 3.73 2.69 2.64 15.32 3. such as gates.32 4.68 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage. This incoming water.63 2.69 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.32 3. with its load of suspended silt.32 3.85 2.72 2.89 2.67 2.32 5.67 2.32 3.28 3.32 3.65 2.88 3.65 2.65 2.80 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.64 2.32 1.63 2.54 2.86 2.85 3.64 2.19 3.14 3.32 3.66 2.63 2.81 2.65 2.00 2.54 2.32 3.32 3.64 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.32 3.34 2.70 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.67 2.76 2.88 10.69 2.63 2.63 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.03 3.32 3.63 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.00 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.6 0.32 3.4 0.0 3.29 3.44 2.50 2.32 3.2 0.79 2.8 2.32 3.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 3.5 4.97 3.65 2.74 2.92 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 3.20 3.58 2.88 2.76 2.32 3.64 2.92 3.66 2. valves. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.60 2.07 3. Inc.64 2.68 2.32 3. erosion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67 2. and turbines.21.32 2.69 2.68 2. ft 0.60 2.00 2.48 2.32 3.63 2.0 5.64 2.79 1.64 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.56 2.32 3.32 1.63 2.63 2.64 2.2 1.00 2.31 3.64 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.00 2.70 2. .32 3.64 2. or soil.08 3.32 3.28 3.32 3.31 3.75 2.5 2.61 2.68 2.50 2. such as a reservoir.8 1.67 2.68 2.92 2.

Inc. once formed. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. and often extend to the reservoir outlet.Water Resources Engineering s 21. are coarsegrained. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. Of course. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. When neither can be done. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. however.39. . The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see Art. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. 21. or failure of materials. landslide. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. formed from the bed load. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. However. the rate is not uniform during the year. These currents are stable. overtopping. because of variations in rainfall. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. The most common manner of destruction. Click here to view. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. 21. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. All rights reserved. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur.35. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. By this method. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. or from year to year. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. on the other hand. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present.

All rights reserved. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. Frequently. discharge. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. Inc. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.21.1). This size range includes particles of coarse sand. Therefore. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.35. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment.124) where Gb = total bed load. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0.0 ft/mi. ft qo = critical discharge. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. Click here to view. which varies with both slope and discharge. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. ft3/s b = width of river.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. . if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. Therefore. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. But for the most part. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. 21. and boulders. According to Witzig. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. Therefore. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. gravel. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. A mean grain size of 0. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. however. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. which generally occurs only during a storm.

on or near the land surface. (21-124). or year. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. In this cycle. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. It continually records. and pressure. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. their occurrence. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. if the dam is raised at a later date. temperature. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. circulation. by ink pen and revolving drum.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas.S. groundwater flow. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Graf. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. Einstein. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage.) culation. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. recharges groundwater. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. New York. Weather Bureau is 24 h. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. rivers. Use of vegetation screens. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. discharges into streams. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Click here to view. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport.S. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. (W.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. and distribution. infiltrates into the soil.” U. Department of Agriculture. are published daily by the U. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. contour plowing. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. such as wind. planting of burned-over areas. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. debris barriers. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. water evaporation from oceans. lakes. (See H. or a combination of the two. check-dam construction. which are of two types. in the form of synoptic weather charts.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. runoff. and their reaction with their environment. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. Inc.73 dation. Weather Bureau.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.S. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. For instance. their chemical and physical properties. H. All rights reserved. such as an hour. and the stream velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A. Such screens. or digital microchip technology. and stream flow 21. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. including their relation to living things. evaporation. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. infiltration. The second type is a nonrecording gage. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. . Current data. day. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.

Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. In evaporation. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. ground. Of the three.125)]. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. has a relatively large surface area. see D. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff.” McGraw-Hill. in of mercury.126) where E = evaporation rate. or ground surfaces. Evaporation may occur from free-water. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. developed from Dalton’s law. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. Not all rain reaches the ground. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. commonly termed consumptive use. This phenomenon. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. called interception. equal to 15 for small.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. and other vegetation surfaces. New York. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy.. . Inc. A portion may evaporate as it falls. while another portion may be caught on leaves. Inc. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. tropical and subtropical regions. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Evapotranspiration is important because. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. “Handbook of Hydrology. Maidment. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. In transpiration. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. (21. branches. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. On an annual basis. All rights reserved. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. and it increases as wind velocity increases. Click here to view. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. The Meyer equation [Eq.21.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. Evapotranspiration. shallow pools and 11 for large.125) (21. on a long-term basis. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in of mercury. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. R. and plantleaf surfaces. (21. plant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

