# 21

W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

All rights reserved. like surface tension. Gage pressure. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. Its temperature variation. psi.000 ft is shown in Fig.1.
. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus.21. formation of spray from water jets.1) where h = capillary rise. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. interpretation of the results obtained on small models.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. is pressure above or below atmospheric. In equation form. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. as shown in Fig. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. however. 21. Thus. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. Inc. portions of the liquid vaporize. psia. is concave upward. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at sea level. Its value
Fig.4 s Section Twenty-One
at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. ft σ = surface tension. pitting. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level.7 psi. 21. 21.
face and rises in a small tube. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces.3. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. decreases with increasing temperature. Surface tension and capillarity. and freezing damage to concrete. abrupt pressure increases force them
Fig. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. or liquid surface. respectively. (21. ft Capillarity.7 psia. although negligible in many water engineering problems. 21. is small and insignificant in most problems. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. When the liquid is in a closed container. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Absolute pressure. Meniscus. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. are significant in others. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24.

000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. of length and time. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Viscosity. ft/s y = depth. as shown in Fig. psf.4.
. the force due to pressure p1. or implode. 21. ft. It is so named because its units.3 Fluid Pressures
Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. Then.3
Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. All rights reserved. are a combination of the kinematic units
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. (Pressures as high as 350.2) where τ = shearing stress.5
Fig. In hydraulics. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.8) to determine whether laminar.00001059 ft2/s. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. the pressure acts equally in all directions. absolute viscosity. transitional. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Click here to view. lb/ft2
21. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. also called the coefficient of viscosity. ft2. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. and the force due to pressure p2. µ of a fluid. on the bottom surface. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. and pitting appears. psf. ft2/s. Since the prism is at rest. lb/ft3. or dynamic viscosity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Inc. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. 21. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields
V = velocity.
to collapse. and cross-sectional area A.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. or completely turbulent flow exists. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. At any depth. on the top surface. which extend into the pores of the metal.

3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.3b) then becomes (21. psf.3a) Division of Eq. ft. where w is the specific weight of water. (21. ft2. 21. The resultant pressure force P. the depth below the water surface.6) – ∫ydA = y A. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1
Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces
This is important in the design of weirs. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. (21.6) can be simplified by setting
– – surface.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. 21. (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.5)
21. Thus. at depth h. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. lb/ft3. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. the depth of the centroid. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.7)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For horizontal surfaces.3. and y sin θ = h .4. tanks. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Therefore.3a) by A yields (21.4) Equation (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. the pressure. however. ft. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). (21. dams.
(21. Taking ∆h to be h.6 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.4
Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. and other water control structures. All rights reserved. Figure 21. then p2 is p. Click here to view.
.21. Inc. lb.4). Equation (21. (21.

2° to the horizontal (Fig.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. 6. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. if that locus is a straight line. (21.p. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.8). The location of the center of pressure. ft. represented by the length yp. Otherwise. Thus. Click here to view.7
Fig.7). Hence y . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) but acts at a point (c. (21. (21. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.). Pyp = ∫y dP. the total force P = whA. Example 21. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . 21.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. 21. (21. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. (21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. of the surface about its centroidal axis.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. with
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.p. 21. where K is the radius of gyration. – From Eq.7). The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. All rights reserved.5).
.g.) that is below the c. 21.29).
where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.8) equals –A. psf. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. The denominator of Eq.g. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.
Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. Inc.6 (see also Fig.

0 ft. Therefore.8 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.9).5 + 1/ (5. K2 = point G. All rights reserved. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.g.
21. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.21.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.8. Also.3. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. yp = 5.0 + 2. (See Example 21. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the
Thus.42 = 5. Note: 1.0 + 0. however.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.
.08.2
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces
The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged
Fig.42 ft.0) = 5. (21.) of common shapes.7
Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.08/5 = 5. From Eq. 21.6
Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.1. P = 62. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. 21.

Its angle with the horizontal is known. 21. When water is below the curved surface. 21.14 × 25/4 = 19. and for a constant-radius surface.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9). (21. 2. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.9. 21. Inc. Example 21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.564. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. PH = whA = 62.4°. so the weight of the water is 19. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.2.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. All rights reserved. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals
The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. – From Eq.4 = 1220 lb = PV.5 × 5 = 780 lb.
Fig.9
Fig. Click here to view. The corresponding angle is 57.
. 21. (b) Free-body diagram.4 × 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6w = 19. (See Example 21. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.6 × 62.6 ft3.7). pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.

p = wh. All rights reserved. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently
Fig.4).b. or the difference in head. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The stability of a ship. Manometers indicate h. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. Click here to view.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. For a body to be in equilibrium. the pressure head.10
Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.10a). Given in feet by Eq. whether floating or submerged.10b).10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0.21. 21.). ft3 ys = distance.
21. is indicated by the metacenter.5 Manometers
A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.
. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10 s Section Twenty-One
21.. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. (21. ft. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.g. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. ft4
V = volume of displaced liquid.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies
The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. (21. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.10b. 21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of
moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. Inc. 21. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. (21. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

The liquid is water with w = 62. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. (b) U-tube manometer. (a) Piezometers.17 psi. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid.
. Click here to view.11a is 2. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. and differential manometer.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. All rights reserved.11
accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). However. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig.11): piezometer. 21. 21.4 lb/ft3. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. The piezometer (Fig. Inc. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. although the latter is most common.Water Resources Engineering s 21. What is hm?
Fig. 21. U-tube manometer. Example 21. (c) differential
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11 manometer.
Basic types of manometers. 21.12c).

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. Very low pressures. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures. 21.21.12c). The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the
Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale. 21.12 s Section Twenty-One
For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. the Utube manometer (Fig.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.11b) is used. A movable scale. In this application. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. 21. Inc. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.

psf.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.
.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid
21.0 ft. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. All rights reserved. the actual pressure difference. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.40. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.4: A differential manometer (Fig. 21.
The pressure at B.6 × 62. when expressed in feet of water. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.75 + 13. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.4 × 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.0 and 2. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
For fluid energy. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. hi is 2.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the magnification will be 2. is magnified by the differential manometer.4 × 2.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. Equation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 ft of water.25 ft. For example.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. as shown in Fig.13
indicating liquid. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. Click here to view. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. psf p2 = pressure at 2. 21. 21. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. The differential manometer (Fig.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. or sump. psf w = specific weight of fluid. psf. and z is 1. ft. Most of them. 21. ft.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. 32. Above 5. if the actual difference is 0.5. that is.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.4 × 2. however. the total energy per unit weight at 2. Inc.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.11) where Z1 = elevation. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. in the manometer. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. however. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. One factor. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. and the right side. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. such as ft of water or psi.6). hm1 is 9 in. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.12a. such as might be required in laboratories.

varies with velocity. Usually.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.13. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.
.13).14) pa/w is called pressure head. ft/s. Click here to view. where W is the weight. across the area of the section A.11). 21. It equals WVa2 / 2g.5. where Va is the velocity. a
Fig. 21. 21.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. through friction. This term hf. lb/ft3. velocity.14. ft. 21. and pressure (Fig. Example 21.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. All rights reserved. ft2. when added to the downstream side of Eq. Kinetic energy at the section.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.14
Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. above some arbitrary datum. V2/2g. or the total head ft: (21. (See Example 21. Average velocity. ft. ft/s = Q/A.14 s Section Twenty-One
(21. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. where Q is the quantity of flow. velocity head. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. (21. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Inc. ft3/s. The total energy.4 ft3/s. and pressure. 21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.
Fig. As indicated in Fig.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. velocity.21. however. lb.

it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. The slope
of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. All rights reserved. while in pressure flow. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. In openchannel flow. and any bends. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. gate valve.4/ 3. respectively. ft.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Z2 = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9). Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.45 ft. p2 = 0. hf = 50 – 1.55 = 48. 21. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. 21. Hence.15
Fig. respectively.12) yields
where hf is the friction loss. Art. Also.15). Click here to view. which may result from a change in either velocity.
. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. sometimes called the total head line. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. or impulse-momentum equation:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A change in momentum. Inc. or magnitude of flow. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. direction. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.7. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. (21. The energy grade line. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. is equal to the impulse. Thus substitution in Eq. 21. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow.14 = 10 ft/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21. since the pipe has free discharge.
Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.

000 cos 53.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.000 sin 53.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.16. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.21.78 Ry = 145. 21. lb.94 × 100 × 4. Fx = 181.78. All rights reserved.6.2° – 0) = 4. so θ = 60. (21.600.5°. then in the Y direction.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.332π = 71.600 lb In the Y direction.2° – 13.200 lb. Fy = –181.96 sin 53.12)] but may be used separately. P2 = ppA2 = 13.4/ 32.700/82.2° + Ry = 1. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.96 cos 53. 21.94 × 100 × 65.000 lb. To find F.
. Inc.1 and the density ρ = 62. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.94.2° – 71. since ∆Vy = –(–7. (See Example 21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. Example 21.
Fig.2= 1. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. apply Eq. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.1 Rx = –82.5) = 65.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. Then.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is to be determined). Click here to view. (21. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. and at 2.16 s Section Twenty-One
(21. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.500 lb. since ∆Vx = –(7. With p1 known. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.11) or (21. Let R be the force.200 + Rx = 1. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.5 ft/s. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.15) first in the X direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

the capability of the computing resources. or prototype. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. alternative management schemes.7. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances.1
Similitude for Physical Models
A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. and surface tension. gravity. With hybrid models. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. aquifer. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically.
21. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.17
21. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. hybrid modeling. employs both physical and mathematical models. See also Art.
. or proposed works. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. or drainage basin. In most models. droughts. Popular before the advent of digital computers. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. such as a river.7 Water Resources Modeling
A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. operate. Inc.7. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. erosional scour. All rights reserved. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. In this way. Physical models are expensive to build. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. and through execution of the computer program. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. momentum. such as storm rainfall. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. 1. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. Usually. In water resources engineering. For instance. to a given set of stimuli. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. viscosity. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. It is. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. Click here to view. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis
requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. In the preceding example. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. A fourth mode of modeling.

such as spillways and weirs. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. Squaring both sides of Eq. Froude number. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Ratios of the forces of gravity.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. The Froude number is (21. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. the formation of drops and air bubbles.18 s Section Twenty-One
the prototype does not introduce serious error.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. The Reynolds number is (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Then (21.21a)
(21. Reynolds number. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. the model is termed a true model.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. 32. entrainment of air in flowing water.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.21. respectively. Similarly. and one other force are made proportional. such as depth or diameter). (21. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. (21. The Weber number is (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.22) where ρ = density of fluid. The inertial force. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Therefore. ft2/s. the length ratio is the only variable. and Weber number. which is always a predominant force. Inc. All rights reserved.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20) R is dimensionless. Click here to view.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. viscosity. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Once the length ratio has been set.

