This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. portions of the liquid vaporize. Its temperature variation. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. is pressure above or below atmospheric.21. 21.3.7 psia. Surface tension and capillarity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the liquid is in a closed container. face and rises in a small tube. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. ft Capillarity. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. Absolute pressure. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. decreases with increasing temperature.7 psi. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. 21. however. All rights reserved. or liquid surface.2. and freezing damage to concrete. pitting. psi. Thus. formation of spray from water jets. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. respectively. (21.000 ft is shown in Fig. ft σ = surface tension. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.1. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. In equation form. is small and insignificant in most problems.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. is concave upward. Gage pressure. as shown in Fig. like surface tension. although negligible in many water engineering problems. psia. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Meniscus. . Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. at sea level. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Its value Fig. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.1) where h = capillary rise. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. 21. as shown in Fig. are significant in others. 21.
and pitting appears. the force due to pressure p1.2) where τ = shearing stress. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. lb/ft3. ft2/s. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. also called the coefficient of viscosity.4. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. µ of a fluid. and cross-sectional area A.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. the pressure acts equally in all directions. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. 21. At any depth. which extend into the pores of the metal. ft/s y = depth. on the top surface. ft. Click here to view. of length and time. and the force due to pressure p2. as shown in Fig. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. psf. psf. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. Since the prism is at rest. 21.00001059 ft2/s. on the bottom surface. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. lb/ft2 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. absolute viscosity. 21. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Inc.8) to determine whether laminar. or completely turbulent flow exists. All rights reserved. to collapse.5 Fig. Viscosity.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. or implode. transitional. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. is a measure of its resistance to flow. . Then. It is so named because its units. ft2.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. In hydraulics. or dynamic viscosity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. (Pressures as high as 350.
the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. lb/ft3. the pressure.3a) Division of Eq. the depth below the water surface. p1 is atmospheric pressure. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.4. psf. ft2. however. Equation (21.5) 21. ft. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. (21.3a) by A yields (21. and other water control structures. Thus.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. dams. Therefore. 21. Inc.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. then p2 is p. .4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.3.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. (21. All rights reserved. where w is the specific weight of water. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. Click here to view. ft. Taking ∆h to be h.21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.6) – ∫ydA = y A. (21. Figure 21.3b) then becomes (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4). (21. (21.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. and y sin θ = h .3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. the depth of the centroid. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). lb. For horizontal surfaces. at depth h.4) Equation (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. (21. The resultant pressure force P. 21. tanks.
ft. The denominator of Eq.8) equals –A. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Pyp = ∫y dP. Thus.2° to the horizontal (Fig. 21.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.g.g.8).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.) but acts at a point (c.) that is below the c. – From Eq. psf. of the surface about its centroidal axis. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. 21. Example 21.7). It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.7 Fig. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. (21. The location of the center of pressure. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.p.p. 6. Hence y . if that locus is a straight line. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . the total force P = whA. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. represented by the length yp.6 (see also Fig.5).7).). All rights reserved.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. where K is the radius of gyration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc. (21. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.29). (21. 21. 21. Click here to view. Otherwise. (21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. (21.
Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.08. Also.1.8.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.g.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. (See Example 21.0) = 5. Note: 1. 21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. P = 62. All rights reserved.0 + 2. Inc. however. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.42 = 5.42 ft.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. 21.3. Click here to view.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.0 + 0.5 + 1/ (5. From Eq.0 ft. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. 21.08/5 = 5.9). A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.21. yp = 5.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Therefore.) of common shapes. 21. . K2 = point G.
14 × 25/4 = 19.2. When water is below the curved surface. (21.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Inc. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.7).) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.6 × 62. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.9 Fig. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.5 × 5 = 780 lb. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.4°.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. (See Example 21. so the weight of the water is 19. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. – From Eq. 21. The corresponding angle is 57. PH = whA = 62. 21. All rights reserved. Fig.9).9.4 × 2. (b) Free-body diagram. . 21.6 ft3.6w = 19. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. 2. and for a constant-radius surface. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Example 21. Its angle with the horizontal is known. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. Click here to view. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.564.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
21. (21. The stability of a ship. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3 ys = distance.b. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10b).10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. 21. the pressure head. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. ft. 21. Manometers indicate h. (21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. whether floating or submerged. For a body to be in equilibrium. p = wh. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10b. .g. or the difference in head.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. Inc..21. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. Given in feet by Eq. is indicated by the metacenter. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. (21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.4). 21. All rights reserved.10a). Click here to view. 21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.).
The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. (b) U-tube manometer.11a is 2.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.11 manometer. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. What is hm? Fig. The piezometer (Fig. 21. 21. 21.11): piezometer. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. 21. although the latter is most common. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Basic types of manometers. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. Example 21. All rights reserved. (a) Piezometers. 21.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.17 psi.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig.12c). (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . and differential manometer. However. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.4 lb/ft3. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. U-tube manometer. The liquid is water with w = 62.
12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. . (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. including negative gage pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig.11b) is used. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the Utube manometer (Fig. 21. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. A movable scale. Inc.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.12c). High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. as opposed to a fixed scale. In this application. Very low pressures. Click here to view. 21. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 21.21. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. Inc. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns.4 × 2. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.0 and 2. and z is 1. 21. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. such as ft of water or psi. 21. psf w = specific weight of fluid. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.40. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.5.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. ft.12a. is magnified by the differential manometer. . Click here to view. such as might be required in laboratories. however. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.4 × 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft. hm1 is 9 in.75 + 13. the total energy per unit weight at 2. Above 5.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. and the right side. Most of them. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. or sump. psf p2 = pressure at 2.4 × 0. that is. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. the actual pressure difference.25 ft of water.13 indicating liquid. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. For example. as shown in Fig. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. the magnification will be 2. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.4: A differential manometer (Fig. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.6 × 62. when expressed in feet of water. hi is 2. 21. The pressure at B.6). Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if the actual difference is 0. 21. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. 32. in the manometer. psf.11) where Z1 = elevation.25 ft. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.0 ft.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. The differential manometer (Fig. One factor. psf.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. All rights reserved. Example 21.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Average velocity.13. Click here to view. and pressure. ft. lb. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.14) pa/w is called pressure head. varies with velocity. V2/2g. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.21. across the area of the section A.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.13). (21. The total energy. 21. and pressure (Fig. ft/s. ft. ft3/s. where Va is the velocity.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. velocity. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. where Q is the quantity of flow. a Fig.4 ft3/s.14. Usually. ft2. or the total head ft: (21. Inc. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. All rights reserved. 21. Example 21. This term hf. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. 21. 21. lb/ft3.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. Kinetic energy at the section.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. velocity. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. velocity head. above some arbitrary datum. (See Example 21. .11).13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. ft/s = Q/A. As indicated in Fig. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. Fig.5. where W is the weight. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. through friction. It equals WVa2 / 2g. 21. however.
Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. In openchannel flow. 21. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow.7. The energy grade line.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. direction. Inc.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.55 = 48. Thus substitution in Eq. and any bends. Also. A change in momentum. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. gate valve. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. 21. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. Art. since the pipe has free discharge.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. ft. respectively. is equal to the impulse. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation.15).14 = 10 ft/s. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Z2 = 0.9).4/ 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. or magnitude of flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. All rights reserved. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.15 Fig. sometimes called the total head line. p2 = 0. 21. respectively.45 ft. which may result from a change in either velocity. hf = 50 – 1. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. . The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. Click here to view. while in pressure flow. Hence.
2° – 13. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.5 ft/s.94 × 100 × 4.1 Rx = –82. then in the Y direction. . 21.5) = 65. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. and at 2.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.78.94.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. since ∆Vy = –(–7. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. With p1 known.1 and the density ρ = 62. so θ = 60. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.600.500 lb. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.000 cos 53. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. (21.000 sin 53. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. Click here to view.5°.96 sin 53.15) first in the X direction.000 lb. Inc. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.78 Ry = 145. 21. lb. apply Eq. All rights reserved. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.600 lb In the Y direction.2° + Ry = 1.4/ 32.16.332π = 71. Fig.2° – 71. Fy = –181. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.96 cos 53.12)] but may be used separately.94 × 100 × 65. To find F.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. (21.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.2= 1.6. Example 21. Let R be the force. (See Example 21. Fx = 181. which is to be determined).700/82.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.200 lb. Then. since ∆Vx = –(7.200 + Rx = 1. P2 = ppA2 = 13.2° – 0) = 4.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.11) or (21.
Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. such as storm rainfall. 21. It is. or proposed works. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system.17 21. In most models. . usually more complex or built to a much larger scale.7. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. Click here to view. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Physical models are expensive to build. In the preceding example. hybrid modeling. With hybrid models. Popular before the advent of digital computers. droughts. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. viscosity. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. to a given set of stimuli. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. operate. All rights reserved. and through execution of the computer program. however. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. gravity. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. Inc. For instance. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. In water resources engineering. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. or prototype. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. or drainage basin. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. erosional scour.Water Resources Engineering s 21. aquifer. the capability of the computing resources. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. and surface tension. Usually. See also Art. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. such as a river. A fourth mode of modeling. In this way. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. employs both physical and mathematical models. alternative management schemes.7. momentum. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. 1.
Then (21. and Weber number. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. the model is termed a true model. Reynolds number. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.21a) (21. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. ft2/s.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. (21. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. and one other force are made proportional. the formation of drops and air bubbles. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Inc. the length ratio is the only variable.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. The Reynolds number is (21. Once the length ratio has been set. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. Squaring both sides of Eq. Therefore. Similarly. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. Ratios of the forces of gravity. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Froude number.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. The Weber number is (21. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. such as spillways and weirs. which is always a predominant force. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. 32. respectively. The Froude number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.20) R is dimensionless. Click here to view.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. . The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21.21. (21. such as depth or diameter). The inertial force. All rights reserved.22) where ρ = density of fluid. viscosity. entrainment of air in flowing water.