natural or manmade. Precipitation—form (rain.70. except in arid. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. 21.60 and 0. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. perhaps several years. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. time distribution. birds. Click here to view. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. aquatic life. Maidment. intensity. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Climatic characteristics a. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. Subsurface flow. (D. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. . dew). the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. Inc. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. snow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. or groundwater runoff.Water Resources Engineering s 21. effective rain includes subsurface flow. frost. New York. duration.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. where it continues as channel or stream flow. subsurface runoff. R. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. hail. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. In practice.80. although it may vary between 0. Commonly.. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. also known as interflow.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. or groundwater flow. is in widespread use. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. Inc. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. It appears in surface channels. depending on the geographical region. called a Class A Level Pan. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. subsurface storm flow. On large reservoirs. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Groundwater flow. runoff may be surface. and storm seepage. to reach a channel. wind tends to push the film to the shore. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. and biologic attrition.” McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Moving laterally. Hexadeconal. or excess rain. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. “Handbook of Hydrology. or cetyl alcohol. insects. tropical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Thus. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Classified by the path taken to a channel. After joining stream flow. subsurface.

” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. areal distribution. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. Click here to view.S. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. 21. length) b. recurrence interval. International Boundary Commission. Agricultural Research Service. artificial drainage. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. orientation. the quantity and type of data available. channels (size. as shown in Fig. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length.21. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. the U. Temperature—variation. TVA. special-interest items. 21. Inc.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. direction of storm movement b.S. frozen ground during storms. Weather Bureau. Topographic—size. roughness. duration d. shape. Humidity e. . detail.S. mean flow. Atmospheric pressure f. Geological Survey. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. slope. Solar radiation 2. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. both published and unpublished. 21. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. shape of cross section. the detail required in the final answer. Wind—velocity. Drainage-basin characteristics a. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. All rights reserved. These papers contain records of daily flow. extremes during precipitation c. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. and the accuracy desired.” U. antecedent precipitation.S. extremes of flow. Geological Survey.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. soil moisture. yearly flow volume. 21. slope. lakes and other bodies of water. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. Geologic—soil type. Geological Survey. snow storage. general location. and Weather Bureau. and completeness of the hydrologic records. and various state and local agencies. land use and cover. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission.70. drainage net. permeability. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. groundwater formations. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. direction. stratification Fig. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. elevation. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts.

Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost.41. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. 4. The values of C in Table 21. others give the complete hydrograph. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Inc. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method.127) where Q = peak discharge.128) 21. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. 3. T. the second to major hydraulic structures. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. 2. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. All rights reserved. for example. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1962). Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.or 100-year-frequency storm. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. in/h A = drainage area. As an example. Chow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. . One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Click here to view. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. and large downstream damage potential. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. a 50. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. great importance. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. 5. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas.

cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. R.40 – 0.40 0.20 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.60 – 0. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. K. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. (21.85 0.60 – 0.18 – 0. Equation (21.80 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. After determining the time of concentration.70 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.95 0. or any equivalent method. and the flow time in conduits. 21.41.40 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. 7% Heavy soil.25 – 0.129).78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.” McGraw-Hill. 2–7% Heavy soil. (21.15 – 0.90 0.75 0. steep. or ditches. All rights reserved. (21.71 and Table 21. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. 2–7% Sandy soil. the flow time in streets.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.10 – 0.95 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.10 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.) The flow time in gutters.10 0. (21.05 – 0. factor. b. Sherman.70 – 0. detached Multiunits.70 0.75 – 0.50 – 0.30 0.70 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.15 0.129) Table 21.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.13 – 0.10 – 0.16).75 – 0. avg.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.25 – 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.17 0. Inc.50 – 0.20 – 0.21. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. (See D.50 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.128) or Eq. streets. flat. 21.25 0. Click here to view.89)] . flat. coefficient.80 – 0. in/h respectively. min time of concentration Fig. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. ditches. avg.127).95 0. New York. years duration of storm.85 0.. is a convenient.70 – 0.50 – 0.60 0. gutters.22 0. 21.30 – 0.35 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. . Maidment.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.20 – 0. 2% Sandy soil. n. “Handbook of Hydrology.95 0. 2% Heavy soil. Inc. steep.