The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. One type of model. These expressions.26) where V = mean velocity. such as flow networks. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. mathematical models are.
(21. and through execution of the computer program.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. inertial. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. such as a morning-glory spillway.25) In models of rivers and channels. Hence. in turn. For instance. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). (21. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Sr = 1. In some cases. (21. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.
. in particular.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. called a movable-bed model. Rr = Lr.7.
21. For such models. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. Inc. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds.24). All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. viscous. Click here to view. catchment areas. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. This type of model is called a distorted model. ft ν = kinematic viscosity.19
Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. and infiltration parameters. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. The U. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. the logical representation of prototypes.23a)
(21. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.2
Types and Applications of Mathematical Models
Used in many applications of water resources engineering.

the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. and groundwater yield. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. vol. flow routing. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. or pollution. sediment or pollutant transport. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected.
. As a result. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. This approach. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. if comparisons of different plans are required. R. 3. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced.2). or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. hydrologic forecasting. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. landfill leachate analyses. wave or tidal analyses. In object-oriented software. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. when fully implemented.” N.20 s Section Twenty-One
into one entity. (D. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. “Handbook of Hydrology. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 21. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. impacts of dam breaks. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. New York. J. (J. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Whan. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. quantity and quality of water supply.” V. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. 21. G.” McGraw-Hill.8 Laminar Flow
In laminar flow. ecosystem impacts and restoration. All rights reserved. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Art. hydrodynamics. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. Also. and among water resources modelers in the government. design of hydraulic structures. and turbulent flow results. H. Hasen. and R. reservoir regulation. density. of all databases and software. Zipparo and H. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. however. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. Grigg. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. seepage. shown in Fig.17. As this shearing stress increases. S.” D. as in annular passages. Inc.)
21. Rothfus. watershed hydrology.21. Click here to view. F. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow.)
Pipe Flow
The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. and private sectors. R. Walker. academia. This. As a general rule. 1957. and is given by
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. channel and river hydraulics. “Water Resources Planning. the model output required for design or evaluation. Hoggan. flood or drought impacts. For closed conduits other than circular. Maidment. A. or both. evaporation and irrigation. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy.

Brater.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. it is not practical to treat it analytically. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. (21.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. 32. as shown in Fig.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. at completely turbulent flow.21
Fig.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. 21. Therefore. than for laminar flow (Fig.)
21.
Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.29) For laminar flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. laminar flow is unstable. 21. the velocity distribution is more uniform.18.l9. ft ρ = density of fluid. handbook of Hydraulics. 21. 21.17).
. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. flow is laminar in circular pipes. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. 32. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. F. As the Reynolds number increases. 21. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. (21. Inc. New York. As a result. In laminar flow. ft/s D = pipe diameter. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. 21. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.
(E. These disturbances create eddies. causing the flow to become turbulent. the flow is completely turbulent. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.27) where V = fluid velocity.19.. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. All rights reserved. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.9 Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. In this region. Eq. Click here to view.
(21. a disturbance will probably be magnified. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. ft L = length of pipe section considered. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.” 6th ed.

22 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.003 0. Moody. Inc.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.19) L = length of pipe.19
Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.001 – 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. (21.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.
21.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.008 0. 21.19) to Determine f
ε. (21.0005 – 0. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.
The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. ft V = velocity of fluid. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. enamels.21. (L. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.
.0002 0. 21. 32. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.008 – 0. F. The head loss is independent of the pressure.00085
One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.9.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. November 1944.0005 – 0. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.0002 0.003 – 0.) Because Eq.2 ft/s
2
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.03 – 0.1
Darcy-Weisbach Formula
Table 21.001 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. Click here to view.0005 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. ft D = diameter of pipe. 21.0002 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.00003 0. All rights reserved.

where D is the pipe diameter.34e) where V = velocity. Inc. (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.2
Chezy Formula
where Q = flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (Although based on surface roughness. (21.3. Click here to view.33d)
(21.31) where V = velocity. ft/s C = coefficient.34b) (21.9. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.23
Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.
. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:
(21. ft L = length of pipe.11 (p.9.31) gives (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. 21. which requires experience in its choice. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.34c)
21. All rights reserved.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft3/s. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.) Substitution into Eq.
21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.33c)
(21.33b)
(21. ft
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.34d)
(21.4
Hazen-Williams Formula
This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.9. dependent on surface roughness. See also Table 22.4 and 21.33e)
21.32) where n = coefficient.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.3
Manning’s Formula
Through experimentation. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. Tables 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. ft S = head loss due to friction.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.

035 0.
21. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.017 0.012 0.010 To 0.012 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.35c)
(21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.015 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. However.012 0.) Flow between reservoirs. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.015 0.20 ple 21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes
Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.7. 21.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. (21. (See Exam-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.012 0.
. Example 21. bends. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.010 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0.014 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.017 0. Click here to view.35b)
(21.011 0.016 To 0.013 0.017 0. All rights reserved. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.017 From 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.013 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.017 Use in designing
Q = discharge.015 0. enlargements.013 0. (21. and valves and other pipe fittings.015 0.7: Figure 21. in short pipelines.4 Values of n for Pipes. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.014 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.21.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.015 0. Inc.35a)
With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.017 0.013 0.010 0.36) for a check.24 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21. because
(21.

41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.” Constable & Co. minor losses must be considered. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. Click here to view. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. so a full velocity head is lost. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. regardless of age. the values of K in Fig. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21.2 Gradual Enlargements
The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. London. All rights reserved.2 ft/s
2
It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.
21.37):
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 135 In good condition.21 are approximate. is (21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 120 Centrifugally spun. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). (21.)
40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined
21.38) A special application of Eq. 21. 10 years older Average value. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g... 105 30 in and over. are presented in Table 21. (A.3 Sudden Contraction
The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.
.37): (21. Table 21. 80 4 in. (21. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. good workmanship. steel forms.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. good workmanship. wood forms.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.25
Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gibson. 120 24 in and over.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.10.
21.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 85 16 in.37) or (21. Inc. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.10.7. 110 4 in.10. 115 12 in. ft/s g = 32. Ltd. ft. 110
(21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.1 Sudden Enlargements
The following equation for the head loss. 120 Large sizes.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula
Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.
Vitrified
these losses may exceed the friction losses. 21. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. 140 Large sizes. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.21). (21. H.

9 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.50 K = 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.7 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.21 of the sides.89 1.6 0.8 are only approximate. Click here to view. such as valves and elbows. All rights reserved.05 K = 0.76 0.80 K = 0.
.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.
Globe valve. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.63 0.2 0. D = pipe diameter.
Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence
Table 21.1 0.4
21. 21.42) Table 21.25
The values in Table 21.0 2.2 2.8 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.64 0.0 1.3 0.0
Table 21.81 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses
The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.26 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.0 5.66 0.5 0.21.6 0.2 0.62 0.10. fully open Gate valve. fully open Angle valve. Inc.68 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For these reaTable 21. fully open Swing check valve.4 0. and at bends is given by (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.9 0.71 0.5 0.

) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data.42). vol. Figure 21.11.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. If this velocity is significant.. New York. Click here to view. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. this error is corrected by the C values.” 4th ed. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. the bend loss essentially remains constant. 21.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air
Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. National Bureau of Standards. H.23. there is disagreement. (21. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.)
Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (V. Inc. Experiments on smooth pipes.42). however. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. (21. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. although they are usually round. 1. 21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. or rectangular.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. 1960. its effect should be taken into account.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.11 Orifices
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. All rights reserved. (K. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Orifices may have any shape. Reynolds number.45)
21.44) where Q = discharge. The data are in agreement that the head loss. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. Equation (21. 82. not including friction loss. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. For low heads. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. Inc. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. 21. not including friction loss in the bend. 21.
21. square.
.9 for low velocity of approach. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. vol..22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. and angle of bend.22: (21. (H. McGraw-Hill. series D. no.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. J. Hasen. July 1938. Ito. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.” Journal of Research.27
sons. Zipparo and H. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. Beij.

602 0. ft 0.648 0.605 0.592 1. Click here to view.593 0.” 1886.596 0.04 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.631 0.599 0.608 0.623 0.613 0 610 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.608 0.596 0.99.622 0.600 0.605 0. and Eq.611 0.604 0.598 0.94 to 0. and Z2 = 0.602 0.607 0.592
0. (21.618 0.02 0.590 0.617 0.655 0.600 0.632 0.614 0.602 0.613 0.618 0.612 0.610 0.599 0.660 0.591 0.601 0.644 0.5 2 2. ft 0.641 0.621 0.595 0.4 0.606 0.652 0.28 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21. Typical values of Cν range from 0.603 0.602 0.600 0. All rights reserved.603 0.605 0. 21.1 0.605 0.599 0.632 0. of circular orifices.609 0. ft 0.618 0.594 0.603 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.601 0.597 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.616 0.0
0. Inc.637 0.602 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.636 0.598 0.634 0.628 0. Jr.0 Head.593 0.614 0.619 0..599 0.596 0.607 0.
.46) The actual velocity. the vena contracta.637 0.643 0.616 0.629 0.602 0.623 0. V1 = 0.604 0.648 0.1 0.603 0.45) becomes (21. p1/w = p2/w = 0.596 0.612 0. to
Fig.601 0.607 0.604 0.597 0.615 0.627 0.595 0.598
* Hamilton Smith. “Hydraulics. With the reference plane through point 2.595 0. Z1 = h.6 08 1 1.619 0.596 0.602 0.626 0.596 0.608 0.614 0. determined experimentally.628 0.21.611 0.617 0.600 0.601 0.02 0.04 0.598 1.594 0.602 0.606 0.630 0.593 0.623 0.637 0.610 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.23
Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.592 0.