The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. The U.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. Click here to view. 21. (21. mathematical models are. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. viscous. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. This type of model is called a distorted model. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. in turn. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. (21.7. These expressions. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. such as a morning-glory spillway.26) where V = mean velocity. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately.23a) (21. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. One type of model. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. For such models. All rights reserved. . the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. such as flow networks.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. Rr = Lr. For instance.25) In models of rivers and channels. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. and through execution of the computer program. In some cases.24). the logical representation of prototypes. (21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. Hence. catchment areas. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. model designs are often based on the Manning equation.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. inertial. and infiltration parameters. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). called a movable-bed model. in particular. Sr = 1. ft/s R = hydraulic radius.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This.” N. Whan. impacts of dam breaks. ecosystem impacts and restoration. channel and river hydraulics. and turbulent flow results. In object-oriented software. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. sediment or pollutant transport. or pollution.) 21. of all databases and software. This approach. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. academia. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however.2). given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. As this shearing stress increases. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. design of hydraulic structures. Click here to view. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. All rights reserved. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. “Handbook of Hydrology. A. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations.21. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. New York. seepage. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Maidment. Also. shown in Fig. 3. vol. Hasen. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. as in annular passages.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. quantity and quality of water supply. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. flood or drought impacts. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. For closed conduits other than circular. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. this method gives flows significantly underestimated.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. Walker. and private sectors.” D. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. or both.17. As a general rule. wave or tidal analyses. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification.” McGraw-Hill. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. G. hydrologic forecasting. 1957. flow routing. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. Inc. Grigg. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. . 21. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. and R. if comparisons of different plans are required. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. evaporation and irrigation. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. reservoir regulation. watershed hydrology. Zipparo and H.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Rothfus. and groundwater yield. (D. density. R. and among water resources modelers in the government. when fully implemented. landfill leachate analyses.” V. hydrodynamics. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. J. (J. Hoggan. F. 21. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. R. As a result. the model output required for design or evaluation. “Water Resources Planning. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. Art. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. H. S.
McGraw-Hill Book Company. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. it is not practical to treat it analytically. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. 21. Inc. 21. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. As the Reynolds number increases. a disturbance will probably be magnified.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. 32. 21. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. . In laminar flow. In this region. than for laminar flow (Fig. (21. (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. F. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.19. flow is laminar in circular pipes. (E. Fig. laminar flow is unstable. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.” 6th ed. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. at completely turbulent flow.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. (21.17).30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. ft ρ = density of fluid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Brater. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. ft L = length of pipe section considered.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. the velocity distribution is more uniform. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.29) For laminar flow.27) where V = fluid velocity. 21. Therefore. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. As a result. the flow is completely turbulent.l9. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. causing the flow to become turbulent. 21.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. These disturbances create eddies. 21. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. All rights reserved.21 Fig. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. New York.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.18. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. Eq. handbook of Hydraulics. ft/s D = pipe diameter. 32. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.) 21.
the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.21.0002 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure. Click here to view.) Because Eq.0002 – 0.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.03 – 0.0005 0.0002 0.008 0. All rights reserved. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. 21.9. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. ft D = diameter of pipe. 32.00003 0.0005 – 0. 21. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.19) L = length of pipe.0005 – 0. ft V = velocity of fluid.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. (21.008 – 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. 21. enamels.003 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.003 – 0.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. Inc.001 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. F. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. November 1944. Moody. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.19) to Determine f ε.001 0. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. . (L. (21.
ft S = head loss due to friction. (Although based on surface roughness. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.4 and 21. . where D is the pipe diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.33b) (21.33d) (21.34d) (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.34b) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. ft L = length of pipe.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.11 (p. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. Click here to view.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. Inc. (21.31) gives (21.9.31) where V = velocity.3. ft/s C1 = coefficient. which requires experience in its choice.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.32) where n = coefficient. (21. (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.34c) 21. ft3/s.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. 21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. See also Table 22.33c) (21. 21. Tables 21. dependent on surface roughness.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. ft/s C = coefficient.9.34e) where V = velocity. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9.33e) 21.) Substitution into Eq. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. All rights reserved.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.
015 0.21.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.010 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.35b) (21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.014 0.015 0. All rights reserved. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. because (21.) Flow between reservoirs. in short pipelines.7: Figure 21.013 0. Click here to view. 21.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.011 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.4 Values of n for Pipes.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.035 0.012 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. (21.014 0.012 0.7.016 To 0.017 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.010 0.013 0. . 21.017 From 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. However. Inc. Example 21.20 ple 21.010 To 0.017 0.012 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.015 0.015 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. (21.015 0.012 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. ft3/s hf = friction loss.013 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.36) for a check. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. bends.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.017 0.017 0.013 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.013 0. (21. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. enlargements.35c) (21.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. and valves and other pipe fittings.
21. ft. (21. 110 4 in. regardless of age.37): (21. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. wood forms. Click here to view. 140 Large sizes.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” Constable & Co. 21. (21. 135 In good condition. good workmanship. 21.10. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 115 12 in.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.. are presented in Table 21. Inc. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.10. where V is the velocity in the pipe..6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. the values of K in Fig. (21. 110 (21.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. (A.38) A special application of Eq. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 80 4 in.21).25 Table 21. good workmanship.21 are approximate.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.7. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. is (21. so a full velocity head is lost. Table 21. ft/s g = 32. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. steel forms. 120 Large sizes. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. 21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 85 16 in. Ltd.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 10 years older Average value. London. All rights reserved. 120 24 in and over.10.37) or (21. H. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. 105 30 in and over. .6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. minor losses must be considered. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 120 Centrifugally spun. Gibson.
D = pipe diameter.81 0.42) Table 21.71 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.5 0.2 0.21.9 0.0 2.05 K = 0.80 K = 0.62 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.76 0.9 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10. .64 0.68 0. Click here to view.25 The values in Table 21. Inc. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.8 are only approximate.1 0.63 0.8 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.7 0.2 2. fully open Gate valve.4 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.89 1. such as valves and elbows.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. fully open Angle valve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.6 0.5 0. For these reaTable 21.50 K = 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.66 0.4 21.0 Table 21.6 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. and at bends is given by (21.21 of the sides.0 1. fully open Swing check valve. Globe valve. All rights reserved.0 5.3 0.2 0.
square. New York.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. its effect should be taken into account. 21. Inc.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Ito. not including friction loss in the bend. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. McGraw-Hill. J. Figure 21.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. (H. vol. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5.. (21. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.22: (21. (V. 1.45) 21. 21. July 1938. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.27 sons. Beij. this error is corrected by the C values.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients.11. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.23. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. Orifices may have any shape. (21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. although they are usually round. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. If this velocity is significant. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Zipparo and H. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Equation (21.44) where Q = discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. The data are in agreement that the head loss.9 for low velocity of approach. 21.” Journal of Research.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. Experiments on smooth pipes. National Bureau of Standards. there is disagreement. however. 21. H.. no.42). . ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. or rectangular. Reynolds number. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. not including friction loss. 82. Hasen. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. For low heads. and angle of bend.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. the bend loss essentially remains constant.” 4th ed. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. 1960. (21. Inc. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. All rights reserved.) Fig. series D. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. 21. (K.Water Resources Engineering s 21. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.42). vol.
648 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.614 0.631 0.634 0.604 0.630 0.593 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.619 0.” 1886.595 0.04 0.593 0.637 0.0 Head. All rights reserved.1 0.643 0.607 0.616 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.598 0.618 0.602 0.622 0.599 0.598 1.595 0.608 0.602 0.601 0. Click here to view.603 0.602 0.02 0. determined experimentally.618 0.610 0.596 0. (21.606 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0. and Eq.592 0.46) The actual velocity. Typical values of Cν range from 0.04 0.1 0.617 0.592 1.4 0.600 0.609 0.606 0.590 0. to Fig.616 0.595 0.592 0.612 0.591 0.596 0.632 0.600 0.641 0.613 0 610 0.602 0.594 0.602 0.596 0.598 0.596 0.603 0.601 0.615 0. “Hydraulics.599 0.6 08 1 1.99.618 0. the vena contracta.612 0.627 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet. of circular orifices.611 0.605 0.21.626 0.613 0.655 0..611 0.608 0.607 0. .603 0.628 0.660 0.601 0. Z1 = h. V1 = 0.636 0.621 0.602 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.607 0.597 0.632 0. ft 0.600 0.5 2 2.605 0.605 0.94 to 0. Jr.608 0.596 0.623 0.604 0.623 0.644 0.619 0.596 0.0 0.629 0.02 0.599 0.628 0.614 0.602 0.603 0.601 0.637 0. and Z2 = 0.617 0.45) becomes (21.648 0.593 0.614 0. ft 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.652 0. 21. With the reference plane through point 2.594 0. ft 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.597 0.637 0.602 0.599 0.605 0. Inc.604 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.623 0.610 0.600 0.
Click here to view. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48) is obtained.Water Resources Engineering s 21. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.24b.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.67. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. (21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig..48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. In Fig. .11. (21. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. “Handbook of Hydraulics. the contraction is completely suppressed. the area of the orifice. see E. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.47) where hL = losses in head.61 to 0. Eq. between 1 and 2. With a partly suppressed orifice. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.29 Fig. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.25. Inc. 21.” 6th ed. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.25 orifice. All rights reserved. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. ft. 21.11. 21. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. Brater. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. (21. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. New York. F. Figure 21.) 21. 21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.
21. to time t.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.58) Equation (21.55) 21. (21. Inc. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. Eq.56). (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.57) (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir.59).51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.56) Fig. (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.50) where a = area of orifice.23). (21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. ft h2 = head at the end. (21. 21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) gives (21. 32.50) becomes (21. 21. is that for a parabola: (21. For simplicity. (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Rearranging Eq. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21. All rights reserved. obtained by solving Eq.57) for t and substituting in Eq. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. .58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.26): (21.21. s The Y coordinate is (21. when y = h2. when y = h1.11. Eq.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.58)]. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.
82. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. Inc.82. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.75. 21. (21. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.27) but the head loss is larger. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. (21. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0. 21. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. When this happens.28). The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. Therefore. 21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. In the tube or pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. a K value for Eq.00 VT / 2g – 0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. 21.5 a T T Fig. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. psf w = unit weight of water.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. Fig. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. Equation (21. All rights reserved. 21. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. however. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.80.33VT / 2g. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. if one exists). If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. For a short tube flowing full. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0. Click here to view.27. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.29. .11.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. 21.42) of 0.67 V2 ) = 0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.11.67 V2T /2g. ft2 Fig.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.31 ty Cν = 0.