JanuaryJune 1932. termed a unit storm. 3. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 108. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin.” Engineering News-Record. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. pp. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. subdivision may be required. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. This requires that a storm of short duration. Click here to view. All rights reserved. If the watershed is very large.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. vol. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. termed a unit period. Sherman. 4. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The method is summarized by the formula (21. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. Thus. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. that is. .79 Table 21. and more accurate than any such set of factors. usually 1 acre). The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. (Leroy K. the time of storm runoff. Inc. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. 501-505.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. easier. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. 2.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.

it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. 21. because of storm variations. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. For ease of manipulation. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 21. All rights reserved. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Usually. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration.73).80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21.21. 5. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.72. . Then. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. Illustrated in Fig. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Click here to view. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm.

This loss. . since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. 21. All rights reserved. New York. pp.” McGraw-Hill. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. New York. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Fig. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 21. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Click here to view. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. “Hydrology for Engineers.” 3rd ed. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. (R. McGraw-Hill.) where Q = flow rate. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.. vol. Inc. 447–454). 19. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. “Handbook of Hydrology. R. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. Inc. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. (See D. Inc. during heavy storms. perpendicular to direction of flow. This method was developed by Franklin F. pt. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.81 21. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. Also.74).. Linsley et al. I.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation.. K. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.131) period. Maidment. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.

All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. poor-quality replenishment waters. alternative management plans should be formulated. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. Frequently. and location of artificial replenishment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. present and future water demands should be determined. water softening costs. and overdraft. usually a number of years. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. wastewaters. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. quality. quantity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Click here to view. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. and indirect water-quality use costs. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. among others. All rights reserved. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. safe yield.21.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and methods of wastewater disposal. Inc. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. cost of replenishment water. Regardless of how it is defined. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. need for excessive pumping lifts. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. quantity. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. groundwater levels. . rather than a change in volume. Following the preceding preliminary work. is a confined or artesian aquifer. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. (A base period is a period of time. because of impermeable layers above and below it. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. and quality of water supply.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. or other causes. Deteriorating water quality. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. source. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. recycling. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer.

” A. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. decreasing percentage increase. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. (“Ground Water Management. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. and treatment works. and lawn-sprinkling purposes.” R. Hydrology for Engineers. fire-fighting. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. motels. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. or other unforeseen emergency. culinary. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. Grigg. distribution. geographical boundaries. I. and public. industrial. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. is a very difficult task. and age of the city. such as industrial development. financially feasible.” N. percentage increase. and sanitary purposes. amount and location of groundwater extractions.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. pumping. and environmental factors.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. storage. washing. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. fire. . J. Bear. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. apartments. water used. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. 40. legal. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. American Society of Civil Engineers. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. land speculation. Estimation of future population.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Click here to view. “Water Resources Planning. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses.. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. K. commercial. Therefore.. institutional. 21. Kashef. graphical comparison with other cities. The smaller the system. transmission. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. S. flood. wastewater disposed. All rights reserved. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. surface-water delivery facilities. irrigation. New York. industrial. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. 1987. “Groundwater Engineering. sanitary. Linsley et al.” 3rd ed. and hotels for drinking. however. no. Inc. and natural and artificial replenishment. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. bathing.

as presented in Table 21. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Table 21. janitorial.21. pressure. Demand rates vary with time of day. The national demand-rate data. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. quality. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. presents Table 21. and unauthorized uses.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. influence the demand rate for water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. degree of industrialization. standard of living. the demand for it decreases.” 1979. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. air conditioning.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. Public use of water for parks. meter malfunctions. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Inc. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cost. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. such as the climate. cooling. type of service (metered or unmetered). All rights reserved. are the average of a range of values.S. lawn sprinkling. cost. mainly because of the lack of large industries. it may control the design of the facilities. The “California Water Atlas. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. and year. and time of day. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. if the cost of water increases. size of the city. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. reservoir evaporation. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Mo. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Calif. Public Health Service Report. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. month. and pressure. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and cleaning. and quality of the water. and air conditioning purposes. Click here to view. Normally. degree of industrialization. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U.17. public buildings. and faucets. valves. but because of the high rate at which it is required. . High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Water Demand Rate s Many factors.

