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# 21

W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Absolute pressure. Its temperature variation. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Gage pressure. at sea level.7 psia. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.2. Thus.1.7 psi. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. as shown in Fig. is small and insignificant in most problems. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. All rights reserved. Surface tension and capillarity. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. 21. or liquid surface. formation of spray from water jets. 21. like surface tension.21. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. as shown in Fig. 21. portions of the liquid vaporize. decreases with increasing temperature. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. are significant in others. . ft σ = surface tension. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream.1) where h = capillary rise. Its value Fig. Meniscus.000 ft is shown in Fig. Click here to view. psia.3.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. is concave upward. In equation form. and freezing damage to concrete. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. When the liquid is in a closed container. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. (21. although negligible in many water engineering problems. however. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. ft Capillarity. psi. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. pitting. 21.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. face and rises in a small tube. respectively. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. is pressure above or below atmospheric. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Inc.

3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. In hydraulics. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3. on the top surface. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Then. All rights reserved. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. to collapse. Inc.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. It is so named because its units. At any depth. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. of length and time.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the pressure acts equally in all directions.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. and pitting appears. transitional. and the force due to pressure p2. psf. Viscosity. ft2. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. is a measure of its resistance to flow. or implode. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. as shown in Fig. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. ft/s y = depth. lb/ft2 21. 21. or dynamic viscosity. or completely turbulent flow exists.2) where τ = shearing stress. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. also called the coefficient of viscosity.5 Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Since the prism is at rest. 21.00001059 ft2/s.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature.8) to determine whether laminar. µ of a fluid. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. on the bottom surface. which extend into the pores of the metal. ft2/s. (Pressures as high as 350. ft. the force due to pressure p1. . psf. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h.4. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. and cross-sectional area A. absolute viscosity. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. Click here to view.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2.

4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. Thus. 21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. All rights reserved.3a) Division of Eq.3a) by A yields (21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. 21. . lb/ft3. Taking ∆h to be h.4. ft. the depth of the centroid. where w is the specific weight of water.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. tanks.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. Figure 21.6) – ∫ydA = y A.21. psf. dams. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. ft.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. and y sin θ = h . absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. the pressure.5) 21. (21.3b) then becomes (21. Therefore. The resultant pressure force P. For horizontal surfaces. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. (21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. and other water control structures. then p2 is p. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. the depth below the water surface. Equation (21. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. Inc.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. (21.4). lb. (21. however. Click here to view.4) Equation (21. at depth h.3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. ft2.

p. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. Otherwise. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. The denominator of Eq.6 (see also Fig.g.7). Pyp = ∫y dP. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. (21. 21. ft. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.7 Fig. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2° to the horizontal (Fig. (21.) that is below the c.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.7). (21. The location of the center of pressure.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.29). Example 21.). where K is the radius of gyration. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.g. the total force P = whA. Click here to view. (21.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. 21. – From Eq. 21. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. 21.p.5). represented by the length yp. . Inc.8) equals –A. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.8). (21. Thus. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . All rights reserved. of the surface about its centroidal axis. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. Hence y . psf. 6. if that locus is a straight line. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.) but acts at a point (c.

5 + 1/ (5.0 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.8.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.9).) of common shapes. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.g. All rights reserved. (See Example 21.42 ft. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. . 21.08. P = 62.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Note: 1.3. Click here to view. (21. From Eq.0) = 5.08/5 = 5.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. 21. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. yp = 5. K2 = point G. 21.1.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.0 + 0.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. Inc.42 = 5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. 21. Also.0 + 2. Therefore. however.

The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. Its angle with the horizontal is known. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. (21.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. 21.2.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The corresponding angle is 57. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.6 × 62. All rights reserved. so the weight of the water is 19. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.9 Fig. – From Eq.5 × 5 = 780 lb. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.564.9). When water is below the curved surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. Fig. (b) Free-body diagram.6 ft3. (See Example 21. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. Click here to view.4 × 2.6w = 19. 21. . The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.7). the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. 21.9. and for a constant-radius surface. 2. PH = whA = 62.14 × 25/4 = 19. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.4°. Example 21. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.

4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.). whether floating or submerged. p = wh. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10b. 21. ft. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. is indicated by the metacenter. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. Click here to view. Manometers indicate h. Inc. For a body to be in equilibrium. (21. . for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. All rights reserved.g. The stability of a ship. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. 21. Given in feet by Eq. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. 21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. (21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10a). A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. or the difference in head. the pressure head. ft3 ys = distance.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. (21.b.10b). ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. 21.4)..

12c).17 psi. 21. . Basic types of manometers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Example 21. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. 21. (b) U-tube manometer.4 lb/ft3. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). What is hm? Fig. (a) Piezometers. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. However. Click here to view.11 manometer. All rights reserved.11a is 2.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. although the latter is most common. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. The liquid is water with w = 62. Inc.11): piezometer. 21. and differential manometer. 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The piezometer (Fig. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. U-tube manometer. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.

All rights reserved. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Click here to view. 21. the Utube manometer (Fig. In this application. including negative gage pressures. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.21. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. 21. Inc.12c). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. Very low pressures. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. 21. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.11b) is used. A movable scale.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. as opposed to a fixed scale. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. the total energy per unit weight at 2. hi is 2.6). ft. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. if the actual difference is 0. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. or sump.75 + 13. 21.11) where Z1 = elevation.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. that is.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.12a. and z is 1. however.40. One factor. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. hm1 is 9 in. however. when expressed in feet of water. Click here to view.13 indicating liquid. Inc. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. 32. Above 5.0 and 2.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. . is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. 21. Most of them. Example 21. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.0 ft. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.4 × 0. and the right side.25 ft of water. such as might be required in laboratories. is magnified by the differential manometer.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. such as ft of water or psi. the magnification will be 2. The pressure at B. The differential manometer (Fig.6 × 62. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. ft. as shown in Fig.4 × 2.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. psf. in the manometer. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.4 × 2. the actual pressure difference. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. psf p2 = pressure at 2. 21. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. psf. For example. psf w = specific weight of fluid. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.25 ft.5. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig.

lb/ft3. Average velocity. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. ft/s = Q/A. Fig. Kinetic energy at the section. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. velocity.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. when added to the downstream side of Eq. The total energy. however. Example 21.5.4 ft3/s. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.13).13. 21.14. ft/s.21.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. where Q is the quantity of flow.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. . ft.11). above some arbitrary datum. This term hf. through friction. ft3/s. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. All rights reserved. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. As indicated in Fig. 21. varies with velocity. velocity head. 21. lb. Click here to view. a Fig. (See Example 21. and pressure. 21. velocity.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. ft2. where Va is the velocity.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. V2/2g. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. across the area of the section A.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. where W is the weight. or the total head ft: (21.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. ft. and pressure (Fig.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc.14) pa/w is called pressure head. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. It equals WVa2 / 2g. (21. Usually.

45 ft. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. respectively. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. (21. sometimes called the total head line. p2 = 0. In openchannel flow. since the pipe has free discharge. gate valve. Inc. while in pressure flow. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Also. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The energy grade line.9).14 = 10 ft/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.15). Click here to view. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. or magnitude of flow. . the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Hence. ft. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Thus substitution in Eq. 21. which may result from a change in either velocity. A change in momentum.55 = 48. Art.15 Fig. All rights reserved. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. is equal to the impulse. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. direction. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. hf = 50 – 1. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow.7.4/ 3. and any bends. 21. Z2 = 0. respectively.

and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.1 and the density ρ = 62.15) first in the X direction.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2° – 13.700/82.2° – 0) = 4.6.16. To find F.5°.94 × 100 × 65. which is to be determined). exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. (See Example 21. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. so θ = 60.96 sin 53.78 Ry = 145.21. Example 21. 21. and at 2. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. then in the Y direction. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.12)] but may be used separately. Then. With p1 known. Click here to view.4/ 32.94 × 100 × 4.78.000 sin 53.500 lb. Let R be the force.1 Rx = –82. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. (21.5 ft/s.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. (21. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.2° + Ry = 1. 21. Fx = 181. .5) = 65. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.332π = 71.200 lb. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. since ∆Vy = –(–7.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.2° – 71.2= 1. apply Eq.96 cos 53. All rights reserved. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. since ∆Vx = –(7. Fy = –181. lb. Fig. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.94.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.200 + Rx = 1. Inc. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.600 lb In the Y direction.000 cos 53.600. P2 = ppA2 = 13.000 lb.11) or (21.

such as storm rainfall. to a given set of stimuli. or prototype. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. or proposed works.Water Resources Engineering s 21. alternative management schemes. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Click here to view. With hybrid models. erosional scour. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. . Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. For instance. operate. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. momentum. In most models. droughts.7. Physical models are expensive to build. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. Inc. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. however. All rights reserved. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. or drainage basin. A fourth mode of modeling. viscosity. gravity. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. and surface tension. the capability of the computing resources. In this way. and through execution of the computer program. Popular before the advent of digital computers. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. aquifer. In water resources engineering. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Usually. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances.7. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. 1. such as a river. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. In the preceding example. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. See also Art. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. It is. 21. hybrid modeling. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. employs both physical and mathematical models. models are used to determine the likely response of a system.17 21.

such as spillways and weirs. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Inc. Similarly. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. (21.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. (21. Froude number. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Therefore. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Ratios of the forces of gravity. The Weber number is (21. entrainment of air in flowing water. Then (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.21a) (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. and Weber number. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. which is always a predominant force. All rights reserved.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Once the length ratio has been set. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. such as depth or diameter). and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Squaring both sides of Eq. The Froude number is (21. 32. the model is termed a true model.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. the formation of drops and air bubbles. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. . And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Reynolds number.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. ft2/s. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Click here to view. The inertial force. respectively.21.20) R is dimensionless. the length ratio is the only variable. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. The Reynolds number is (21. and one other force are made proportional. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion.22) where ρ = density of fluid. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. viscosity.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

21. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). and through execution of the computer program. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. For such models.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. (21. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately.26) where V = mean velocity. in turn.S.7. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. catchment areas. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Sr = 1.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. called a movable-bed model. (21. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as a morning-glory spillway. Inc. Rr = Lr.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. viscous. in particular. This type of model is called a distorted model. inertial. and infiltration parameters. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. The U. For instance. . the logical representation of prototypes.23a) (21. One type of model. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. All rights reserved. such as flow networks.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. In some cases. Hence. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. (21. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. These expressions. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Click here to view. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale.25) In models of rivers and channels. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21.24). The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. mathematical models are. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq.