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. When a valve is closed. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.29. As the water flows away from the closed valve. 21. The pipe shown in Fig. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. 21. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir.32). but at a pressure much higher than normal.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. However. the water in the pipe is motionless. The change causes a pressure rise. 21.30). the tube must flow full. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. either above or below the normal pressure. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. either increased or decreased. Fig. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Every time the flow rate is changed. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. . this momentum drops to zero. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. All rights reserved. 21. As the water flows into the reservoir. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. Click here to view. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. 21. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. For this analysis to be valid. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. it causes water hammer. the pressure in the pipe falls.21. Inc.
63a) becomes (21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.63a) In terms of pressure head. Fig. (21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. For instantaneous closure: (21. 43. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. Inc.63). s A plot of pressure vs.13.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. 1. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. 21. Equation (21. (21. ft 21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. 21. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.13. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. Eq. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. All rights reserved. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. approximate solution. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.64) 21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. Click here to view.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.
(21. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.5 ft2. Inc. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.32. ft L = length of pipeline. (21.) Example 21. where a equals any integer. Thus.63). then that obtained from Eq. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. Once the time interval has been determined. Zipparo and H.. is g = acceleration due to gravity. the increment of time. Hasen.63).21. 32. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.” 4th ed. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.2 × 108 psf. Vo the original velocity. Click here to view. penstock thickness = 1 in. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. where ∆t. (V. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. each causing an individual pressure wave. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.63).2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. New York. Inc. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. J. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. (21. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. such as L/aU.61). (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. area = 78. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. . this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. All rights reserved. length = 3000 ft. 21.) Velocity of pressure wave. diameter = 10 ft. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. (21. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. With the head known.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. equals L /aU. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. (21. s T = actual closure time of valve. McGraw-Hill. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. from Eq. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. to apply Eq.
ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.66) where p = internal pressure. The water column. the closure is instantaneous.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. . psi.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. Usually. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. on the pipe material is (21. floats on the line. from Eq. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. All rights reserved.34). the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. Fig. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits.13. 21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. approximate equation (21. When a valve is suddenly opened. in Assuming T = 4. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.Water Resources Engineering s 21.34 tension.64) gives the following result: 21. lb Hence. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. Click here to view. is Pipe Stresses 21. Inc. Various types of relief Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. it is by no means the only one. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. 21.33) must still be designed for water hammer. and the pressure rise. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. to prevent water hammer.90 s.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank.90 s. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. in effect.75 s. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. 21. the stress. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.63). in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.
(21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.67) for concrete pipe.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. In Fig. Inc. if expansion joints are to be used. Eq. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. elastic Stability. In all bends. psi.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. For concrete pipes. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. M. P Timoshenko and J.21. The force diagram in Fig.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.67). psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. due to a temperature change is (21. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. is (21. The internal diameter is used in Eq. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art.” 2nd ed. Gere. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. (21.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. 6.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. All rights reserved. However. Equation (21. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. Art. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. . however. 21.6). this analysis is approximate. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. (21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. Eq. 21. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. If D/t is less than 10. New York. For steel pipes. However. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. (21. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. In this case. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. “Theory of .. The stress. 21. 21.10). When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. it acts like a beam. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. (S.
71) give a quick solution. 32. psf w = unit weight of water. or other embankment.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. .4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. exit conditions. an exact theoretical analysis.37 Fig. However. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. In small pipes.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. (21.71) where R = resultant force on bend. Click here to view. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. however. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and slope.70) and (21. Inc. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. 21. a railroad. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the joints must also be able to take these forces. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. canal. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. Eqs. All rights reserved. (21. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. 62.
33d) or (21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. the following equation is obtained: (21.21. (21.36). Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. and the Manning equation for friction loss. but they do not cover Fig. Inc.23). 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. For this reason. the normal depth (Art. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. charts.38). and the control will still be at the inlet.” EB058W. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. that is. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. computer software. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.37). 21.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21. Portland Cement Association. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. . or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Click here to view.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. 21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21.30)].38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. All rights reserved.73) 21. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. the culvert flows full. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
The fluid flows under pressure.39).38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.75) Substituting this into Eq. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.23).74) yields (21. Discharge is independent of slope. depending on the head. 21. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. loss at entrance. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. and dn < dc .20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. 21. 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. When the slope is less than critical.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. normal pipe flow occurs. Thus. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. ft Equation (21. 21. Inc. (21.20) 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When slope is less than critical. Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. open-channel flow takes place. . the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. When slope exceeds critical.39 Fig. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. All rights reserved. and slope of culvert. 32. Discharge depends on head H.74) Fig. 21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. for the open-channel condition (Fig. The discharge. 21.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. flow depends on inlet condition. (21. ft V = velocity in culvert. and dn > dc .37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.
41). (21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. . causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. If the friction slope approaches critical. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. 21. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.39). If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. ft dn = normal depth of flow.72). 21.76). Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit.21. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. Inc. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. When the friction slope is flat. 21.76). and discharge is given by Eq. Click here to view. 21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.76). If the head on a culvert is high.18). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths.40).37). Most culverts. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. If this condition exists. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. ft To solve Eq. however. (21. 21. 21. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. All rights reserved. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. (21.
10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. To calculate the hydraulic radius. square edge Concrete pipe.8 ft3/s Table 21.15 0. But H = 5 + 0. groove or bell. (21.10 0.6. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Table 21.19). The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.72) applies. 21. (21.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. (21.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. 21.44) for discharge through an orifice.73). (21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow is under pressure. (21. Example 21. First find dn. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.9 0.40). the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Find: size of culvert. projecting Concrete pipe.72) and (21. Fig.41 For entrance control. and the entrance will not control.013.18 and 21. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.95 × 4 = 39. length = 300 ft. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. groove or bell. Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Substitution in Eq. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. slope = 0.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Since the culvert is under pressure. and free exit. Application of Eq.01. Inc. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. 21. 21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. n = 0. with Eq. . assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.72) yields Q =Va = 9. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. These values are for culverts flowing full. When the entrance is not submerged.5 0. Click here to view.
ft.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. or open-channel flow. The wetted perimeter is the length. 21. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. (21. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. ft. minus the free surface width. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. and is given by (21. Inc.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft2 When the discharge is constant. within a hydraulic jump. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. All rights reserved.77) where V = average velocity. Click here to view. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. depth of flow is constant throughout. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Figure 21.79).82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.79) The velocity head HV. however. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. 32. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory.03 to 1. In a uniform channel. Hence. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. It is. Thus. normally taken as 1. Equation (21. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.36 for prismatic channels. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. is generally given by (21.21. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. ft3/s. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. or the total-head line. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. (21. . It has uniform flow if the grade. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. or slope. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. plus the velocity head at the point. It is expressed in feet as (21. ft. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.
ft. roughness.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. As the depth decreases downstream. 21.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.83) Brater. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. slope.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.84) where A = area of flow. (21. 21. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.84) reduces to Fig. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.) (21. in which T is the top width of the channel.. New York. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. F. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. E. for example. All rights reserved. . or to the diameter of a circular channel. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. Eq. 21. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. and discharge are known.44. (See.43. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. Chow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For a rectangular channel. Inc. as shown in Fig. 21. ft. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. T. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. normal depth decreases downstream. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.43). McGrawHill Book Company. the specific energy also decreases.” 6th ed. (V. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.43 Fig. 21.42 is called the normal depth dn.
McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. for a given discharge. Eq. “Handbook of Hydraulics.84) may be reduced to (21. or conversely. and flow is supercritical. (21. 21.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.84) is called the critical depth dc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.84). F.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft3/s d = depth of flow. The flow there is called subcritical flow.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. . For a given value of specific energy. Inc. (21.” 6th ed.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Click here to view.. (21.44). New York). The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.44). In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.21. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. or it may be found directly from tables (E. 21. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. the depth is greater than critical. (21. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. 21.43. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. Brater. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. All rights reserved. For rectangular channels. the depth is below critical. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.
along with a high loss of energy.87) Fig. . p. Click here to view. 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. [As indicated by Eq.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. 21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. regardless of slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. once calculated. Critical depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21.52b.44). flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. 21. 21. flow is subcritical.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. 21. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.45. ft3/s b = width of channel. as indicated in Fig. For every depth greater than critical depth. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. 21. 21. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. without turbulence. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. All rights reserved. Such a change occurs gradually. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. (21. flow is supercritical. however.45 where dc = critical depth.85). indicating an irreversible occurrence. Inc. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated.57). There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. a hydraulic jump will occur.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. (21. It can be seen from Fig.
ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. 21.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 and Table 21. therefore. are in Table 21. is replaced by a horizontal line.11. the average n values given in Table 21.D.L. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.46c and d. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. at an arbitrary elevation.D.D.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. Department of Agriculture. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.46a and b.21. as shown in Fig. New York.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. The M2 curve forms between the normal. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.L. (21. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. 21.D.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. The N. are identical for a channel of critical slope.D. there must be a continuing maintenance program.L.90) where A = area of flow. H for horizontal. and adverse slope. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Chow. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. (Although based on surface roughness. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. Inc. 21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. These curves are divided into five groups. Eq. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Click here to view. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. 21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.25). S for steep (supercritical).46. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.4. Dr. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. and the critical-depth line C.) 21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.S. (See also Art. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.L.L. All rights reserved. and the N. E. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. horizontal. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. C for critical. T. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. and C. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).23).and critical-depth lines. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. and two types for channels of critical. 21.89) may be written (21. ft V = mean velocity of flow. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. . and A for adverse.
Dry rubble 5. few weeds c. Dense brush.025 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.012 0.033 0.023 0.017 0.018 0.010 0.013 0.030 0. Float finish b.050 0.024 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Rock cuts a. good section c.018 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Rough C.015 0. Lined channels 1. Smooth and uniform b.014 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Dense weeds.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.012 0.027 0. Masonry a.040 0. 21. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.100 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.022 0.016 0. Inc.120 0.020 0.050 0. No vegetation b. straight and uniform a.023 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.040 0. Smooth wood form c.030 0. Planed. Light brush on banks 3. Jagged and irregular 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Asphalt a. high stage 2. respectively). 21.46a and b. after weathering b.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Cement-mortar surface 3. Click here to view. All rights reserved.016 0. Steel form b.025 0.025 0.46i and j.025 0.030 0.080 0.033 0.025 0.028 0. Cemented rubble b. Unlined channels 1. Excavated earth. Gunite.013 0. high as flow depth d.019 0.060 0. Rough wood form B.015 0. untreated 3.016 0. Corrugated 2.017 Max 0. Clean.022 0. Dredged earth a. Smooth b. With short grass.012 0.015 Avg 0. Gunite.035 0. Concrete a. wavy section 4. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. 21.035 0.014 0.140 0.021 0.012 0.016 0.035 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.035 0.080 0.016 0. commonly called a drawdown curve. The S2 curve. Metal a.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.011 0.014 0.011 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Wood a.013 0.013 0. 21. .013 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.014 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.021 0.022 0.032 0.025 0.