000 100.000 80. . Hydrant Spacing.18 Required Fire Flow. quality.000 6.000 110.000 12.000 40.000 85.2 2.000 40.4 17.4 2. Cost.000 60. and streams. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 40.000 125. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. In the atlas. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. such as lakes.000 1. valley cities.000 80. In some local areas. legality. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. The source must Table 21. is frequently undesirable.000 17.8 6.000 10. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 10.000 3.000 5. industrialization.9 4. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.4 3. climate. but the demand rate is high.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 55. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.8 7. and politics.5 14. In the past. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.18.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 90. All rights reserved. 21. gal/min P = population. inland. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 1.3 5. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 40. Click here to view. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.0 1.000 200. Inc. the effect of warm. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 28. and in some cases.8 2. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.0 3. Moreover.000 90. In selection of a source of supply.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.6 4. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. MG = million gallons. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. MG† 0.000 4. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. diversification is essential for reliability. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. rivers.000 40. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.500 2.6 1.000 48.000 40.000 8.6 11.0 7. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 70.3 0.000 120. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. interdependent.000 85.000 40.000 * American Insurance Association. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. † MGD = million gallons per day.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. to a large extent.3 Duration. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. however. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.132) where G = fire-demand rate. however.2 8.000 2. Total dependence on a single source. cost.000 4.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

S.) Source Protection s The U. All rights reserved. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. temperature. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. dependent on local conditions. American Water Works Association.22. total dissolved solids.” American Public Health Association. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. alkalinity.21. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.21. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. .5 – 8. (See also Art. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.S. In addition.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0.) At the discretion of the state. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.” U.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.5 mg / L 0. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. Inc. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. and calculation of the Langelier index. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. The measurements should include pH. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Click here to view.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.3 mg / L 0. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. calcium hardness. such as sulfates and chlorides. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and Water Pollution Control Federation. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.

however.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. temperature and viscosity of the water. Figure 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. and size and shape of the settling basin.0 < R < 2000. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Reynolds numbers. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. . 21.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity.51). Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Inc. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. such as those mentioned above. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.46. (21. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. calculated with ν = νs. and softening (see also Art.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.. unpleasant tastes and odors. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. (See R. Pojasek. All rights reserved. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In the region where 1. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Newton’s law applies: (21. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. V the flowthrough velocity. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. mm If R > 2000. Click here to view. g/mm3 d = particle diameter.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. 21. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1.001 and 5. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. Figure 21. particulate and colored matter. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.134). If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. shape. Inc. to be used in Eq. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. B. (Usually. disinfection. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. (21. velocity is constant. Ann Arbor.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. is equal to or less than 1. coagulation-sedimentation. depth ho .77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. and width B.0.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For this ideal basin. slow and rapid sand filtration. Mich. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.

p. after Camp. vol. 21. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 103.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. at 10 °C. Inc. 897. Click here to view. (Observed curves.) Fig. 1946. All rights reserved.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.

8c. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. 21. M.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . or other indicator to pass through the basin.. A. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. rectangular (Fig. 21. The tubular settler (Fig.78b). finely Fig. New York. G. “Water Treatment Plant Design. short circuiting. J. Geyer. Fair. and eddy currents. coagulants are added to the water.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo .” John Wiley & Sons.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.5 ft/min (most common velocity. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Okun. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. are removed in this basin. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York.78a) or circular (Fig. 27. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc..) 21. Without coagulants. C. Inc. Click here to view. . salt. 21. All rights reserved. 21.” McGraw-Hill. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. 1. Multistory tanks. Inc. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. 21. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. and D. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46. for example.

21.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. Inc.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Click here to view. (d) Tubular settler. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Circular clarifier. All rights reserved. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. New York. Thereby. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. color.. in some instances. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. Also. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. and air jets. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. however. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). They are available in three types: cationic. or negatively charged. The filtering process has many components. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. highmolecular-weight. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” McGraw-Hill.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. color. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. organic polyelectrolytes. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. however. or positively charged. temperature. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. T.. Culp and R. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. American Water Works Association. chemical and biological reactions. settling. Click here to view. ferric chloride (FeCl3).” 4th ed. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. McGhee. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. and suspended solids. such as physical straining. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. (G. L.to 60min range. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. J. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. turbidity.” R. such as mechanical stirrers. “Water Quality and Treatment. coliform organisms. Anionic polymers. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Inc. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. L. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. centrifugal pumps. plankton. Inc. 18H2O]. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. and hardness. All rights reserved. such as paper fiber.) 21. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. . to get the small floc to agglomerate. A. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Polymers are long-chain. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. Corbitt. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). such as pH. production of a smaller volume of sludge. or neutral in charge. “New Concepts in Water Purification.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. consequently. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. and easier dewatering. New York. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and nonionic. anionic. considering both cost and performance. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. Culp. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.