3 Discharge under Falling Head
The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.24b. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. In Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eq.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.
21. New York. F. between 1 and 2.48) is obtained.61 to 0. see E. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.29
Fig.11. 21. 21.67. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. Brater. Figure 21. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.47) where hL = losses in head. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because
more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the
Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. McGraw-Hill Book Company.)
21.
the area of the orifice. 21.25 orifice. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. Inc.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. With a partly suppressed orifice.2 Submerged Orifices
Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.
Discharge through a submerged
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Click here to view. the contraction is completely suppressed. (21. All rights reserved. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.25. 21.. (21.” 6th ed.11. ft.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. (21.

ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. to time t.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.23). a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.4 Fluid Jets
Where the effect of air resistance is small.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.11. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Rearranging Eq.58) gives (21.21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.26): (21. All rights reserved.56). Eq. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.58)]. (21.57) (21. For simplicity.50) where a = area of orifice.55)
21.
.50) becomes (21. ft h2 = head at the end. when y = h1.57) for t and substituting in Eq. ft2
A = area of reservoir. 32. 21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.30 s Section Twenty-One
volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. 21. Eq. Click here to view.56) Fig. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.49) Solving for dt yields (21. is that for a parabola: (21.58) Equation (21. when y = h2.
(21.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21. (21. obtained by solving Eq. s The Y coordinate is (21. (21. (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.51) upon integration becomes (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.59). Inc. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.

For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. Therefore.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.82. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.28).80. In the tube or pipe. if one exists). The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. 21. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. Inc. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21.82.00 and the coefficient of veloci-
21. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. 21.
. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. 21. 21.11. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.27.27) but the head loss is larger.
Fig.33VT / 2g. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.29. however. psf w = unit weight of water.Water Resources Engineering s 21.75.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes
When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. a K value for Eq.5 a T T Fig. (21.42) of 0. For a short tube flowing full. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. When this happens. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 V2 ) = 0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. (21. Click here to view. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. Equation (21.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes
This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.00 VT / 2g – 0.31
ty Cν = 0.11.67 V T / 2g = 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.67 V2T /2g.82 VT)2/2g = 0. 21.
21.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. ft2
Fig.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. 21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. All rights reserved. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.

and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The pipe shown in Fig. However. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig.
21. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21.30).30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. As the water flows into the reservoir. Every time the flow rate is
changed. it causes water hammer. 21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. but at a pressure much higher than normal. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.
21. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop.21.12 Siphons
A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. the pressure in the pipe falls. the tube must flow full. As the water flows away from the closed valve.32).31
Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. When a valve is closed. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. For this analysis to be valid. this momentum drops to zero. Click here to view.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.
. 21.32 s Section Twenty-One
Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. The change causes a pressure rise.
Fig. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. the water in the pipe is motionless. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. either above or below the normal pressure.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.
Fig.13 Water Hammer
Water hammer is a change in pressure.29. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. either increased or decreased. All rights reserved.

21.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity)
4
D = diameter of pipe. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Eq.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. 43. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. (21. approximate solution. 1. Click here to view. Inc.63a) In terms of pressure head. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. Equation (21. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. 21.64)
21.63a) becomes (21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. ft
21.
Fig. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.1 Instantaneous Closure
The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. (21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. For instantaneous closure: (21. All rights reserved.2 Gradual Closure
The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.33
of flow and the length of the pipeline.63).13.13. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. (21. s A plot of pressure vs. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.

initial velocity = 10 ft/s.) Velocity of pressure wave. Thus. 21. Zipparo and H. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. (21. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. Click here to view. diameter = 10 ft. the esti-
= 3180 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. is
g = acceleration due to gravity. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. 32. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. Inc. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).63). penstock thickness = 1 in. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.21. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. (21. J. length = 3000 ft.2 × 108 psf. (V. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir.
. (21. from Eq.63). (21.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. where a equals any integer. Once the time interval has been determined.32.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.” 4th ed.63). then that obtained from Eq. McGraw-Hill. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. All rights reserved. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings.. New York.61). (21.34 s Section Twenty-One
where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.5 ft2. (21. s T = actual closure time of valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. such as L/aU.) Example 21. With the head known. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. to apply Eq. each causing an individual pressure wave. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. Hasen. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. ft L = length of pipeline. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. equals L /aU. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. Vo the original velocity. the increment of time. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.. area = 78.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. where ∆t.

Fig. the stress. When a valve is suddenly opened.34 tension. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. and the pressure rise. 21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.3 Surge Tanks
It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. from Eq. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. approximate equation (21.63).33) must still be designed for water hammer. All rights reserved. 21. it is by no means the only one. is
Pipe Stresses 21. the closure is instantaneous. Click here to view. The water column. Various types of relief
Fig. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. in
Assuming T = 4.90 s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. lb Hence. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.
. 21. 21.13.35
valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. psi. (21. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Usually. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.66) where p = internal pressure.75 s. When a valve is suddenly closed.
Internal pipe pressure produces hoop
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64) gives the following result:
21. Inc.34). floats on the line. in effect.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.90 s. on the pipe material is (21. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis
The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. to prevent water hammer. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.

21. 21. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe..67). In Fig.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. “Theory of . this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. due to a temperature change is (21. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. is (21. The stress. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. (21. if expansion joints are to be used. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. Inc. but it is usually small enough to be neglected.10). psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this analysis is approximate. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam.
21. 21. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g
21. elastic Stability. New York. Equation (21.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis
If a pipe is supported on piers. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. In this case.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. (21. psi. (21. however. For concrete pipes. However.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends
It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. For steel pipes. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art.21. it acts like a beam. Art.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for. In all bends.6).
.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. Eq. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. Click here to view. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. The force diagram in Fig. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. 6.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. Eq. If D/t is less than 10.36 s Section Twenty-One
From the derivation of Eq.” 2nd ed.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Gere. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. However. All rights reserved. (S. P Timoshenko and J.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints
21. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. (21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe
If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. McGraw-Hill Book Company. M.67) for concrete pipe. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Culverts
A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway.71) where R = resultant force on bend. and slope. however.35
Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. 21. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.
P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Inc. exit conditions. psf w = unit weight of water.70) and (21. However. the joints must also be able to take these forces. 62.
. In small pipes. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Eqs. an exact theoretical analysis. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a railroad. is usually unwarranted because of the rela-
(21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. (21. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. canal. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.37
Fig. (21. Click here to view. All rights reserved. or other embankment.71) give a quick solution.70)
Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. 32. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.

and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. and the control will still be at the inlet. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the culvert flows full. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. (21.37). 21.38). Portland Cement Association. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . All rights reserved. 21. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.38 s Section Twenty-One
tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. that is.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the normal depth (Art. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. computer software.” EB058W. charts. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. slope is greater than the critical slope. and the Manning equation for friction loss. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper
In a culvert with a critical slope. Click here to view. 21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.23). 21. but they do not cover
Fig.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.36).73)
21. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance.33d) or (21. For this reason.21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. 21. 21.30)]. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. the following equation is obtained: (21.

Inc. ft V = velocity in culvert. depending on the head.75) Substituting this into Eq. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. 21. The fluid flows under pressure. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Thus. When the slope is less than critical. and slope of culvert. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. and dn < dc .2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. for the open-channel condition (Fig. 21. 21. normal pipe flow occurs.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. (21. (21.39
Fig. ft Equation (21. When slope is less than critical.20)
21.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Discharge depends on head H. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. and dn > dc . The discharge. 21. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. 21.23). When slope exceeds critical.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. flow depends on inlet condition.
Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. loss at entrance. All rights reserved. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.39).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.74)
Fig.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.74) yields (21. Discharge is independent of slope.
The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes
Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.
. open-channel flow takes place.
where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. Click here to view.

21.40). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation.18).72). 21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. ft To solve Eq. (21. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Inc.76). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel.37). When the friction slope is flat. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.40 s Section Twenty-One
S = slope of energy grade line. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and
Fig.41). ft dn = normal depth of flow. Most culverts. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. (21. If the friction slope approaches critical. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. If this condition exists. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Click here to view. 21. 21. however. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. (21.76). the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.76).
. All rights reserved. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. (21. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. If the head on a culvert is high. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream.21.39). which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. and discharge is given by Eq.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. 21.

All rights reserved.73).44) for discharge through an orifice.72) applies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Application of Eq. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.41
For entrance control. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. Click here to view. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.40). The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. square edge Concrete pipe.19). the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. But H = 5 + 0. the flow is under pressure. Example 21.95 × 4 = 39. slope = 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. (21.6. (21. Inc.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts
Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.
Fig. (21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.15 0. (21.013. To calculate the hydraulic radius. length = 300 ft. When the entrance is not submerged. with Eq. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.18 and 21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Substitution in Eq. 21.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. 21. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. and free exit.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.10 0.72) and (21. These values are for culverts flowing full.72) yields
Q =Va = 9. Find: size of culvert. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.33a) gives
a pipe flow condition will result.9 0. groove or bell. n = 0.08
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. projecting Concrete pipe. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.5 0. Eq. Table 21.
Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.
.8 ft3/s Table 21. (21. and the entrance will not control. groove or bell. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.
21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. Since the culvert is under pressure.01. First find dn. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.

78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. or slope. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. and is given by (21. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. minus the free surface width. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. It is. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. normally taken as 1. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. It is expressed in feet as (21. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. Thus. The average velocity of flow V is defined
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. ft3/s.79) The velocity head HV. however. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. plus the velocity head at the point. 32.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. or the total-head line. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.77) where V = average velocity. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance.
Open-Channel Flow
Free surface flow. depth of flow is constant throughout. ft2 When the discharge is constant.
.03 to 1. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. ft. or open-channel flow. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line.79). The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time.42 s Section Twenty-One
Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So.21. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. ft. Figure 21. Hence. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. In a uniform channel. It has uniform flow if the grade. All rights reserved. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. Equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. within a hydraulic jump. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. The wetted perimeter is the length.36 for prismatic channels.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. (21. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. is generally given by (21. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Click here to view.80) where V = average velocity from Eq.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels
A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.
21. Inc.

(V.42 is called the normal depth dn.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. “Handbook of Hydraulics.84) reduces to
Fig.44. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.
in which T is the top width of the channel. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. or to the diameter of a circular channel.” 6th ed. 21. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. E. (See. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. 21.43). roughness. normal depth decreases downstream.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.43. for example. As the depth decreases downstream.22 Normal Depth of Flow
The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.43
Fig. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.83)
Brater. New York. slope. T. as shown in Fig.) (21. All rights reserved. For a rectangular channel. Eq.
. New York. 21. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. 21.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.84)
where A = area of flow. 21. (21. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.42
Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. ft
2
R = hydraulic radius. Click here to view.. ft. 21. Chow. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. ft. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. the specific energy also decreases. and discharge are known. F. McGrawHill Book Company.