A. Rothfus. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. channel and river hydraulics. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. watershed hydrology. Walker. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. hydrodynamics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In object-oriented software.21. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. 21. and among water resources modelers in the government. academia.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. of all databases and software. “Water Resources Planning. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 1957. As a result. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. As this shearing stress increases.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and groundwater yield. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall.17. H. Inc. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. evaporation and irrigation. vol. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. Maidment. G. wave or tidal analyses. J. reservoir regulation. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydrology.” N. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. (J. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. ecosystem impacts and restoration.” V. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. the model output required for design or evaluation. F. 3. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. hydrologic forecasting. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. R. or both. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. when fully implemented.” McGraw-Hill.2). and R. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software.” D. density. seepage. Click here to view. New York. Hasen. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. flow routing. Grigg. R.) 21. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. landfill leachate analyses. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. Hoggan. . the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. Whan. quantity and quality of water supply.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. shown in Fig. 21. For closed conduits other than circular. and private sectors. however. (D. and turbulent flow results. As a general rule. Art. Zipparo and H. This. if comparisons of different plans are required. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. as in annular passages. design of hydraulic structures. flood or drought impacts. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. sediment or pollutant transport. This approach. All rights reserved. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. impacts of dam breaks. or pollution. S. Also.

21. handbook of Hydraulics.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. 21. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. 21. laminar flow is unstable.19. Therefore. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. Inc. 21. it is not practical to treat it analytically.l9. Click here to view. ft ρ = density of fluid.17). (21.27) where V = fluid velocity. Brater. at completely turbulent flow. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. ft/s D = pipe diameter. In laminar flow. than for laminar flow (Fig.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. the velocity distribution is more uniform. As the Reynolds number increases.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. causing the flow to become turbulent. As a result. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. These disturbances create eddies. the flow is completely turbulent.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. 32. 21.21 Fig. Fig. F. 32. New York. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. All rights reserved. In this region. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.” 6th ed. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. (E. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. as shown in Fig. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.) 21.18. McGraw-Hill Book Company.29) For laminar flow. ft L = length of pipe section considered. flow is laminar in circular pipes.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. a disturbance will probably be magnified. .29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. Eq.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. (21. 21. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.

008 0.0005 – 0.19) L = length of pipe.0002 0.008 – 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure. (21.21. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.9. November 1944. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Inc.003 0. ft D = diameter of pipe.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. 21. F. 32.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.0002 – 0. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.) Because Eq.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.0005 – 0. 21.00003 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. enamels.0002 0. Moody.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.0005 0. (L. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. ft V = velocity of fluid. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.001 – 0. . (21.03 – 0.001 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.003 – 0.19) to Determine f ε.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

(21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. where D is the pipe diameter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. See also Table 22. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.11 (p. 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.33e) 21. dependent on surface roughness. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.33b) (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. Click here to view.31) where V = velocity.33d) (21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34d) (21.34c) 21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. Inc. All rights reserved. .9. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. Tables 21. ft3/s.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. which requires experience in its choice.34b) (21. 21. (21. (21.3.32) where n = coefficient.4 and 21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft/s C = coefficient. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.9.34e) where V = velocity. (Although based on surface roughness.33c) (21. ft L = length of pipe.9. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft S = head loss due to friction.) Substitution into Eq.31) gives (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.

36) for a check.013 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.012 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.010 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.013 0.35c) (21. All rights reserved. However. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.015 0. 21. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0.7.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.017 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.017 0. (21. . Inc. (21.20 ple 21. Click here to view.016 To 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.011 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.21.35b) (21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.010 To 0.4 Values of n for Pipes.017 0.012 0.013 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. (21.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.015 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.013 0. Example 21.014 0.015 0.) Flow between reservoirs. enlargements.012 0. in short pipelines.017 From 0.035 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. bends. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.014 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. 21.015 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7: Figure 21.015 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.012 0. because (21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.017 0.010 0.

120 Large sizes.” Constable & Co.37): (21.. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 120 Centrifugally spun.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. 21.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. (21.37) or (21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. the values of K in Fig. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. where V is the velocity in the pipe.21). Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. 140 Large sizes. . minor losses must be considered. Ltd. 21. H. (21. 21.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.7. 80 4 in.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. 135 In good condition.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 105 30 in and over. 85 16 in. 120 24 in and over.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. steel forms.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.21 are approximate. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 110 (21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. regardless of age. ft/s g = 32. Inc. wood forms. All rights reserved.10. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gibson. (21. are presented in Table 21.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. Table 21. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. Click here to view..10. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.25 Table 21. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. ft. so a full velocity head is lost. is (21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.10. 10 years older Average value. good workmanship. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 21. 110 4 in. good workmanship. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. London.38) A special application of Eq. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 115 12 in. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. (A.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.

7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.25 The values in Table 21. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.2 0.89 1.05 K = 0. Globe valve. Inc. 21.9 0.5 0.68 0.0 1.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 are only approximate.0 5.81 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. Click here to view.71 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.2 0.6 0.64 0.42) Table 21. For these reaTable 21.21 of the sides.4 0.50 K = 0.0 2. .63 0.62 0. and at bends is given by (21. such as valves and elbows.80 K = 0. All rights reserved.7 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.66 0.5 0.0 Table 21.21.10. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.9 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.2 2.4 21. fully open Swing check valve.1 0.6 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. D = pipe diameter. fully open Angle valve.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.76 0.8 0. fully open Gate valve.

22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. H. (21. (K. this error is corrected by the C values. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. 21. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21.23.22: (21. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.27 sons. although they are usually round.11. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. National Bureau of Standards.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. and angle of bend. J. no. For low heads. or rectangular. Reynolds number.42). indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. Hasen. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.” 4th ed.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 82.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. (V. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. vol. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. McGraw-Hill. not including friction loss in the bend. vol. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. (21. 21. its effect should be taken into account.42). New York. The data are in agreement that the head loss. Equation (21. there is disagreement. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. (H. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. however. 1. Inc. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Click here to view. (21. Experiments on smooth pipes. square. Orifices may have any shape..” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.. Inc. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.) Fig. 1960. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. Beij.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. series D.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.45) 21. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. the bend loss essentially remains constant. Figure 21. All rights reserved. not including friction loss. . 21. 21. Zipparo and H. 21. Ito.44) where Q = discharge. July 1938. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data.” Journal of Research.9 for low velocity of approach. If this velocity is significant.

596 0.596 0.599 0.604 0.606 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.613 0 610 0.596 0.04 0.592 0.626 0.598 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet. the vena contracta.632 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.02 0.593 0.612 0.590 0. to Fig.594 0.611 0. .0 Head.606 0.599 0.602 0.594 0.592 0.600 0.617 0.618 0.597 0.655 0.601 0.94 to 0.602 0.614 0. Z1 = h.597 0.602 0.” 1886.643 0.600 0.637 0.623 0.610 0.600 0.611 0.630 0.601 0.605 0.603 0.609 0.632 0.613 0.21.608 0.46) The actual velocity. ft 0.598 1. p1/w = p2/w = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.612 0.599 0.614 0.619 0. determined experimentally.593 0. and Eq.602 0.623 0.644 0. V1 = 0.615 0.608 0.641 0.631 0.628 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.621 0.619 0. 21.602 0.602 0.02 0.660 0.617 0. of circular orifices..610 0. Click here to view. “Hydraulics.648 0.604 0.637 0.1 0.607 0.618 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft 0.607 0. All rights reserved. Jr. Inc.1 0.616 0.601 0.602 0.6 08 1 1.603 0.648 0.604 0.600 0.595 0.652 0.99.591 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.593 0.4 0.627 0. and Z2 = 0.628 0.605 0.5 2 2.605 0.595 0.596 0.605 0.596 0.607 0.595 0.0 0.598 0.599 0.634 0. ft 0.616 0.602 0.596 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.45) becomes (21.629 0.601 0.623 0. (21.04 0.603 0.636 0.622 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.618 0. With the reference plane through point 2.608 0.603 0.637 0.614 0.592 1. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.

Brater. the contraction is completely suppressed.29 Fig.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.11. Inc. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.) 21. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.48) is obtained. . The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.25 orifice. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. New York. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.25.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. Figure 21. 21. see E.24b. Eq. (21.” 6th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. With a partly suppressed orifice.47) where hL = losses in head.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. (21. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. ft. “Handbook of Hydraulics.11. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. 21.. In Fig. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. F.61 to 0. between 1 and 2. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. the area of the orifice.67.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. 21. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

56). ft2 A = area of reservoir. (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. to time t. 21. Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.49) Solving for dt yields (21. (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. obtained by solving Eq. 32.57) (21. (21. For simplicity. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.56) Fig. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.50) where a = area of orifice. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.58) Equation (21. (21.21. s The Y coordinate is (21. Eq. ft h2 = head at the end.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. .50) becomes (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.57) for t and substituting in Eq. 21. (21.11.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.58) gives (21.58)]. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. is that for a parabola: (21.26): (21. Rearranging Eq. (21. when y = h1.51) upon integration becomes (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. (21. Inc.55) 21.23). 21. Click here to view.59).54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. when y = h2. (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.

5 a T T Fig. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.00 VT / 2g – 0.82. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. All rights reserved. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. Equation (21. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. if one exists). .5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.27.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.31 ty Cν = 0.75. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.67 V T / 2g = 0.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.29. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. however. In the tube or pipe. 21. 21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.82. (21. 21.33VT / 2g. Click here to view. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. When this happens. (21.28). a K value for Eq. 21. psf w = unit weight of water.27) but the head loss is larger.42) of 0. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. For a short tube flowing full. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. ft2 Fig. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.82 VT)2/2g = 0. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. 21.11.67 V2 ) = 0. 21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. Inc. Therefore.67 V2T /2g.11.80. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.

29. the pressure in the pipe falls. As the water flows into the reservoir. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. this momentum drops to zero. it causes water hammer. For this analysis to be valid. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Every time the flow rate is changed. 21. Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. 21. the tube must flow full. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Fig. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure.21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. 21.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. However. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. When a valve is closed. The pipe shown in Fig.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. .30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. Inc. 21. The change causes a pressure rise. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.32).32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. 21. the water in the pipe is motionless. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. either above or below the normal pressure.30). Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. either increased or decreased. Click here to view. but at a pressure much higher than normal. 21. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.