such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. through the sand and gravel layers. Usually. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. by weight.or mixed-media filtration. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. of the sand. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. The process requires rapid mixing. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.21. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. 21.to 12-in layer of gravel. 21. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.35-mm range.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. The wash- Fig. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. (The effective size is the size of a sieve.25. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. and dual. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.to 0. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. All rights reserved. that will pass 10%.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. . The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. depending on the turbidity.79. in millimeters. Inc. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

may be more advantageous. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Click here to view. which produces an undertreated effluent. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Inc.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. All rights reserved. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Immediately after washing.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. mixed-media. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains.20 to 1. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. water sprays. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. which is drained to waste. . Dual-media. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. gal/min b = width of trough. filters pass water at a high rate.25 to 1. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. diatomaceous earth. bed cracking. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. The filtering medium may be sand. or sand incrustation will be encountered. however.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. and air jets. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or deep coarse-media filters. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. or anthracite coal.35 to 0. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. creating a high head loss across the filter.005:1 range. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. such as rakes. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs.002:1 to 0.

or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).1 mg/L.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed.. or open-joint pipes.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. carbonates.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. Okun. L.” John Wiley & Sons. Inc. These materials remove cations.136) (21. Culp and R. and (3) total hardness. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. (G.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. and D. C. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Culp. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. J.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. New York.. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. where 1 gpg = 17. Regeneration requires between 0.” 4th ed. New York. Some. such as calcium and magnesium. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Click here to view. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. Fair. New York. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. and R is the zeolite material. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.) 21. gas.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. perforated. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” 4th ed.139) 21.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. J.21. L. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness.” and T.3 and 0.138) (21. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. “Water Quality and Treatment. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. respectively. sulfates.. in clear wells. Geyer. G. lime (CaO). (American Water Works Association. . All rights reserved. American Water Works Association. “Water Quality and Treatment. McGhee. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. M. In the lime-soda process. New York.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level.. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. A.) (21.” 6th ed.

The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. 21. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. iron.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. ultraviolet light. M. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. excessive fluorides. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. despite its low solubility. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. reverse osmosis.) 21. “Water Supply and Sewerage. All rights reserved. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art.” John Wiley & Sons. Chlorine residuals of 0.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. then. Click here to view.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer..) 21.. New York. cation exchange. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. bromine.. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. lime softening. and D. Fair. Geyer. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. . Inc. 21. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. manganese. chlorine dioxide. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h.” McGraw-Hill. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. Inc. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. Inc. Inc. water supply. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. C. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water.45). or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York. New York. “Water Treatment Plant Design. odor. Other disinfectants are iodine. Filter both solutions.” McGraw-Hill. irrigation. activated carbon. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. Okun. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply.) respect to carbonates. flood control. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.” and T. and electrodialysis.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. McGhee.1 or 0. A. ozone.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. J. and lime. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.99 water supplies. J.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. detergents. (G. anion exchange. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. taste. “Water Treatment Plant Design.

The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. The plot of volume vs. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. 21. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Also. When the demand rate is known.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. The mass diagram (Fig.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Aeri- Fig. . maximum flows will govern. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow.1). as is the case for many water-supply projects. All rights reserved. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. 21. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. whereas for flood-control reservoirs.52. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. 21. Inc. areavolume curves (Fig. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Click here to view. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80. minimum flows will be critical.21.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. 21.

chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. Click here to view. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. All rights reserved. Major sources of supply for some cities. and Los Angeles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. pumping plants. When the tem- 21. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. perature drops in the fall. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color.35 and 21. . such as New York. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.2).1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. During hours of maximum demand. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. Inc.52. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. When the demand drops off. are large distances from the city. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. give special attention to water quality.101 Fig. In deep reservoirs.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. 21. which may be only a few feet thick.Water Resources Engineering s 21. San Francisco. is called the thermocline.52. 21. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. but there is no circulation across this zone. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. the flow refills the reservoir. If possible. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. odor. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity.

82) (G. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves.84).” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.21. 21.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. M. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.52. A flowing artesian Fig. 21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. 3. 21. no. .2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. 21. Brune. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. 21. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.35. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For the correct hydraulic grade. June 1953). For any given storage reservoir. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.83).82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. Inc. All rights reserved. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. 21. Click here to view. 34. M. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. vol. Brune.

All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21. 21. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .103 Fig. Click here to view.