84) may be reduced to (21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.84). for a given discharge. (21. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.44 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.” 6th ed. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. 21. All rights reserved. and flow is supercritical. or it may be found directly from tables (E.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow
The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.86)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Brater. F. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.44). 21. For a given value of specific energy.84) is called the critical depth dc. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.44). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.43.
. New York). Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. the depth is below critical. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. Inc.
(21.. Eq. Click here to view. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.21.
21.
In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. The flow there is called subcritical flow. ft3/s d = depth of flow. (21. or conversely. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. the depth is greater than critical. For rectangular channels.

once calculated. Click here to view. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. For every depth greater than critical depth.
. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. It can be seen from Fig. [As indicated by Eq. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. along with a high loss of energy. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.87)
Fig. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.
21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. as indicated in Fig. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. 21.45
Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. a hydraulic jump will occur. Inc. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. 21.52b. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. Critical depth. (21.44).85). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels
One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. 21. 21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.57).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. without turbulence. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Such a change occurs gradually. regardless of slope. indicating an irreversible occurrence. however. 21. 21.45
where dc = critical depth. flow is supercritical. flow is subcritical. (21. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. p. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.45. All rights reserved. ft3/s b = width of channel.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. The N. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. (21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). and C. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.L. as shown in Fig. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.D. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.23). Department of Agriculture. are identical for a channel of critical slope. there must be a continuing maintenance program.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow
Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. horizontal. ft V = mean velocity of flow.L.D. Eq. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.89) may be written (21. These curves are divided into five groups. 21.46 s Section Twenty-One
where R = hydraulic radius. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. H for horizontal.L. and A for adverse. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.S.9 and Table 21. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).90) where A = area of flow.
.D.L. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. Chow. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. The M2 curve forms between the normal.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.)
21. is replaced by a horizontal line. T. and adverse slope. therefore. Click here to view. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. Dr. 21. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.46a and b. and the N.D. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.D. C for critical. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.25). Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. 21. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. S for steep (supercritical). When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. and two types for channels of critical. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. 21. New York. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow.46. Inc.21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. at an arbitrary elevation.and critical-depth lines. are in Table 21. E.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. (See also Art.L. (Although based on surface roughness.46c and d. the average n values given in Table 21. and the critical-depth line C.11.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. 21. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.

Rough wood form B. Click here to view.030 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.025 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Unlined channels 1. The S2 curve. high as flow depth d. 21.035
0.017 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.014 0.030 0.035 0.025 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.025 0. wavy section 4.47
The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Concrete a. Dredged earth a.012 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. 21.022 0. Rock cuts a. Gunite. Metal a. 21. few weeds c. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.080 0.018 0.028 0.060 0.020
0.033 0. Steel form b. Inc. after weathering b.140 0.019 0.013 0.018 0.035
0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Gunite. Wood a. Excavated earth. good section c.011 0. Smooth and uniform b. 21.027 0.015 0.023 0. Dense weeds. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Cemented rubble b. untreated 3.46i and j. Asphalt a. Dense brush. Clean.040
0. Planed. Cement-mortar surface 3. No vegetation b. Float finish b. All rights reserved.050 0.016 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.030 0. Corrugated 2.050 0. Smooth b. commonly called a drawdown curve.016
0.025 0.021 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.025 0.014 0.080 0.011 0.016
0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.013 0. Dry rubble 5.015 Avg 0.014 0. Masonry a.120 0. straight and uniform a.013 0.016 0.012 0.022 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.012 0.023 0.014 0.024 0.012 0.010 0.013 0.
. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical
Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. With short grass. high stage 2. Rough C.022 0.017 Max 0.032 0.46a and b.100 0.050
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.016 0. Smooth wood form c.040 0.035 0. Lined channels 1. respectively).025 0. Jagged and irregular 0.013 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.033 0.015 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.021 0. Light brush on banks 3.

21.L. 21. H. 21. Examples in Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. indicates normal-depth line. critical-depth line.D. The curves in Fig. Click here to view.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.21. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at
Fig.48 s Section Twenty-One
depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and A profiles. All rights reserved. N.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.. 21. Inc.L.
.46k and l.D.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. C.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. All rights reserved. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. 21. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. Inc.47.)
21. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. See Art.27. and step methods.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. 32. dam. ft/ft of channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. weir. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.” McGraw-Hill. with relatively small variation. (21. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. direction-integration. 21.
.77) if the depth were zero. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel.26 Backwater-Curve Computations
The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.5. For subcritical flow conditions. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. For the section of channel in Fig. (R. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. New York.51). Inc. French. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. the channel is divided into short lengths. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. or reaches. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. gate. Click here to view. H. each reach is solved in succession.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. For step-method computations. 21. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. known as its celerity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical).. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. depending on the type of flow.49
a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. Chow. Explanations of both the graphical. T. free overfall. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction.and direct-integration methods are in V. The wave travels at a speed. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve.

of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2.50 s Section Twenty-One
So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. and vice versa. All rights reserved. and – SL = hf. Solving Eq. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. ft. 21.22) but
where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.93) where R = hydraulic radius. the head loss. Therefore. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. hi. the – eddy loss. as given by Eq. Click here to view. is negligible and can be ignored. ft.91) for L gives (21. due to friction in the same reach.21. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. The smaller the value of n. (21. the longer the backwater curve profile. prismatic channels.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rearranged as follows:
Fig. respectively. (For uniform. (21.92) (21. (21.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. Inc.93).47
Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.
. the change in elevation. 21. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.82). The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. not the channel bottom. 21.

or roughness.95) The coefficient k is 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.93). the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities.93). Therefore. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections.92). sometimes called impact loss. ft. Click here to view. (21. (21. Next. total head H. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Since this step method is a converging process. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. respectively. Eddy loss. The value of total head computed from Eq. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. and it is therefore often accounted for. Then.
.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions.96). Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. computations progress toward the initial section. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.94). (21. S. is obtained from Eq. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. ft/s. (21. Finally. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Then. (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Z2.2 for diverging reaches. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. and about 0. ft. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. ft.47. 21. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. becomes (21. (21. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.97) must agree with the value of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.51
may be some intermediate depth. For lined channels. referred to a horizontal datum. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. in natural channels. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. grade. (21. the friction loss. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. at sec– tions 1 and 2. respectively. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Inc. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. the average friction slope for the reach. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. which. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. Next. after substitution of H from Eq.1 for converging reaches. (21. from 0 to 0. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section.95).

52b. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.” Hydraulics Design Series no. If the two values of total head do not agree. approach roadways. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. New York. 2nd ed. 21. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. respectively. Click here to view.1 ft in elevation. Department of Transportation. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. known as the length of jump. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). N. 21. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. Bradley. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). as shown in Figs. The upstream surface of the jump. Inc. and J. U. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. However. The effect of bridges.27. known as the roller. bridge piers. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations.21. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.S. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel.48). a gate. however. 21.. is a turbulent mass of water. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. H. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0.48
Hydraulic jump. or other obstruction. French. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis.
Fig. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. 1. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. velocity.52 s Section Twenty-One
total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.
21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.23). Federal Highway Administration. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.
21. Bureau of Public Roads. 1970. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required.
.27 Hydraulic Jump
This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). Utilizing the above data. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.51 and 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. and determine the discharge.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.

ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation
dc = critical depth for the channel.100) Equation (21. in Eq.16)]. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. (21. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.82). ft
g = acceleration due to gravity.99).101)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99) where M = mass of water.
21. (21.53
which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. ft/s.100). Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. (21. This difference (Fig. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.102) Equation (21. V is the mean velocity. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft w = unit weight of water. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For open-channel flow. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.104) = discharge. where L is a characteristic length. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.98) where d1 = depth before jump. s (21. 21. ft3/s = unit of time. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 32. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.27. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. Inc. ft/s2. or alternate depths.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels
The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.105) where A = area of flow. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. Click here to view.49) is given by (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity. For rectangular channels. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21.98) and (21. d2 must also equal dc. (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. ft. this resultant pressure force is (21. All rights reserved. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft d2 = depth after jump.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.

doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. Click here to view. chute. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. This jump may be called a weak jump. there are undulations on the surface. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. The jump is called an undular jump.21. For F1 = 1 to 1. 21. can travel for miles. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. were classified by the U. The jump is well-balanced. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This jump may be called a strong jump. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.49. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.5. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. 21. If the tailwater is too low. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. Inc.27. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. which. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. For F1 = 2.
. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.7 to 2. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. depending on local conditions.5. 21. This jump may be called a steady jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.
21. which gives discharge vs. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. below a spillway. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. All rights reserved. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. very commonly in canals. In either case.S. For F1 = 9. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. For F1 = 4.23).5 to 4.0 and larger. The jump action is rough but effective.5 to 9. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating
Fig.7. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. for example. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump. If the tailwater is too high. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depth after the jump. and the performance is at its best.0. the jump will be drowned out.54 s Section Twenty-One
For rectangular channels. For F1 = 1. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. For F1 = 1.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator
A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art.

but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. This length (Fig.
21. 21. The curve.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.
21.
. therefore.51.105). But it has been determined experimentally. T. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. Inc.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump
It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump
The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. changing the apron elevation. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. 21. Bureau of Reclamation.55
curve involve changing the crest length. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.S. All rights reserved. These features are expensive to build. Click here to view. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. 21. 21. and sloping the apron. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the
Fig. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. prepared by V. Accessories. Chow from data gathered by the U. (21.27. The resulting curve (Fig. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin.27.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

that flow is uniform. 21. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.21. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. between lines CB′and EO. CB.52a. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. 21. Inc. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB.52b. The jump may be expected to form between the
points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.
The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump.51. 21. less than. equal to the computed length of the jump.102). Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. if the downstream depth is lowered. Conversely. 21. 21. the jump moves downstream to a new position. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. (21. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. If d2 is less than d′ .51
Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. respectively (Fig. the 1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A horizontal intercept FG. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. 21. as shown in Fig. 21. 21. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. computed from Eq. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break.46e and c). (21.101) with d1 given. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. but it is normally assumed to be 0. curves AB and ED in Fig. as shown in Fig.23) to mild.
. the jump occurs in the steep region. equal in length to L.52.101). (21. It is assumed. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. for simplicity. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.26. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. the jump moves to a new location downstream. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction.75h in the absence of better information. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the computed length of jump. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h.56 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. using the step methods of Art. The actual depth at the brink is 71. Click here to view. As depth d2 is lowered. All rights reserved.5% of critical depth. computed from Eq.7dc for simplicity. as theory would indicate. which occurs near the channel drop-off. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. ignoring entrance loss. H. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.23).3 for one with squared ends. McGraw-Hill Book Company. on the channel entrance. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity
the discharge for rectangular channels. if not.82) and (21. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. 21. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. (R. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.53). Click here to view. or (a) above it. ft..” 6th ed. and discharge is at a maximum. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.” McGraw-Hill.)
21. a new discharge is assumed. Brater.. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. and the slope of the channel. Inc. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. then the assumed discharge is correct. New York. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). 21. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. is (21. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. New York. (21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. F. Inc. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. 21.85)]. French. If the entrance loss must be considered. the entrance loss.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel
The discharge Q. ft. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. ft. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. 21. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. ft3/s.
. where He is the specific energy head. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. All rights reserved.51. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. From Q = AV.
sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.106) where b is the channel width.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the
Fig. Then. or (b) below it.53a).57
jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.

32. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.21. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. if not. ———— charge.
21. ft2. 21. where He – d is the actual head.22). ft. All rights reserved. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. (In Fig.23).58 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.53
Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.
.33). the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. He is the specific energy head. and g is acceleration due to gravity. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21. 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.53b). (b) mild-slope channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.2 ft/s2. a new discharge is chosen. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. (21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. then the discharge is correct. ft. Inc. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. 21. producing flow. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.83). Click here to view.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope
When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53b. d is normal depth. 21.

The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. 21. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23). This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. (21. Thus.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power.83)]. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. or mV2 /rc for m. when a stream enters a curve. a unit mass of water. ft. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. Inc. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. of the center line of the channel. ft. All rights reserved. the true value of y would be only a few inches.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency
If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. ft. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. where V is its average velocity. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. Therefore.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow.108). which is used extensively for large water-supply channels.107) The theoretical difference y. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. 21. (21. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. Click here to view. In this range. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels
Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. If the bend continues long enough. 21.
curve (Fig. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. (21. ft /s.
21.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction.59
21. and rc the radius of curvature. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a
Fig. The error will not be great.
. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width.

Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. These waves cross at M. an increase in friction loss results. however.111). His values have not been evaluated completely. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. All rights reserved. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.21.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.60 s Section Twenty-One
Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.55). recross as shown. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. phase. and should be used with discretion.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. of greater-than-average surface elevation.16)] .32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels
When water. depths along the inside wall.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills.
. a series of standing waves are produced. (21. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Inc. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. and continue crossing and recrossing. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. The cross slope required for
21. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. with sufficient accuracy. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. (21. 21. (F.” U.S. One is a positive wave. Department of Agriculture.
Fig. The second is a negative wave. by (21. 21. Click here to view.110) for θ in Eq. C. (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes.23). Technical Bulletin 393. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. 21. flows around a bend in a channel. Scobey. This angle may be found from (21. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.

low-head-loss structure is obtained for an
Fig. Many variables.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. or change from supercritical to subcritical. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. To place a transition properly between two open channels. Click here to view. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.8[∆(V2/2g)]. ft.57). 21. p. wall roughness. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. and channel shape and slope. low-head-loss transfer of flow. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. The transition loss. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.1 for an inlet-type structure. if friction is ignored. 21. such as flow-rate changes.
21. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. change from subcritical to supercritical. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. respectively. therefore.44. plus any transition and friction losses. When proceeding downstream through a transition. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.56. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21.
.2 for welldesigned transitions. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. 21.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig. the loss factor. Inc. ft/s. For outlet-type structures.2 ft/s2. the average velocity decreases. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition.61
equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.1 [∆(V2/2g)].114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. 21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow.54). The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. In this range.44. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. and g = 32. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. 21. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Straight.23).33 Transitions in Open Channels
A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. ∆V is the velocity change. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. If friction is ignored. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. is given by K(∆V2/2g).113) angle of about 12. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. equals about 0. where K.

and parabolic weirs. 21. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.
21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.000556(10)2 = 0. trapezoidal weirs. as shown in Fig. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. 21. the weir is submerged or drowned. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into
21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.57
Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.62 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. triangular weirs.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 21.34. 21. If the discharge is partly under water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 = a(30)2. 2
If the nappe discharges into the air. and. y = ax2. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. such as broad-crested weirs.58
Sharp-crested weir.
Fig.
The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. All rights reserved. from which a = 0. 21.1 Types of Weirs
A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. trapezoidal weirs. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.57.59
Weir not sharp-crested.222 ft. measured from A or B.000556. such as rectangular weirs.000556(20)2 = 0.
Fig. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.59.34 Weirs
A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.58). Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. In contrast. the weir has free discharge. triangular or Vnotch weirs.
.21. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. Click here to view. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. For Fig.

Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. 21.115) where Q = discharge.5H. Hence.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Equation (21. A V-notch weir (Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.116) corrects for the effects of friction. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. 21. Inc.34.58) (V. At very low heads. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York). One such equation. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Chow.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs
Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. All rights reserved. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. T.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.5H upstream from the weir. 2. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. ft The head should be measured at least 2. To be fully ventilated. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. If P is less than
Fig. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.63
hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. Click here to view. 21. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. contraction of the nappe. below the crest.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.
.60
V-notch weir. thus causing a contraction of the flow.
21.

McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. T.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.118)
Fig. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. vol.62
Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. His values were summarized by Brater.34. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz.5H upstream from the weir. (21.” 6th ed.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs
The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. All rights reserved. ft H = head. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 69. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. 21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21. measured from notch bottom.
Fig.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs
The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. Inc. there is one end contraction and N = 1.
The effective length L.61) (E. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.118)]
21. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. Discharge is given by (21. ft. 21.64 s Section Twenty-One
where θ = notch angle H = measured head. New York).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Lenz. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. F. there are two end contractions and N = 2. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.2) when low discharges are to be measured. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21. 1943).60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. Click here to view. 21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.
21.34. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. 21.. 21. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.119) where Q = discharge.34.
.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. ft3/s. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use.115) is rewritten in the form (21. and then.
. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. Villemonte. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and finally total head. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.121) where Q = discharge.) To use the Villemonte equation. 866. which may be done as follows: First. velocity head.34. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. 32. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%.” Engineering News-Record. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. 21. Click here to view.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. ft V = velocity of approach. but
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. R.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft. (21.
Fig. Then. Eq. Thus. ft/s V /2g = Hν. for such weirs.63
Submerged sharp-crested weir. or both.
its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. Where great accuracy is essential.59).
21. 25. velocity head of approach. using this discharge. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. From this total head. Dec. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.
2
21. All rights reserved. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. 21. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.) Equation (21. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. (21. heavily constructed devices. 21.34.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs
The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. (J. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. Typically.Water Resources Engineering s 21. neglecting the velocity head. ft
No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. compute the velocity of approach. 1947.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
These are sturdy. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. p. The discharge Qs. Inc. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.122) where H = measured head.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.65
b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. using this rate and the required depths. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. ft3/s.

Department of the Interior.66 s Section Twenty-One
compute the first corrected discharge.02 0. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. and approach velocity. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.
. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. The effect is most critical for low heads.123) where L = effective crest length. All rights reserved. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.12.10
H. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. head in relation to design heads. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. thickness of pier. Inc. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. ft (U.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.13. For each change of nappe shape. where approach velocities are high. starting with the corrected discharge.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp
0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. DC 20402. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.
21.2 of the head. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. ft L′ = net crest lengths.34. F. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. But the process should be repeated. and the approach velocity. “Design of Small Dams. the head in relation to the design head. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. (3) Broad-crested
Table 21.5Hd > r* > 0.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. Therefore.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.01 0
0
* r = radius of abutment rounding. For conditions of design head Table 21.” Government Printing Office.S. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Washington. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 0.21. For conditions of design head Hd. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.

This relationship is shown in Fig. Department of the Interior. 21. “Design of Small Dams. The shape of this nappe.S. This manual and V. 2. at the point of maximum contraction. called the design head Hd. depends on the head producing the discharge. Click here to view. for a sharp-crested weir.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir
The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. 1.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.64) has such a shape. DC 20402. This crest pressure reduces
the discharge below that for ideal flow.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. For flow at heads lower than the design head. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht.
21. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. 21.
weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Figure 21. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. Inc.34.66 of the head. Consequently. All rights reserved.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. Chow.67
Fig. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. New York). Of the above rules. T. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2.
. Chow. According to Chow. where discharge is given by Eq. 21.5H upstream. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.” Government Printing Office. however. Washington.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.
Fig. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. and therefore of an ogee crest.122). (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. “Open-Channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65. (U. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. T.

present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. All rights reserved.” U.68 s Section Twenty-One
Hydraulics.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.
.S.)
Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. 21.” U. 21. Figure 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. Bureau of Reclamation.66.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. Bureau of Reclamation. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Inc.S.21. the flow differs from ideal. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.
Fig.

and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. appear in Table 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. F. Click here to view. Weirs of irregular section.” 6th ed. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. (From “Design of Small Dams. “Handbook of Hydraulics. F.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. New York. because of its sharp upstream edge.)
21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. New York. Figure 21. if flow is at other than the design head. (E.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine
This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. the nappe springs free. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.10
Weirs of Irregular Section
21.
the coefficient of discharge. Figure 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir
This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.34. a plane horizontal crest. Brater.34. Bureau of Reclamation. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.14.69
Broad-crested weir. for example. has contraction of the nappe.
.. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.69
Fig.)
If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. are used as spillways and control structures.S. Values of the discharge coefficient. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. fairly common in waterworks projects. where the velocity of approach is not high. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.68.)
Fig. Brater.” U. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. (21. 21.” 6th ed. is determined from Fig. Unless otherwise noted. (See. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. E.67 and 21. therefore. compiled by King. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. and sharp right-angled edges.