..46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. C. The curves in Fig.D. critical-depth line.L. 21. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.21.D.L. H. and A profiles. indicates normal-depth line. Examples in Fig. Inc. 21.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. All rights reserved. 21.46k and l. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. Click here to view. N.
“Open-Channel Hydraulics. direction-integration. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity.) 21.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. . The wave travels at a speed. known as its celerity. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. (21. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. and step methods. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. H. T. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. New York.. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. All rights reserved. Inc. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. See Art. 21. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. 21. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. each reach is solved in succession.” McGraw-Hill. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. Chow. weir. 21. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. For step-method computations. New York. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. Inc. (R. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. Explanations of both the graphical. free overfall.51). Click here to view. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32.27. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow.47.77) if the depth were zero.5. For subcritical flow conditions.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or reaches. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). gate. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. dam. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. depending on the type of flow. French. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. For the section of channel in Fig. the channel is divided into short lengths. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. with relatively small variation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.and direct-integration methods are in V.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.
Solving Eq.93) where R = hydraulic radius. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. 21. the longer the backwater curve profile. ft. the – eddy loss. hi.93).47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. 21. (For uniform. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. The smaller the value of n. rearranged as follows: Fig. Therefore. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. as given by Eq. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. the change in elevation. and – SL = hf. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. All rights reserved. prismatic channels.21.92) (21. ft. the head loss.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Click here to view. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. (21.91) for L gives (21.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. 21.82). This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. Inc. and vice versa. (21. respectively. due to friction in the same reach. is negligible and can be ignored. . not the channel bottom.
Next. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. the average friction slope for the reach. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss.1 for converging reaches. Click here to view. (21. and it is therefore often accounted for. (21. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. (21. For lined channels. (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. total head H. Next.47. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. (21. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. grade. Then. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Therefore. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Since this step method is a converging process. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq.92). respectively. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft.2 for diverging reaches. Eddy loss. (21.51 may be some intermediate depth. All rights reserved. ft. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Finally.93). which. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. or roughness.94). ft. The value of total head computed from Eq. is obtained from Eq. ft. Then. Inc.93). in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig.95). Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. referred to a horizontal datum. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. (21. after substitution of H from Eq. ft/s. the friction loss. (21. in natural channels.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. computations progress toward the initial section. S. becomes (21. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L.Water Resources Engineering s 21.96).5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. at sec– tions 1 and 2.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. respectively. 21. sometimes called impact loss. Z2. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. and about 0. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. . from 0 to 0.95) The coefficient k is 0.
.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. Inc. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. 21. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. The effect of bridges.” Hydraulics Design Series no. however.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. known as the roller. a gate. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Utilizing the above data. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. approach roadways. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). However. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. 21. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. 21. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. French. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas.27. or other obstruction. and determine the discharge.48). their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. If the two values of total head do not agree.1 ft in elevation. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. bridge piers. velocity. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required.52b. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. respectively. H. 2nd ed. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. is a turbulent mass of water. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. 1.S. Federal Highway Administration. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Department of Transportation. All rights reserved. Fig. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. 1970. Click here to view. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. known as the length of jump. 21. 21.51 and 21.21. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. N. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). Bradley. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. .48 Hydraulic jump.23). Bureau of Public Roads. New York. The upstream surface of the jump. U. and J. 21. as shown in Figs.
ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.99) where M = mass of water.82). and g = acceleration due to gravity. in Eq. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. where L is a characteristic length.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. For rectangular channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. 21.100). lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. (21. (21. ft w = unit weight of water. ft/s2. (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. d2 must also equal dc.49) is given by (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.98) and (21. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump.16)]. This difference (Fig. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. For open-channel flow. (21. this resultant pressure force is (21. . ft g = acceleration due to gravity. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft. 21. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.102) Equation (21. ft2 T = width of free surface.105) where A = area of flow.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. s (21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. ft3/s = unit of time.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32. Inc. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.99).27.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. (21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. All rights reserved.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. ft/s. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.104) = discharge. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. V is the mean velocity.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. Click here to view. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. or alternate depths.100) Equation (21. ft d2 = depth after jump.
Click here to view. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. The jump action is rough but effective.5 to 9. depending on local conditions. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. This jump may be called a strong jump. can travel for miles. Inc. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.S. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.27. For F1 = 2. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. chute.5. If the tailwater is too high. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.0 and larger. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 4. In either case. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway.21. the jump will be drowned out. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depth after the jump. 21. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. For F1 = 1. The jump is well-balanced. were classified by the U. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. the flow is critical and there is no jump. 21. which. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. . and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.7 to 2.7. 21. This jump may be called a steady jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. which gives discharge vs. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. This jump may be called a weak jump. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.23). doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.49. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art.5 to 4. For F1 = 9. If the tailwater is too low. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. The jump is called an undular jump.0. and the performance is at its best. For F1 = 1.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. below a spillway. All rights reserved. for example. For F1 = 1 to 1. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. very commonly in canals. Various forms of hydraulic jump. 21. there are undulations on the surface.
50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Chow from data gathered by the U. and sloping the apron. These features are expensive to build. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. All rights reserved. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The resulting curve (Fig.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. 21. . not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. But it has been determined experimentally. Accessories. therefore. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.27.27. Inc. T.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. This length (Fig. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.55 curve involve changing the crest length. (21. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. 21. changing the apron elevation. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place.51.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. 21. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Click here to view.105). prepared by V.S. The curve. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. 21.
equal in length to L.5% of critical depth. 21. (21. the jump occurs in the steep region. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. 21. 21. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. the computed length of jump. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. the jump moves downstream to a new position. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems.7dc for simplicity. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. Click here to view. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. It is assumed. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. The actual depth at the brink is 71. . if the downstream depth is lowered. Conversely. between lines CB′and EO. but it is normally assumed to be 0. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. A horizontal intercept FG. 21. equal to the computed length of the jump. curves AB and ED in Fig. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. for simplicity. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. as shown in Fig. With values of d2 obtained from Eq.101) with d1 given. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. (21. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig.23) to mild. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. less than. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. respectively (Fig. using the step methods of Art.52. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. as theory would indicate.102).75h in the absence of better information. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. that flow is uniform. 21. CB. As depth d2 is lowered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. as shown in Fig. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig.52b. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.21.46e and c). If d2 is less than d′ . are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. All rights reserved. computed from Eq. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta.51.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig.52a. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. 21. (21. 21. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. computed from Eq. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. which occurs near the channel drop-off. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED.26.101). Inc. the jump moves to a new location downstream.
23). or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. F. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. if not. Then.. where He is the specific energy head. From Q = AV. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Brater. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. on the channel entrance. and the slope of the channel. ft.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. or (b) below it. ignoring entrance loss. New York. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). 21.) 21. or (a) above it. Click here to view.53a). and discharge is at a maximum. ft. 21.53). and the computations continued until a balance is reached. Inc. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. French. Inc. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. ft.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. H.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.3 for one with squared ends.85)].. ft3/s. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. then the assumed discharge is correct. “Handbook of Hydraulics. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.106) where b is the channel width.” McGraw-Hill.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. New York. a new discharge is assumed. is (21. 21. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.82) and (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0.” 6th ed. ft.51. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. the entrance loss. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. If the entrance loss must be considered. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. (21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. . All rights reserved. (R. 21. 21. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels.
83). 32. . The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.2 ft/s2. 21.53b. 21. 21.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. where He – d is the actual head.33). 21.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. producing flow. a new discharge is chosen. (In Fig. ft3/s. ft. All rights reserved. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. He is the specific energy head. if not. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. (21. (b) mild-slope channel. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.21. then the discharge is correct. ———— charge.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. Click here to view. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq.53b).23). 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.22). and g is acceleration due to gravity.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21. Inc. ft2. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. d is normal depth.
but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. When water is forced to flow in a curved path.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. 21. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. All rights reserved. Therefore. ft. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. ft. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. where V is its average velocity. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. Click here to view. (21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft /s. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. ft. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. however.23). (21.59 21.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. when a stream enters a curve. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. and rc the radius of curvature. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. or mV2 /rc for m. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. a unit mass of water. curve (Fig.107) The theoretical difference y. 21.108). (21. the true value of y would be only a few inches. 21. The error will not be great. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Thus. In this range. Inc. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig.83)]. If the bend continues long enough. . 21. of the center line of the channel. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path.
A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Click here to view. flows around a bend in a channel.111).001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. depths along the inside wall. One is a positive wave. Fig. 21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. an increase in friction loss results.55). Department of Agriculture.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. recross as shown. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. and should be used with discretion. 21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. however. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.” U. C.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Inc. phase. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. 21. The second is a negative wave. a series of standing waves are produced. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E.S. by (21.21.16)] . Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. (21. (F. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. This angle may be found from (21.23). Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. with sufficient accuracy. Scobey. . The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. His values have not been evaluated completely. All rights reserved.110) for θ in Eq. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. (21. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. Technical Bulletin 393. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. These waves cross at M. Two waves form at the start of the curve. (21. The cross slope required for 21. and continue crossing and recrossing. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.
and channel shape and slope. equals about 0. change from subcritical to supercritical. ft. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. plus any transition and friction losses.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. ∆V is the velocity change.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. respectively. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. Straight. If friction is ignored. p. the average velocity decreases. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. such as flow-rate changes. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.2 for welldesigned transitions. low-head-loss transfer of flow. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. wall roughness.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. For outlet-type structures. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.56. and g = 32.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. if friction is ignored. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. Inc.23). as shown in Fig. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. Many variables. 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.1 [∆(V2/2g)].61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21. therefore. 21.1 for an inlet-type structure. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. Click here to view. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2. where K. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. All rights reserved. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. In this range. When proceeding downstream through a transition. 21. ft/s.8[∆(V2/2g)]. is given by K(∆V2/2g). 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow.44.44. To place a transition properly between two open channels.113) angle of about 12. or change from supercritical to subcritical.57). the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. In design of an inlet-type transition structure.54). the loss factor. The transition loss. . After such a water-surface profile is chosen.
