M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

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21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

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interpretation of the results obtained on small models. face and rises in a small tube. as shown in Fig. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. . When the liquid is in a closed container. although negligible in many water engineering problems. Gage pressure. 21. Click here to view. ft Capillarity. as shown in Fig. In equation form.1) where h = capillary rise. Meniscus. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. is small and insignificant in most problems. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. and freezing damage to concrete. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. psia. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.1. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. (21. 21.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level.3. however.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.000 ft is shown in Fig. 21. Thus. Absolute pressure. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal.2. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. or liquid surface. 21. ft σ = surface tension. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.7 psia. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. 21. formation of spray from water jets. Its temperature variation. All rights reserved.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid.7 psi. Inc. respectively. portions of the liquid vaporize. like surface tension. pitting. at sea level. psi.21. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Its value Fig. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. are significant in others. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. is pressure above or below atmospheric. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. decreases with increasing temperature. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is concave upward. Surface tension and capillarity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream.

Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. Viscosity. is a measure of its resistance to flow. In hydraulics.8) to determine whether laminar. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. All rights reserved. lb/ft3. Inc. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. or implode. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. lb/ft2 21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. or completely turbulent flow exists. ft/s y = depth. µ of a fluid. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. which extend into the pores of the metal. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. to collapse. ft2. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. the pressure acts equally in all directions. ft. (Pressures as high as 350. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. transitional. and the force due to pressure p2. ft2/s. 21. psf.4. of length and time. 21. At any depth. Since the prism is at rest. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.00001059 ft2/s. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. . and cross-sectional area A. Click here to view. psf. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. as shown in Fig.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Fig. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. or dynamic viscosity. the force due to pressure p1. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. also called the coefficient of viscosity. on the bottom surface. absolute viscosity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Then.2) where τ = shearing stress. on the top surface. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. It is so named because its units. and pitting appears.

For horizontal surfaces. Therefore. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. Equation (21. ft2. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. and other water control structures. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. lb/ft3. the pressure.3a) by A yields (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. (21. at depth h. the depth of the centroid.4. The resultant pressure force P. Thus. (21. where w is the specific weight of water.6) – ∫ydA = y A.5) 21. . Taking ∆h to be h. lb. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. 21. Inc.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. Figure 21. (21. however. ft.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. then p2 is p.3b) then becomes (21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. All rights reserved.4) Equation (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. tanks. p1 is atmospheric pressure.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. ft. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.3a) Division of Eq. (21. 21. psf.4). (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. and y sin θ = h . the depth below the water surface.3.

All rights reserved. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. Otherwise. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.). – From Eq.g.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. Thus. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. (21.8) equals –A. 6. (21. 21.g. (21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.p.8). represented by the length yp.) but acts at a point (c. Hence y . The denominator of Eq.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.) that is below the c. 21.p. of the surface about its centroidal axis. (21. Pyp = ∫y dP. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. (21.7).7 Fig.7). the total force P = whA.2° to the horizontal (Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. 21.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. 21. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.5).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. ft. if that locus is a straight line.29). Inc. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. 21. .6 (see also Fig. The location of the center of pressure. Example 21. psf. where K is the radius of gyration.

21. however.3.08. All rights reserved.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.42 = 5.8.9).42 ft. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. 21. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. Therefore. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. 21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.5 + 1/ (5. Also. K2 = point G. (21.0 + 0. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. yp = 5. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.08/5 = 5.1. Click here to view.0 + 2. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. P = 62.) of common shapes.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (See Example 21. 21. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.g. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Note: 1. . From Eq. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.0) = 5.0 ft.

and for a constant-radius surface.9. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.2. Inc. 2. When water is below the curved surface.6w = 19.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. Click here to view.14 × 25/4 = 19.9 Fig. . 21. Example 21.4°. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. 21. (b) Free-body diagram.564. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (See Example 21.4 = 1220 lb = PV. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. – From Eq.4 × 2. (21. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. Fig. 21.6 ft3. PH = whA = 62.5 × 5 = 780 lb.6 × 62.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.7).9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.9). Its angle with the horizontal is known. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. so the weight of the water is 19. The corresponding angle is 57.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.

Click here to view. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. p = wh. the pressure head. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. (21. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. All rights reserved.b. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. (21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance.10a). A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. or the difference in head. 21.10b).10b. 21. The stability of a ship.4). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For a body to be in equilibrium.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. 21.21. ft. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.). The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. Manometers indicate h. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.g. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. 21. Given in feet by Eq. Inc. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. ft3 ys = distance. . between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. 21. whether floating or submerged. is indicated by the metacenter.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. (21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig.

11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.17 psi. Basic types of manometers. although the latter is most common. 21.4 lb/ft3.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). What is hm? Fig. . 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. U-tube manometer. The piezometer (Fig. Inc. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. All rights reserved. 21. and differential manometer.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11): piezometer. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. Click here to view. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. However.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21. Example 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.11a is 2.11 manometer.12c). (a) Piezometers. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. (b) U-tube manometer. The liquid is water with w = 62. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.

12c). The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures. the Utube manometer (Fig. All rights reserved. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. . (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. 21.21. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. A movable scale. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. 21. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. as opposed to a fixed scale.11b) is used. In this application. Inc. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. Very low pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig.

or sump. 21.75 + 13. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.0 ft. For example. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section.25 ft. such as might be required in laboratories. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. such as ft of water or psi.5.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. psf w = specific weight of fluid. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. psf. however.4 × 0.6 × 62. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.40.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. All rights reserved. hi is 2.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. 32. is magnified by the differential manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. psf.12a. when expressed in feet of water. ft.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.0 and 2. psf p2 = pressure at 2. the total energy per unit weight at 2. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.4: A differential manometer (Fig. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. . Most of them. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. as shown in Fig. One factor. 21. in the manometer. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.13 indicating liquid. hm1 is 9 in. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. The pressure at B.Water Resources Engineering s 21.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. if the actual difference is 0. Above 5. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.11) where Z1 = elevation. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. 21. ft. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.4 × 2. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. the magnification will be 2. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.25 ft of water. Click here to view.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. The differential manometer (Fig. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. and z is 1. Inc. and the right side.4 × 2.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. however.6). the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. Example 21. the actual pressure difference. that is. 21.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.

The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. 21. lb. through friction. velocity.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. The total energy. ft/s. ft2. V2/2g. As indicated in Fig.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.13. Average velocity. Fig. Usually. above some arbitrary datum. varies with velocity. . ft. a Fig.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. however.4 ft3/s.11). All rights reserved.14) pa/w is called pressure head. 21. lb/ft3.13). and pressure (Fig. ft3/s. 21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. Example 21. Inc. and pressure. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. velocity.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. It equals WVa2 / 2g. across the area of the section A. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.5. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.21. 21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Kinetic energy at the section. where W is the weight. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. when added to the downstream side of Eq. (See Example 21. Click here to view. (21.14. velocity head. where Q is the quantity of flow. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. where Va is the velocity. ft. This term hf. ft/s = Q/A. or the total head ft: (21.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2.

Hence. direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. while in pressure flow.55 = 48. respectively. 21. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. p2 = 0. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Thus substitution in Eq. Art. .15 Fig. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. respectively. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. In openchannel flow.45 ft. hf = 50 – 1. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. The energy grade line. and any bends. which may result from a change in either velocity. 21. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.9). (21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. A change in momentum. sometimes called the total head line. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. Click here to view. ft. Z2 = 0. since the pipe has free discharge. is equal to the impulse. Also.15). Since the datum plane passes through point 2.4/ 3.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. gate valve. Inc. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21.7.14 = 10 ft/s.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. All rights reserved. or magnitude of flow. 21. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.

Inc. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.200 lb. Fig. Example 21. Click here to view. and at 2.78 Ry = 145. 21. All rights reserved.11) or (21. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.1 Rx = –82. Let R be the force.94 × 100 × 65. since ∆Vx = –(7. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.000 sin 53.2° – 0) = 4. which is to be determined).2° + Ry = 1.700/82.5°. (See Example 21. Fy = –181.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. With p1 known.000 cos 53. .332π = 71. then in the Y direction.16. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. To find F.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.4/ 32.5) = 65.2= 1. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.96 cos 53.000 lb. P2 = ppA2 = 13.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2° – 13. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.96 sin 53. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.21. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.94 × 100 × 4.5 ft/s.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. apply Eq.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.78. lb.94.1 and the density ρ = 62.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. since ∆Vy = –(–7.200 + Rx = 1. 21.12)] but may be used separately. (21. so θ = 60.500 lb. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.600 lb In the Y direction.6.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.600. (21. Fx = 181. Then.15) first in the X direction.2° – 71.

momentum. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. or prototype. Physical models are expensive to build. For instance. to a given set of stimuli. 1. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. alternative management schemes. such as storm rainfall. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. or proposed works. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. employs both physical and mathematical models. A fourth mode of modeling. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. however. In the preceding example. hybrid modeling. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion.17 21. such as a river. and through execution of the computer program. Usually. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. operate. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. See also Art. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses.7. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. In most models. gravity. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. 21. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Inc. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. With hybrid models. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. viscosity. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. aquifer. It is. and surface tension. Click here to view. droughts. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. erosional scour. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. the capability of the computing resources. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically.7. Popular before the advent of digital computers. In water resources engineering. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this way.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. or drainage basin.