“Water and Wastewater Engineering. 21. December 1938. from an artesian well is given by (21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft h = H minus drawdown. and motor. eductor or riser pipe. T. waterjet.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. J. or driven. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head.. vol. A. no. 629. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.” John Wiley & Sons. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). M. hollow-core. ditch. Inc. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. “Water Supply and Sewerage. vol. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fair.” Economic Geology. bored. motor. ft d = diameter of well. 21.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. McGhee.143) 21. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. Hence. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. New York. (G.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. Theis. ft The steady flow. 21. 72.21. 1940. Okun. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. p. E. All rights reserved. gal/day. (C. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established.. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. Inc.53. 33. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.53. J..1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. V.142) where Q = flow. 21.” 6th ed.84). The pump. Jacob.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. and D. 889. Click here to view. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. 21.83).57). and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. 5. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. Geyer. 21.53. McGraw-Hill. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. ft (Fig. C. C. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Inc. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. screen.53. pump (Art. p. or hydraulic rotary methods. New York. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. .

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. zinc. and ability to withstand external loads. ft 21. rubber. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. polyethylene. contact between acids and metals. In unlined pipes.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. and plastics. sealed flanges. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. or Dresser-type couplings. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. A machine that produces a monolithic. 21. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. however. an anode and a cathode. Under favorable conditions. steel. (Water may serve as an electrolyte.54. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. but wood is rarely used in new installations. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. stray electric currents.146) where D = pipe diameter. . If it is cement-lined. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. valves. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. polybutylene. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Click here to view. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. brass. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. Wood pipelines are still in existence. such as polyvinyl chloride. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. concrete. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. Inc. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. and meters destroyed by corrosion. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Copper. sand. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. and sulfur compounds. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. tanks. bacteria in water. All rights reserved. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. bronze. plastic. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. hydrants. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. riveting. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. valves. impurities and strains in metals. and other appurtenances. are present. Since steel is stronger than iron. (21. lead.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron.21. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter.) At the anode. pumps. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe.

caustic soda. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. water may be treated with bases. Inc. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Strains. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. When selecting materials.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. to prevent corrosion. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. . Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and treatment of the water.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). and the more ions. Click here to view. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). the faster electrons can move through the water. All rights reserved. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. such as soda ash. At the cathode. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. use of protective coatings. 21. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. the corrosion process continues (Fig. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. where e is an electron. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. and Fig. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion.86). Also. Aluminum. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. zinc. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. 21. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. for example. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. cracks. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water.

magnesium. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. or eye. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. New York.21. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically.” 4th ed. between pump center line and water surface Fig. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. horsepower. Zinc. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. hydroxides. psia. McGraw-Hill. The centrifugal pump. . Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. ft of water z = elevation difference. accomplishes that in two steps. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. efficiency. in feet.87). 21. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. and the head-discharge relationship. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Click here to view. To have practical meaning. the most common waterworks pump. 21. graphite. Water enters at the center. Corrosion. or impeller.) w = unit weight of liquid. called a volute (Fig.. All rights reserved. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Inc. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. To prevent cavitation. 21. (American Water Works Association. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. z is negative. and so on on the walls of the pipes. ft. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. lime. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. psia. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.147) where pa = pressure. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. 21.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. by (21. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. oxides. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element.88).56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. “Water Quality and Treatment. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH.

as shown in Fig. (Also included in Fig. Inc. discharge curve with the brake horsepower.” 2nd ed. reciprocating. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. rotary. 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs.Water Resources Engineering s 21.89. 21. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.111 than the required NPSH. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. J. In a typical water-system analysis. jet.) 21. Fig. . For that reason. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Click here to view. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. 21.58. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. below 200 gal/min.. helical.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. (I. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. head. propeller. depending on the number of stages. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. pump discharge.57 and check valves in Art. however. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. 21. 21. and air lift. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. New York. “Pump Handbook.. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Book Company. See also Art. Karassik et al.

Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Reciprocating pumps. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Because of the close tolerances. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. either hand. gal/min H = head. Inc. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. which is a function of specific speed. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. and for Ns above 7500. r/min Q = discharge. 21. they can be used only for sediment-free water.148) where n = impeller speed. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Jet pumps (Fig.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications.21. which are located at the well bottom. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. utilize piston action to move water. so that the entire lift is suction. vanes. . 21. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level.or motordriven. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. At sea level. All rights reserved. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well.90 fied).112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. cams. (21. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Click here to view.

primarily because of their low cost. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. Inc. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. and butterfly. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. New York. Also. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. large pressure differences. Corrosion. If sand is carried out with the water.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. All rights reserved. applied through a gear-reduction device. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. and low head loss when fully open. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Karassik et al. rubber. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. sluice gate. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Plug. globe. pressure-relief. or it may be at the bottom of the well. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. cone. tubercle formation. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates.) drives to permit manual operation. Simplicity of construction and quick. needle.. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. and butterfly valves. But these valves cost more than gate. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. or corporation cocks. globe. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Usually. . Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. plug. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. pumps. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. one just upstream of the meter. Click here to view. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. curb. fast operation. J. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. rotates the disk. respectively. “Pump Handbook. availability. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. (I. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Check. air-relief. or Neoprene. The major types of isolating valves are gate. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. in-service lubrication features.” 2nd ed.113 tion.or oil-lubricated. Low head loss. one at the service connection. Hand or motor power. three valves must be used. and easy. pressure-regulating. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. solids deposition.. which are water.

Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. The most common check valve is the swing type. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. such as pressure regulators and altitude. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. such as trunk lines 21. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. The wetbarrel. and large pipes. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. check. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. All rights reserved. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. For example. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Because of high head losses. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. .21. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. When the valve is in a closed position. Furthermore. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or California type. Usually. Many automatic control valves. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Click here to view. Inc. rivers. and relief valves. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. 21. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. which connects the barrel to the main. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Interior-differential. Often. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve.

The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. called a Price meter. Inc.5% within the normal test-flow limits. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions.149) Hydraulics. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. amount of head loss through the meter. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. The nutating disk is used. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. see E.. respectively. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. or nutating-disk types. F. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Brater. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. nozzle. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly.115 of distribution systems. which do not affect propeller meters. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. The standard venturi meter (Fig. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Click here to view. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. A clicking noise. but they are used primarily in laboratories. simplicity and ease of repairs. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. rotary. (21. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. are the most common velocity-type devices. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. 21. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. ft d2 = diameter of throat. The cup-type meter. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. durability.) As in venturi meters. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. for metering domestic-service connections. vertical velocity components. All rights reserved. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. .91.” 6th ed.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. ft h1 = pressure in main section. However. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. such as meters for individual customer connections. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. New York.150) where Q = flow rate. and cost. or modifications thereof. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

fire use. if any. Click here to view. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. seasonal use. utility-type enterprises. (b) Nozzle meter. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. load factors. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. (c) Orifice- 21. or to some other recognized system. . The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. and block rate. All rights reserved. flat rate is falling into disuse. 21.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. and similar items.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. peak rates of use. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. fixed charges on capital investment. and development of the system. step rate. Inc. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.91 plate meter.

penstocks. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. S. and transformers. and (3) cost. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For most distribution systems. Cost component 2. Cost component 1. where applicable. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. where the majority of small users are. 21. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. treatment chemicals. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. a building to house the machinery and equipment.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. called the commodity component. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 kW = 1. canals. Cost component 3. including metering and billing. turbines and governors. pumping energy. switching equipment. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. Inc. called the customer component.117 With step rate. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. Click here to view. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It is generally recognized that residential areas. buying water from a wholesale supplier. of serving an individual customer. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. generators and exciters. This charge is usually small. When fixing a system of rates. depends on the peak usage of a customer. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. tunnels. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. tunnel. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. . All rights reserved. draft tube. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. and. called the demand component.

the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. Then. base-load plants. On a daily cycle. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. . Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. On a weekly cycle. such as navigation. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Inc.92). run-of-river plants with storage. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. 21. power production being only incidental. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. and peak-load plants. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. On a seasonal cycle. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. Click here to view.21. Storage can be provided for a daily. weekly. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. If the minimum flow is very low. or seasonal cycle. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Therefore. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. All rights reserved. or yearly basis.118 s Section Twenty-One (21.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. It can be computed on a daily.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. weekly. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. to be used at some future time. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand.

21.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. When needed. . New York. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its distribution is triangular. McGraw-Hill Book Company.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Los Angeles. buttress. Calif.” 4th ed. earth. it usually is not as economical. (V. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. and rock-fill.) 21. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Zipparo and H. Force F2 represents silt pressure.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view.92). (Department of Water and Power. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. Hasen. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. All rights reserved. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. 21. arch. Inc.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.119 Fig.. J. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. The main classifications are gravity. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.

given by Eq. vol. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. Rose. presented by Edwin Rose. Inc. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Click here to view. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. (21. 1933. p.153) where w = unit weight of water.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 434. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.21.” discussion by von Karman. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. ice. May 1946. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A method of calculating these forces. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. These accelerations occur in every direction. 98. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. In cold climates. All rights reserved.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. which forms on the reservoir surface. was developed by von Karman.425h above the base. . Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.1 g. 21. A close approximation of the force. which create forces on any object resting on it. ice pressures as high as 50. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.) (21.000 psf. however. 21.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north.153). culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. In the past. (E.93 by forces F4 and F5. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. today it is realized these values are much too high.

Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The modes of failure are also the same.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. however. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. Click here to view. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. however. their relative importance is much different. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. If the deflections are not equal. the dam would have a small impervious clay core.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. or failure of the foundation material. Recent belief. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. All rights reserved. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Although there are many types of buttress dams. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. rock flour. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. because of bearing contact. such as sand and gravel. They are not suited to most sites. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. but the structural design is much more critical. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. In the multiple-arch. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. uplift is not so important. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. and uplift forces are smaller. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. . sand. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. On arch dams. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. When the base is not drained. Inc. First. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. but its formwork is more expensive. Hence. silt. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. However. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. and clay. is available and clayey materials must be imported. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. In the past. If a large quantity of pervious material. overturning by rotating about the toe. engineers assumed that.

If the dam is on a pervious foundation. The downstream face is usually 1. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. New York. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. although steel has been used occasionally. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. the natural angle of repose of rock. however. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Leakage should be expected. Zipparo and H. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. All rights reserved.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Today. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. U. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. bearing on the rubble cushion. onto the fill. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. 21.” U. For dams over 200 ft high. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. providing power. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Bureau of Relamation. bonding into the dumped rock. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Hasen. Click here to view. J. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams.94). or wood over concrete. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Army Corps of Engineers. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. For some types of soil. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. . Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Temporary facings are usually of wood.” 4th ed. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. therefore. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations.) 21. and an upstream impervious facing. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.21. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Inc. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. If pervious material is not available. (V.” EM 1110-2-2300. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The facing is usually concrete. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. S.3 on 1. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. S. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.3 on 1.

65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case.. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. At heads above 1000 ft. wicket gates. The propeller turbine (Fig. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. their efficiency decreases rapidly. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. At heads below 100 ft. New York. and draft tube. and the fixed-blade type. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. such as the Kaplan turbine. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. McGraw-Hill Book Company. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. 21. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. (V. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. the propeller-type (Fig.123 bine. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. wicket gates. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. All rights reserved. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. This creates a force on the runner.Water Resources Engineering s 21. However. The wicket gates. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. however. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.94 turbine.) Fig. Hasen. 21. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. runner. it changes direction. Inc.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. 21. . As the water flows through the tur- 21.95a). In such installations.” 4th ed. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. runner.95c). the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. however. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Zipparo and H. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. if the load drops below 50%. 21. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. 21. and draft tube. In these. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. J.

All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This type of spillway is Fig. if designed correctly. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. 21. 21. widely used for concrete dams because.21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.65. . the dam will not be damaged by the water. (b) Kaplan. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. (c) axial flow.

In a side-channel spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. Click here to view. siphon spillways hold the water Fig.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. A siphon spillway (Fig. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir.34). All rights reserved. called an ogee spillway. 21. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Bureau of Reclamation. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. DC 20402). the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. This type of spillway. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. In a shaft spillway. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. both depending on the head on the weir.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. . There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. The air vent shown in Fig. 21. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. “Design of Small Dams.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. the siphon’s intake is sealed. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Thus.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. open channel.S. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur.96 Siphon spillway. Once this second condition is reached. As the head increases. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. When the head is relatively low. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. In a chute spillway. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. flared. Inc. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. model tests are usually employed.” Government Printing Office. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. lined. or ogee in cross section. 21. The weir can be sharp-crested. Washington. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins.

126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. All rights reserved. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.97). Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. In contrast. Fig. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. .3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.65. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. In a taintor gate (Fig.97 Taintor gate. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. level of a reservoir within close limits. To do this. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.21. 21. 21. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.5 ft/s. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply.98 Bear-trap gate. Click here to view. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. 21. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21. the pipes fail.65. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. making removal difficult. On large stop-log installations. causing damage and hampering operation. Fig. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. 21. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. and providing support for the conduit. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. controlling flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations.

. The drum gate (Fig. and J.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.99 Drum gate. To raise a bear-trap gate. All rights reserved. Inc. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. Cleasby. Click here to view. Because of the large recess required in the dam.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. 21. as shown in Fig.” 4th ed. Hasen.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Doland. J. Babbitt. J. “Water Supply Engineering. L. New York.. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. E. and H. J. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. drum gates are not suited to small dams. (V.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use.) Fig. 21.98. Zipparo and H. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.blank page 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Inc. All rights reserved. Click here to view.

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