Click here to view. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. triangular or Vnotch weirs. and parabolic weirs. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola.59.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.5 = a(30)2. In contrast. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. and. 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0.57. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening.34.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. as shown in Fig. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. the weir is submerged or drowned. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. . trapezoidal weirs.000556(10)2 = 0. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. 21. Fig.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Inc. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.58 Sharp-crested weir.58). 21.21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. from which a = 0.000556. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. the weir has free discharge. If the discharge is partly under water. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. such as broad-crested weirs. measured from A or B. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. triangular weirs. All rights reserved. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. y = ax2.59 Weir not sharp-crested.000556(20)2 = 0. 21. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. For Fig. trapezoidal weirs. 21. Fig.222 ft. such as rectangular weirs. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. 21.34. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. 2.115) where Q = discharge. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. If P is less than Fig. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. . One such equation.58) (V. A V-notch weir (Fig.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.5H. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. Hence. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. T. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. 21. All rights reserved. contraction of the nappe. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. below the crest. 21. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.60 V-notch weir.116) corrects for the effects of friction. Inc. Equation (21. At very low heads. The height of weir P must be at least 2. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.5H upstream from the weir. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. thus causing a contraction of the flow. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. Chow. ft The head should be measured at least 2. To be fully ventilated. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. New York). Click here to view. 21. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.
64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. 21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. His values were summarized by Brater. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Fig.2) when low discharges are to be measured.21. 69. ft H = head. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. All rights reserved. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. The effective length L. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. Click here to view. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Lenz. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. 21. Discharge is given by (21. F. 21.119) where Q = discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. vol.61) (E. measured from notch bottom. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. New York).60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.5H upstream from the weir.118)] 21. 21.34.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. there is one end contraction and N = 1.34. there are two end contractions and N = 2. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. . 21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. T. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.” 6th ed. ft. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.34. (21. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.118) Fig. 21. 1943). 21.
and then. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Where great accuracy is essential. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. The discharge Qs.) Equation (21. velocity head. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. and finally total head. or both. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.115) is rewritten in the form (21. 866. 1947. 21. 2 21. which may be done as follows: First. p. for such weirs. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged.59). ft3/s.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. velocity head of approach.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. 21.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. ft. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. All rights reserved. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. 21. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. (21.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 21. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.34. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .121) where Q = discharge. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. ft3/s.) To use the Villemonte equation. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. heavily constructed devices. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. neglecting the velocity head.34. compute the velocity of approach. Eq. Villemonte. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. (J. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom.” Engineering News-Record. From this total head.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. Typically. using this rate and the required depths. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. 32. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. R. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. Thus. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. (21. Click here to view. using this discharge. 25. Dec.122) where H = measured head. Fig. Then. ft V = velocity of approach.
For each change of nappe shape. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. thickness of pier.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0.20 0.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.02 0.5Hd > r* > 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. “Design of Small Dams. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.10 H. But the process should be repeated. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. .S. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Washington.13. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. DC 20402. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. ft (U.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.2 of the head.21. Click here to view. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. All rights reserved.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.123) where L = effective crest length. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. the head in relation to the design head. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. The effect is most critical for low heads. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. and the approach velocity. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.12. starting with the corrected discharge. and approach velocity. Department of the Interior.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.34. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.” Government Printing Office. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. Inc. Therefore. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. ft L′ = net crest lengths. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. For conditions of design head Table 21. 21. F. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. where approach velocities are high. head in relation to design heads. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. For conditions of design head Hd.
the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. called the design head Hd.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.S. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. Fig. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.64) has such a shape. Of the above rules. T.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Figure 21. According to Chow. For flow at heads lower than the design head.5H upstream. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. DC 20402. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. . This relationship is shown in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.34. 21. 2. Consequently. Click here to view.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. All rights reserved. Department of the Interior. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. 21. for a sharp-crested weir. and therefore of an ogee crest. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. T. (21. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Chow.65. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. 21.122).66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd.” Government Printing Office. 1. Washington.66 of the head. Chow. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. at the point of maximum contraction. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Inc. where discharge is given by Eq. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. (U. New York). (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. This manual and V. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.67 Fig. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. depends on the head producing the discharge. 21. The shape of this nappe. “Design of Small Dams. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow.
” U.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.) Fig.S.66.S. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Fig. 21. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. the flow differs from ideal. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.21. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Bureau of Reclamation.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. Inc. (From “Design of Small Dams. (From “Design of Small Dams. .” U.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. New York.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 21.
66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. “Handbook of Hydraulics. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. appear in Table 21. .68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. Click here to view. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. for example.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. where the velocity of approach is not high. F. E.” 6th ed. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. Unless otherwise noted. the coefficient of discharge. (From “Design of Small Dams. Brater. has contraction of the nappe. New York.” 6th ed. compiled by King. Bureau of Reclamation.. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (See. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Weirs of irregular section. if flow is at other than the design head.69 Broad-crested weir.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. and sharp right-angled edges. because of its sharp upstream edge.14.S..68. (E.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. 21. Values of the discharge coefficient. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. 21.) 21. therefore.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. the nappe springs free.” U. Figure 21. is determined from Fig. are used as spillways and control structures. fairly common in waterworks projects.34. a plane horizontal crest.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Brater. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.34.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. New York. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.67 and 21.69 Fig. F. Figure 21. (21. 21.) Fig.
65 2.66 2.63 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. once formed.69 2.21.76 2.32 3.88 3.32 3.5 2.64 2.32 3.03 3.60 2.28 3.68 2.32 3.64 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.50 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.60 2.05 3.04 3.49 2.32 3.74 2.68 2.60 2.85 3.32 3. erosion.32 3.32 3. The smaller silt sizes.70 2.63 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.65 2.32 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.32 4.31 3.69 2.64 2.00 2.65 2.67 2.70 2.31 3. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.63 21.65 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.63 2. Inc.32 3.48 2.70 2.89 3.60 2.32 3.32 1.32 Breadth of crest of weir.32 3.86 2.80 2.75 2.64 2.50 H. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.5 5.20 3.70 2.8 1.68 2.6 1.63 2.64 2.62 2. 21.00 2.68 2.14 3.32 3.00 2.32 3. such as gates.32 3. ft 0. and turbines. All rights reserved.32 3.32 3. Click here to view.08 3.44 2.35.64 2.63 2.68 2.32 3.72 2.68 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.64 2.88 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.0 2.32 3.34 2.75 2.0 4. This incoming water.74 2.00 2.64 2.30 3.32 3.72 2.65 2.98 3.64 2.80 2.32 3.30 3.64 2.68 2.07 3.68 2.2 0.64 2.66 2.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water. which are often of equal consequence.92 3.66 2.68 2.79 2.75 2.5 4.32 3.68 2.89 3.32 3.26 3.38 2.73 2.08 3.32 3.66 2.61 2.32 3.88 10. ft 0.75 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.92 2.63 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment. or soil.75 2.79 1.32 3.32 3.67 2.0 1.31 3. those forming the bed load.85 2.07 3.70 2.77 2.32 3.63 2.63 2.54 2.32 3.64 2. those carried in suspension. Heavier silt sizes.07 3. . Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.20 3.70 2.67 2.00 2.32 3.69 2.64 2.67 2.29 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.66 2.63 2.8 2. such as a reservoir.00 2.28 3.63 2. A density current. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 1.67 2.64 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 3.32 5.72 2.32 3.65 2.61 2.5 3.92 3.32 2.2 1.81 2. with its load of suspended silt.54 2.00 2. valves.76 2.56 2.19 3.0 3.68 2.6 0.0 5.97 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 3.58 2.50 2.07 3.32 3.68 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.64 2.89 2.65 2.64 15.4 0.07 3.64 2.4 1.32 3.32 3.64 2.32 2.32 3.32 3.69 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.50 2.
on the other hand. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime.39.35. however.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. the rate is not uniform during the year. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. 21. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. formed from the bed load. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. because of variations in rainfall. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. When neither can be done. These currents are stable. The most common manner of destruction. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. are coarsegrained. 21. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. However. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. overtopping. Inc. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. or failure of materials. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. Of course. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. . The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. All rights reserved. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. By this method. landslide.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. see Art. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. once formed. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. Click here to view. or from year to year.
The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.1). if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. gravel.124) where Gb = total bed load. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. 21.21. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. Frequently. Therefore. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. and boulders. According to Witzig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. But for the most part. ft3/s b = width of river. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. Therefore. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. A mean grain size of 0. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. which varies with both slope and discharge. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles.0 ft/mi.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. however.35. Therefore.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Click here to view. which generally occurs only during a storm. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. . ft qo = critical discharge. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. discharge. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. Inc.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. (21. All rights reserved.
in the form of synoptic weather charts. Weather Bureau is 24 h. their chemical and physical properties. evaporation. if the dam is raised at a later date. recharges groundwater. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. day. Current data. and the stream velocity. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. New York. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. their occurrence. check-dam construction.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it.S. such as wind. All rights reserved. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. rivers. . It continually records. and pressure. or a combination of the two. planting of burned-over areas.” U. which are of two types. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. Click here to view. discharges into streams.) culation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Use of vegetation screens.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. contour plowing. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. infiltration. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. and their reaction with their environment. H. water evaporation from oceans. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. Department of Agriculture. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. temperature. and distribution. infiltrates into the soil. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. and stream flow 21. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.S. runoff. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Graf. (W. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. The second type is a nonrecording gage. or digital microchip technology.73 dation. For instance. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. A. on or near the land surface. lakes. Weather Bureau. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. groundwater flow. or year. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Such screens. such as an hour. Einstein. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. circulation. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. are published daily by the U.S. including their relation to living things. (See H. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Inc. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. by ink pen and revolving drum. debris barriers. In this cycle. (21-124).
in of mercury. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. developed from Dalton’s law. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. and other vegetation surfaces. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. Evapotranspiration is important because.125) (21. ground. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill. see D.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. This phenomenon. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. called interception. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21.126) where E = evaporation rate. New York. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. Evaporation may occur from free-water. has a relatively large surface area. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. All rights reserved. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. commonly termed consumptive use. and it increases as wind velocity increases. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. in of mercury. tropical and subtropical regions.125)]. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. plant. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Inc. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. Click here to view. Evapotranspiration. (21. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. In evaporation. On an annual basis. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Not all rain reaches the ground. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. or ground surfaces.. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage.21. especially if the reservoir is shallow. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. . “Handbook of Hydrology. The Meyer equation [Eq. A portion may evaporate as it falls. equal to 15 for small. R. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. while another portion may be caught on leaves. In transpiration. Maidment. branches. on a long-term basis. (21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. Inc. shallow pools and 11 for large. Of the three. and plantleaf surfaces. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.