20) R is dimensionless. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. All rights reserved. respectively. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Froude number. which is always a predominant force. . and Weber number. ft2/s. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. Squaring both sides of Eq.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. the length ratio is the only variable. the formation of drops and air bubbles. Reynolds number. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.22) where ρ = density of fluid. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. viscosity. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. The Weber number is (21.21. (21. 32.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Click here to view. the model is termed a true model. Similarly. Then (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. (21. Ratios of the forces of gravity. Inc. The inertial force. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Once the length ratio has been set. The Reynolds number is (21. The Froude number is (21. such as depth or diameter).17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Therefore.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. entrainment of air in flowing water. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.21a) (21. such as spillways and weirs. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. and one other force are made proportional.

simulations of prototype behavior are possible. viscous. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. Sr = 1. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. such as flow networks. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. For instance. For such models. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. inertial. the logical representation of prototypes.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. in turn. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. One type of model. In some cases.S. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. (21. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. (21. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. such as a morning-glory spillway. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. Click here to view. called a movable-bed model. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. This type of model is called a distorted model.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.25) In models of rivers and channels. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. Inc. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. catchment areas. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). 21. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number.7. and infiltration parameters.26) where V = mean velocity. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. mathematical models are. The U. and through execution of the computer program. Hence. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23a) (21. in particular. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. . the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These expressions. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.24). All rights reserved. Rr = Lr. are linked together to represent the system as a whole.

the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. if comparisons of different plans are required. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. 3. hydrodynamics. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. Maidment. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Click here to view. quantity and quality of water supply. R. and among water resources modelers in the government. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and private sectors. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. (D. R. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. when fully implemented. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. shown in Fig.” V. (J. For closed conduits other than circular. S. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. New York. 21. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. seepage. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. of all databases and software. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. and turbulent flow results. 1957.17.21. reservoir regulation. In object-oriented software.” McGraw-Hill.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. Also. however. watershed hydrology. A.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. As a result. “Handbook of Hydrology. landfill leachate analyses. and R. Hasen. academia. Art. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. All rights reserved. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Rothfus. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. 21.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. design of hydraulic structures. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. impacts of dam breaks. J. Hoggan. the model output required for design or evaluation. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” N. As this shearing stress increases. sediment or pollutant transport. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. Zipparo and H. flow routing. as in annular passages. G.” D. Grigg. Inc. or pollution. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. flood or drought impacts. Whan. As a general rule. and groundwater yield. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. H. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. evaporation and irrigation.2).) 21. wave or tidal analyses. density. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. Walker. channel and river hydraulics. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. This approach. “Water Resources Planning. This. or both. hydrologic forecasting. ecosystem impacts and restoration. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. F. vol. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.

To the right of the dashed line in Fig. All rights reserved.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. Click here to view. As a result. Fig. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. a disturbance will probably be magnified. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. handbook of Hydraulics.29) For laminar flow.l9. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. (21. the flow is completely turbulent. 32. the velocity distribution is more uniform. Therefore. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. than for laminar flow (Fig. As the Reynolds number increases.18. ft/s D = pipe diameter. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. (21. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. causing the flow to become turbulent. In laminar flow. at completely turbulent flow. (21. 21. Brater. 21.21 Fig. it is not practical to treat it analytically. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. These disturbances create eddies. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. 32.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic.17).27) where V = fluid velocity. 21. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.” 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. 21. Inc. In this region. as shown in Fig.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. ft L = length of pipe section considered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.) 21. 21. (E. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eq.. . ft ρ = density of fluid. New York. 21.19. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. laminar flow is unstable. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. flow is laminar in circular pipes. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. F.

The head loss is independent of the pressure.003 0.001 – 0.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.21.0002 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.19) to Determine f ε. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. . 21. 21.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. enamels.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. (21.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.) Because Eq. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.003 – 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. (L.008 – 0. ft V = velocity of fluid. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.0002 0. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. ft D = diameter of pipe.0002 – 0. November 1944. Click here to view.001 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. (21. Moody.0005 – 0.03 – 0. All rights reserved. Inc. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. 21.0005 0.0005 – 0. 21. F.00003 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.008 0. 32.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.9. 21.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.19) L = length of pipe. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.

dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.33b) (21. Inc.32) where n = coefficient. (21.31) where V = velocity. where D is the pipe diameter.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.34b) (21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. See also Table 22.34c) 21. which requires experience in its choice.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.4 and 21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34e) where V = velocity. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.33e) 21. (Although based on surface roughness.) Substitution into Eq.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. ft L = length of pipe. dependent on surface roughness.3. (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s C1 = coefficient.34d) (21.11 (p. (21. 21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.31) gives (21.33d) (21. 21. ft/s C = coefficient.9.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.33c) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. ft S = head loss due to friction. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. ft3/s. Tables 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. Click here to view. . The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9.9. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.

(21. enlargements.012 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.017 0.010 To 0.7: Figure 21.4 Values of n for Pipes. (21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.013 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.) Flow between reservoirs.012 0. .015 0.21.014 0.011 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. Example 21.20 ple 21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. (21.017 0.013 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.035 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. All rights reserved. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.017 From 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.014 0. Click here to view.017 0.015 0.016 To 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. bends. 21.7.012 0.012 0.017 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. in short pipelines. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.010 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.35b) (21. However. 21.013 0.35c) (21.013 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. and valves and other pipe fittings. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.015 0.36) for a check. because (21. Inc.013 0.015 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.015 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.010 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.

10 years older Average value. Gibson.Water Resources Engineering s 21. steel forms. Ltd. 21. . Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. minor losses must be considered.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.38) A special application of Eq. 80 4 in. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.” Constable & Co. 21. 21.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 21. H.. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. ft/s g = 32. 110 (21. 105 30 in and over. 120 24 in and over. Table 21. London. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. wood forms.21). The water in the reservoir has no velocity.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. the values of K in Fig.21 are approximate. determined experimentally by Brightmore.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 135 In good condition. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. 115 12 in. (A.25 Table 21. 120 Centrifugally spun.7. good workmanship. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.10.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. All rights reserved. good workmanship.37) or (21. 120 Large sizes. 140 Large sizes. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. is (21. regardless of age.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. are presented in Table 21.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. ft.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. (21.10. 85 16 in. where V is the velocity in the pipe. Click here to view. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. (21. so a full velocity head is lost. Inc.10. 110 4 in..37): (21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). (21.

80 K = 0.2 2. D = pipe diameter.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.62 0.25 The values in Table 21.9 0.3 0.7 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.2 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.5 0.76 0.21 of the sides.0 5.1 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 1. Click here to view.0 Table 21. Globe valve.21. fully open Angle valve.81 0. Inc.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.0 2.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.10.4 21.64 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.5 0.05 K = 0. . such as valves and elbows.4 0.89 1. fully open Gate valve.6 0.71 0.9 0.2 0. All rights reserved.66 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. 21.68 0.42) Table 21.8 are only approximate.8 0.63 0. and at bends is given by (21. fully open Swing check valve. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. For these reaTable 21.50 K = 0.

All rights reserved. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.27 sons.23. McGraw-Hill. Orifices may have any shape. not including friction loss.45) 21.9 for low velocity of approach. New York. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. no. 21. the bend loss essentially remains constant. . 21. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. If this velocity is significant. Equation (21.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. H. Experiments on smooth pipes. Inc. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. J.22: (21. 21. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Click here to view.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. (H. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. National Bureau of Standards. not including friction loss in the bend.42). this error is corrected by the C values. 1. vol. Beij.” Journal of Research. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. Ito. there is disagreement. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. square. (21..” 4th ed. (21. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. or rectangular. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. although they are usually round. and angle of bend.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. series D.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. Hasen. 21.11. The data are in agreement that the head loss. For low heads. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Reynolds number.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. its effect should be taken into account. vol. (21.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 1960.42). (K. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. July 1938. 21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.44) where Q = discharge.. (V. Zipparo and H. however.) Fig. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Figure 21. 82.

616 0.623 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.608 0.605 0.607 0.599 0. Jr.591 0.606 0. ft 0.628 0.0 Head. (21. Click here to view.6 08 1 1.617 0. ft 0.597 0.0 0.632 0. V1 = 0.615 0.637 0.595 0.660 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.606 0.604 0.612 0.629 0. “Hydraulics.599 0.” 1886. Typical values of Cν range from 0.655 0. All rights reserved.622 0..602 0.634 0.609 0.623 0.612 0.636 0.610 0.601 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.602 0.611 0.594 0.04 0. With the reference plane through point 2.641 0.618 0. and Eq.99.621 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.617 0.623 0.614 0.598 0.04 0.605 0.600 0.619 0. of circular orifices.611 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.613 0 610 0.602 0.603 0.605 0. Z1 = h.613 0.596 0.593 0.603 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.595 0.1 0.593 0.637 0.648 0.626 0.604 0.46) The actual velocity.02 0.616 0.631 0.593 0.652 0.45) becomes (21.602 0.614 0. to Fig.643 0.594 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.596 0.602 0.4 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.5 2 2.605 0.598 0.600 0.628 0.637 0.614 0.592 1.21.602 0.618 0. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.601 0.602 0.592 0.599 0.632 0. the vena contracta.596 0. and Z2 = 0.598 1.603 0.618 0.608 0.596 0.604 0.592 0. determined experimentally.608 0.619 0.627 0.610 0.595 0.648 0. .630 0.597 0.601 0.600 0.602 0.644 0.590 0.601 0.1 0. 21.607 0. ft 0.607 0.599 0.596 0.94 to 0.603 0.02 0.600 0.596 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.

21.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices.11.48) is obtained. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. .61 to 0. New York. Eq.” 6th ed. (21. (21. Brater.29 Fig. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.25.11. (21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. the area of the orifice. see E. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. ft. Figure 21. With a partly suppressed orifice.25 orifice. In Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.67.24b. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.47) where hL = losses in head. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. Inc. between 1 and 2. 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.) 21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. F. All rights reserved. “Handbook of Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. 21.

(21.11.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. For simplicity.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. Inc.57) for t and substituting in Eq. . a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Eq. 21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. (21. (21. 32. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.26): (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.55) 21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. is that for a parabola: (21. s The Y coordinate is (21.56) Fig.50) where a = area of orifice. 21.21.58)].51) upon integration becomes (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir.58) Equation (21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. (21. obtained by solving Eq. to time t.59). The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.58) gives (21. Eq.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.50) becomes (21. All rights reserved. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21.23). where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. (21. (21. Rearranging Eq. ft h2 = head at the end. when y = h2. when y = h1.56). the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.57) (21.

29. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0. Therefore.75. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.27) but the head loss is larger.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.67 V2 ) = 0. (21. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.31 ty Cν = 0.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.28). All rights reserved.00 VT / 2g – 0. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. Click here to view. For a short tube flowing full. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When this happens.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.11.11.82 VT)2/2g = 0. ft2 Fig. Fig. 21. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. In the tube or pipe. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. 21.27. psf w = unit weight of water. Equation (21. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.33VT / 2g. .5 a T T Fig. if one exists). 21.82.82. 21.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. however. 21. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. 21.80. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. (21. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Inc. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.42) of 0.67 V2T /2g. a K value for Eq. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.

this momentum drops to zero. the pressure in the pipe falls.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. 21. Inc.30). and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. For this analysis to be valid. When a valve is closed.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. As the water flows away from the closed valve. either above or below the normal pressure. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21.21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. Fig. 21.32). At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. The pipe shown in Fig. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. Click here to view. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. Fig. As the water flows into the reservoir.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. it causes water hammer. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water.29.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. . the tube must flow full. 21. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. the water in the pipe is motionless. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. 21. but at a pressure much higher than normal. 21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. However. The change causes a pressure rise. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. 21. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. either increased or decreased. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. Every time the flow rate is changed. All rights reserved.

Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. ft 21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. Eq. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.64) 21.13. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Click here to view.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. 21. All rights reserved.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Equation (21. approximate solution.63a) becomes (21. 43.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.63). 1. Inc.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Fig.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.13. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. (21. (21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. (21. 21. For instantaneous closure: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. s A plot of pressure vs.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.63a) In terms of pressure head. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.

The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. where a equals any integer. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. Once the time interval has been determined.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. Thus. Inc.” 4th ed. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. (V. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. New York. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. Hasen. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. equals L /aU. (21. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. penstock thickness = 1 in. where ∆t.63). ft L = length of pipeline.21. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. Zipparo and H. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. such as L/aU.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. All rights reserved. to apply Eq. Vo the original velocity.61). this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics.) Example 21. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. s T = actual closure time of valve. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. each causing an individual pressure wave. (21. Click here to view. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. With the head known. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. length = 3000 ft.. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.5 ft2. the increment of time. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. is g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. (21. McGraw-Hill.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.. 32.2 × 108 psf. area = 78. diameter = 10 ft.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. . (21. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.) Velocity of pressure wave.63). The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. then that obtained from Eq. from Eq. (21. J. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. Inc. (21. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity.32. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.63). s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.

34 tension. 21.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.66) where p = internal pressure. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.13.90 s. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. psi. it is by no means the only one. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. The water column.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. on the pipe material is (21. Inc. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.63). where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. Usually. Various types of relief Fig. from Eq. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. 21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. the stress.Water Resources Engineering s 21.75 s. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. approximate equation (21. .64) gives the following result: 21. and the pressure rise. the closure is instantaneous. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. floats on the line. in Assuming T = 4. to prevent water hammer. is Pipe Stresses 21. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. All rights reserved. Fig.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.90 s. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. When a valve is suddenly closed. lb Hence. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. (21. 21. Click here to view. When a valve is suddenly opened. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.33) must still be designed for water hammer.34). in effect. 21.

For concrete pipes. Inc.. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. (21. The force diagram in Fig. The stress. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. Gere.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. it acts like a beam.21. Eq. Eq.10). psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. if expansion joints are to be used. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In Fig. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. is (21. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. (21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. Equation (21.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. However. M. If D/t is less than 10.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. (21. Click here to view.” 2nd ed. In all bends. 21. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. P Timoshenko and J. (S. Art.67) for concrete pipe. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter.6). 21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. All rights reserved. elastic Stability.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. this analysis is approximate. “Theory of .16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. due to a temperature change is (21.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. In this case.67). ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. However. .35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. New York. psi. however. 6. 21. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. For steel pipes. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.

in many cases the pipe material takes this force. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.71) where R = resultant force on bend. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. All rights reserved. and slope. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the joints must also be able to take these forces. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. (21. canal. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.70) and (21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. 32. 21.37 Fig. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.71) give a quick solution. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. exit conditions. Click here to view. Inc. However. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. an exact theoretical analysis. or other embankment. a railroad. (21. In small pipes. psf w = unit weight of water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. however. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Eqs. 62. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. .

Inc. 21. and the Manning equation for friction loss.73) 21. the culvert flows full.38).30)]. the following equation is obtained: (21. computer software. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.37).36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. 21. but they do not cover Fig. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. 21.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the normal depth (Art. Portland Cement Association. and the discharge is independent of the slope.” EB058W. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. slope is greater than the critical slope.21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. that is. and the control will still be at the inlet. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. (21. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. For this reason. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Click here to view. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. charts. All rights reserved.36). 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .23).33d) or (21.

ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. loss at entrance. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Fig.20) 21.74) Fig. The fluid flows under pressure. Inc. and dn < dc . the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. ft V = velocity in culvert. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. When slope is less than critical. ft Equation (21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. 21. normal pipe flow occurs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.39 Fig. Discharge depends on head H. (21. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.39). and dn > dc . Discharge is independent of slope.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. 21.74) yields (21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. for the open-channel condition (Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. (21. flow depends on inlet condition. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Thus. When the slope is less than critical. 21. The discharge.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. depending on the head. 21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.23).75) Substituting this into Eq. When slope exceeds critical. 21. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. 32. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. and slope of culvert. open-channel flow takes place.

41). (21. Inc. however. All rights reserved. 21.40). Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. and discharge is given by Eq. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. If the head on a culvert is high. 21. (21. If the friction slope approaches critical. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. ft dn = normal depth of flow. 21.76). the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. 21. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. ft To solve Eq.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the friction slope is flat. (21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.18). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. Click here to view. If this condition exists. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.37). If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. . The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.76). 21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow.39). (21. Most culverts.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.72). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.76). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig.

9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. When the entrance is not submerged.72) yields Q =Va = 9.01.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. Substitution in Eq.41 For entrance control.95 × 4 = 39. But H = 5 + 0.18 and 21.44) for discharge through an orifice. and the entrance will not control. and free exit. groove or bell. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Fig.5 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6. (21. First find dn. All rights reserved. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. 21. Eq. square edge Concrete pipe. These values are for culverts flowing full. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. the flow is under pressure. Find: size of culvert.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Application of Eq. 21. (21.72) and (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.40).08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. 21. length = 300 ft.8 ft3/s Table 21. (21. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.15 0. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.9 0. Table 21. (21. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. Click here to view. n = 0.73). Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. 21. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.72) applies. Example 21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. groove or bell. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Inc.10 0.013. slope = 0.19). with Eq. Since the culvert is under pressure. projecting Concrete pipe. .33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. (21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.

42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. ft3/s. depth of flow is constant throughout. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. 32. or the total-head line. . The wetted perimeter is the length. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Hence. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. (21. is generally given by (21. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. or slope. plus the velocity head at the point.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. All rights reserved. Thus. 21. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. ft. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. ft. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. It has uniform flow if the grade.79). A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. It is expressed in feet as (21. however. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. normally taken as 1. ft2 When the discharge is constant.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. It is.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.03 to 1. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. and is given by (21. within a hydraulic jump. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.77) where V = average velocity. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.36 for prismatic channels. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. (21. ft.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Inc. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. In a uniform channel. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.79) The velocity head HV. minus the free surface width. Click here to view. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. Equation (21. or open-channel flow. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Figure 21.

21. (See.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83) Brater. “Handbook of Hydraulics. New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. T.43. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. 21. roughness. 21. as shown in Fig. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. . All rights reserved. Inc. McGrawHill Book Company. for example. For a rectangular channel.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. (V.” 6th ed. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. ft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. (21. in which T is the top width of the channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and discharge are known. Chow. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.42 is called the normal depth dn. F.43).43 Fig. ft. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. 21. 21. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.84) reduces to Fig.) (21. Eq. As the depth decreases downstream. normal depth decreases downstream. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. Click here to view. or to the diameter of a circular channel. 21.84) where A = area of flow. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. the specific energy also decreases. New York. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. slope.44. E. 21.

86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.43.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.. (21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. (21. for a given discharge.84) is called the critical depth dc.84).44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. For rectangular channels. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. F. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. The flow there is called subcritical flow. New York). or it may be found directly from tables (E. All rights reserved. For a given value of specific energy. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Eq. Brater. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. . ft3/s d = depth of flow. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. (21. the depth is below critical. (21.” 6th ed. the depth is greater than critical.84) may be reduced to (21. 21. or conversely.44). 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44). Inc.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. Click here to view. 21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.21. 21. and flow is supercritical. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. “Handbook of Hydraulics. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.

ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. (21. once calculated. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. All rights reserved. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. ft3/s b = width of channel. Critical depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. Inc. however. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. 21. indicating an irreversible occurrence. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. 21. without turbulence. p. It can be seen from Fig. along with a high loss of energy. flow is subcritical. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. a hydraulic jump will occur. .45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. flow is supercritical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. 21. Click here to view. 21. regardless of slope. For every depth greater than critical depth. 21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula.57). These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.45 where dc = critical depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.87) Fig. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.85).44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. as indicated in Fig.52b. Such a change occurs gradually. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.45. 21. 21. [As indicated by Eq.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. (21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.44).

9 and Table 21.D. (21. Inc.25).) 21. 21. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. horizontal. therefore. Dr. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. are identical for a channel of critical slope. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.and critical-depth lines.S. C for critical. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. 21.46.L. E. and C. 21. These curves are divided into five groups. (Although based on surface roughness. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. and the critical-depth line C. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.23). Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. The M2 curve forms between the normal.D. 21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.D. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. and the N. as shown in Fig. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. (See also Art. H for horizontal.90) where A = area of flow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. there must be a continuing maintenance program. are in Table 21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. and two types for channels of critical.L. at an arbitrary elevation.D. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. New York. S for steep (supercritical). Click here to view. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. .46a and b. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.46c and d. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. and adverse slope. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.11. T.L. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). is replaced by a horizontal line. the average n values given in Table 21. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. 21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.L. The N. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.D.21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. 21. Department of Agriculture. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.L. All rights reserved. ft V = mean velocity of flow. and A for adverse. Eq. Chow.89) may be written (21.

Concrete a. Unlined channels 1.025 0. Rough wood form B. Corrugated 2.012 0.011 0.014 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.Water Resources Engineering s 21.010 0. Inc. Clean.022 0. Click here to view. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Masonry a.016 0.023 0. Dry rubble 5.120 0.027 0.025 0. wavy section 4. untreated 3.013 0. Gunite. high as flow depth d.012 0.080 0. Dense weeds.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Smooth b.060 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.028 0.014 0.012 0.013 0. Smooth wood form c.016 0.022 0.014 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.015 0. Float finish b. Rough C.013 0.018 0.025 0.080 0.025 0.050 0.012 0.035 0.032 0.024 0.025 0.013 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. straight and uniform a. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Lined channels 1.016 0.011 0.014 0. Light brush on banks 3.040 0. No vegetation b.013 0.030 0.140 0. high stage 2. commonly called a drawdown curve.035 0.050 0. after weathering b. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.021 0. With short grass.019 0. respectively). Planed. Rock cuts a. Gunite.033 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.021 0. Excavated earth.022 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. 21. Steel form b.016 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.016 0.015 Avg 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. Metal a. good section c. 21. Smooth and uniform b.46a and b.020 0.015 0. Asphalt a. Jagged and irregular 0.030 0.023 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. 21. Dense brush.018 0.017 0.035 0. . few weeds c.017 Max 0. Cemented rubble b.040 0.035 0.030 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Dredged earth a.46i and j.033 0. Wood a.025 0. The S2 curve.100 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. All rights reserved.