For instantaneous closure: (21.13. Eq.63a) becomes (21. (21. . (21. 21. ft 21. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. Equation (21.13. 43. approximate solution. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.64) 21. 21. Inc. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.63). ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.63a) In terms of pressure head. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. 1. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. s A plot of pressure vs.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. All rights reserved. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. (21. Fig.

length = 3000 ft. penstock thickness = 1 in.5 ft2. (V. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.63). is g = acceleration due to gravity. Thus. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the increment of time. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. All rights reserved. Once the time interval has been determined.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.21. New York. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. 21. (21. each causing an individual pressure wave. area = 78. s T = actual closure time of valve. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. where a equals any integer. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft.) Example 21. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.) Velocity of pressure wave. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. With the head known.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. Inc. (21. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.63). (21. then that obtained from Eq. McGraw-Hill. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. Hasen. (21. ft L = length of pipeline. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. and Ao the original area of the valve opening.. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.2 × 108 psf. J. Vo the original velocity.61).63). An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Zipparo and H. equals L /aU.” 4th ed. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Inc.. (21. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. (21. diameter = 10 ft.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. . The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. Click here to view. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. to apply Eq. such as L/aU. 32.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. where ∆t.32.

All rights reserved. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.13.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.90 s. Various types of relief Fig. and the pressure rise. approximate equation (21. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. . the stress.34). lb Hence. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. it is by no means the only one. on the pipe material is (21. Fig. (21. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.34 tension. Usually. 21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. When a valve is suddenly closed.75 s. to prevent water hammer. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits.33) must still be designed for water hammer. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. When a valve is suddenly opened. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. floats on the line. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. 21. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. from Eq. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. 21. is Pipe Stresses 21. in Assuming T = 4. the closure is instantaneous. psi. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. Click here to view. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. Inc.66) where p = internal pressure.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.64) gives the following result: 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.63). The water column.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer.90 s. in effect. 21.

For concrete pipes. however. Click here to view. 21. In all bends. However. In Fig. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. 6.21. . psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psi. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. “Theory of .67). However. New York. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. (21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. this analysis is approximate. Art. The stress. due to a temperature change is (21. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. All rights reserved. For steel pipes. The internal diameter is used in Eq. elastic Stability. Eq.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. The force diagram in Fig. (21. (S. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. (21. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Equation (21. (21. P Timoshenko and J. M. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. Eq. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.6). the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. If D/t is less than 10. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.10).” 2nd ed. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. is (21. Inc. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. 21.67) for concrete pipe. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.. it acts like a beam. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Gere. In this case. 21. 21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. if expansion joints are to be used. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.

no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.71) give a quick solution. 32. 21. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. the joints must also be able to take these forces. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eqs. and slope. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. In small pipes. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. however.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view.70) and (21. All rights reserved.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. psf w = unit weight of water. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. a railroad. canal. (21. an exact theoretical analysis. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Inc.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.Water Resources Engineering s 21.71) where R = resultant force on bend. 62.37 Fig. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. (21. . The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. exit conditions. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. or other embankment. However.

The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. the normal depth (Art. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. All rights reserved. 21. slope is greater than the critical slope. and the control will still be at the inlet. For this reason. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.73) 21.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.36).38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. Portland Cement Association.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.38). Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. . the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.37). charts.” EB058W. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.23). Inc. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. that is. and the discharge is independent of the slope.33d) or (21. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. Click here to view. and the Manning equation for friction loss. but they do not cover Fig. computer software. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.21. 21. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. 21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.30)]. (21. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. the following equation is obtained: (21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the culvert flows full. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results.

74) Fig.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Thus.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.39 Fig. 21. and dn < dc .75) Substituting this into Eq. When slope is less than critical.74) yields (21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. 21. ft Equation (21. Fig. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. and slope of culvert. .39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. When slope exceeds critical. All rights reserved.39). The fluid flows under pressure. loss at entrance. Discharge is independent of slope.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. 21. 21. Inc. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. 21. open-channel flow takes place. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.20) 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flow depends on inlet condition. 32. When the slope is less than critical.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. 21. Click here to view.23). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge depends on head H. normal pipe flow occurs. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. ft V = velocity in culvert. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. for the open-channel condition (Fig. depending on the head. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. The discharge. and dn > dc . Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. (21. 21.

21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. and discharge is given by Eq. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. (21. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. 21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit.76). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream.18). The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream.76). When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. 21. .40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. (21. Inc. Most culverts. 21. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.40).37). ft dn = normal depth of flow.76). a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the friction slope approaches critical. 21.39). If the head on a culvert is high. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft To solve Eq. If this condition exists. Click here to view. 21.41).21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.72). When the friction slope is flat. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. (21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. however. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow.

Fig.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2.72) applies. groove or bell. Find: size of culvert. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. and free exit.9 0. the flow is under pressure.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.19). square edge Concrete pipe. and the entrance will not control. (21. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet.10 0. groove or bell. length = 300 ft. 21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. n = 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.15 0. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. projecting Concrete pipe. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.5 0.72) and (21. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Table 21. When the entrance is not submerged. Eq. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.013. Click here to view. These values are for culverts flowing full. (21. (21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. Example 21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. First find dn.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.41 For entrance control. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Inc. But H = 5 + 0. . Application of Eq. To calculate the hydraulic radius. (21. Since the culvert is under pressure.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.18 and 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6.73). 21.72) yields Q =Va = 9.40). (21. Substitution in Eq. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. 21. with Eq.44) for discharge through an orifice. slope = 0. All rights reserved. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.01. 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.8 ft3/s Table 21.95 × 4 = 39.

00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. . and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Equation (21. It is. 21.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. ft. ft3/s. plus the velocity head at the point. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. Inc. and is given by (21. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. normally taken as 1. In a uniform channel. Figure 21. 32.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. It is expressed in feet as (21. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. ft.77) where V = average velocity. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. Hence. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. within a hydraulic jump. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. however. Thus. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. (21. minus the free surface width. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. ft. (21. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.80) where V = average velocity from Eq.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.79) The velocity head HV.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. ft2 When the discharge is constant.21. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.03 to 1. Click here to view. or open-channel flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depth of flow is constant throughout. All rights reserved. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. It has uniform flow if the grade. The wetted perimeter is the length. or slope.36 for prismatic channels.79). or the total-head line. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. is generally given by (21. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.

for example. slope. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. 21. New York. ft.84) where A = area of flow. Chow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. Inc.83) Brater. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. and discharge are known. Eq. (21.84) reduces to Fig. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. as shown in Fig. New York. 21.) (21. . “Open-Channel Hydraulics.43).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.42 is called the normal depth dn. Click here to view. “Handbook of Hydraulics..44. normal depth decreases downstream. T. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. For a rectangular channel. McGrawHill Book Company.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. E. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. F. As the depth decreases downstream.43 Fig. (See. 21. roughness. 21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. (V. ft. the specific energy also decreases.” 6th ed. 21. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. in which T is the top width of the channel. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.43. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.

The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. 21. (21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Brater. Inc. Eq.43. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. For rectangular channels.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.84) may be reduced to (21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. ft3/s d = depth of flow. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. For a given value of specific energy. All rights reserved.44). (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. or conversely.44). the depth is below critical.84). and flow is supercritical. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.84) is called the critical depth dc. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. or it may be found directly from tables (E. 21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.” 6th ed. for a given discharge.21. F. (21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. The flow there is called subcritical flow. New York). indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. the depth is greater than critical. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. . In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.

flow is subcritical. along with a high loss of energy. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. as indicated in Fig.57). [As indicated by Eq. 21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. For every depth greater than critical depth. 21. a hydraulic jump will occur. (21. Critical depth. without turbulence. 21. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. Click here to view. Inc. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. indicating an irreversible occurrence. It can be seen from Fig.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. p.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. 21. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. (21. Such a change occurs gradually. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump.85). ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44). ft3/s b = width of channel.52b.45.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. once calculated.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. All rights reserved. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. however. 21. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. . regardless of slope. 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. flow is supercritical. 21. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.87) Fig.45 where dc = critical depth. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

11.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. is replaced by a horizontal line. are identical for a channel of critical slope.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. H for horizontal. 21. there must be a continuing maintenance program. Chow. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. T.) 21. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Dr.L.46c and d. E. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.46a and b. 21. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.90) where A = area of flow.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. 21. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. Department of Agriculture. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.L.D.23). 21.89) may be written (21.25). It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. New York. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. 21. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.S. horizontal.L. and the critical-depth line C. and adverse slope. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.D. Click here to view. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).D. The N. Eq. (See also Art.L. and A for adverse. All rights reserved.L. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (Although based on surface roughness. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. C for critical. at an arbitrary elevation.9 and Table 21.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. and C. 21. These curves are divided into five groups. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. and two types for channels of critical. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).D.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.46. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. ft V = mean velocity of flow.D. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. The M2 curve forms between the normal. and the N.4. as shown in Fig.21. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. are in Table 21. therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.and critical-depth lines. S for steep (supercritical). . (21. the average n values given in Table 21.

The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.Water Resources Engineering s 21.033 0. Metal a. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.015 0. Masonry a. Lined channels 1.46i and j.030 0.013 0. Wood a.013 0.020 0.023 0.035 0.017 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.015 0. 21.035 0.011 0.017 Max 0.025 0.010 0.030 0. few weeds c.022 0. Rock cuts a. high as flow depth d.050 0.012 0. Asphalt a. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. straight and uniform a.040 0. Dense weeds. Float finish b.018 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. Inc. Rough C. Light brush on banks 3. Concrete a.032 0. high stage 2. Steel form b. 21. Gunite.100 0.025 0.024 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Smooth b.035 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.014 0.016 0.013 0. Dense brush. respectively).013 0.021 0.080 0. after weathering b.033 0.013 0. good section c.014 0.016 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Dry rubble 5. Excavated earth.120 0. Clean.46a and b. Smooth and uniform b. Jagged and irregular 0. wavy section 4.018 0. untreated 3.014 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.021 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.016 0.012 0.014 0.035 0. Cemented rubble b.011 0. Smooth wood form c.022 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.080 0. Gunite. All rights reserved.012 0. Unlined channels 1. Rough wood form B.015 Avg 0.023 0.025 0.012 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Planed. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. commonly called a drawdown curve.019 0.025 0.060 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.030 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. . With short grass. The S2 curve.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.025 0.028 0. Dredged earth a.140 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.025 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.050 0.016 0.016 0. 21.022 0.040 0. No vegetation b. Click here to view. Corrugated 2.027 0.

and A profiles. Examples in Fig.46k and l. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.L. Inc.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Click here to view.. . The curves in Fig. All rights reserved. H.D.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. 21.L. C.21. critical-depth line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. N.D. indicates normal-depth line. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.

Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. French. Explanations of both the graphical. Chow. and step methods. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity.47. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. known as its celerity..” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or reaches. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. direction-integration. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. H. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. For subcritical flow conditions. For step-method computations. the channel is divided into short lengths. Click here to view.and direct-integration methods are in V. New York. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. The wave travels at a speed. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. T.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2.27. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. gate. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). depending on the type of flow. New York. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. with relatively small variation. (R. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. each reach is solved in succession. See Art. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.77) if the depth were zero. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. dam.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.5. All rights reserved.51). This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. 21. 32.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. . (21.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow.) 21. For the section of channel in Fig. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. 21.” McGraw-Hill. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. weir. Inc. free overfall. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel.

92) (21.93). is negligible and can be ignored. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the longer the backwater curve profile. prismatic channels. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. not the channel bottom. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2.82). Therefore. Inc. the head loss. hi. . (21. and – SL = hf. the – eddy loss. the change in elevation.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. Solving Eq. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. 21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. rearranged as follows: Fig.91) for L gives (21.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. ft. The smaller the value of n. 21. respectively. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (For uniform. due to friction in the same reach.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. ft.21. and vice versa.93) where R = hydraulic radius. (21. Click here to view. as given by Eq. (21. 21. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve.

(21. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. Click here to view. in natural channels.51 may be some intermediate depth. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. the average friction slope for the reach. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. Next. For lined channels. total head H. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. the friction loss. (21. ft/s. Then.2 for diverging reaches. Next. Z2. ft.96).95).96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. from 0 to 0. which.95) The coefficient k is 0. becomes (21. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. (21.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. respectively. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Since this step method is a converging process. Inc. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. (21.93). is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.47. ft. grade. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. referred to a horizontal datum. after substitution of H from Eq. and it is therefore often accounted for. Then. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. S.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. respectively. The value of total head computed from Eq.1 for converging reaches. (21. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.94). is obtained from Eq. at sec– tions 1 and 2.93). (21. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. Eddy loss. sometimes called impact loss. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. (21. and about 0. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Therefore. Finally.92). Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. or roughness. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. computations progress toward the initial section. 21. ft. . and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing.

23). A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. 2nd ed. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. Fig. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. Bureau of Public Roads.. however. Department of Transportation. Click here to view. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The effect of bridges. All rights reserved. 21. a gate. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. H. 1970.27. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. Bradley. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. The upstream surface of the jump. Inc. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. U. approach roadways. 21.” Hydraulics Design Series no. bridge piers.21. respectively.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.S. is a turbulent mass of water. N. known as the length of jump.52b. However. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. If the two values of total head do not agree. and J. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. . the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). velocity.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig.48 Hydraulic jump. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.51 and 21. New York. French. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis.48). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Federal Highway Administration. 21. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. as shown in Figs. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. and determine the discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. 1. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. Utilizing the above data.1 ft in elevation. known as the roller. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. or other obstruction.

Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. in Eq. (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. For rectangular channels.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. Inc. ft/s. 32. (21.27. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. (21.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.Water Resources Engineering s 21.49) is given by (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.105) where A = area of flow. This difference (Fig. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. Click here to view.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. ft/s2. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.98) and (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21.99) where M = mass of water. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. 21. For open-channel flow. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. ft d2 = depth after jump. s (21. ft3/s = unit of time.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. 21.100) Equation (21.104) = discharge. d2 must also equal dc.99). ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. (21.100). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and g = acceleration due to gravity. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. (21. .98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.16)].102) Equation (21.82). All rights reserved. ft w = unit weight of water. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft2 T = width of free surface. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. V is the mean velocity.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. this resultant pressure force is (21. or alternate depths. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. where L is a characteristic length. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.

chute. depth after the jump.27. 21. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.7 to 2. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.7. This jump may be called a strong jump. Inc. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. which. and the performance is at its best. 21. the jump will be drowned out. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. depending on local conditions. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. the flow is critical and there is no jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%.S. This jump may be called a weak jump. 21.5. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. If the tailwater is too high. very commonly in canals. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This jump may be called a steady jump. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. Click here to view. . the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. there are undulations on the surface. The jump action is rough but effective.21. The jump is called an undular jump.49. and energy dissipation may reach 85%.0 and larger. Various forms of hydraulic jump.5 to 9. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The jump is well-balanced. were classified by the U. In either case.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. If the tailwater is too low. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. For F1 = 1.5 to 4. which gives discharge vs. for example. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 4. For F1 = 1 to 1. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. below a spillway. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. 21. can travel for miles. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.5. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. All rights reserved. For F1 = 9. For F1 = 1. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.0.23).

S. Accessories.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. changing the apron elevation. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.55 curve involve changing the crest length. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21. Click here to view. All rights reserved. therefore. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.27. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. The curve. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. These features are expensive to build. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Inc.27.51. prepared by V. This length (Fig. 21.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. 21.105). But it has been determined experimentally.48) defies accurate mathematical expression.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. Bureau of Reclamation. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. 21. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. The resulting curve (Fig. 21. T. and sloping the apron. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. .

the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 21. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. . 21. equal in length to L.52a. 21. as shown in Fig. but it is normally assumed to be 0. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. curves AB and ED in Fig. if the downstream depth is lowered. the computed length of jump. which occurs near the channel drop-off. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break.46e and c). (21.102). The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.5% of critical depth. equal to the computed length of the jump. the jump moves to a new location downstream. less than. 21. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. 21. respectively (Fig. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. 21.26. As depth d2 is lowered. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. as theory would indicate. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. Conversely. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the jump occurs in the steep region. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. CB. Inc. using the step methods of Art. that flow is uniform. the jump moves downstream to a new position.23) to mild.21. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. 21. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. The actual depth at the brink is 71. A horizontal intercept FG. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. It is assumed.51. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. for simplicity. computed from Eq.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. (21. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. (21. If d2 is less than d′ . Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. Click here to view. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB.52.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. between lines CB′and EO.75h in the absence of better information.101) with d1 given. 21. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. 21.52b.101). If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction.7dc for simplicity. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. as shown in Fig. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. computed from Eq. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.

51. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. New York. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. or (a) above it. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. Inc. (R. ft. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. If the entrance loss must be considered.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.53). the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.53a). and discharge is at a maximum. All rights reserved. 21. the entrance loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company.82) and (21. ignoring entrance loss.) 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.23).28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. . New York.” 6th ed.” McGraw-Hill. where He is the specific energy head. From Q = AV. 21. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water..85)]. Then. French. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). and the computations continued until a balance is reached. Brater. 21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. ft. then the assumed discharge is correct. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. ft3/s. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. F. (21. is (21. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. if not.Water Resources Engineering s 21. on the channel entrance. “Handbook of Hydraulics. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. Click here to view. ft. ft. 21. or (b) below it.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. a new discharge is assumed. H. Inc. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.. 21.106) where b is the channel width.3 for one with squared ends. and the slope of the channel. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.

The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. (b) mild-slope channel. 21. . (21. ft.22). The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. 21. Inc.53b). 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.53b.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. d is normal depth. 21. (In Fig. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.33). 21.23). He is the specific energy head. Click here to view. ft.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft2.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 32. if not. 21. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.21. then the discharge is correct. ft3/s. a new discharge is chosen. where He – d is the actual head. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83). producing flow. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21. ———— charge. All rights reserved. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.2 ft/s2.

107) The theoretical difference y. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. If the bend continues long enough. All rights reserved. 21. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Click here to view. and rc the radius of curvature. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. ft. ft /s. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. the true value of y would be only a few inches. when a stream enters a curve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a unit mass of water. ft.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. however.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. curve (Fig. Therefore. (21. 21. ft. or mV2 /rc for m. In this range. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. (21. (21. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.59 21. of the center line of the channel.83)]. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. . where V is its average velocity.23).31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. 21. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. Thus. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve.108). its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. The error will not be great.

His values have not been evaluated completely. depths along the inside wall.16)] . The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. phase. flows around a bend in a channel.111).” U. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. by (21. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. and continue crossing and recrossing. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. and should be used with discretion. (F. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.110) for θ in Eq.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. 21. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. Department of Agriculture. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.55). It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.21. recross as shown.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. Scobey.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The second is a negative wave. One is a positive wave. with sufficient accuracy. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. (21. 21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. an increase in friction loss results. . The cross slope required for 21. These waves cross at M. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. C.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.23). a series of standing waves are produced. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.S. Inc. All rights reserved. however. (21. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Fig. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Technical Bulletin 393. This angle may be found from (21.

The outlet loss factor is normally 0.1 for an inlet-type structure. 21. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. Inc.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. ft/s. Click here to view. and g = 32.2 for welldesigned transitions. respectively. 21. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. as shown in Fig. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. wall roughness. where K. 21. In this range. 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). p.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.2 ft/s2. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. equals about 0.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. therefore.44. The transition loss.23).113) angle of about 12. such as flow-rate changes.57). low-head-loss transfer of flow. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. 21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. change from subcritical to supercritical. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. .8[∆(V2/2g)].56. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. All rights reserved.54). 21. For outlet-type structures. 21. the average velocity decreases. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. or change from supercritical to subcritical. if friction is ignored. Many variables. If friction is ignored. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. Straight.44. ft. When proceeding downstream through a transition. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. and channel shape and slope.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ∆V is the velocity change. 21. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. plus any transition and friction losses. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the loss factor. To place a transition properly between two open channels.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000556(20)2 = 0.59 Weir not sharp-crested. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.000556(10)2 = 0. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. trapezoidal weirs. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air.000556. and parabolic weirs. such as rectangular weirs. 21. Inc. as shown in Fig. trapezoidal weirs.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. If the discharge is partly under water. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. All rights reserved. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. the weir is submerged or drowned. 21.5 = a(30)2. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. 21. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. from which a = 0. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. In contrast. 21. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Fig.58).21.222 ft. 21. the weir has free discharge. For Fig. and. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.59.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0.57.34. measured from A or B.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. . triangular weirs.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. y = ax2. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. Fig.58 Sharp-crested weir. Click here to view. such as broad-crested weirs. triangular or Vnotch weirs.