The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. depending on the geographical region. (D. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. New York. “Handbook of Hydrology. 21. called a Class A Level Pan. Inc. or excess rain. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. frost. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. After joining stream flow. Subsurface flow. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. Precipitation—form (rain. All rights reserved. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. or groundwater runoff. subsurface runoff. tropical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. duration.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. also known as interflow. In practice. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. perhaps several years. aquatic life. or groundwater flow. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. although it may vary between 0. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Click here to view. runoff may be surface. Commonly. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. or cetyl alcohol. hail. Climatic characteristics a. On large reservoirs. Maidment. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. and biologic attrition. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. dew). insects. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. Thus.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. time distribution. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. and storm seepage.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. subsurface storm flow. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Inc. R. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Classified by the path taken to a channel.70. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. subsurface. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. . Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. except in arid. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. snow. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Hexadeconal. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. Moving laterally. intensity. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Groundwater flow. natural or manmade. effective rain includes subsurface flow. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. to reach a channel. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.80. birds. wind tends to push the film to the shore. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. is in widespread use.60 and 0. It appears in surface channels.” McGraw-Hill. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind..
orientation. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Inc. length) b.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. land use and cover. Geologic—soil type. snow storage. artificial drainage. lakes and other bodies of water. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. Geological Survey. yearly flow volume. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. extremes of flow. TVA. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. and the accuracy desired. All rights reserved. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Atmospheric pressure f. as shown in Fig. stratification Fig. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits.S. drainage net. Weather Bureau. channels (size. Drainage-basin characteristics a.21. both published and unpublished. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. and Weather Bureau.S. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers.S. elevation. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. antecedent precipitation. the detail required in the final answer.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. and various state and local agencies. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. general location. permeability. shape. Humidity e. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. and completeness of the hydrologic records. recurrence interval. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. direction of storm movement b. frozen ground during storms. detail. mean flow. direction. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Topographic—size. International Boundary Commission. groundwater formations. Wind—velocity. shape of cross section.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. 21. Geological Survey. Geological Survey. soil moisture. Agricultural Research Service. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. areal distribution. Click here to view.” U. 21. the U. 21. slope. These papers contain records of daily flow. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. . special-interest items. duration d. Solar radiation 2.70. extremes during precipitation c. 21. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. slope. the quantity and type of data available. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. roughness.S.S. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Temperature—variation.
others give the complete hydrograph. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas.or 100-year-frequency storm. great importance. 3. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. a 50. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. T. As an example. The values of C in Table 21. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. 2. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Click here to view. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Several methods yield only peak discharge. the second to major hydraulic structures. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. 4. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. Inc. 5. in/h A = drainage area. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. .41. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.127) where Q = peak discharge. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Chow. All rights reserved.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V.128) 21.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. 1962). The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. and large downstream damage potential. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for example.
is a convenient.128) or Eq.05 – 0..80 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.71 and Table 21.50 – 0.20 – 0. K.41. the flow time in streets. streets.95 0. steep.129). the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.) The flow time in gutters. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.17 0. “Handbook of Hydrology.95 0.30 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.50 – 0.60 – 0. Click here to view.95 0.85 0.80 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. avg.75 0. flat. steep. 2–7% Sandy soil. After determining the time of concentration. n.70 0.50 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.20 – 0.10 – 0.89)] . Inc.70 – 0. (21.21.95 0.10 0.70 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.30 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. or ditches.60 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. and the flow time in conduits.25 0. Sherman.25 – 0.15 – 0. in/h respectively.85 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.40 0.35 0. All rights reserved. . Inc.40 0. factor.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.13 – 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.60 – 0.70 – 0. Maidment.” McGraw-Hill.70 – 0. coefficient.75 – 0.40 – 0.75 – 0. or any equivalent method. ditches.15 0. 7% Heavy soil. 21. New York.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. flat.10 – 0. 21. (See D.16).18 – 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. (21. avg. years duration of storm. gutters.127). widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2% Heavy soil. detached Multiunits.50 – 0.20 0. Equation (21. 21.25 – 0.129) Table 21. b. (21.10 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.22 0. 2% Sandy soil. min time of concentration Fig. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.90 0. (21.
2. easier. The method is summarized by the formula (21. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Click here to view. termed a unit storm. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. JanuaryJune 1932.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. This requires that a storm of short duration. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity.” Engineering News-Record.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. 3. pp. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. vol. subdivision may be required. If the watershed is very large. (Leroy K. Sherman. . a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin.79 Table 21. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. 501-505. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. 108. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. 4. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. the time of storm runoff. termed a unit period. usually 1 acre). It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Inc. that is. All rights reserved.
21. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Click here to view. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. . which is of fixed intensity and duration. For ease of manipulation. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. Illustrated in Fig. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. 21. because of storm variations. Usually. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.73). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm.21. All rights reserved. 21. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily.72. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Then. 5. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.
Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. pt. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall.) Fig. New York. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. All rights reserved. I. perpendicular to direction of flow. (R. “Hydrology for Engineers. during heavy storms. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. Also. Click here to view.81 21.” 3rd ed. This loss. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.131) period.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill. pp. This method was developed by Franklin F.74). Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors.. 19.. Linsley et al. R. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area..74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.Water Resources Engineering s 21.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. . The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.. vol. 21. 21. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Inc. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. K. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) where Q = flow rate. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. “Handbook of Hydrology. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Maidment. New York. (See D. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Fig. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Inc. 447–454). Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. 21. Inc.
(A base period is a period of time. and indirect water-quality use costs. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. poor-quality replenishment waters. Following the preceding preliminary work. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. source. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. alternative management plans should be formulated. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Frequently. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. water softening costs. Inc. Deteriorating water quality. Regardless of how it is defined. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. present and future water demands should be determined. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. groundwater levels. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. and quality of water supply. recycling. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. among others. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. need for excessive pumping lifts. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. and methods of wastewater disposal. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. safe yield. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. wastewaters. or other causes. and location of artificial replenishment. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. quantity. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cost of replenishment water. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Click here to view. usually a number of years. and overdraft. because of impermeable layers above and below it.21. rather than a change in volume. quality. quantity. These costs include increased soap costs. All rights reserved. is a confined or artesian aquifer. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. . (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities.
A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. decreasing percentage increase. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. Hydrology for Engineers. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. wastewater disposed. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. and public. sanitary. percentage increase. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. land speculation. motels. storage. Inc. and hotels for drinking.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. irrigation.. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. and sanitary purposes. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. The smaller the system. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. and environmental factors. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as industrial development. and treatment works. commercial. amount and location of groundwater extractions. and natural and artificial replenishment. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. apartments. “Groundwater Engineering. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. washing. water used. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. fire-fighting. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. All rights reserved. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. . 1987. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Click here to view.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. institutional. industrial.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is a very difficult task. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. Estimation of future population. 40. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. J.. no.” R. or other unforeseen emergency. culinary. geographical boundaries. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. graphical comparison with other cities. Grigg.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. (“Ground Water Management. distribution. transmission. bathing. Bear. fire. pumping. S. McGraw-Hill Book Company. American Society of Civil Engineers. surface-water delivery facilities.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. financially feasible. Kashef. and age of the city.” A. flood. industrial. 21. legal. I.” N. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. Therefore. K. “Water Resources Planning. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. New York.” 3rd ed. Linsley et al. however.
150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and quality of the water. Demand rates vary with time of day. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. presents Table 21. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Normally. State of California Office of Planning and Research. . Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. the demand for it decreases. cost. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. are the average of a range of values.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Click here to view. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. type of service (metered or unmetered). cooling. such as the climate. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. and cleaning. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Inc. it may control the design of the facilities. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. pressure. valves.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles.” 1979. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange.S. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. month. and unauthorized uses. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. janitorial. Public use of water for parks. and faucets. Public Health Service Report. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. but because of the high rate at which it is required. and year. degree of industrialization. The “California Water Atlas. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. quality. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. and time of day. The national demand-rate data. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. mainly because of the lack of large industries. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Calif. cost. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities.17. influence the demand rate for water. degree of industrialization. if the cost of water increases. air conditioning. Mo. and air conditioning purposes. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. reservoir evaporation. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Table 21. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. as presented in Table 21. size of the city. and pressure. standard of living.21. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. All rights reserved. meter malfunctions. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. lawn sprinkling. public buildings.
Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. cost.0 1. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. . consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 1.000 60. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.0 7.2 8.000 80.000 85.000 17.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The source must Table 21.3 5.8 2.000 * American Insurance Association.5 14.000 48. 21. industrialization.000 40.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 200.6 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 10.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. but the demand rate is high.000 8.000 85.000 80. valley cities.4 17.000 3. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 40. legality. and streams.2 2.6 4. climate. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. MG = million gallons. Moreover.18.000 4. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. diversification is essential for reliability.000 6. is frequently undesirable.000 5. and politics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. interdependent.18 Required Fire Flow. inland. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. the effect of warm.000 40.000 90.8 7.500 2. In some local areas.000 100. In the atlas.000 125.8 6.000 120. MG† 0. Click here to view.3 0. † MGD = million gallons per day. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 70.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 40.000 2. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. Hydrant Spacing. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 10.000 28. All rights reserved. Cost. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. rivers.000 90. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. however.000 4.3 Duration.000 110.6 11. quality.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.4 3. gal/min P = population.000 12. Total dependence on a single source.000 40. In the past.000 40.132) where G = fire-demand rate. and in some cases. such as lakes. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.0 3.000 1.9 4. Inc.000 55.4 2. In selection of a source of supply. to a large extent. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 40.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
temperature.22. and Water Pollution Control Federation. All rights reserved. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dependent on local conditions. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. and calculation of the Langelier index. The measurements should include pH. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.21. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. calcium hardness.5 mg / L 0. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.21. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.5 – 8. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. (See also Art.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In addition.” U.S. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. such as sulfates and chlorides.S. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.) At the discretion of the state. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.3 mg / L 0. Inc. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. alkalinity. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. total dissolved solids. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.) Source Protection s The U. 21.” American Public Health Association. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. . American Water Works Association. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.
Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. B. (21. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. velocity is constant. and softening (see also Art. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. is equal to or less than 1. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. depth ho .46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.0 < R < 2000.134). Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. (See R. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid.Water Resources Engineering s 21. to be used in Eq. (21. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. Mich.0. For this ideal basin. Click here to view.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. . there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.51).134) where CD is the drag coefficient. 21. however.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. and size and shape of the settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Newton’s law applies: (21. Reynolds numbers. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. calculated with ν = νs. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. such as those mentioned above. Figure 21. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . (Usually. Inc. disinfection. temperature and viscosity of the water. mm If R > 2000. unpleasant tastes and odors. and width B. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Inc.. coagulation-sedimentation. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards.46. Ann Arbor. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. Pojasek. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Figure 21.001 and 5.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. In the region where 1. slow and rapid sand filtration. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. shape. V the flowthrough velocity. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. All rights reserved. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. 21. 21. particulate and colored matter. 21.
21. All rights reserved. 897. 21. Inc.) Fig. p. (Observed curves.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. vol. 1946. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 103. at 10 °C. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. after Camp.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.
2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . Multistory tanks. Okun. and D.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. A. 1. Inc. J. Click here to view.78a) or circular (Fig. . for example. Fair. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The tubular settler (Fig. M..8c. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. All rights reserved. Inc. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. “Water Treatment Plant Design. 21..77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. rectangular (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Geyer. and eddy currents. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Without coagulants. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. 21. 21.” John Wiley & Sons. 21. G. 21.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . short circuiting. coagulants are added to the water. C.78b).” McGraw-Hill.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. New York. or other indicator to pass through the basin. 27. are removed in this basin. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. salt. finely Fig. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. New York.) 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.46. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.
21. Inc. (b) Circular clarifier. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. . All rights reserved. (d) Tubular settler.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.
anionic. chemical and biological reactions. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. “New Concepts in Water Purification. and hardness. or neutral in charge. and easier dewatering.. T. The filtering process has many components. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. polymers have a minor effect on pH.to 60min range. such as pH. or negatively charged. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. Polymers are long-chain. American Water Works Association. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3.” R. Click here to view. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. and air jets. coliform organisms. turbidity.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. however. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Also. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. settling. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. and suspended solids.” McGraw-Hill. New York. . There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. J.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Inc. “Water Quality and Treatment. and nonionic.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). ferric chloride (FeCl3). plankton. They are available in three types: cationic. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. L. Inc. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. centrifugal pumps. (G. to get the small floc to agglomerate. color. however. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. color. A. in some instances. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Culp and R. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. Culp. New York. Anionic polymers. Corbitt. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. or positively charged. McGhee. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. such as paper fiber. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. such as physical straining. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant..) 21. organic polyelectrolytes. temperature. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. however. 18H2O]. such as mechanical stirrers. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. L. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. Thereby. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. All rights reserved.” 4th ed. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. considering both cost and performance. highmolecular-weight. consequently. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced.
Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.79. that will pass 10%. 21. of the sand. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.or mixed-media filtration. Inc. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. . All rights reserved. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. The process requires rapid mixing.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.21. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Click here to view. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The wash- Fig. and dual. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. through the sand and gravel layers. in millimeters. 21. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. Usually.25. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. by weight. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. depending on the turbidity. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment.to 0.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.35-mm range.to 12-in layer of gravel.
55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. such as rakes. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Inc. gal/min b = width of trough.20 to 1. All rights reserved. diatomaceous earth. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.Water Resources Engineering s 21.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity.002:1 to 0. water sprays. . which produces an undertreated effluent. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.35 to 0. however. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. or sand incrustation will be encountered. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. which is drained to waste. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. and air jets.25 to 1. may be more advantageous. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Immediately after washing.005:1 range. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. creating a high head loss across the filter. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. or anthracite coal. Dual-media. or deep coarse-media filters. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. bed cracking. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. The filtering medium may be sand. mixed-media. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. filters pass water at a high rate.
and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. “Water Quality and Treatment. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.3 and 0. Some. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21.136) (21. L. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. A. American Water Works Association. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.” and T. lime (CaO). respectively. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. J. “Water Treatment Plant Design.1 mg/L. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. G. . or open-joint pipes. L.” John Wiley & Sons. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. in clear wells. C.” 4th ed. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Regeneration requires between 0. perforated. Inc. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. and R is the zeolite material. New York. gas. Culp. McGhee. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. “Water Treatment Plant Design.. Click here to view. New York. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.21. Culp and R. such as calcium and magnesium. (American Water Works Association. and D. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness..137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Inc. In the lime-soda process.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. and American Society of Civil Engineers.” 6th ed. M.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).) 21. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. J. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. carbonates. (G. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. where 1 gpg = 17. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. sulfates. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. These materials remove cations.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates.” 4th ed. and (3) total hardness. Okun. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Water Quality and Treatment.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Geyer.. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. Fair. “New Concepts in Water Purification.138) (21. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit..) (21.139) 21. All rights reserved. New York.
141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells.1 or 0.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. New York.” McGraw-Hill.99 water supplies. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A. odor. All rights reserved. water supply. chlorine dioxide. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Inc. ultraviolet light. 21.. excessive fluorides. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. then. Geyer. anion exchange.) 21. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. New York. Inc.45).. M. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. “Water Treatment Plant Design. irrigation. J.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Inc. Okun.” and T. (G. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. “Water Treatment Plant Design. ozone. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water.) 21. C. cation exchange.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Inc. and D.Water Resources Engineering s 21. J. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Click here to view. and electrodialysis. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. detergents. Chlorine residuals of 0. flood control. New York. lime softening. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. activated carbon. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.” McGraw-Hill. taste. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Fair. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.” John Wiley & Sons. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. despite its low solubility. and lime.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. reverse osmosis. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.. Filter both solutions. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. manganese. 21.) respect to carbonates. bromine. McGhee. . The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. iron. Other disinfectants are iodine.
81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Click here to view. 21. minimum flows will be critical. . Once a reservoir site has been selected.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. 21. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.1). as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. All rights reserved.80.52. 21. When the demand rate is known. The mass diagram (Fig. The plot of volume vs. maximum flows will govern.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. 21. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Also. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. areavolume curves (Fig. Inc.21. Aeri- Fig. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. 21.
21. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. is called the thermocline. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as New York. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. are large distances from the city. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. San Francisco. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. odor. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. give special attention to water quality. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. perature drops in the fall. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. 21.35 and 21. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. the flow refills the reservoir.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and Los Angeles. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. . the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required.101 Fig. which may be only a few feet thick. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place.52. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Major sources of supply for some cities. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.2). the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.52. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. In deep reservoirs. During hours of maximum demand. If possible. pumping plants. When the tem- 21. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. When the demand drops off. but there is no circulation across this zone. Click here to view. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir.
so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. All rights reserved.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. 3.83).2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. 21. For any given storage reservoir. June 1953). This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. Inc. A flowing artesian Fig. . 21. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. Click here to view. 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. no.84). 21. M. 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.52. 21. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.21. Brune. 34. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. For the correct hydraulic grade. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. 21. vol. Brune. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. M.82) (G. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.35.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.103 Fig. . 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Inc.
3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. 21.” 6th ed. New York. or driven. eductor or riser pipe. Inc. Fair.. ft (Fig. . screen. The pump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J.21. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. p. V. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. 5. McGraw-Hill. 21. 629.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. 33. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. ft h = H minus drawdown. or hydraulic rotary methods. All rights reserved. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. waterjet. Inc.53. pump (Art.84). Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. “Water Supply and Sewerage. December 1938. 1940. Hence.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 889. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.53. C. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. 21. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). hollow-core.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. (G. motor. vol. ft d = diameter of well.53. McGhee. A. from an artesian well is given by (21. 21. Click here to view. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. p. and motor. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Theis. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. C. (C. J. T. M. ft The steady flow. Jacob. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer..” Economic Geology.” John Wiley & Sons. Geyer.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. and D. bored.142) where Q = flow. New York. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. 21. ditch. Inc. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.143) 21.53. 72. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. gal/day. vol. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.83). no. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer..104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head.57). Okun. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. E.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
valves.) At the anode. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Wood pipelines are still in existence. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. polyethylene. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. All rights reserved. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. sealed flanges. Inc. riveting. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. A machine that produces a monolithic. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place.54. concrete. and ability to withstand external loads.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. valves. and other appurtenances. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. pumps. hydrants. Click here to view. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. and sulfur compounds. impurities and strains in metals. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. but wood is rarely used in new installations. or Dresser-type couplings. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. rubber. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. In unlined pipes. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. bronze. steel. lead. are present. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Since steel is stronger than iron. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. 21. however. an anode and a cathode. . (Water may serve as an electrolyte. zinc. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Copper.21. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. Under favorable conditions. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. tanks. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. polybutylene. and meters destroyed by corrosion. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. ft 21. (21. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. such as polyvinyl chloride.146) where D = pipe diameter. stray electric currents. sand. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. and plastics. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. contact between acids and metals. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. plastic. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. If it is cement-lined. brass. bacteria in water. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement.
If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). zinc. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. water may be treated with bases. When selecting materials.86). Strains.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. 21. for example.Water Resources Engineering s 21.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. caustic soda. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. All rights reserved. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. cracks. where e is an electron. Inc. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. At the cathode. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Also. such as soda ash. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. use of protective coatings.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. 21. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. and the more ions. and Fig. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Aluminum. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). to prevent corrosion. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. . and treatment of the water. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Click here to view. the faster electrons can move through the water. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.
and the head-discharge relationship.. or impeller. Inc. Click here to view. and so on on the walls of the pipes. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. efficiency. 21. All rights reserved. The centrifugal pump. psia. or eye. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. . and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. “Water Quality and Treatment. between pump center line and water surface Fig. however.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. 21. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Water enters at the center. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. Inc. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. lime. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. oxides. graphite. the most common waterworks pump. To prevent cavitation. called a volute (Fig. magnesium. New York. 21. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. hydroxides.. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.88).) w = unit weight of liquid. Zinc. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. psia.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force.87).147) where pa = pressure. horsepower. by (21. ft.” 4th ed. z is negative. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. (American Water Works Association. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21.21. Corrosion. accomplishes that in two steps. To have practical meaning. in feet. 21. ft of water z = elevation difference. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill.