Inc. 21. 21.L. All rights reserved. H.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. N. 21. Click here to view.L. critical-depth line.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. The curves in Fig. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. 21.D..46k and l. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. C.D.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. and A profiles. Examples in Fig. indicates normal-depth line.

All rights reserved. New York.51). backwater curves form both before and after the jump. 21. H. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. weir. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.47. See Art. For step-method computations. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.77) if the depth were zero. the channel is divided into short lengths. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. dam. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. (R. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. 32. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. Inc. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. (21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. 21. free overfall. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. .26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. Inc. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. For the section of channel in Fig. For subcritical flow conditions. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. with relatively small variation. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The wave travels at a speed. French. T. Chow. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.” McGraw-Hill. or reaches.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Click here to view.. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. each reach is solved in succession.27. and step methods.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Explanations of both the graphical. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. gate. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. known as its celerity.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. direction-integration. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) 21. 21. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. depending on the type of flow. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth.5.and direct-integration methods are in V. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.

47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.93) where R = hydraulic radius. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. respectively. hi. .93). the – eddy loss.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. (21. Inc.21. rearranged as follows: Fig. the head loss. is negligible and can be ignored. not the channel bottom. as given by Eq. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. (21. 21. and – SL = hf. Solving Eq. prismatic channels. ft. due to friction in the same reach.92) (21. 21.82). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation.91) for L gives (21. Click here to view. The smaller the value of n. 21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. (For uniform. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. the longer the backwater curve profile. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. and vice versa. ft. the change in elevation. Therefore. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. All rights reserved.

Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. is obtained from Eq. Inc. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. ft/s. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. from 0 to 0. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. (21. The value of total head computed from Eq. ft. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station.94).96). Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. referred to a horizontal datum. (21. the average friction slope for the reach. . it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21.1 for converging reaches.51 may be some intermediate depth.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. and about 0. computations progress toward the initial section.93). The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Then. 21. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. For lined channels. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Then. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Next.95) The coefficient k is 0. or roughness. Next. Eddy loss. (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Z2. after substitution of H from Eq.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. grade. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. ft. (21. and it is therefore often accounted for. Finally. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. at sec– tions 1 and 2. the friction loss. (21. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. in natural channels.47. Since this step method is a converging process. respectively.95). The total head at any section of the channel is (21. which.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. sometimes called impact loss. becomes (21. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Therefore. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.92).93). the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.2 for diverging reaches. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. (21. S. ft. respectively. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Click here to view. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. total head H.

Department of Transportation. Utilizing the above data.27. If the two values of total head do not agree. 1970.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. a gate. Bureau of Public Roads. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. H.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. N. However. 21. . and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. 2nd ed.48). “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. and J. Bradley.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. 1.S. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. 21. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Federal Highway Administration. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.23).52b. approach roadways.51 and 21. 21. 21. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. velocity. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. Fig.1 ft in elevation. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. however.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. bridge piers. U. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas.21. respectively. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. known as the roller. and determine the discharge. The upstream surface of the jump.” Hydraulics Design Series no. Inc. 21. The effect of bridges. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.48 Hydraulic jump. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. Click here to view. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. New York. French. 21. known as the length of jump. or other obstruction. All rights reserved. as shown in Figs. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. is a turbulent mass of water. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation.

99) where M = mass of water. 21. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.105) where A = area of flow. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. Click here to view. For rectangular channels.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. d2 must also equal dc. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.16)].2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. Inc.49) is given by (21. (21. or alternate depths. ft. ft3/s = unit of time. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. V is the mean velocity. in Eq. 32.104) = discharge. ft w = unit weight of water. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.82). this resultant pressure force is (21. ft/s2. .Water Resources Engineering s 21.100).99).27.98) where d1 = depth before jump. For open-channel flow. where L is a characteristic length. ft d2 = depth after jump. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.100) Equation (21.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. (21. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.98) and (21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.102) Equation (21. 21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. s (21. ft/s. This difference (Fig. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2 T = width of free surface. All rights reserved. (21.

Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. depending on local conditions. The jump is well-balanced.23). For F1 = 4.7. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. chute. If the tailwater is too low. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. For F1 = 1 to 1.5. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected.S. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. . Click here to view. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The jump action is rough but effective. 21. which. The jump is called an undular jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface.5 to 9. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. for example. the jump will be drowned out. 21. For F1 = 2. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.27.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. For F1 = 1. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. there are undulations on the surface.0 and larger. If the tailwater is too high. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur.0.5. For F1 = 1. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. depth after the jump. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.7 to 2. were classified by the U. below a spillway.5 to 4. the flow is critical and there is no jump. and the performance is at its best. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. For F1 = 9. very commonly in canals. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. Various forms of hydraulic jump. This jump may be called a steady jump. In either case.21. can travel for miles. Inc.49.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. 21. All rights reserved. This jump may be called a strong jump. which gives discharge vs. This jump may be called a weak jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. 21. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.

21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. 21. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. All rights reserved.51. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The resulting curve (Fig. . Bureau of Reclamation. T.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. 21. Click here to view. These features are expensive to build. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. Accessories.55 curve involve changing the crest length.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. (21. 21. This length (Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. 21. But it has been determined experimentally. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. The curve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. prepared by V. Chow from data gathered by the U. 21. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. and sloping the apron.S.27.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig.27.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.105). therefore. changing the apron elevation.

A horizontal intercept FG. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.23) to mild. between lines CB′and EO.26. as shown in Fig.51.75h in the absence of better information. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. as theory would indicate. less than. computed from Eq. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening.102). The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG.5% of critical depth. but it is normally assumed to be 0. the jump moves downstream to a new position.52a.21. 21. 21.101). but instead occurs a short distance upstream. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.101) with d1 given. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If d2 is less than d′ . a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. Conversely. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. 21. the computed length of jump. . the jump moves to a new location downstream. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED.52b.7dc for simplicity. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. 21. CB. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. as shown in Fig. 21. All rights reserved. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. 21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. for simplicity.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. the jump occurs in the steep region. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. equal to the computed length of the jump. that flow is uniform. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. 21. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. (21. Inc. which occurs near the channel drop-off. (21. respectively (Fig. (21. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. It is assumed. if the downstream depth is lowered. using the step methods of Art.46e and c). Click here to view. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. curves AB and ED in Fig. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. As depth d2 is lowered. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.52. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. computed from Eq. 21. equal in length to L. 21.

(R. Click here to view.82) and (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. or (a) above it. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.23).28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Brater.” McGraw-Hill. 21.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. then the assumed discharge is correct. . If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. Inc.106) where b is the channel width. From Q = AV. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. ignoring entrance loss. ft. New York. a new discharge is assumed. the entrance loss. F.51. If the entrance loss must be considered. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. All rights reserved. on the channel entrance. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. ft. Inc. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. and discharge is at a maximum. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. and the slope of the channel. New York. ft. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. French. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.53). ft3/s.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. ft. where He is the specific energy head.53a). Then. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. if not. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. or (b) below it.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0.) 21. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.85)]. is (21. 21. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). (21.” 6th ed. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d)..Water Resources Engineering s 21. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. H.3 for one with squared ends. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. 21.

and g is acceleration due to gravity. ft. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. producing flow.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. All rights reserved. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. if not. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2.2 ft/s2. 21. (21. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves.33). If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.23). where He – d is the actual head.53b). is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.21.53b. then the discharge is correct. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32.22). ———— charge. 21. 21. . (In Fig. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21.83). 21. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. a new discharge is chosen. ft3/s. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. Click here to view. ft. He is the specific energy head.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. (b) mild-slope channel. d is normal depth.

There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel.83)]. when a stream enters a curve. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. 21. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. the true value of y would be only a few inches.23). Inc. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water.107) The theoretical difference y. Thus. where V is its average velocity. and rc the radius of curvature. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. Click here to view. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. however.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. If the bend continues long enough. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. ft. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. a unit mass of water. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. . ft /s. ft. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.108).54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T.59 21. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. or mV2 /rc for m. All rights reserved. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. 21. (21. ft. 21. of the center line of the channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. (21. The error will not be great. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. Therefore. curve (Fig. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. In this range. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank.

. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Fig. One is a positive wave.110) for θ in Eq. C. Inc.23). of greater-than-average surface elevation.16)] . Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. 21. The cross slope required for 21. an increase in friction loss results. (21. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. (21. Two waves form at the start of the curve. and continue crossing and recrossing. Scobey. however. His values have not been evaluated completely.111).111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. (21. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. All rights reserved. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. by (21. Click here to view. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. (F. Technical Bulletin 393. recross as shown. flows around a bend in a channel.55). with sufficient accuracy. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.” U. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Department of Agriculture. 21. This angle may be found from (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water.S. phase. and should be used with discretion.21. depths along the inside wall. 21. a series of standing waves are produced. These waves cross at M. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The second is a negative wave. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. “The Flow of Water in Flumes.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.

The transition loss. as shown in Fig. or change from supercritical to subcritical. 21.44. respectively. plus any transition and friction losses. where K. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth.2 for welldesigned transitions. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. For outlet-type structures. and channel shape and slope. Straight. is given by K(∆V2/2g).57). The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. . The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. To place a transition properly between two open channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.8[∆(V2/2g)].1 for an inlet-type structure. wall roughness. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. such as flow-rate changes. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. 21. change from subcritical to supercritical. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.56. 21.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. if friction is ignored. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. 21. p. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. If friction is ignored. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. ∆V is the velocity change. the average velocity decreases. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. Click here to view. and g = 32. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. therefore.2 ft/s2.113) angle of about 12. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.44. When proceeding downstream through a transition. equals about 0. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. ft/s.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. 21.54). In this range. Many variables. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. ft. low-head-loss transfer of flow. 21. 21. the loss factor.23).