63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. A V-notch weir (Fig. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.34.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. To be fully ventilated. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. Inc. One such equation. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.5H upstream from the weir. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. New York). A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. 21. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. The height of weir P must be at least 2.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. If P is less than Fig.116) corrects for the effects of friction.5H. thus causing a contraction of the flow. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. At very low heads. below the crest. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. 21. contraction of the nappe.60 V-notch weir.58) (V.115) where Q = discharge. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. All rights reserved. Chow. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. ft The head should be measured at least 2. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. Equation (21. 21. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. . a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. T. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Hence. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

ft. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.5H upstream from the weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. measured from notch bottom. . Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. Discharge is given by (21.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.118)] 21. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. His values were summarized by Brater. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. New York). (21. 21.34. T. there are two end contractions and N = 2. 21. 21. 21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.” 6th ed. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. ft H = head.119) where Q = discharge. 1943).61) (E. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. F. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. All rights reserved.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Click here to view.2) when low discharges are to be measured. 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. The effective length L.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.34. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. Lenz. there is one end contraction and N = 1.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. 69.34. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. vol.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. Inc.118) Fig.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. Fig.

and then.115) is rewritten in the form (21. neglecting the velocity head. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. 32. ft V = velocity of approach.) To use the Villemonte equation. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. 21. (21. 21. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. and finally total head. using this rate and the required depths.34.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. 25. . Then. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. ft. (J. 2 21.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. R.122) where H = measured head. Where great accuracy is essential. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. heavily constructed devices. which may be done as follows: First.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. Dec. 21. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. 866. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.” Engineering News-Record. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.34. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. velocity head. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. Eq. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. ft3/s. using this discharge. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. (21. From this total head. The discharge Qs. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. compute the velocity of approach.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. 21. Fig. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Villemonte. Typically. velocity head of approach. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. p.) Equation (21. Thus. for such weirs. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.121) where Q = discharge. Click here to view. 1947. ft3/s.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. All rights reserved.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. Inc.59). or both.

15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. For each change of nappe shape.5Hd > r* > 0. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.02 0.20 0.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. thickness of pier. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Washington. and the approach velocity. Inc.10 H. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. “Design of Small Dams. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. where approach velocities are high.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. Click here to view. For conditions of design head Hd. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. starting with the corrected discharge.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.2 of the head. For conditions of design head Table 21. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. . ft (U. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. But the process should be repeated. The effect is most critical for low heads.S. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.12. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. F. Therefore. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. and approach velocity. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. DC 20402. Department of the Interior.123) where L = effective crest length.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. ft L′ = net crest lengths. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.” Government Printing Office.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. 21. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.13. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. head in relation to design heads.21. All rights reserved. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. the head in relation to the design head.34. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.

This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd.64) has such a shape. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. called the design head Hd.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. This manual and V. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.S. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. T. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. depends on the head producing the discharge. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. (U. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For flow at heads lower than the design head. Of the above rules. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.65. All rights reserved. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Chow. for a sharp-crested weir. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. New York). 1. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. (21. 21. Fig. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. Consequently. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.67 Fig. . Figure 21. 21. “Design of Small Dams. According to Chow. T. 21. 21. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. at the point of maximum contraction.” Government Printing Office.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. however.34. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. where discharge is given by Eq. and therefore of an ogee crest. 21. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.122). The shape of this nappe. Department of the Interior. 2. Washington. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. DC 20402.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. This relationship is shown in Fig. Chow.66 of the head. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. Click here to view. Inc.5H upstream.

present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. All rights reserved. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams. . Bureau of Reclamation.” U. Fig. Figure 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow differs from ideal.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Click here to view. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.” U. Inc. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York.S.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.21.) Fig.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.66.

66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.” 6th ed.34.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. Inc. 21.S. (E. Unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. Click here to view. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. 21. appear in Table 21. therefore. where the velocity of approach is not high.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.) Fig. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.34. Figure 21.” 6th ed. compiled by King. a plane horizontal crest. is determined from Fig. 21.14. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21. because of its sharp upstream edge. fairly common in waterworks projects. Values of the discharge coefficient. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.69 Fig. Brater. (From “Design of Small Dams. the nappe springs free. 21. (See.67 and 21. New York.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. for example. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. are used as spillways and control structures. and sharp right-angled edges. “Handbook of Hydraulics. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir..68.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Weirs of irregular section. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Figure 21. F. has contraction of the nappe.69 Broad-crested weir. Brater.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. if flow is at other than the design head.” U. F. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. McGraw-Hill Book Company. E. New York. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Bureau of Reclamation. the coefficient of discharge.

72 2.74 2.32 3.88 10.31 3.49 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.00 2.38 2.6 1.28 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir. erosion.20 3.64 2. with its load of suspended silt. ft 0.66 2.69 2.07 3.58 2.07 3. 21. those carried in suspension.60 2.65 2.5 4.64 2.00 2.32 1.32 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage. ft 0.32 3.32 3. All rights reserved.63 2.77 2.00 2.28 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75 2.32 3.32 3.80 2.32 3.07 3. A density current.72 2.32 3.64 15.64 2.64 2.32 2.32 5.07 3.29 3.14 3.32 4. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.65 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.32 3.86 2.80 2.60 2.68 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.68 2.32 3.30 3.85 2.64 2.48 2.89 3.65 2.75 2.75 2.64 2. valves. which are often of equal consequence.32 3.64 2.32 3.68 2.32 3.32 3.50 2.69 2.63 2.75 2.31 3. Inc.32 3.32 3.34 2.62 2.64 2.32 3.56 2.72 2.32 3.4 0. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.32 3.63 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.54 2.63 2.68 2.65 2.67 2.32 3.2 1. Click here to view.70 2.5 3.32 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.92 3.0 2.32 1.32 3.64 2. This incoming water.07 3.64 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.50 2.00 2. once formed.8 1.64 2.63 2. . those forming the bed load.68 2.97 3.69 2.8 2.85 3.63 2.0 4.35.32 3.6 0.64 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.50 H.26 3.67 2. such as gates.5 2.92 2.60 2.68 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.70 2.79 2.70 2.05 3.61 2.5 5.66 2.63 2.32 3.63 2.75 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.79 1.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.64 2.67 2.20 3.64 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.30 3.88 3.00 2.20 3.32 3. such as a reservoir.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.0 5. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.68 2.70 2.67 2.0 1.88 2.64 2. The smaller silt sizes.00 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.32 3.64 2.32 3.66 2.19 3.32 3.32 3. or soil.00 2.69 2.31 3.68 2.03 3.64 2.76 2.67 2.63 2.32 3.32 3.76 2.66 2.65 2.63 21.2 0.32 3.63 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.32 3.70 2.68 2.74 2.32 3.92 3.44 2.32 3.98 3.89 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.68 2.60 2.21.4 1.54 2.65 2.68 2.32 3.0 3.65 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.68 2. Heavier silt sizes.66 2.08 3.89 3.50 2.08 3.32 3.04 3.70 2. and turbines.81 2.32 2.61 2.32 3.73 2.

Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. or failure of materials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. are coarsegrained. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. When neither can be done. on the other hand. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. Of course. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. see Art. landslide. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. because of variations in rainfall. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area.39. Click here to view. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. however. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. overtopping. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. Inc. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. However.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. By this method. 21. the rate is not uniform during the year. once formed. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur.35. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. These currents are stable. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. 21. All rights reserved. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. The most common manner of destruction. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. formed from the bed load. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. or from year to year.

this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy.1). But for the most part. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.0 ft/mi. Click here to view.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. Inc. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. 21. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. According to Witzig. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. A mean grain size of 0.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. gravel. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. ft3/s b = width of river. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. Frequently. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art.21. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . (21.124) where Gb = total bed load. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. All rights reserved. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. Therefore. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. discharge. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. which generally occurs only during a storm. which varies with both slope and discharge. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. ft qo = critical discharge. Therefore. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Therefore. however. and boulders. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data.35.

for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given.S. including their relation to living things. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. All rights reserved. It continually records. are published daily by the U.” U. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. Use of vegetation screens. and their reaction with their environment. if the dam is raised at a later date. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.73 dation. temperature. (See H. and distribution. (21-124). such as wind. infiltration.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. their chemical and physical properties. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. their occurrence. . and pressure. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Click here to view. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The second type is a nonrecording gage. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens.S. planting of burned-over areas. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. in the form of synoptic weather charts.S. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. recharges groundwater. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. discharges into streams. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. and the stream velocity. or a combination of the two. rivers. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. day. H. Graf. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. check-dam construction.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. (W. Department of Agriculture. or digital microchip technology. on or near the land surface. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. debris barriers. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. For instance. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Weather Bureau is 24 h. which are of two types. or year. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. New York. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Current data. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. Such screens. infiltrates into the soil. by ink pen and revolving drum. circulation. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. evaporation.) culation. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. Inc. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Weather Bureau. lakes. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. groundwater flow. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. water evaporation from oceans. and stream flow 21. Einstein. runoff. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. contour plowing. such as an hour. A. In this cycle.

tropical and subtropical regions. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. (21. Evaporation may occur from free-water. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. and plantleaf surfaces. called interception. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. Maidment. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. plant. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. R. A portion may evaporate as it falls. New York. Evapotranspiration is important because. shallow pools and 11 for large. Inc. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region.125) (21. ground. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere.. Of the three. On an annual basis. while another portion may be caught on leaves. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. Inc. and it increases as wind velocity increases. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. Click here to view. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. Not all rain reaches the ground. developed from Dalton’s law.21. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. in of mercury. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. in of mercury. has a relatively large surface area. commonly termed consumptive use. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. (21. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. branches. In transpiration. In evaporation. and other vegetation surfaces. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. on a long-term basis. equal to 15 for small. Evapotranspiration.126) where E = evaporation rate.125)]. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. All rights reserved. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. or ground surfaces. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. especially if the reservoir is shallow. see D.” McGraw-Hill. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydrology. This phenomenon.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. . in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. The Meyer equation [Eq.

subsurface. (D. Classified by the path taken to a channel. effective rain includes subsurface flow. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. R. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. also known as interflow. Climatic characteristics a. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. tropical. subsurface storm flow. Groundwater flow. is in widespread use. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hexadeconal. or excess rain. Moving laterally. Subsurface flow. runoff may be surface. depending on the geographical region. or groundwater flow. New York. Thus. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. where it continues as channel or stream flow. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. 21. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. or cetyl alcohol. Maidment.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. natural or manmade. and biologic attrition. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. dew).) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. or groundwater runoff. insects. and storm seepage. duration. Commonly. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. frost. intensity. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind.60 and 0.” McGraw-Hill. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. Click here to view. All rights reserved. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. birds.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. On large reservoirs. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. It appears in surface channels. Inc. perhaps several years. wind tends to push the film to the shore. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Inc. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. “Handbook of Hydrology. . or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind.80. although it may vary between 0. called a Class A Level Pan. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. except in arid. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. In practice. aquatic life. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. hail. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. time distribution. subsurface runoff. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body.70. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. snow. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. After joining stream flow. to reach a channel. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Precipitation—form (rain. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow.