64 2.85 3.63 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.49 2.68 2.66 2.30 3.8 1. once formed.88 2.32 3. or soil.50 2.86 2.77 2.14 3. This incoming water.63 2.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 2.70 2.74 2.69 2.4 0.89 3.65 2.67 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.56 2.32 3.68 2.75 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.50 2.35.68 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs
Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a
body of still water.32 Breadth of crest of weir.70 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.68 2.66 2.
.00 2.5 4. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.66 2.68 2.32 3.69 2. The smaller silt sizes. such as a reservoir.70 2.64 2.75 2.50 H. those carried in suspension.67 2.72 2.00 2.07 3.64 2.63 2.32 3.08 3.68 2.32 3.97 3.67 2.0 5.70 2.30 3.32 3.32 3.64 2.67 2.64 2.75 2.38 2.50 2.32 3.32 3.04 3.54 2.79 1. which are often of equal consequence.64 2.32 3.00 2.65 2.0 2.28 3.32 3.5 2.68 2.70 2.32 3.88 3.32 3.28 3.32 3.08 3.6 0.0 4.32 3.0 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.63 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.6 1.44 2. A density current.07 3.66 2.63 2.63 2. Inc.32 1.32 3.63 2.70 2.75 2. such as gates.76 2.68 2.80 2.67 2.88 10.64 2.76 2.07 3.20 3.26 3.65 2. ft 0.31 3.68 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels
Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.69 2. erosion. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.64 2.31 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.62 2.32 3.2 1.63 2.32 3.20 3. and turbines.07 3.07 3.2 0.60 2.32 3.64 2. All rights reserved.00 2.8 2.58 2.63
21.65 2. valves.65 2.60 2.63 2.68 2.34 2.32 3.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.32 3.70 2.
21.32 3.64 2.32 5.60 2.64 2.32 3.32 3.64 2.0 1.79 2.5 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.92 3.32 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.89 2.72 2.03 3.63 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.64 2. Click here to view.31 3.32 3. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.73 2.32 3.32 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.61 2.32 3.32 4.20 3.32 1. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.64 2.68 2.21.54 2.98 3.29 3.72 2.4 1.64 2.00 2.32 3.32 2.00 2.60 2.80 2.00 2.74 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.92 2.19 3.05 3.32 3.32 3.81 2. with its load of suspended silt.65 2.68 2.32 3.92 3.32 3. ft 0. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.48 2. those forming the bed load.64 15.64 2.75 2.89 3.66 2.85 2.69 2.65 2.32 3.5 5.32 3.61 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.

formed from the bed load. However. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. on the other hand. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. and often extend to the reservoir outlet.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate
Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. are coarsegrained. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. By this method. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. the rate is not uniform during the year.
. or from year to year. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Click here to view. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall.
21. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. see Art. Of course. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. These currents are stable. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. landslide. however. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. because of variations in rainfall. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt.71
Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. Inc. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. 21. or failure of materials. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. once formed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. When neither can be done. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.35.39. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. All rights reserved. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The most common manner of destruction. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. overtopping. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins.

Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. ft3/s b = width of river. and boulders.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Inc. Click here to view.72 s Section Twenty-One
Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. gravel.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. A mean grain size of 0. (21. But for the most part. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations.
. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. 21. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter.35. Therefore. which varies with both slope and discharge. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension.124) where Gb = total bed load. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. however. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.0 ft/mi. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. According to Witzig. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. All rights reserved. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. This size range includes particles of coarse sand.1).21. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Frequently. discharge. Therefore. ft qo = critical discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Therefore. which generally occurs only during a storm. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size.

and regulation of crop and grazing practices. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. A major concern is the cir-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. on or near the land surface.S. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. (W. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. and their reaction with their environment. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. check-dam construction. evaporation. It continually records. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. including their relation to living things.) culation. water evaporation from oceans. rivers. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. (21-124). of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. (See H. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. or a combination of the two. Click here to view. runoff. Inc. Current data.36 Erosion Control
The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. and pressure. debris barriers. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.73
dation. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. circulation. and the stream velocity.S. temperature. discharges into streams. New York. their occurrence. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume.S. or year. Weather Bureau is 24 h. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes
21. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. or digital microchip technology. A. Use of vegetation screens. Weather Bureau. For instance. and stream flow
21. H. such as wind. All rights reserved. recharges groundwater. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. In this cycle. if the dam is raised at a later date. groundwater flow. lakes. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth.
. Einstein. Graf. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. The second type is a nonrecording gage. infiltrates into the soil. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. day. infiltration. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Such screens.” U. planting of burned-over areas. Department of Agriculture. contour plowing. such as an hour. are published daily by the U.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. their chemical and physical properties.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed.
Hydrology
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. by ink pen and revolving drum. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. which are of two types. and distribution.37 Precipitation
The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it.

21. This phenomenon. Inc.125)]. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.125)
(21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. R. Click here to view. Not all rain reaches the ground. Of the three. The Meyer equation [Eq. Inc. plant. In transpiration. All rights reserved. (21. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. called interception. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. New York. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. in of mercury. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. equal to 15 for small. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. Evapotranspiration is important because. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and it increases as wind velocity increases.. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity.126) where E = evaporation rate. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Evaporation may occur from free-water. see D. ground. commonly termed consumptive use. On an annual basis. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. in of mercury. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor
21. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. has a relatively large surface area. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. while another portion may be caught on leaves. In evaporation. especially if the reservoir is shallow.74 s Section Twenty-One
that are too small. or ground surfaces. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. “Handbook of Hydrology. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. tropical and subtropical regions. shallow pools and 11 for large. and plantleaf surfaces. and other vegetation surfaces. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Evapotranspiration.
. (21. branches. Maidment. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. on a long-term basis. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. A portion may evaporate as it falls.38 Evaporation and Transpiration
These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere.” McGraw-Hill. developed from Dalton’s law. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate.

whereas excess rain is only surface flow. R. After joining stream flow. perhaps several years. or excess rain. Maidment. effective rain includes subsurface flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. and biologic attrition.
21. tropical. It appears in surface channels. and storm seepage. insects. “Handbook of Hydrology. (D. snow. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Groundwater flow. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. All rights reserved. subsurface storm flow. New York. Thus. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Click here to view. intensity. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. duration. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. or cetyl alcohol. wind tends to push the film to the shore. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Moving laterally. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. although it may vary between 0. depending on the geographical region.75
As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. runoff may be surface. subsurface. time distribution. Classified by the path taken to a channel. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Precipitation—form (rain. In practice. Subsurface flow.. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. natural or manmade. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. Hexadeconal.” McGraw-Hill. or groundwater runoff. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. to reach a channel. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. called a Class A Level Pan. subsurface runoff. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.39 Runoff
This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. aquatic life. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Commonly. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Climatic characteristics a. where it continues as channel or stream flow. hail. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years.60 and 0. On large reservoirs. dew). except in arid. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service.80. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. birds. or groundwater flow.70. also known as interflow. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. frost.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface.
. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. is in widespread use.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm.

soil moisture. and statisti-
cal data pertaining to the entire record.S. channels (size. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. Wind—velocity.S. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. yearly flow volume. antecedent precipitation. and various state and local agencies. All rights reserved. Temperature—variation. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. TVA. the U. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. These papers contain records of daily flow. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Atmospheric pressure f. Inc. length) b. both published and unpublished. Weather Bureau. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.
.S. as shown in Fig.” U. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. 21.76 s Section Twenty-One
seasonal distribution. stratification Fig. Geological Survey. the detail required in the final answer. special-interest items. Click here to view. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. slope. Geological Survey. roughness. direction. direction of storm movement b.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations
The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. slope. and the accuracy desired.21. extremes of flow. Agricultural Research Service. Solar radiation 2. snow storage. general location. artificial drainage. Topographic—size.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. International Boundary Commission.
21. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. and completeness of the hydrologic records.
21. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. areal distribution. orientation. Humidity e. 21. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. duration d.S. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Geological Survey. groundwater formations. Geologic—soil type. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. shape of cross section. detail. permeability. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and Weather Bureau. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals.70. recurrence interval. extremes during precipitation c. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. drainage net. the quantity and type of data available. mean flow. shape. frozen ground during storms. elevation.S. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Drainage-basin characteristics a.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data
The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. lakes and other bodies of water. land use and cover.

Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.127) where Q = peak discharge. Inc. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. All rights reserved. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. a 50. and large downstream damage potential.77
found in the determination of flood runoff. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. The values of C in Table 21. Several methods yield only peak discharge. 3.128)
21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs.41. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. 2. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. 4. in/h A = drainage area.or 100-year-frequency storm.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. for example. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Chow. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures
The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. As an example. great importance. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. 1962). The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. T.
. others give the complete hydrograph. Click here to view. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. 5. the second to major hydraulic structures. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.

15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. Inc.95 0. Maidment. R.70 – 0. widely accept-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.127).16). cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.20 – 0. 21.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. years duration of storm. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.70 0.40 0. factor.20 – 0.85 0.35 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.10 – 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.
21.17 0.20 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80 0. and n1
F t
= = =
Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.41.25 – 0.13 – 0.30 0.95 0. Sherman. min time of concentration Fig.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.15 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.
K. detached Multiunits. coefficient.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures
The unit-hydrograph method. or any equivalent method.22 0. ditches. After determining the time of concentration.) The flow time in gutters. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.90 0.71 and Table 21.95 0.40 0. or ditches. Inc. (See D.21.05 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.
.50 – 0. (21.70 – 0. the flow time in streets. steep.80 – 0.. b.129). Click here to view.50 – 0.25 – 0.95 0. 2% Heavy soil.60 – 0. New York. avg. flat. (21. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. (21. in/h respectively. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.60 – 0.128) or Eq. (21.50 0. and the flow time in conduits. 21.75 0.85 0. 2% Sandy soil. flat.70 – 0.129)
Table 21.15 0.18 – 0. is a convenient. All rights reserved.10 – 0.89)] . “Handbook of Hydrology. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.30 – 0.50 – 0. gutters. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. steep.78 s Section Twenty-One
where I = = rainfall intensity.70 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. 7% Heavy soil.75 – 0. avg.10 0.10 – 0. n.25 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.60 0.75 – 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.35
where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. 2–7% Sandy soil. Equation (21. streets.40 – 0.

and more accurate than any such set of factors. 3. Thus.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. JanuaryJune 1932.” Engineering News-Record. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. that is. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration.79
Table 21. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. 2. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10
ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. All rights reserved. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. This requires that a storm of short duration. termed a unit period.130)
The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. pp. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. 4. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 108. termed a unit storm. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. The method is summarized by the formula (21. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. If the watershed is very large. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. subdivision may be required. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. the time of storm runoff. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. Inc.
. (Leroy K. Click here to view. easier. vol.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. 501-505. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. usually 1 acre). but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. Sherman.