In a typical water-system analysis. See also Art. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs.57 and check valves in Art.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. (I. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. below 200 gal/min.Water Resources Engineering s 21. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.58..89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. Karassik et al. pump discharge. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. as shown in Fig. helical. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. 21. depending on the number of stages. 21. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter.89. propeller. Inc. reciprocating.111 than the required NPSH. 21. rotary.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Fig.. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. 21. Click here to view. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. (Also included in Fig. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. For that reason. jet. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. 21. however. and air lift. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. J. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. discharge curve with the brake horsepower.) 21. All rights reserved. “Pump Handbook. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . 21.” 2nd ed. head. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21. vanes. r/min Q = discharge. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. 21. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Jet pumps (Fig. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. (21.148) where n = impeller speed. which is a function of specific speed. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.90 fied).90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. either hand. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Because of the close tolerances. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. 21. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. which are located at the well bottom. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Reciprocating pumps. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. so that the entire lift is suction. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. All rights reserved. gal/min H = head. they can be used only for sediment-free water. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. cams. At sea level. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Inc. utilize piston action to move water. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. Click here to view. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. and for Ns above 7500. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications.or motordriven. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. . The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head.
It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. Also. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Plug. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Usually. rubber. and easy. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. “Pump Handbook. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Low head loss. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. in-service lubrication features. Check. rotates the disk. Hand or motor power. or Neoprene. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. primarily because of their low cost. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. cone. Karassik et al. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. But these valves cost more than gate. air-relief. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves.” 2nd ed. pressure-relief. solids deposition. or corporation cocks. J.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.113 tion. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling.) drives to permit manual operation. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. applied through a gear-reduction device. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. fast operation. or it may be at the bottom of the well. large pressure differences. McGraw-Hill Book Company. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Click here to view. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Inc. globe. Corrosion. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and butterfly valves. and low head loss when fully open. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. which are water. curb. plug. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. three valves must be used. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). availability. pressure-regulating. needle. sluice gate. Simplicity of construction and quick. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. New York.or oil-lubricated. one at the service connection... Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. (I. If sand is carried out with the water. pumps. All rights reserved. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. . tubercle formation.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. and butterfly. globe. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. respectively. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. one just upstream of the meter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are the major advantages of plug-type valves.
Inc. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. rivers. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Interior-differential. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat.21. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Because of high head losses. Click here to view. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. such as trunk lines 21. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. and relief valves. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. and large pipes. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. 21.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. tube. Furthermore. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Often. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Many automatic control valves. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. check. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. All rights reserved. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. or California type. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Usually.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. When the valve is in a closed position. For example. The most common check valve is the swing type. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. The wetbarrel. which connects the barrel to the main. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves.
has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water.. or modifications thereof. However. The cup-type meter. simplicity and ease of repairs. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. nozzle. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. and cost. F. Click here to view. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. which do not affect propeller meters. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. called a Price meter. or nutating-disk types. New York. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. 21. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. McGraw-Hill Book Company. respectively. such as meters for individual customer connections.115 of distribution systems. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. see E. . Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. vertical velocity components. Inc. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired.150) where Q = flow rate. durability. rotary. 21. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.149) Hydraulics. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. for metering domestic-service connections.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. ft h1 = pressure in main section.5% within the normal test-flow limits. are the most common velocity-type devices. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. but they are used primarily in laboratories. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones.) As in venturi meters. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Brater. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.91. A clicking noise. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.” 6th ed. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. The standard venturi meter (Fig. amount of head loss through the meter. The nutating disk is used. All rights reserved. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions.
61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Nozzle meter. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. if any. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. fixed charges on capital investment.91 plate meter. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and similar items. peak rates of use. load factors.21. step rate. flat rate is falling into disuse. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Inc. seasonal use. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. (c) Orifice- 21. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. All rights reserved. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. and development of the system. fire use. 21. utility-type enterprises. or to some other recognized system. and block rate. .
This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. S. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.746 kW 1 kW = 1. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. Cost component 3. canals. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. a building to house the machinery and equipment. generators and exciters. When fixing a system of rates.Water Resources Engineering s 21.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. buying water from a wholesale supplier. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. tunnels. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Click here to view. called the commodity component. This charge is usually small. Cost component 2. penstocks. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is generally recognized that residential areas.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. draft tube. and.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. 21. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities.117 With step rate. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. pumping energy. For most distribution systems. called the demand component. Inc. and transformers. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. switching equipment. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. Cost component 1. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. depends on the peak usage of a customer. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. of serving an individual customer. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. including metering and billing. turbines and governors. All rights reserved. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. and (3) cost. called the customer component. treatment chemicals. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. tunnel. . where the majority of small users are. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. where applicable.
it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. run-of-river plants with storage. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. or seasonal cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. such as navigation. All rights reserved. On a weekly cycle. On a seasonal cycle. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. weekly. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Storage can be provided for a daily. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. base-load plants. power production being only incidental. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. or yearly basis. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. weekly. On a daily cycle. If the minimum flow is very low. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. It can be computed on a daily. Therefore. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage.92). Inc. and peak-load plants. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Then. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. . part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. 21. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation.118 s Section Twenty-One (21.21. to be used at some future time. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity.
and rock-fill. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Hasen. buttress. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Force F2 represents silt pressure. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.92). Its distribution is triangular. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. it usually is not as economical. The main classifications are gravity. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. Los Angeles. When needed. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. .63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. earth.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Zipparo and H. Calif.Water Resources Engineering s 21. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. New York. 21. All rights reserved. Inc. J. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (Department of Water and Power. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” 4th ed.. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle.) 21. arch. Click here to view.119 Fig.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. (V. Figure 21.
(E.153). In the past. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.” discussion by von Karman. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. A close approximation of the force. 98. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake.425h above the base. ice pressures as high as 50. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. 434. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. given by Eq.153) where w = unit weight of water.21. which create forces on any object resting on it. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Click here to view. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. Rose. Inc. 21. (21. 1933. May 1946. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These accelerations occur in every direction. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. p. All rights reserved. ice. which forms on the reservoir surface. A method of calculating these forces. today it is realized these values are much too high. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. presented by Edwin Rose.93 by forces F4 and F5. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. In cold climates. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.000 psf.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0.) (21. however. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. vol.1 g. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. was developed by von Karman.
A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Click here to view. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. but the structural design is much more critical. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. sand. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. Recent belief. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. and uplift forces are smaller. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. but its formwork is more expensive. overturning by rotating about the toe. however. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. If a large quantity of pervious material.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In the multiple-arch. The modes of failure are also the same. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. All rights reserved. uplift is not so important. In the past. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. Although there are many types of buttress dams. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. their relative importance is much different. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Hence. such as sand and gravel. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. because of bearing contact. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. or failure of the foundation material. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Inc. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. and clay. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. If the deflections are not equal. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. On arch dams. rock flour. engineers assumed that. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. . but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. silt. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. When the base is not drained. First. However. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. is available and clayey materials must be imported. They are not suited to most sites. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. however. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam.
) 21. Army Corps of Engineers. onto the fill. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Hasen. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. For dams over 200 ft high. New York. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. . Zipparo and H. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Inc. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. although steel has been used occasionally. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. For some types of soil. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. or wood over concrete. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. All rights reserved. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. bonding into the dumped rock. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. the natural angle of repose of rock. If pervious material is not available. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. J. S. 21. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Today. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. S.3 on 1. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.94). The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. and an upstream impervious facing. The downstream face is usually 1. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. The facing is usually concrete. Temporary facings are usually of wood. U.3 on 1.” 4th ed. therefore.” U. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Click here to view. Bureau of Relamation. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Leakage should be expected. (V. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. bearing on the rubble cushion. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. however. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. providing power. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment.” EM 1110-2-2300.
The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. it changes direction. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. This creates a force on the runner. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft.) Fig. 21. however. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. and the fixed-blade type. (V.” 4th ed. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. J. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.123 bine. 21. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.94 turbine. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. At heads above 1000 ft. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. 21. . The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. At heads below 100 ft. 21. and draft tube. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. the propeller-type (Fig.95a). so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. and draft tube.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. The wicket gates. However. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. if the load drops below 50%.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Zipparo and H. All rights reserved. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. wicket gates. Inc. New York.95c). Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft.. In such installations. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The propeller turbine (Fig.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. control the amount of water that enters the turbine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. As the water flows through the tur- 21. however. runner. runner. their efficiency decreases rapidly. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. Hasen. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. In these. such as the Kaplan turbine. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. Click here to view. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. 21. wicket gates. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
(c) axial flow. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. Click here to view. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.65.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. This type of spillway is Fig.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. if designed correctly. 21. 21. the dam will not be damaged by the water. widely used for concrete dams because. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. All rights reserved. (b) Kaplan.21. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.
or ogee in cross section. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. When the head is relatively low. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. open channel. In a side-channel spillway.34). water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Washington. A siphon spillway (Fig. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. As the head increases. called an ogee spillway. 21. model tests are usually employed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flared. 21. This type of spillway. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. In a chute spillway. lined. the siphon’s intake is sealed. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. All rights reserved. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. In a shaft spillway. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom.” Government Printing Office. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. Click here to view. both depending on the head on the weir. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. . Bureau of Reclamation. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.S.96 Siphon spillway. The weir can be sharp-crested. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. Thus. 21.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. Inc. “Design of Small Dams. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. The air vent shown in Fig. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. 21. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. Once this second condition is reached. DC 20402). the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir.
the intake towers at Hoover Dam. Inc. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. the pipes fail. 21. 21. 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. . Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. All rights reserved. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. On large stop-log installations.97). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. and providing support for the conduit. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. making removal difficult. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. causing damage and hampering operation. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. Fig. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. 21. level of a reservoir within close limits.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.5 ft/s. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure.98 Bear-trap gate.97 Taintor gate. In contrast. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.65. Fig. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. controlling flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. 21.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.21. To do this. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Click here to view. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. In a taintor gate (Fig. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation.
99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. Babbitt. Doland. J. To raise a bear-trap gate. 21.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The drum gate (Fig. E. 21. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.98. Hasen. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) Fig. .” 4th ed. drum gates are not suited to small dams. and J. Because of the large recess required in the dam. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.. (V.99 Drum gate. New York. Cleasby. J. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. Zipparo and H. “Water Supply Engineering.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. and H. J. L.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Click here to view.blank page 21.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.