Atmospheric pressure f.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. both published and unpublished. the quantity and type of data available. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Topographic—size. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. extremes of flow. 21. direction of storm movement b. Geological Survey. length) b. special-interest items.70. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. shape of cross section. slope. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Wind—velocity.21. These papers contain records of daily flow. land use and cover. and the accuracy desired. frozen ground during storms. groundwater formations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S. Humidity e. stratification Fig. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. extremes during precipitation c. roughness. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. antecedent precipitation. All rights reserved. the detail required in the final answer. drainage net. Agricultural Research Service. snow storage. . The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Click here to view. mean flow. channels (size. shape.S. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred.” U. Weather Bureau.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. permeability. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. direction. Drainage-basin characteristics a. 21. orientation. TVA. Geological Survey. artificial drainage. 21. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. Geological Survey.S. Geologic—soil type. yearly flow volume. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. lakes and other bodies of water. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Inc. recurrence interval. and completeness of the hydrologic records. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. general location. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. detail. Temperature—variation. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. and Weather Bureau. duration d. soil moisture.S.S. Solar radiation 2. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. as shown in Fig. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. the U. and various state and local agencies. areal distribution. slope. 21. elevation. International Boundary Commission.

a 50. 1962). The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. the second to major hydraulic structures. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. T. great importance. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Chow. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.41. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Inc. . Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Several methods yield only peak discharge.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. for example. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. All rights reserved. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. in/h A = drainage area.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.127) where Q = peak discharge. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. others give the complete hydrograph. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures.128) 21.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. As an example. 2. Click here to view. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. and large downstream damage potential.or 100-year-frequency storm. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. 3. 4. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. The values of C in Table 21. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity.

“Handbook of Hydrology. coefficient.60 – 0. Sherman.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.60 0.95 0. ditches.95 0.85 0.40 – 0.15 – 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.80 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. (21.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. R.10 – 0. b.22 0.95 0.89)] .85 0.15 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. Inc.50 0. or ditches.30 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.41.50 – 0. (21. or any equivalent method. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.90 0.75 – 0.129).78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. detached Multiunits. 7% Heavy soil.70 – 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.70 – 0. n.20 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.20 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.10 – 0. (See D. gutters. 2% Sandy soil.75 – 0.129) Table 21.17 0.70 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. 2% Heavy soil. flat. 21.70 0.60 – 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. 2–7% Heavy soil. factor.. years duration of storm.40 0. Equation (21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.25 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.05 – 0.50 – 0. All rights reserved. min time of concentration Fig.80 – 0.30 – 0.128) or Eq. steep. Inc.16).95 0. 21. avg. streets.21.50 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow time in streets.25 0. New York. is a convenient.40 0.) The flow time in gutters.35 0.71 and Table 21.127). and the flow time in conduits.13 – 0.” McGraw-Hill. 21. in/h respectively. (21. After determining the time of concentration. .20 – 0.70 – 0. K. steep. avg.25 – 0. Maidment. Click here to view. flat.75 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.10 0.10 – 0.18 – 0. (21.

Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. 3.79 Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Inc. This requires that a storm of short duration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Thus. easier. (Leroy K. Sherman. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. JanuaryJune 1932. .16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. If the watershed is very large. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. subdivision may be required. Click here to view. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. All rights reserved. 501-505. 4. and more accurate than any such set of factors. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. the time of storm runoff. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Engineering News-Record. The method is summarized by the formula (21. termed a unit storm. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. pp. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. 2. 108. termed a unit period. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. vol. usually 1 acre). This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. that is. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made.

it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality.21. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. 5.73). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. 21. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. because of storm variations. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Inc. Illustrated in Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view.72. 21. Usually. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. 21. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. . the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. which is of fixed intensity and duration. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Then. For ease of manipulation.

a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.74). . is usually considered to be entirely infiltration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. “Hydrology for Engineers. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. 447–454). ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.81 21. (See D. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Maidment. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. “Handbook of Hydrology. This loss. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. Inc. (R. during heavy storms.) Fig.) where Q = flow rate.. New York.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. vol. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. I.” 3rd ed. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. 21. pp. K. New York. R. perpendicular to direction of flow. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. Inc. Fig. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. This method was developed by Franklin F.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. Also. 19. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method... Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. 21. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand.131) period. McGraw-Hill. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. pt. Linsley et al. Click here to view..” McGraw-Hill.

among others. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. and location of artificial replenishment. safe yield. alternative management plans should be formulated. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. and overdraft. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. and methods of wastewater disposal. cost of replenishment water. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. because of impermeable layers above and below it. Click here to view. quantity. recycling. rather than a change in volume. (A base period is a period of time. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. quantity. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. Regardless of how it is defined. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. quality. Deteriorating water quality. or other causes. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Inc. poor-quality replenishment waters. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. usually a number of years. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. and indirect water-quality use costs. Frequently. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan.21. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. water softening costs.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. need for excessive pumping lifts. wastewaters.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is a confined or artesian aquifer.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. groundwater levels. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. and quality of water supply. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. present and future water demands should be determined. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. source. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. . Following the preceding preliminary work.

and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. “Water Resources Planning. no. and age of the city. pumping. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. Hydrology for Engineers. Grigg. washing. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. “Groundwater Engineering. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. Inc.” 3rd ed.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. apartments. decreasing percentage increase. 21. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. sanitary. I. (“Ground Water Management. and lawn-sprinkling purposes.. wastewater disposed. and treatment works.Water Resources Engineering s 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. distribution.” R. Estimation of future population. amount and location of groundwater extractions. and public. culinary. water used. fire-fighting. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. and natural and artificial replenishment.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Click here to view. and sanitary purposes. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. . and hotels for drinking. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. surface-water delivery facilities. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. is a very difficult task. S. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. or other unforeseen emergency. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. irrigation. storage. fire. industrial. J. legal.” N. and environmental factors. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. industrial. Linsley et al. percentage increase. K. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. institutional. commercial. geographical boundaries. New York. 40. however. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. graphical comparison with other cities.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Therefore. such as industrial development. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Bear.” A. bathing. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. All rights reserved.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. land speculation. 1987. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. motels. The smaller the system. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. financially feasible. Kashef.. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. flood. American Society of Civil Engineers. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. transmission. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan.

Public Health Service Report. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. The “California Water Atlas. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lawn sprinkling. month.17. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. and faucets. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. janitorial. influence the demand rate for water. it may control the design of the facilities. pressure. such as the climate. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. and time of day. air conditioning. mainly because of the lack of large industries. cost. . Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. the demand for it decreases. Demand rates vary with time of day. reservoir evaporation. as presented in Table 21.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. size of the city. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. but because of the high rate at which it is required. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Mo. and cleaning. and year. type of service (metered or unmetered). valves. if the cost of water increases. cooling. All rights reserved. meter malfunctions. and air conditioning purposes. public buildings. and unauthorized uses. degree of industrialization. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Demand for water is related to water-service meters.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita.S. are the average of a range of values. and pressure.” 1979. State of California Office of Planning and Research. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U.21. Public use of water for parks. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Inc. Table 21. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Click here to view. standard of living. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. cost. degree of industrialization. presents Table 21. quality. Calif. Normally. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. The national demand-rate data. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. and quality of the water. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage.

4 3. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 48.18. but the demand rate is high.8 7.000 5. however.000 70. is frequently undesirable. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 10. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. In the past. legality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 3.000 110.4 17. however.5 14.000 40.000 40. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.000 * American Insurance Association.000 1.8 6. Inc. climate.000 40.000 10. industrialization.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. All rights reserved.000 4.3 0.000 17.000 40.000 40.000 85.3 Duration. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. † MGD = million gallons per day.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 200.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 40. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 85.3 5.18 Required Fire Flow.000 4.6 11. In selection of a source of supply. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. such as lakes. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. Click here to view. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.6 1.2 2. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. MG† 0. MG = million gallons. interdependent. valley cities.000 90. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 1.000 90. The source must Table 21.000 60.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. In the atlas.4 2. quality. Cost. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.0 7. In some local areas. inland.000 120. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.Water Resources Engineering s 21. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. . and politics. cost. Hydrant Spacing.000 55.000 28.000 100. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 8.6 4.000 80. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.8 2. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 12.2 8.0 1. to a large extent.000 80.000 6. the effect of warm. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. and in some cases.000 125. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. gal/min P = population.500 2. 21.9 4. diversification is essential for reliability. Moreover. and streams. rivers. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 2.000 40. Total dependence on a single source.000 3.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

dependent on local conditions.S. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.S.5 – 8. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. and calculation of the Langelier index. alkalinity.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.3 mg / L 0. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. such as sulfates and chlorides. Inc. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. temperature.) Source Protection s The U. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained.21. All rights reserved. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. calcium hardness. and Water Pollution Control Federation. . and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.) At the discretion of the state. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.” American Public Health Association.21. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.22. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. 21. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. American Water Works Association.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.” U. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. total dissolved solids. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The measurements should include pH. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. In addition. Click here to view. (See also Art.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.5 mg / L 0.