Then. 5.
. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.80 s Section Twenty-One
by each hydrograph. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. because of storm variations.73). which is of fixed intensity and duration. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. For ease of manipulation.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit
Fig.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Usually. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. 21. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). All rights reserved. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21.72. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Inc. Click here to view. Illustrated in Fig. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.

. New York. 21. McGraw-Hill.
. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.. Maidment. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. “Handbook of Hydrology. Linsley et al. I..) where Q = flow rate. (R.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. K. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. This loss. Inc. All rights reserved. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
Fig. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. 447–454). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.81
21. (See D. vol. pp. 21. Inc. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. during heavy storms. “Hydrology for Engineers. 21. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. pt. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.” McGraw-Hill. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined.74). Inc.” 3rd ed. New York. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. 19.131) period. Also. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.)
Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. perpendicular to direction of flow. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. This method was developed by Franklin F. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. R.42 Groundwater
Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation.

Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. Following the preceding preliminary work. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. rather than a change in volume. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. cost of replenishment water. need for excessive pumping lifts. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable.82 s Section Twenty-One
Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. water softening costs. and methods of wastewater disposal. and indirect water-quality use costs. groundwater levels. Frequently. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. and location of artificial replenishment. among others. poor-quality replenishment waters. present and future water demands should be determined. because of impermeable layers above and below it. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. quality. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. All rights reserved. wastewaters.
. alternative management plans should be formulated. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Inc. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. is a confined or artesian aquifer. and overdraft. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions.21. Deteriorating water quality. usually a number of years.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). This is in contrast to a free aquifer. and quality of water supply. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. quantity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These costs include increased soap costs. or other causes. source. Regardless of how it is defined. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. safe yield. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. quantity. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Click here to view. (A base period is a period of time. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. recycling. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere.

” R. “Groundwater Engineering. fire. Grigg. legal. McGraw-Hill Book Company. or other unforeseen emergency. water used. flood. industrial. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. American Society of Civil Engineers. decreasing percentage increase.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. (“Ground Water Management. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. graphical comparison with other cities. S. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction..
. and lawn-sprinkling purposes.. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. irrigation. financially feasible. All rights reserved. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. Therefore. J. and age of the city. Kashef. culinary. 1987. fire-fighting. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. no. washing. and sanitary purposes.
21. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates.
Water Supply
A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. and treatment works. Inc. Hydrology for Engineers.” A. 40. transmission. such as industrial development. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.43 Water Consumption
The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Estimation of future population. New York. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. percentage increase. motels. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. Linsley et al. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water.” 3rd ed. I. “Water Resources Planning. and hotels for drinking. wastewater disposed. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part.83
Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. and environmental factors. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions.” N. however. and natural and artificial replenishment. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and public. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. surface-water delivery facilities. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. distribution. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. land speculation. pumping. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. apartments. Bear. sanitary. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. bathing. industrial. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. geographical boundaries. storage. Click here to view. amount and location of groundwater extractions. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. institutional. is a very difficult task. K. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. commercial. The smaller the system.

and cleaning. the demand for it decreases. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. quality. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Normally.S. mainly because of the lack of large industries. public buildings. and faucets. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. and pressure. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. and quality of the water. presents
Table 21. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. and time of day. cost. degree of industrialization. janitorial. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses.17. Public Health Service Report. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. size of the city. and air conditioning purposes. The national demand-rate data.” 1979. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Calif. Table 21. Mo. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. are the average of a range of values. meter malfunctions. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water.84 s Section Twenty-One
Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. but because of the high rate at which it is required. type of service (metered or unmetered). air conditioning. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. reservoir evaporation. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. month. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Demand rates vary with time of day. and year. Public use of water for parks. State of California Office of Planning and Research. it may control the design of the facilities. lawn sprinkling. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. Demand for water is related to water-service meters.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. and unauthorized uses. valves. if the cost of water increases. Click here to view. influence the demand rate for water. such as the climate. cooling. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. as presented in Table 21. All rights reserved.
. degree of industrialization. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Inc. standard of living. The “California Water Atlas. cost. pressure. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption.

000 5.0 1.000 90. to a large extent.000 125.5 14. interdependent. climate.000 8.18. Total dependence on a single source.000
1. Moreover. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. is frequently undesirable.000 4.000 200.000 40.000 70. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. In some local areas.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 100.000
Population
Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.3
Duration. Inc.000 40.0 3. MG = million gallons.000 48.8 6. rivers. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.4 3.000 60.2 2. however.8 2.000 40.000 10. quality.000 85. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. cost.
.000 4. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 4. Click here to view. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. † MGD = million gallons per day. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. inland.8 7.3 5. All rights reserved.0 7. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. however. and politics. and in some cases. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.4 17.000 85.
21. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. Hydrant Spacing. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1.000 90.6 4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 10.000 40. diversification is essential for reliability. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 110. legality.000 40. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 12.6 1.4 2.000
* American Insurance Association.000 28.18 Required Fire Flow. the effect of warm.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 3. In selection of a source of supply. gal/min P = population.2 8. such as lakes. Cost. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 80. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.500 2.000 17. In the past. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. industrialization.000 2.6 11.000 1. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 6.000 80.000 120.000 55.000 40. MG† 0.000 40. valley cities.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The source must
Table 21. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. and streams. but the demand rate is high. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. In the atlas.3 0.44 Water-Supply Sources
The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.85
average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

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Inc. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. such as sulfates and chlorides. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations.5 mg / L 0. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. total dissolved solids. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 – 8. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.) Source Protection s The U. alkalinity. The measurements should include pH. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. temperature. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. and Water Pollution Control Federation.22. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. dependent on local conditions. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.3 mg / L 0. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.21.S.” American Public Health Association. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.21.) At the discretion of the state.90 s Section Twenty-One
When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.
. All rights reserved. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. calcium hardness. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. (See also Art. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.” U.S.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. as indicated by the following extract:
Table 21. 21. In addition. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. American Water Works Association.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards
Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. and calculation of the Langelier index.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.

Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. temperature and viscosity of the water. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.
Water Treatment
Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. particulate and colored matter. and width B.134). Inc. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. (See R. All rights reserved. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. depth ho .Water Resources Engineering s 21.0.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle.0 < R < 2000. Inc. Mich.
21.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Newton’s law applies: (21. Click here to view. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.46 Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. however. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping..1 Plain Sedimentation
The ideal settling basin (Fig. (21. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. coagulation-sedimentation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. slow and rapid sand filtration. unpleasant tastes and odors. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Pojasek. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. such as those mentioned above. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.51). g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. calculated with ν = νs. (Usually. velocity is constant. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal.001 and 5. Ann Arbor. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. (21.91
The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. to be used in Eq. is equal to or less than 1. and softening (see also Art. In the region where 1. and size and shape of the settling basin. B. V the flowthrough velocity. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. 21. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. disinfection. mm If R > 2000. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. shape. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. For this ideal basin.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. Figure 21.46.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. Figure 21. Reynolds numbers. 21.
.

All rights reserved.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 103. 21.76
Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. (Observed curves. p.21. 21. vol.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.)
Fig. Click here to view.92 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. 1946. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at 10 °C. after Camp. Inc.
. 897.

Without coagulants. 1. rectangular (Fig. Geyer..78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.93
Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. G. Inc.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation
To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.. finely
Fig.46. M. Inc. The tubular settler (Fig. New York. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 21. 21. coagulants are added to the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for example. C.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.78b). The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. or other indicator to pass through the basin. salt.)
21. Fair. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. 21. All rights reserved. New York.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . “Water Treatment Plant Design. 27.” John Wiley & Sons. occupy less site area than the single-story basin.77
Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. 21. J. Okun.” McGraw-Hill. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. and D.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. are removed in this basin. and eddy currents.8c. Multistory tanks. short circuiting. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. A.78a) or circular (Fig. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.
.

All rights reserved. (d) Tubular settler.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (b) Circular clarifier.21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.94 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Click here to view.

” 4th ed. American Water Works Association. however.” McGraw-Hill.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Inc. such as mechanical stirrers. and nonionic. or negatively charged. such as paper fiber. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. Also. 18H2O].95
divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in some instances. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). and easier dewatering. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. New York. J. however. to get the small floc to agglomerate. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. or neutral in charge. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. McGhee. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. centrifugal pumps. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. and hardness. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. and suspended solids. They are available in three types: cationic. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. “New Concepts in Water Purification. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). “Water Supply and Sewerage. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.to 60min range. Culp. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. plankton. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. L. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. All rights reserved. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. temperature. consequently. such as physical straining. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. highmolecular-weight.. coliform organisms. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. settling. organic polyelectrolytes. anionic.. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. production of a smaller volume of sludge.47 Filtration Processes
Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. Culp and R. L. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. such as pH. Anionic polymers. Corbitt. turbidity. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity.” R. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. however. color. (G. ferric chloride (FeCl3). polymers have a minor effect on pH. A. Polymers are long-chain. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Click here to view.
. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. considering both cost and performance. “Water Quality and Treatment. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. T. The filtering process has many components. and air jets. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Thereby.)
21. or positively charged. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. color. New York. chemical and biological reactions.

the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. of the sand. (The effective size is the size of a sieve.to 12-in layer of gravel.96 s Section Twenty-One
a polymer as a flocculant aid. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. The wash-
Fig. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. The process requires rapid mixing. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. Click here to view. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. and dual. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.79
Gravity-type rapid sand filter. All rights reserved.or mixed-media filtration.
.35-mm range. by weight. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. that will pass 10%. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. in millimeters. depending on the turbidity.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Inc. Usually.to 0. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.25.79. through the sand and gravel layers. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. 21. 21.

Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. Click here to view. diatomaceous earth.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates.20 to 1. or sand incrustation will be encountered. water sprays. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases.35 to 0. Immediately after washing. The filtering medium may be sand. or deep coarse-media filters. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand.
. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Dual-media. filters pass water at a high rate.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.002:1 to 0. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.25 to 1. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. creating a high head loss across the filter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which produces an undertreated effluent. or anthracite coal. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. however. which is drained to waste. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow.97
water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Inc. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. such as rakes. and air jets. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. All rights reserved. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. bed cracking. gal/min b = width of trough.005:1 range.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. mixed-media. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. may be more advantageous.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.