1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. All rights reserved. Inc.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. y = ax2. Fig.34. In contrast.000556(10)2 = 0. 21. 21. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. measured from A or B. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. trapezoidal weirs. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 21. 21.59. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. as shown in Fig.59 Weir not sharp-crested. Fig.000556(20)2 = 0. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. If the discharge is partly under water. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. triangular or Vnotch weirs. 21.58). triangular weirs.58 Sharp-crested weir. 21. such as broad-crested weirs.222 ft. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. 21. Click here to view.000556.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. and parabolic weirs. the weir is submerged or drowned. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. such as rectangular weirs. trapezoidal weirs. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.5 = a(30)2. and.57. For Fig. from which a = 0.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. the weir has free discharge. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.

21. thus causing a contraction of the flow.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21.5H. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 2. A V-notch weir (Fig.60 V-notch weir. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. Hence. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.115) where Q = discharge. Inc. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.116) corrects for the effects of friction. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. Click here to view. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. All rights reserved. 21. below the crest. New York). Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. ft The head should be measured at least 2.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. Equation (21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.58) (V. 21. T. contraction of the nappe. If P is less than Fig. At very low heads. One such equation.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. To be fully ventilated. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. Chow. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. . ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. The height of weir P must be at least 2.5H upstream from the weir. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.34.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.

F. The effective length L.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. All rights reserved. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill Book Company.2) when low discharges are to be measured.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. measured from notch bottom.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. (21. 21. T. vol. His values were summarized by Brater. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. 21.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.34.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.118)] 21. 21.61) (E. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.5H upstream from the weir. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.34. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. 21. Inc.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Click here to view. there are two end contractions and N = 2. ft H = head. (21.21. 21. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. 1943). 69. Discharge is given by (21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.119) where Q = discharge.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. ft. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. . Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. there is one end contraction and N = 1.” 6th ed. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.118) Fig.34. New York). Lenz. Fig.

120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. . neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. 1947. and finally total head. 21. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. which may be done as follows: First. neglecting the velocity head.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. Thus.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. 866.” Engineering News-Record. All rights reserved. ft V = velocity of approach. Inc. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. velocity head. 21. compute the velocity of approach. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. R. for such weirs. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. Eq. (21.) To use the Villemonte equation. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. Then. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. 25. Where great accuracy is essential. Click here to view. and then.121) where Q = discharge.122) where H = measured head. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. velocity head of approach. (21. ft3/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21.115) is rewritten in the form (21.) Equation (21. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. heavily constructed devices. 21. Dec. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. Villemonte. 21. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. or both. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.59). ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. Typically. ft.34. 32.34. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. using this rate and the required depths. The discharge Qs. Fig. From this total head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (J. ft3/s. p. 2 21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. using this discharge.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. ft/s V /2g = Hν.

and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. the head in relation to the design head.10 H.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. All rights reserved. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. The effect is most critical for low heads. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. ft (U. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. Therefore.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.12. head in relation to design heads. DC 20402. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. and approach velocity. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.20 0. ft L′ = net crest lengths. Click here to view. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.21. But the process should be repeated.123) where L = effective crest length. For each change of nappe shape. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. F. 21. Department of the Interior. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.5Hd > r* > 0.13. “Design of Small Dams. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.2 of the head. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.S. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. . Washington. For conditions of design head Hd.34. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Inc.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. and the approach velocity. For conditions of design head Table 21.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. starting with the corrected discharge.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where approach velocities are high. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.02 0. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.” Government Printing Office. thickness of pier. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E.

Chow. “Design of Small Dams. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. DC 20402. and therefore of an ogee crest. 21. 21. 21.66 of the head. New York). for a sharp-crested weir. 21. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. Fig.S. where discharge is given by Eq. This manual and V. T. Of the above rules. Washington. T. Chow. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Department of the Interior.34. depends on the head producing the discharge.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0.67 Fig. The shape of this nappe. 2.” Government Printing Office. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. Figure 21. 21. Inc. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. The ogee-crested weir (Fig.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Click here to view. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. 1. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. at the point of maximum contraction.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. Consequently. All rights reserved. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This relationship is shown in Fig.65. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5H upstream. According to Chow.64) has such a shape. called the design head Hd. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. (U. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. For flow at heads lower than the design head. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. . the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. (21.122).) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. however.

” U.” U. New York. Bureau of Reclamation.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (From “Design of Small Dams. 21. the flow differs from ideal. Inc.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. 21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. .21.S. 21.S.) Fig.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Figure 21. Fig. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Bureau of Reclamation. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.66. (From “Design of Small Dams. All rights reserved.

F. (21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. New York. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. the coefficient of discharge. the nappe springs free.) Fig. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. for example. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and sharp right-angled edges.68. “Handbook of Hydraulics.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. “Handbook of Hydraulics. fairly common in waterworks projects. Brater. Figure 21. are used as spillways and control structures. F.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. is determined from Fig. Values of the discharge coefficient.) 21. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.34. appear in Table 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.” U. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. a plane horizontal crest.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.69 Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. . has contraction of the nappe.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. where the velocity of approach is not high. All rights reserved. compiled by King.S.67 and 21.. 21. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.34. if flow is at other than the design head. Figure 21.14.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Unless otherwise noted. (E.” 6th ed.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. (See. because of its sharp upstream edge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. therefore. Brater.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. 21.69 Broad-crested weir.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. E. Click here to view. Weirs of irregular section. 21. 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Inc.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 4. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.92 3. Inc.63 2.32 3.32 3.92 3. once formed.50 H. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.0 4. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.75 2.64 2.31 3. A density current.65 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 2.32 3.32 3.64 2.07 3.63 2.66 2.76 2.66 2.32 3.63 2.64 2.88 2.60 2.31 3.68 2.61 2.32 3. those carried in suspension.50 2.32 3.20 3.07 3.63 2.70 2.68 2.32 1.32 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.65 2.67 2.63 2.69 2.32 3.92 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.20 3. with its load of suspended silt.79 2. which are often of equal consequence.4 0.56 2.65 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3. ft 0.48 2.50 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.6 0.64 15.32 3.65 2.32 1.67 2.72 2.5 2. Heavier silt sizes.72 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.64 2.64 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.38 2.07 3.67 2.14 3.00 2.00 2.85 3.32 3.28 3.66 2.86 2.00 2.60 2.08 3.00 2. valves.00 2.32 3.65 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.76 2.60 2.64 2.88 10.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.58 2.66 2.68 2.88 3.75 2.8 1.05 3. those forming the bed load.34 2.68 2.79 1.32 3. such as a reservoir.4 1. This incoming water.64 2.61 2.04 3.0 1.32 3.30 3.98 3.64 2. All rights reserved.32 Breadth of crest of weir.81 2.68 2.32 2.32 3.63 2.32 4.49 2.69 2.5 5.70 2. Click here to view.64 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.32 3.32 2.26 3.62 2. such as gates.28 3.65 2.32 3.63 2.0 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.32 3.54 2. or soil.32 3.64 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.74 2.32 3. . where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.30 3.63 21.32 3.32 3.32 5.70 2. The smaller silt sizes.08 3.6 1.32 3.66 2.8 2.75 2.64 2.74 2.00 2.21.64 2.97 3.63 2.68 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.29 3.63 2.32 3.68 2.50 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.32 3.80 2.73 2. 21.00 2.89 3.20 3. ft 0.80 2.32 3.70 2.67 2.60 2.44 2. and turbines.64 2.19 3.32 3.85 2.35.32 3.68 2.2 1.64 2.32 3.69 2.32 3.68 2.32 3.32 3.0 5.32 3.07 3.2 0.65 2.0 2.67 2.68 2.89 2.69 2.70 2.64 2.54 2.32 3.77 2.63 2.89 3.75 2.68 2.72 2.32 3.32 3.5 3.68 2.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.31 3.70 2. erosion.64 2.03 3.64 2.07 3.

and often extend to the reservoir outlet. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions.35.Water Resources Engineering s 21. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. The most common manner of destruction. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. or from year to year.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. or failure of materials. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. on the other hand. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. overtopping. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. formed from the bed load. All rights reserved.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. 21. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. once formed. Of course. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. When neither can be done. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. are coarsegrained. Click here to view. These currents are stable. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. the rate is not uniform during the year. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. Inc.39. However. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. 21. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. see Art. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. because of variations in rainfall. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. . Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. landslide. however. By this method.

A mean grain size of 0. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Therefore. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. ft qo = critical discharge. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.21. which varies with both slope and discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. Inc. But for the most part. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time.35. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Therefore. (21. According to Witzig. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and boulders.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Therefore. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. . if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. discharge. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. gravel. however. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. Frequently. 21. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. which generally occurs only during a storm. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge.1). The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. ft3/s b = width of river.124) where Gb = total bed load.0 ft/mi.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.

check-dam construction.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (W. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. Department of Agriculture.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. or digital microchip technology. by ink pen and revolving drum. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. runoff. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. Such screens. and pressure. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. and stream flow 21. including their relation to living things. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. such as an hour. Inc. For instance. which are of two types. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Graf.S. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. discharges into streams. Click here to view. All rights reserved.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Current data. and their reaction with their environment. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. are published daily by the U. (21-124). from which evaporation restarts the cycle. recharges groundwater. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given.” U.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Use of vegetation screens. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. groundwater flow.) culation. temperature. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. lakes. planting of burned-over areas. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and the stream velocity. Weather Bureau is 24 h. if the dam is raised at a later date. A. such as wind. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. contour plowing. or year. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. New York. day. infiltrates into the soil. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. (See H. It continually records. . This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. and distribution. evaporation. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. rivers. circulation. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. or a combination of the two. their chemical and physical properties. water evaporation from oceans. In this cycle. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Einstein. H. on or near the land surface. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U.Water Resources Engineering s 21.73 dation. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Weather Bureau. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.S. debris barriers. infiltration. their occurrence. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval.