The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Figure 21.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. particulate and colored matter. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards.. Newton’s law applies: (21. Figure 21. (21. (Usually. disinfection. . and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. depth ho . (21. is equal to or less than 1. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. All rights reserved. mm If R > 2000. velocity is constant.51). Mich. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. (See R. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end.0. Click here to view. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. B. unpleasant tastes and odors. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. and width B. In the region where 1. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. Inc. such as those mentioned above. Ann Arbor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. 21. Reynolds numbers. to be used in Eq. 21.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. 21.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Pojasek. coagulation-sedimentation. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.46. Inc. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 < R < 2000. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.001 and 5. however. shape. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. temperature and viscosity of the water. and size and shape of the settling basin. For this ideal basin. and softening (see also Art.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. slow and rapid sand filtration. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. V the flowthrough velocity.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.134).134) where CD is the drag coefficient. 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. calculated with ν = νs.

) Fig. 103. 897. . 1946. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. 21. p. Inc. at 10 °C.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. after Camp. vol. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 21. Click here to view. (Observed curves.

21. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. salt. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. for example. 21.8c.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . All rights reserved. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Okun. and eddy currents.) 21. Inc. “Water Treatment Plant Design.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.78a) or circular (Fig. coagulants are added to the water.46.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . are removed in this basin. Fair. G. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. 21. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. J. New York. Without coagulants. 21. C. Click here to view. M.78b). occupy less site area than the single-story basin. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. Inc. Multistory tanks.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.5 ft/min (most common velocity. finely Fig.. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. A. 27. . (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. New York.” McGraw-Hill. Geyer.” John Wiley & Sons.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and D. The tubular settler (Fig. short circuiting. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. rectangular (Fig. or other indicator to pass through the basin. Inc. 1. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.

94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Inc. 21.21. (b) Circular clarifier. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

however. and nonionic. New York. “Water Supply and Sewerage. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. consequently. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Inc. 18H2O]. .47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. color. J. settling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Also. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.” 4th ed. production of a smaller volume of sludge.” R. They are available in three types: cationic. The filtering process has many components. turbidity. color. L. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Thereby. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Inc. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Polymers are long-chain.. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. highmolecular-weight. however. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. chemical and biological reactions.” McGraw-Hill. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. McGhee. Click here to view. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. and suspended solids. and hardness. Culp and R. organic polyelectrolytes. T. All rights reserved. such as physical straining. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. however. centrifugal pumps. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. such as mechanical stirrers. plankton. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. such as paper fiber. in some instances.to 60min range. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum.Water Resources Engineering s 21. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. and easier dewatering. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). New York.. L. (G. American Water Works Association. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Corbitt. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. A. and neutralization of electrostatic charges.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Anionic polymers. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). or positively charged. and air jets. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. considering both cost and performance. or negatively charged. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. “Water Quality and Treatment. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. such as pH. coliform organisms. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. polymers have a minor effect on pH. temperature. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. Culp. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low.) 21. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. anionic.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. or neutral in charge.

All rights reserved. . The process requires rapid mixing. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.or mixed-media filtration. Click here to view. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. The wash- Fig. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. depending on the turbidity.21. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. in millimeters. of the sand. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. by weight. that will pass 10%. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. through the sand and gravel layers.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid.35-mm range. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Usually. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process.to 0. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. addition of a polymer as a filter aid.25.79. and dual. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Inc. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size.to 12-in layer of gravel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. which produces an undertreated effluent. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand.005:1 range. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. filters pass water at a high rate.002:1 to 0. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Dual-media. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Click here to view. however.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. creating a high head loss across the filter.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Inc. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. and air jets. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. bed cracking. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. diatomaceous earth. The filtering medium may be sand. or anthracite coal. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. gal/min b = width of trough. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.20 to 1. may be more advantageous. or deep coarse-media filters. water sprays. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. . All rights reserved. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. such as rakes. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Immediately after washing.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. which is drained to waste. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. mixed-media. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand.25 to 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.35 to 0.

and American Society of Civil Engineers. “New Concepts in Water Purification. McGhee. (American Water Works Association. and R is the zeolite material. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.138) (21.) (21. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. American Water Works Association. gas. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” 6th ed. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains..21.” 4th ed. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.139) 21. Inc. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. respectively. where 1 gpg = 17. J.. Inc. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. L. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.) 21. or open-joint pipes. Click here to view. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.1 mg/L.” 4th ed.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. lime (CaO).” John Wiley & Sons. Regeneration requires between 0. New York. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. “Water Quality and Treatment. sulfates. “Water Quality and Treatment. “Water Supply and Sewerage.136) (21.. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. . perforated. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. (G. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. carbonates. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. G. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. C.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. such as calcium and magnesium. M.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.” and T. Culp. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. however. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. New York.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. J. Geyer. Some. A. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. L. These materials remove cations. and D. Okun. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. in clear wells. In the lime-soda process. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Fair.3 and 0. All rights reserved. Culp and R.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and American Society of Civil Engineers. and (3) total hardness. New York. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. New York.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid.

21. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. cation exchange. and lime. reverse osmosis. Inc. Click here to view. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. lime softening. then. A. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. Okun. Inc.. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. chlorine dioxide.99 water supplies. . New York.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. manganese. Inc. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. excessive fluorides. McGhee. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. J. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Other disinfectants are iodine. New York. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. Inc. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. ozone. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.) respect to carbonates.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” McGraw-Hill. Fair.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. irrigation.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. taste. J. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. M. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. All rights reserved. iron. Chlorine residuals of 0. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. 21. bromine. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. Geyer. activated carbon. ultraviolet light.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.) 21. detergents. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples.” McGraw-Hill. despite its low solubility. anion exchange. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.. Filter both solutions. (G. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. odor.45). Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. and electrodialysis. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. water supply.) 21.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. flood control. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes.1 or 0. and D. C.” and T.

81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. areavolume curves (Fig. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.1). The plot of volume vs. 21. minimum flows will be critical. Inc. Once a reservoir site has been selected. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Click here to view. whereas for flood-control reservoirs.52.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. The mass diagram (Fig. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. 21. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. maximum flows will govern.21. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Aeri- Fig.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. 21. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. When the demand rate is known. Also. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. . the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. 21.

52. which may be only a few feet thick. such as New York. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. are large distances from the city. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.2). Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. and Los Angeles. is called the thermocline. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. give special attention to water quality. If possible. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.101 Fig. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.52. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. 21. odor. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. During hours of maximum demand. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. San Francisco. When the demand drops off. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. In deep reservoirs. but there is no circulation across this zone. 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. Inc. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. . pumping plants. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.35 and 21. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. When the tem- 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Major sources of supply for some cities. the flow refills the reservoir. perature drops in the fall.

21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. vol.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. 21. All rights reserved. Brune. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Inc. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. For any given storage reservoir. 3. Click here to view. 21. A flowing artesian Fig. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. 21. 21. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 34. no. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.82) (G. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.84).52. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. 21. 21. June 1953). The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. M. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Brune. For the correct hydraulic grade.35.83). M.21.

21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. 21.103 Fig. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. Click here to view.

84). and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. J. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. 1940. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Click here to view. December 1938. bored. (G. 21. from an artesian well is given by (21. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. 21.53. All rights reserved. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. screen.53. motor. New York. New York.143) 21.83). Okun. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. ditch. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. gal/day. 21. 33.” 6th ed. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. and D. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. J. waterjet. no. McGraw-Hill. or driven..2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. Inc. Inc. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. hollow-core. 889..4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. 21. M.21. A. E.57). 629. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. p. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.” John Wiley & Sons. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. The pump. ft h = H minus drawdown. McGhee. Jacob. pump (Art.53. Geyer. (C. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. ft (Fig. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. vol. V. ft The steady flow. Inc. eductor or riser pipe. “Water Supply and Sewerage. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. C. Theis. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). where t is the thickness of confined aquifer.” Economic Geology.142) where Q = flow. and motor. p.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. or hydraulic rotary methods. Hence. .1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. Fair. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. 21. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.53. C. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. 21. T. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. 5. 72. ft d = diameter of well.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. polybutylene. zinc. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. hydrants.21. and plastics. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. bronze. A machine that produces a monolithic. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. steel. and sulfur compounds. (Water may serve as an electrolyte.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Copper. ft 21. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. lead. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains.54. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. but wood is rarely used in new installations. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. contact between acids and metals. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. In unlined pipes. . and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. valves. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. polyethylene. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. tanks. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. (21. concrete. stray electric currents. are present. or Dresser-type couplings. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rubber. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement.146) where D = pipe diameter. such as polyvinyl chloride. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. and other appurtenances. and ability to withstand external loads. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. impurities and strains in metals. If it is cement-lined. 21. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. and meters destroyed by corrosion. an anode and a cathode. Since steel is stronger than iron.) At the anode. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. riveting. brass. however. valves. All rights reserved. bacteria in water. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Under favorable conditions. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. pumps. sand. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. plastic. Click here to view. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Wood pipelines are still in existence. sealed flanges. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Inc.

) For an iron pipe exposed to water. to prevent corrosion. such as soda ash. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where e is an electron. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. the faster electrons can move through the water. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. and Fig. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. . Strains. and treatment of the water. All rights reserved. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Also.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the more ions. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle.86). cracks. 21. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. use of protective coatings. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. zinc. 21. for example. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. At the cathode. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. When selecting materials. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Click here to view. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. water may be treated with bases. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Aluminum. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. caustic soda.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Inc.

88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. however. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. To have practical meaning. ft.87). lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. called a volute (Fig.147) where pa = pressure. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. z is negative. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. horsepower. Click here to view. (American Water Works Association. or eye. efficiency.21. and the head-discharge relationship. Inc.” 4th ed. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. by (21.88).. Inc. oxides. McGraw-Hill. New York. between pump center line and water surface Fig. “Water Quality and Treatment. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. 21. graphite. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. lime. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. All rights reserved.. To prevent cavitation. Zinc. psia. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. Water enters at the center. Corrosion. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. psia. 21. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. . The centrifugal pump. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. in feet. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. hydroxides. magnesium. accomplishes that in two steps. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. and so on on the walls of the pipes. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. 21. or impeller. the most common waterworks pump. ft of water z = elevation difference.) w = unit weight of liquid. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

“Pump Handbook. pump discharge. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. and air lift. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. See also Art. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Karassik et al.Water Resources Engineering s 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. (I. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. Fig. Click here to view.. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. New York. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. reciprocating.111 than the required NPSH. helical. (Also included in Fig.” 2nd ed. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.58. rotary.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. however. 21.89. 21. jet. 21. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. 21. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. discharge curve with the brake horsepower..) 21. depending on the number of stages. For that reason. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics.57 and check valves in Art. All rights reserved. In a typical water-system analysis. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. 21. as shown in Fig. below 200 gal/min. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. propeller. .

ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. which are located at the well bottom. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. either hand. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. vanes. which is a function of specific speed.or motordriven.148) where n = impeller speed. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. . Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. At sea level.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. and for Ns above 7500. utilize piston action to move water. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Jet pumps (Fig. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. 21. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Reciprocating pumps. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Because of the close tolerances. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Inc. 21. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller.21. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. gal/min H = head. r/min Q = discharge. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Click here to view. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. they can be used only for sediment-free water. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. (21.90 fied). Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. so that the entire lift is suction. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. cams. All rights reserved. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies.

large pressure differences. or corporation cocks. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.Water Resources Engineering s 21.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. one at the service connection. solids deposition. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Click here to view. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. New York. fast operation. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. globe. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. . They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. needle. cone. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. Usually. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. or it may be at the bottom of the well. in-service lubrication features. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells.) drives to permit manual operation. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. which are water. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes.” 2nd ed. availability. curb. primarily because of their low cost. Check. or Neoprene. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. If sand is carried out with the water. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. rotates the disk. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Also. sluice gate. respectively. three valves must be used. But these valves cost more than gate. tubercle formation. J. rubber. air-relief. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. Low head loss. one just upstream of the meter. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. “Pump Handbook. pressure-regulating. and easy. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Corrosion. (I. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Hand or motor power. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. globe.. Inc. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves.113 tion.or oil-lubricated. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. pressure-relief. applied through a gear-reduction device. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers.. Karassik et al. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. and butterfly. Plug. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. plug. and butterfly valves. pumps. and low head loss when fully open. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. All rights reserved. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Simplicity of construction and quick. are the major advantages of plug-type valves.

The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. and relief valves. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Because of high head losses. rivers. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line.21. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Usually.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Often. a large pumper outlet must be furnished.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. such as pressure regulators and altitude. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. 21. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. . Furthermore. The wetbarrel. tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Interior-differential. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. For example. Many automatic control valves. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. check. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. When the valve is in a closed position. Inc. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Click here to view. or California type. which connects the barrel to the main. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The most common check valve is the swing type. such as trunk lines 21. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. and large pipes.

An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. such as meters for individual customer connections. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. (21. respectively. amount of head loss through the meter. called a Price meter. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. rotary. see E. All rights reserved. 21. durability. nozzle. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. are the most common velocity-type devices. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. 21. Click here to view.149) Hydraulics. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. or modifications thereof. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. simplicity and ease of repairs. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. vertical velocity components. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. .5% within the normal test-flow limits. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. ft h1 = pressure in main section. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. A clicking noise.) As in venturi meters. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. ft d2 = diameter of throat. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. but they are used primarily in laboratories. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow.” 6th ed. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and cost.91. Inc. or nutating-disk types. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. for metering domestic-service connections.150) where Q = flow rate. The standard venturi meter (Fig.115 of distribution systems. The cup-type meter.. The nutating disk is used. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. New York. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. which do not affect propeller meters. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. F. However. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Brater.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. All rights reserved. (b) Nozzle meter. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. (c) Orifice- 21. peak rates of use. 21. step rate. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.91 plate meter.21. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. and similar items. and block rate. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. seasonal use. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. Inc.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. load factors. and development of the system. . or to some other recognized system. flat rate is falling into disuse. utility-type enterprises. fixed charges on capital investment. fire use. if any.

or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. switching equipment. . a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Cost component 3. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. This charge is usually small. S. Cost component 1. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream.117 With step rate. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. generators and exciters. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. called the customer component. pumping energy. tunnels. and transformers. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Click here to view. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. and (3) cost. depends on the peak usage of a customer. canals.746 kW 1 kW = 1.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. called the demand component. 21. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. When fixing a system of rates. tunnel. and.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. turbines and governors. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. buying water from a wholesale supplier. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. All rights reserved. It is generally recognized that residential areas.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. Cost component 2. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. Inc. of serving an individual customer. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. draft tube. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. where the majority of small users are. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. treatment chemicals. For most distribution systems. penstocks. where applicable. called the commodity component. including metering and billing. a building to house the machinery and equipment. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants.

base-load plants. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. to be used at some future time. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. such as navigation.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. On a weekly cycle. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. Therefore. 21. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Storage can be provided for a daily. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. On a seasonal cycle. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Inc. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant.21. weekly. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Click here to view. If the minimum flow is very low. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. or yearly basis. and peak-load plants. run-of-river plants with storage. or seasonal cycle. Then. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. weekly. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. On a daily cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. . It can be computed on a daily. All rights reserved. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow.92). power production being only incidental. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence.

only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. Its distribution is triangular. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. The main classifications are gravity. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Zipparo and H. and rock-fill. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Force F2 represents silt pressure. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. arch. Los Angeles. it usually is not as economical. 21. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand.92). When needed.” 4th ed.119 Fig. New York. Figure 21. Click here to view. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. buttress. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.) 21. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. 21. (Department of Water and Power.. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Calif.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. (V. earth.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. J. Inc. All rights reserved. Hasen. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Inc. presented by Edwin Rose. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. In the past. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. May 1946. A close approximation of the force.21. ice pressures as high as 50. was developed by von Karman. Rose. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. ice. p. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. 21.153).” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. A method of calculating these forces. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. which create forces on any object resting on it. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. however. 1933. today it is realized these values are much too high. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. 434. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. All rights reserved. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. 98. (21. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction.425h above the base. .153) where w = unit weight of water. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.” discussion by von Karman. which forms on the reservoir surface. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.1 g. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (E. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) (21. Click here to view. vol. These accelerations occur in every direction. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. given by Eq.000 psf.93 by forces F4 and F5. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. In cold climates.

the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. silt. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. rock flour. such as sand and gravel. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. their relative importance is much different. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. however. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are not suited to most sites. Hence. In the past. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. If the deflections are not equal. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. If a large quantity of pervious material. because of bearing contact. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. is available and clayey materials must be imported. When the base is not drained.Water Resources Engineering s 21. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. overturning by rotating about the toe. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. uplift is not so important. and uplift forces are smaller. Although there are many types of buttress dams. The modes of failure are also the same. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. On arch dams. sand. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Inc. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. . engineers assumed that. but the structural design is much more critical. or failure of the foundation material. Click here to view. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. In the multiple-arch. All rights reserved. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. However. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. however. however. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Recent belief. First. but its formwork is more expensive. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. and clay. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point.

Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. or wood over concrete. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Hasen. Leakage should be expected. . Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company.3 on 1. For dams over 200 ft high. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. and an upstream impervious facing. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. The downstream face is usually 1. U. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. S. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Army Corps of Engineers. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. bonding into the dumped rock. S. onto the fill. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Bureau of Relamation. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. 21. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. For some types of soil. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure.” 4th ed. (V. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Inc. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Zipparo and H. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.) 21. however.” U. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. bearing on the rubble cushion. The facing is usually concrete. Temporary facings are usually of wood. therefore. Today. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.. Click here to view.” EM 1110-2-2300. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams.3 on 1. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. J. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. the natural angle of repose of rock. All rights reserved. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. providing power. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams.94). If pervious material is not available. although steel has been used occasionally. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. New York. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench.21.

The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. All rights reserved. if the load drops below 50%. 21. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. it changes direction. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Inc. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. In these. wicket gates. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. When the power demand on the turbine changes. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. runner.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. their efficiency decreases rapidly. 21. however. J. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. This creates a force on the runner. 21. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. and draft tube.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The wicket gates. At heads below 100 ft.” 4th ed.123 bine. and draft tube. the propeller-type (Fig. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. New York. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner.) Fig. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures.95c). The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. 21. In such installations. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case.Water Resources Engineering s 21. runner. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. however. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. and the fixed-blade type.94 turbine. (V. Click here to view.95a).95b) and the axial flow (Fig. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. Zipparo and H. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Hasen. The propeller turbine (Fig. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. As the water flows through the tur- 21. However. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. At heads above 1000 ft. wicket gates. .

65.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. (b) Kaplan. 21. (c) axial flow. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.21.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. the dam will not be damaged by the water. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . Inc.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. widely used for concrete dams because. This type of spillway is Fig. if designed correctly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. the siphon’s intake is sealed. open channel. 21. lined. Washington. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow.” Government Printing Office. As the head increases. 21. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The weir can be sharp-crested. model tests are usually employed. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. flared. DC 20402). Inc. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. This type of spillway. Once this second condition is reached. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. 21. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. The air vent shown in Fig. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. When the head is relatively low. Click here to view.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. . (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. or ogee in cross section. In a shaft spillway. Thus. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. “Design of Small Dams. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power.S. called an ogee spillway. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. 21. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. In a side-channel spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. A siphon spillway (Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. both depending on the head on the weir. All rights reserved. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum.96 Siphon spillway. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur.34). at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. In a chute spillway.

Fig. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. making removal difficult. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. To do this.65. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. the pipes fail. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. . Fig. In a taintor gate (Fig. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Click here to view. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. controlling flow.5 ft/s. On large stop-log installations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. 21. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21. 21. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.21. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. All rights reserved.97).97 Taintor gate. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.98 Bear-trap gate. and providing support for the conduit. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. In contrast. causing damage and hampering operation. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. level of a reservoir within close limits. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. 21. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.65. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.

) Fig.” 4th ed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Because of the large recess required in the dam. J. Hasen. and J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The drum gate (Fig.98. Cleasby. . To raise a bear-trap gate. J.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. 21. “Water Supply Engineering. Click here to view.. as shown in Fig. Zipparo and H.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. 21.99 Drum gate. and H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. L. Babbitt. (V.Water Resources Engineering s 21. J. E. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. drum gates are not suited to small dams. All rights reserved. New York. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Doland. Inc.

blank page 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Click here to view. .128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.