The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. On an annual basis.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. The Meyer equation [Eq. equal to 15 for small. while another portion may be caught on leaves. shallow pools and 11 for large. Evaporation may occur from free-water. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. has a relatively large surface area. or ground surfaces. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. Of the three. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. on a long-term basis. “Handbook of Hydrology. (21. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. Maidment. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. developed from Dalton’s law.21. New York. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. In transpiration. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. in of mercury. in of mercury. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. In evaporation. All rights reserved. plant. and it increases as wind velocity increases. and other vegetation surfaces.. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. (21. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. . Evapotranspiration. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Inc.125) (21. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. A portion may evaporate as it falls. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region.125)]. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ground. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. Click here to view. Inc. called interception. R.126) where E = evaporation rate.” McGraw-Hill. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. commonly termed consumptive use. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. This phenomenon. Evapotranspiration is important because. and plantleaf surfaces. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Not all rain reaches the ground. branches. see D. tropical and subtropical regions.

depending on the geographical region. New York. is in widespread use. or groundwater flow. Classified by the path taken to a channel. tropical. snow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. aquatic life. and storm seepage. birds. natural or manmade. or cetyl alcohol. After joining stream flow. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. or groundwater runoff. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Inc. All rights reserved. subsurface.. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Climatic characteristics a. Inc. . where it continues as channel or stream flow. dew). Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. time distribution. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Hexadeconal. Maidment. On large reservoirs. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. except in arid. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Click here to view. In practice. Subsurface flow. frost. duration. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain.” McGraw-Hill. although it may vary between 0. (D. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. or excess rain. called a Class A Level Pan. Thus. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Commonly. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan.60 and 0. It appears in surface channels. hail. and biologic attrition. subsurface runoff. Groundwater flow. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Moving laterally. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. runoff may be surface. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Runoff is supplied by precipitation.80. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. “Handbook of Hydrology.70. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. also known as interflow. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. intensity. insects. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. 21. Precipitation—form (rain. subsurface storm flow. to reach a channel. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. R. perhaps several years. effective rain includes subsurface flow. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind.

soil moisture. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. lakes and other bodies of water. 21. frozen ground during storms. stratification Fig. antecedent precipitation. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. extremes during precipitation c.S. extremes of flow. TVA. recurrence interval. detail. snow storage. Wind—velocity.21.S. as shown in Fig. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. and various state and local agencies. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers.S. yearly flow volume. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.70.S. mean flow. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Humidity e. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. shape of cross section. Geological Survey. special-interest items.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. groundwater formations. International Boundary Commission. duration d. both published and unpublished. shape. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Geological Survey. 21. . The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. All rights reserved. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. general location. 21. permeability. and completeness of the hydrologic records.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. direction of storm movement b. elevation. the quantity and type of data available. Weather Bureau. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. artificial drainage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Geologic—soil type. roughness. the detail required in the final answer. and the accuracy desired. areal distribution. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. direction. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. drainage net. Temperature—variation. Agricultural Research Service. the U. Click here to view. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. These papers contain records of daily flow.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Topographic—size. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. length) b. land use and cover. Solar radiation 2. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. Inc. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. slope. Drainage-basin characteristics a. slope.” U. orientation. channels (size. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. Atmospheric pressure f. Geological Survey.S. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. and Weather Bureau.

The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. the second to major hydraulic structures. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. a 50. Inc. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.or 100-year-frequency storm. great importance. in/h A = drainage area. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. 3.128) 21. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. others give the complete hydrograph. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. and large downstream damage potential. Click here to view. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. Chow. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost.41. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. 1962). All rights reserved. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for example. 5.127) where Q = peak discharge. The values of C in Table 21. . Although these and similar criticisms are valid. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Several methods yield only peak discharge.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. T. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. As an example. 4. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.

The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.70 – 0.80 – 0.20 – 0.13 – 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. (21. (21. steep.30 0.95 0. 7% Heavy soil. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.” McGraw-Hill. min time of concentration Fig.60 – 0.15 0.41. avg. (21.95 0. “Handbook of Hydrology.35 0. streets. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.85 0. n. years duration of storm.10 – 0. or ditches.22 0. coefficient.75 – 0.25 – 0. ditches. (21. Maidment. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.71 and Table 21. steep.25 0.21.17 0. All rights reserved. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. is a convenient. 2% Heavy soil.40 0. Equation (21.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.128) or Eq. flat.40 – 0.18 – 0. the flow time in streets.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. R.20 – 0.70 0.) The flow time in gutters. Inc.90 0.25 – 0.70 – 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.60 – 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. Inc. Click here to view. 21. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.70 – 0. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See D.05 – 0.50 – 0.85 0.89)] . After determining the time of concentration. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.75 – 0. Sherman. avg. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. flat. New York. or any equivalent method.50 – 0.40 0. detached Multiunits.80 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.50 – 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. and the flow time in conduits. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. K. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.129). the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.10 – 0. 2% Sandy soil.95 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. in/h respectively.30 – 0.60 0. .16).127).75 0. 21. 2–7% Sandy soil. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.10 0.. factor. 21. 2–7% Heavy soil.15 – 0.95 0. gutters.10 – 0.20 0. b.50 0.129) Table 21.70 0.

” Engineering News-Record. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. pp. usually 1 acre). The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. subdivision may be required. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. termed a unit period. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. . Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. the time of storm runoff.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and more accurate than any such set of factors. 501-505. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. If the watershed is very large. 3. termed a unit storm. 108. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. 4. 2. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. This requires that a storm of short duration. Inc. easier. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. Sherman. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Click here to view. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. vol. that is. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. (Leroy K. Thus. JanuaryJune 1932. The method is summarized by the formula (21.79 Table 21.

Click here to view. For ease of manipulation. Illustrated in Fig. Usually. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Then. because of storm variations. 21. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown.72. 21. which is of fixed intensity and duration. 5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Inc. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.21.73). The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. . the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. All rights reserved. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. 21.

This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.” McGraw-Hill. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Click here to view. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.. perpendicular to direction of flow. Inc. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. pp. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. 19. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. . Inc.” 3rd ed. pt. All rights reserved.131) period. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. vol. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. 21.) Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. I. “Handbook of Hydrology.74). An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall.) where Q = flow rate. K. “Hydrology for Engineers. New York. Fig.81 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. during heavy storms. 21. This method was developed by Franklin F.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Maidment. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. 21. New York. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.. Also. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. (See D. 447–454).74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. McGraw-Hill. Inc.. This loss. (R. Linsley et al. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.

effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Regardless of how it is defined. or other causes. water softening costs. safe yield. usually a number of years. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. groundwater levels. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. present and future water demands should be determined. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Inc. and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. among others. because of impermeable layers above and below it. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use).82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Click here to view. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. (A base period is a period of time. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. alternative management plans should be formulated. Deteriorating water quality. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. source. poor-quality replenishment waters. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. and overdraft. Frequently. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Following the preceding preliminary work. recycling. and location of artificial replenishment. and methods of wastewater disposal. These costs include increased soap costs. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. is a confined or artesian aquifer. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. wastewaters. need for excessive pumping lifts. rather than a change in volume. and indirect water-quality use costs. quantity. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. quality. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable.21. quantity. cost of replenishment water. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.

Kashef. institutional. commercial. Inc. 40. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. sanitary. washing. New York. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. K. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. fire. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. and hotels for drinking. pumping. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. decreasing percentage increase. “Water Resources Planning. Click here to view.. storage. . industrial. is a very difficult task. such as industrial development. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. geographical boundaries. apartments.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. motels. amount and location of groundwater extractions. fire-fighting. Estimation of future population. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. distribution. transmission. bathing. land speculation. 1987.” A. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. J. percentage increase. The smaller the system. industrial. culinary. however. and treatment works. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. and natural and artificial replenishment. irrigation. I. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. surface-water delivery facilities. and sanitary purposes. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate.” 3rd ed. American Society of Civil Engineers. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. 21. and public. McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved. graphical comparison with other cities.” R. legal. “Groundwater Engineering. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. Therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flood. no.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary.. or other unforeseen emergency. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. water used.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Hydrology for Engineers. (“Ground Water Management. financially feasible. Grigg. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. Linsley et al. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. and age of the city.” N.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Bear. wastewater disposed. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. S. and environmental factors.

quality. and cleaning. as presented in Table 21. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. . but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. standard of living. All rights reserved. lawn sprinkling. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. are the average of a range of values. Public Health Service Report. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation.21. reservoir evaporation. State of California Office of Planning and Research. and air conditioning purposes. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. valves.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. air conditioning. presents Table 21. cost. pressure. meter malfunctions. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. The “California Water Atlas. Calif. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Public use of water for parks. janitorial. month. mainly because of the lack of large industries. degree of industrialization. and time of day. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. but because of the high rate at which it is required. degree of industrialization. Demand rates vary with time of day. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Normally. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Mo.17. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. The national demand-rate data. and faucets. it may control the design of the facilities. public buildings. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. cost. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. and year. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. and pressure. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. influence the demand rate for water. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. the demand for it decreases. Click here to view. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality.” 1979. cooling. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. if the cost of water increases. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. type of service (metered or unmetered).17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Table 21. and quality of the water. size of the city. especially if portions of the city are unsewered.S. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. and unauthorized uses. such as the climate.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary.

The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.8 2.0 1.9 4.000 17. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 85. diversification is essential for reliability. Cost. In the atlas.000 10. however. Inc. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. All rights reserved.000 40.3 5.000 48.8 7.000 80.000 120.000 40.000 4. valley cities. 21. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 40.000 4. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 6.000 90.000 40.000 60. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. however. interdependent. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 2. In selection of a source of supply. inland. MG = million gallons.2 8.18 Required Fire Flow.000 200. .4 17. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.6 11. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. quality.000 28. industrialization.6 4. legality.3 Duration.4 3. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. rivers.000 40. The source must Table 21.0 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 10.000 1. In the past.000 12. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.18.8 6.0 7.000 * American Insurance Association. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. and in some cases.000 55. cost. to a large extent.5 14. Moreover. Hydrant Spacing.000 125.500 2.3 0. such as lakes.000 110. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. Click here to view. but the demand rate is high.000 40.000 5.000 8.000 90. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.4 2.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.132) where G = fire-demand rate. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. In some local areas.000 85.000 70. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. is frequently undesirable. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. the effect of warm. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 80. gal/min P = population.000 3.000 1.2 2. climate. and politics.000 40.6 1. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 100. and streams. Total dependence on a single source. MG† 0.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. The measurements should include pH. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. and calculation of the Langelier index. Click here to view.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.) At the discretion of the state.21. (See also Art. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. American Water Works Association. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. calcium hardness. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. alkalinity. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. total dissolved solids. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. In addition. such as sulfates and chlorides.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.” American Public Health Association. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.5 – 8.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.3 mg / L 0.” U.) Source Protection s The U.5 mg / L 0. and Water Pollution Control Federation. 21.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.S. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. temperature. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.22. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. Inc.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.21. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.S. . Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dependent on local conditions. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.

“Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. All rights reserved. Figure 21.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.0 < R < 2000. . (Usually. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. (21. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.0. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. velocity is constant. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and size and shape of the settling basin..001 and 5. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. g/mm3 d = particle diameter.46. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. (See R. For this ideal basin. such as those mentioned above.51). coagulation-sedimentation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. shape. temperature and viscosity of the water. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. In the region where 1. slow and rapid sand filtration. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Ann Arbor. V the flowthrough velocity. Newton’s law applies: (21. calculated with ν = νs.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Mich.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. and softening (see also Art.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.134). Pojasek. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depth ho . Click here to view. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. mm If R > 2000.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. Inc. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. is equal to or less than 1. 21. 21. Reynolds numbers. however. to be used in Eq.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. (21.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. disinfection. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. Figure 21. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. particulate and colored matter. and width B. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . unpleasant tastes and odors. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. B.

) Fig. 21.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. at 10 °C. 103. Click here to view. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (Observed curves. vol. All rights reserved. 897. after Camp.21.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 1946. . Inc. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p.

or other indicator to pass through the basin. A. coagulants are added to the water. 21.78b). Inc. Inc. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. salt.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for example. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. Inc. G.8c.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .. . Okun. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. short circuiting. Without coagulants. New York. M..2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. “Water Treatment Plant Design. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. All rights reserved. finely Fig.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.” John Wiley & Sons. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. J. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. and eddy currents. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Fair. Click here to view.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. 21. C. The tubular settler (Fig. are removed in this basin. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. 21. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.) 21. 21. Multistory tanks.” McGraw-Hill. 27.78a) or circular (Fig. 21. rectangular (Fig. 1.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Geyer.46. New York. and D. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.

(d) Tubular settler. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (b) Circular clarifier. All rights reserved.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.

Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. settling. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). 18H2O]. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. plankton. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. chemical and biological reactions. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. color. such as pH. and hardness. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. (G. ferric chloride (FeCl3). These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Also. such as paper fiber. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. and easier dewatering. A. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. consequently.” McGraw-Hill. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. to get the small floc to agglomerate. The filtering process has many components. Anionic polymers. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. however. All rights reserved. or negatively charged. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Thereby. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. color. and suspended solids. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Corbitt. Inc. “New Concepts in Water Purification. and air jets. polymers have a minor effect on pH. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. anionic. New York. L. Culp and R. centrifugal pumps. and neutralization of electrostatic charges.. considering both cost and performance.” 4th ed. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. J. “Water Supply and Sewerage. or positively charged. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. . and nonionic. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Polymers are long-chain. organic polyelectrolytes. They are available in three types: cationic. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. “Water Quality and Treatment.) 21. turbidity. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. however. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step.” R. L. T. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. or neutral in charge. such as mechanical stirrers. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling..to 60min range. temperature. Culp. McGhee. Inc. Click here to view. such as physical straining. however. American Water Works Association. in some instances. highmolecular-weight. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. coliform organisms.

35-mm range.to 12-in layer of gravel. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. and dual. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. of the sand. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Click here to view. The wash- Fig. All rights reserved. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. in millimeters. Usually. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. 21. Inc. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. through the sand and gravel layers. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.or mixed-media filtration. The process requires rapid mixing. that will pass 10%.25. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. . watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. by weight. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process.21. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. depending on the turbidity.to 0. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. addition of a polymer as a filter aid.79. (The effective size is the size of a sieve.

The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. which produces an undertreated effluent. water sprays. As clogging begins to occur in the filter.35 to 0. filters pass water at a high rate. such as rakes. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. or anthracite coal. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. diatomaceous earth. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. The filtering medium may be sand. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. gal/min b = width of trough.005:1 range. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. creating a high head loss across the filter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. and air jets. Immediately after washing. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.25 to 1.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. mixed-media.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. Inc. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. or sand incrustation will be encountered. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. All rights reserved.002:1 to 0. or deep coarse-media filters.20 to 1. may be more advantageous. bed cracking. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. which is drained to waste. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Dual-media. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. . Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence.

Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. Geyer. Click here to view. Culp. (American Water Works Association. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Water Quality and Treatment. however. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. Inc. carbonates. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. such as calcium and magnesium. J.” John Wiley & Sons. American Water Works Association. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.” 4th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21.138) (21.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. C. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. New York. A. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. M. “Water Treatment Plant Design. New York. J. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. in clear wells. lime (CaO). respectively. “Water Supply and Sewerage.. All rights reserved.1 mg/L. “Water Quality and Treatment. Culp and R. and (3) total hardness. sulfates.139) 21.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. perforated. Some. gas. In the lime-soda process.” 4th ed.” and T. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). McGhee. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. . Fair. “New Concepts in Water Purification. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. L. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. and American Society of Civil Engineers.) (21. Inc. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. and R is the zeolite material. and D.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.136) (21. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.. and American Society of Civil Engineers. where 1 gpg = 17.” 6th ed. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Okun. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit.21. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].” McGraw-Hill Book Company.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. or open-joint pipes. Regeneration requires between 0. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. New York.3 and 0. These materials remove cations. (G.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. G. L. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.. New York.

flood control. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.) 21. then. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. and lime. odor. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Geyer. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. . The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. irrigation. reverse osmosis.) 21.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. All rights reserved. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.Water Resources Engineering s 21. bromine. (G. ozone. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York.1 or 0. and electrodialysis.” John Wiley & Sons. manganese. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. Other disinfectants are iodine.. Click here to view. New York. Fair.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. J.99 water supplies. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. New York. McGhee. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. and D. cation exchange. water supply. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. “Water Supply and Sewerage.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells.45). despite its low solubility. Inc. M. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric.” McGraw-Hill. anion exchange. 21. Chlorine residuals of 0. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. “Water Treatment Plant Design.. Inc. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. chlorine dioxide. C. A. Inc. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. excessive fluorides.” McGraw-Hill. activated carbon. J. ultraviolet light. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. Okun.) respect to carbonates. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. 21. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. detergents. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. lime softening. taste. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. iron. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample.” and T. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. Filter both solutions. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Inc.

. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs.21. Also. 21. All rights reserved. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The mass diagram (Fig. The plot of volume vs. minimum flows will be critical.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. areavolume curves (Fig. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. 21. 21. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Click here to view.52. maximum flows will govern. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. 21.1). An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.80.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. Inc. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. 21. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. When the demand rate is known. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Aeri- Fig. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.

the flow refills the reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. . 21. If possible.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. Inc. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. San Francisco. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In deep reservoirs. but there is no circulation across this zone. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. All rights reserved. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. When the demand drops off. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. such as New York. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. During hours of maximum demand.2). Major sources of supply for some cities.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. give special attention to water quality. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. 21. perature drops in the fall. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. When the tem- 21. and Los Angeles. Click here to view. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity.52. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. is called the thermocline. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. pumping plants. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.35 and 21. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.52.101 Fig. are large distances from the city. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. odor. which may be only a few feet thick. and turbidity than deep reservoirs.

35. 21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. 34. 21. 21. M. All rights reserved.21. 21. no.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. M. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. A flowing artesian Fig. For the correct hydraulic grade. For any given storage reservoir. Brune. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. 21. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Click here to view.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.83). Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Brune. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. June 1953). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84). a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. 21. .102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Inc. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 3. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.52.82) (G.

21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. All rights reserved. Fig.103 Fig.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer.

C. 21. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. McGhee.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth.53.53.. 5. motor. M.” 6th ed. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. no. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. McGraw-Hill. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. and D. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. 21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. Inc. Fair. 1940.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head.53. (G.” Economic Geology. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.” John Wiley & Sons. Jacob. . from an artesian well is given by (21. V.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. New York.. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. 33. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. eductor or riser pipe. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.21. pump (Art. hollow-core. 21. “Water Supply and Sewerage. 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. 72. vol.53. New York. ft The steady flow. ft d = diameter of well. and motor.143) 21. Click here to view. gal/day. ft (Fig.. All rights reserved. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. or driven. bored. Inc. Theis. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. A. T. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. 21.84).” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. J. 889. ditch. waterjet. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.142) where Q = flow. C. vol. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. p. Okun. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. or hydraulic rotary methods.57). “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (C. E. 21. Inc. 629. The pump. J. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. December 1938. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). p.83). Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. screen. Geyer. ft h = H minus drawdown. Hence.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).




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Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and sulfur compounds. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. steel. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. (21. tanks. polyethylene. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. bacteria in water. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. sand. In unlined pipes. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. sealed flanges. . dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. concrete. zinc.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. pumps. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. impurities and strains in metals.146) where D = pipe diameter. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. contact between acids and metals. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. valves. Under favorable conditions. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. polybutylene. or Dresser-type couplings. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. however.) At the anode. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. and other appurtenances. If it is cement-lined. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. brass. and ability to withstand external loads. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. rubber. bronze. Inc. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. riveting. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. 21. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Copper. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. but wood is rarely used in new installations. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. an anode and a cathode. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. lead.54. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as polyvinyl chloride. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. stray electric currents. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. are present. Since steel is stronger than iron. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost.21. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. plastic. valves. A machine that produces a monolithic. ft 21. All rights reserved. and meters destroyed by corrosion. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. and plastics. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. hydrants. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe.

If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. use of protective coatings. caustic soda. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. the faster electrons can move through the water. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. water may be treated with bases. where e is an electron. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. zinc. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle.86).86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. such as soda ash. the corrosion process continues (Fig. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Click here to view. Also. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Aluminum. to prevent corrosion. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. At the cathode. and Fig. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. for example. . and treatment of the water. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. and the more ions. Inc. When selecting materials. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. cracks. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Strains. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. 21. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line.

To prevent cavitation. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.88). of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. psia. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. New York. “Water Quality and Treatment. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. lime. z is negative. or impeller. efficiency. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. graphite. Zinc. horsepower. oxides. magnesium.21. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. and the head-discharge relationship. ft of water z = elevation difference. ft.87). or eye. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. . It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. called a volute (Fig. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. Inc. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. the most common waterworks pump. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. and so on on the walls of the pipes. 21. (American Water Works Association.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.147) where pa = pressure.. accomplishes that in two steps. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. psia.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. All rights reserved. Corrosion. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale.) w = unit weight of liquid. 21. by (21.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. hydroxides. in feet. To have practical meaning. 21. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required.” 4th ed. The centrifugal pump. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Inc. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Water enters at the center. between pump center line and water surface Fig.

Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. 21. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.Water Resources Engineering s 21.89. 21. depending on the number of stages. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. (I. (Also included in Fig. New York. J.. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. . This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. pump discharge. rotary. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. 21. 21. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. Karassik et al. head. All rights reserved.) 21.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.58. below 200 gal/min. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.111 than the required NPSH. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.. propeller. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. jet. “Pump Handbook. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. however. and air lift. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. reciprocating. helical.57 and check valves in Art. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. For that reason. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. as shown in Fig. Click here to view.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. Inc. circumstances may dictate one of the other types.” 2nd ed. Fig. See also Art. In a typical water-system analysis. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. 21.

21. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. All rights reserved. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100.or motordriven.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Because of the close tolerances.90 fied). especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Click here to view. Jet pumps (Fig. . Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. so that the entire lift is suction. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. 21.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. At sea level. they can be used only for sediment-free water. vanes. Reciprocating pumps. which are located at the well bottom. Inc. utilize piston action to move water. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. cams. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. r/min Q = discharge. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. either hand. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.148) where n = impeller speed. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. (21. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. gal/min H = head. which is a function of specific speed. and for Ns above 7500. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe.

cone. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. But these valves cost more than gate. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). three valves must be used.or oil-lubricated. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Click here to view. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. one just upstream of the meter. or corporation cocks. and butterfly. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves.) drives to permit manual operation. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Plug. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. and low head loss when fully open. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers.” 2nd ed. availability. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. respectively.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Simplicity of construction and quick. air-relief. pressure-regulating. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. . or Neoprene. which are water. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. All rights reserved. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. large pressure differences. needle. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. “Pump Handbook. The major types of isolating valves are gate. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Inc. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. solids deposition. If sand is carried out with the water. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. Needle valves are used for accurate 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or it may be at the bottom of the well. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates.113 tion. Check. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. sluice gate.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. curb. pumps. J. Hand or motor power. tubercle formation. fast operation. and butterfly valves. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. rubber. Usually. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Karassik et al. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. rotates the disk. applied through a gear-reduction device. Also. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.. primarily because of their low cost. one at the service connection. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. (I. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. globe. Low head loss. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. pressure-relief. New York. globe. plug. in-service lubrication features. and easy. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. Corrosion.

Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. such as pressure regulators and altitude. All rights reserved. Inc. Click here to view. Many automatic control valves. For example. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases.21. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. 21. The most common check valve is the swing type. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rivers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Usually. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. and large pipes. tube. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Because of high head losses. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The wetbarrel. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Furthermore. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Often. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. When the valve is in a closed position. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. which connects the barrel to the main. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. check. . Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. and relief valves. Interior-differential. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. or California type. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. such as trunk lines 21. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min.

amount of head loss through the meter. Click here to view. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. 21. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. (21. The cup-type meter. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.149) Hydraulics. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. New York. However.) As in venturi meters. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.150) where Q = flow rate.91. or modifications thereof. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. . The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation.” 6th ed. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. The standard venturi meter (Fig. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. or nutating-disk types. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. The nutating disk is used. F. such as meters for individual customer connections. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. almost to the exclusion of the two other types.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5% within the normal test-flow limits. simplicity and ease of repairs. which do not affect propeller meters. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. nozzle. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. called a Price meter. durability. and cost. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. ft h1 = pressure in main section. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. A clicking noise. 21. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. rotary. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. vertical velocity components. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. All rights reserved. are the most common velocity-type devices. but they are used primarily in laboratories. for metering domestic-service connections. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.115 of distribution systems. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.. Inc. respectively. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Brater. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. see E. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section.

Inc. utility-type enterprises. and similar items. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. if any. (c) Orifice- 21. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. seasonal use. and block rate. This type of charge tends to encourage waste.21. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. .61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. peak rates of use.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. fixed charges on capital investment. or to some other recognized system. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required.91 plate meter. load factors. step rate. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and development of the system. Click here to view. flat rate is falling into disuse. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. fire use. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. (b) Nozzle meter.

Inc. generators and exciters. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. a building to house the machinery and equipment. where the majority of small users are.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. S.117 With step rate. including metering and billing. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. This charge is usually small. treatment chemicals. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. Cost component 2. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. 21. Click here to view. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. called the demand component. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. of serving an individual customer. and (3) cost. pumping energy. It is generally recognized that residential areas. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. Cost component 3. tunnels. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. draft tube. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. turbines and governors. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. and transformers. where applicable. and. depends on the peak usage of a customer. called the customer component. called the commodity component.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. switching equipment. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. canals. For most distribution systems. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. tunnel. buying water from a wholesale supplier. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. . When fixing a system of rates. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. penstocks. Cost component 1. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. All rights reserved. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service.746 kW 1 kW = 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Storage can be provided for a daily. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods.92). weekly. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. Click here to view. to be used at some future time. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. and peak-load plants. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. . A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low.21. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. It can be computed on a daily. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. All rights reserved. On a weekly cycle. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. run-of-river plants with storage. Then. 21. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. On a daily cycle. or seasonal cycle. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. On a seasonal cycle. If the minimum flow is very low. base-load plants. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Therefore. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. or yearly basis. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Inc. such as navigation. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. power production being only incidental. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. weekly. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available.

Its distribution is triangular. it usually is not as economical. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Click here to view. When needed. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir.119 Fig. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. The main classifications are gravity. (Department of Water and Power. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Zipparo and H. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load.” 4th ed. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Los Angeles. New York. Figure 21. arch. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. (V. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) 21. . The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and rock-fill.. Calif. buttress. Hasen. Inc. 21. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Force F2 represents silt pressure.92).93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. earth. J.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. All rights reserved.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low.

which create forces on any object resting on it. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. 434. 21. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. presented by Edwin Rose.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. 21. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. . A method of calculating these forces. ice. A close approximation of the force. (21. ice pressures as high as 50. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. which forms on the reservoir surface.153). Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. These accelerations occur in every direction. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.000 psf. Inc. In cold climates. Rose. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1933. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.425h above the base. May 1946.1 g.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. today it is realized these values are much too high.” discussion by von Karman. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake.153) where w = unit weight of water. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. All rights reserved. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. however. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. (E. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) (21. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.93 by forces F4 and F5. was developed by von Karman. Click here to view. p. given by Eq. vol. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. In the past. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. 98.

Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. First. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. However.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. however. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. but its formwork is more expensive. Click here to view. sand. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. They are not suited to most sites. and uplift forces are smaller. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. If a large quantity of pervious material. Although there are many types of buttress dams. however. but the structural design is much more critical. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. their relative importance is much different. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Inc. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. and clay. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. All rights reserved. uplift is not so important. Recent belief. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. On arch dams. Hence. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or failure of the foundation material. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. because of bearing contact. silt. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. In the multiple-arch. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. If the deflections are not equal. In the past. such as sand and gravel. rock flour. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. engineers assumed that. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. . overturning by rotating about the toe. is available and clayey materials must be imported. When the base is not drained. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The modes of failure are also the same. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained.

One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Click here to view.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. J. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. (V. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Bureau of Relamation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. S. If pervious material is not available. The downstream face is usually 1.21. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Army Corps of Engineers. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. bonding into the dumped rock. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. or wood over concrete. .. although steel has been used occasionally. The facing is usually concrete. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. Today. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. U. New York. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. 21. the natural angle of repose of rock. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. however.” EM 1110-2-2300. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Zipparo and H. onto the fill. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled.3 on 1. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. and an upstream impervious facing. Leakage should be expected. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. If the dam is on a pervious foundation.” U. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. therefore. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. For dams over 200 ft high. All rights reserved. providing power.3 on 1.) 21. Hasen. Inc. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Temporary facings are usually of wood. S. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.” 4th ed. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. bearing on the rubble cushion.94). The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. For some types of soil. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The cutoff wall is usually concrete.

At heads below 100 ft. (V. wicket gates.) Fig. and the fixed-blade type. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. As the water flows through the tur- 21. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. The propeller turbine (Fig. and draft tube.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. runner. however. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. Inc. New York. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. All rights reserved. 21.123 bine. wicket gates.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The wicket gates. McGraw-Hill Book Company. In these. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. it changes direction. J.95c). 21. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. 21. and draft tube. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. . located just outside the perimeter of the runner. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work.” 4th ed. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. the propeller-type (Fig. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. 21. runner. However. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. When the power demand on the turbine changes. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.95a). Click here to view. 21. This creates a force on the runner. Hasen. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. control the amount of water that enters the turbine.94 turbine. their efficiency decreases rapidly. At heads above 1000 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. Zipparo and H. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. In such installations. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. if the load drops below 50%. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case.

the dam will not be damaged by the water. widely used for concrete dams because. All rights reserved.21. (b) Kaplan. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. (c) axial flow.65. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This type of spillway is Fig. . Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. 21. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. if designed correctly. 21. Click here to view.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.

21. In a shaft spillway. The weir can be sharp-crested. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Bureau of Reclamation. A siphon spillway (Fig. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. As the head increases.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. When the head is relatively low. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Thus.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. or ogee in cross section. lined. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. In a chute spillway. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. Click here to view. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. flared. 21. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins.34). There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. DC 20402). Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. “Design of Small Dams. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Inc. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. called an ogee spillway. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Once this second condition is reached. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. both depending on the head on the weir. open channel. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. model tests are usually employed. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. . although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. This type of spillway.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. Washington.S. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. 21.” Government Printing Office. The air vent shown in Fig. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways.96 Siphon spillway. In a side-channel spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.

making removal difficult.21.65. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. and providing support for the conduit. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. Inc.65. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In a taintor gate (Fig. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. Fig. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations.97 Taintor gate. 21. . level of a reservoir within close limits. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. 21.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. All rights reserved. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.5 ft/s.98 Bear-trap gate. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. controlling flow. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.97). The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. In contrast. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. On large stop-log installations. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. To do this. 21. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. the pipes fail. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. causing damage and hampering operation. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. 21. Fig. Click here to view.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them.

Zipparo and H.) Fig. Doland. To raise a bear-trap gate. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. L.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. J. J. Inc. J. Babbitt. (V..98. Cleasby. as shown in Fig. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and H. The drum gate (Fig. drum gates are not suited to small dams. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. E. Hasen. All rights reserved.99 Drum gate. 21. “Water Supply Engineering. and J. Click here to view. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 4th ed. . Because of the large recess required in the dam.

All rights reserved. Inc.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .blank page 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

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