(American Water Works Association.137)
Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.139)
21. and R is the zeolite material. and D. gas. where 1 gpg = 17. New York. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. or open-joint pipes.21. J. “Water Quality and Treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Culp. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Click here to view. Fair. A. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and American Society of Civil Engineers. in clear wells. McGhee.136) (21. G. New York. Okun. Inc. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).” 6th ed. such as calcium and magnesium. carbonates. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.138)
(21. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value.” 4th ed.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed.)
21.1 mg/L. These materials remove cations.” and T. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water Treatment Plant Design.48 Water Softening
Presence of the bicarbonates.49 Disinfection with Chlorine
Chlorine in either the liquid.)
(21. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. sulfates.
. Culp and R. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. however.. Inc.” 4th ed. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Some. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. New York. In the lime-soda process. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. C. “Water Supply and Sewerage. L.3 and 0. Geyer. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. All rights reserved. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. Regeneration requires between 0. perforated. lime (CaO).. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. “New Concepts in Water Purification.. New York. L.” John Wiley & Sons. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.. J.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water Quality and Treatment.98 s Section Twenty-One
Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. (G. and (3) total hardness. M. respectively. “Water Treatment Plant Design. American Water Works Association.

The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.50 Carbonate Stability
Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. Inc. anion exchange.1 or 0. Inc. odor. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. ultraviolet light. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. Okun. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. cation exchange. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal.52 Reservoirs
The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. bromine. (G. reverse osmosis. iron. New York. “Water Treatment Plant Design. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.45). New York. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. A.” McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. C. Filter both solutions.99
water supplies. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.” John Wiley & Sons.” McGraw-Hill. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with
Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. water supply.” and T. detergents. Click here to view. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h.. chlorine dioxide. “Water Treatment Plant Design.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.51 Miscellaneous Treatments
Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Inc. Chlorine residuals of 0. 21. and electrodialysis. flood control. lime softening. and recreation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. J. Other disinfectants are iodine. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. M. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water.. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. and lime. J.)
21. despite its low solubility. New York. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.)
21. 21. excessive fluorides. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants.) respect to carbonates. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.
. ozone. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. then. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. McGhee. and D.. Geyer. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. irrigation. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. taste.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. Fair. activated carbon. manganese. Inc.

whereas for flood-control reservoirs. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Inc. The plot of volume vs. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Click here to view.80.
. 21.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. When the demand rate is known. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.21.1). Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. 21. as is the case for many water-supply projects.80
Mass diagram of stream flow. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Once a reservoir site has been selected. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.100 s Section Twenty-One
(see also Art. Aeri-
Fig. Also.52. 21. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. minimum flows will be critical. The mass diagram (Fig. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. maximum flows will govern.

During hours of maximum demand. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. 21. pumping plants. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Major sources of supply for some cities.1 Distribution Reservoirs
The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. In deep reservoirs. Click here to view.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. When the demand drops off. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed.81
Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. the flow refills the reservoir. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. but there is no circulation across this zone.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. Inc. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination.2). Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. odor. When the tem-
21. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. San Francisco. A mass dia-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.101
Fig. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. 21. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. and Los Angeles. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.35 and 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. such as New York. All rights reserved. which may be only a few feet thick. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. are large distances from the city. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. give special attention to water quality.52. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. is called the thermocline. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate.52. If possible. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. perature drops in the fall.

June 1953). 3.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency
The methods of Art.83).21.102 s Section Twenty-One
gram (Fig. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.35. 21. 21. M. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-
21. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. M. 34.82
Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.
. Inc. vol. Brune.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Click here to view. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.52. Brune. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply.84). the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.
21. 21. All rights reserved. no. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. For the correct hydraulic grade. For any given storage reservoir. A flowing artesian
Fig. 21. 21. 21.82) (G.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.53 Wells
A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.

Fig. 21. Inc.
.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view.103
Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.83
Gravity well in a free aquifer.84
Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.

from an artesian well is given by (21. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. motor.
21. “Water Supply and Sewerage.53. waterjet.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.53. Inc. 889.57). A.4 Well Equipment
Essential well equipment consists of casing. screen. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. and motor. V.. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGhee. vol. T.
21.53. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. gal/day. 629. 5. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. (G. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. Fair. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. vol. bored..1 Drawdown
When water is pumped from a well. McGraw-Hill. Inc. 72. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. or driven.142) where Q = flow. Jacob. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Okun. ft h = H minus drawdown. 21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. or hydraulic rotary methods. All rights reserved. J. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. eductor or riser pipe. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.” Economic Geology. New York. C. ft (Fig. Click here to view. December 1938.83). Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. p.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. ft d = diameter of well. ft The steady flow.143)
21.3 Excavation of Wells
Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. 33. ditch. New York. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Geyer. 1940. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). p.21. Hence. and D.2 Flow From Wells
The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. Inc. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. E. no. pump (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.84). ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping.104 s Section Twenty-One
well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. 21.
. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.
21. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.53.. hollow-core. J.” John Wiley & Sons.” 6th ed. M. The pump. C. (C. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. Theis.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

an anode and a cathode. such as polyvinyl chloride. Since steel is stronger than iron. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Wood pipelines are still in existence. steel.146) where D = pipe diameter. A machine that produces a monolithic. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. pumps. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. valves. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. riveting. and other appurtenances. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. valves.21. and ability to withstand external loads. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. In unlined pipes. brass. polybutylene. polyethylene. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. concrete. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. contact between acids and metals. but wood is rarely used in new installations. zinc. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. dollars/hp per year
Qa = average discharge. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. however. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete.
21. are present. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. plastic. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. sealed flanges. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. bronze. hydrants. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions.) At the anode. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Pipe Materials
Cast iron. Under favorable conditions. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding.
. ft
21. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. bacteria in water. rubber. tanks.108 s Section Twenty-One
Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. and sulfur compounds. Copper. stray electric currents.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems
Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. Click here to view. and plastics. impurities and strains in metals. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. or Dresser-type couplings. sand. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film.54.
(21. Metals can
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. and meters destroyed by corrosion. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)
Ha = average head on pipe. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. If it is cement-lined. lead. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Inc.

caustic soda. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Aluminum. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. and treatment of the water. zinc. cracks.86). Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. and
Fig. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.Water Resources Engineering s 21. use of protective coatings. where e is an electron. and the more ions. Strains.
. water may be treated with bases. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. All rights reserved. 21. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines.86
Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. At the cathode. to prevent corrosion. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. for example. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. such as soda ash. Also. Click here to view. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. When selecting materials. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. and chromium are examples of this type of metal.109
be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. 21. Inc. the faster electrons can move through the water. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles.

The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale.. oxides. To have practical meaning. and so on on the walls of the pipes. All rights reserved. graphite.)
w = unit weight of liquid. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode.147) where pa = pressure. To prevent cavitation. horsepower. in feet.. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater
21.
lime.” 4th ed. Water enters at the center. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.21. 21. “Water Quality and Treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.88).88
Volute-type centrifugal pump. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. 21. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. Zinc.
. between pump center line and water surface
Fig. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Inc. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. Click here to view. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. magnesium. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing
Fig. The centrifugal pump. by (21. the most common waterworks pump. New York. ft of water z = elevation difference. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. called a volute (Fig.87
Cathodic protection of a metal.56 Centrifugal Pumps
The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. psia. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. accomplishes that in two steps. and the head-discharge relationship. or impeller.110 s Section Twenty-One
by centrifugal force. however. z is negative. McGraw-Hill. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. psia. efficiency. ft. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. or eye. hydroxides. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump.87). Inc. Corrosion. 21. (American Water Works Association.

Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. All rights reserved. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. 21.
Fig. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.)
21. helical.. pump discharge. 21. as shown in Fig.. and air lift. jet. head. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 2nd ed. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter.89
Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. (I. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.111
than the required NPSH. below 200 gal/min. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates.
. See also Art. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. Click here to view. 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. 21. 21. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. “Pump Handbook. For that reason. Karassik et al. Inc.57 and check valves in Art. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. (Also included in Fig. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.89. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. rotary. reciprocating. New York. J. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. however. In a typical water-system analysis. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. propeller.58.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depending on the number of stages.57 Well Pumps
These are classified as centrifugal.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

At sea level. gal/min H = head. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. either hand. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. vanes. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts.90 fied). cams. Click here to view. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications.
Section through a jet pump (simpli-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies.or motordriven. Jet pumps (Fig. Reciprocating pumps. so that the entire lift is suction. 21.148) where n = impeller speed. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. All rights reserved. Inc. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. they can be used only for sediment-free water. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Because of the close tolerances. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. 21. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. which are located at the well bottom.21. and for Ns above 7500. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe.112 s Section Twenty-One
Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. utilize piston action to move water. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. r/min Q = discharge.
. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. which is a function of specific speed. (21. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-
Fig.

or it may be at the bottom of the well.
. Low head loss. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. solids deposition. availability. Click here to view. one at the service connection. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. primarily because of their low cost. “Pump Handbook. three valves must be used. pressure-regulating. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. large pressure differences. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. curb. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Check. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). respectively. Simplicity of construction and quick. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Needle valves are used for accurate
21. pumps. and low head loss when fully open. or Neoprene. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. cone. tubercle formation. air-relief. Corrosion. Usually. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. fast operation. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. rotates the disk. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. But these valves cost more than gate. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems.58 Valves
Water facilities use many different types of valves. globe. or corporation cocks. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. globe. Also. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. pressure-relief. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.113
tion.. rubber. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. and butterfly valves. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug.or oil-lubricated. one just upstream of the meter. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. plug. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. If sand is carried out with the water. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Karassik et al. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Inc.. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. All rights reserved. applied through a gear-reduction device. J. Plug. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. and butterfly. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. (I. in-service lubrication features. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.” 2nd ed. which are water.) drives to permit manual operation. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. needle. Hand or motor power. sluice gate. and easy.

. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and large pipes. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. When the valve is in a closed position. The most common check valve is the swing type. Furthermore. Interior-differential. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Many automatic control valves. check. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. and relief valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe.
21.21.59 Fire Hydrants
A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. rivers. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Click here to view. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Usually. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. such as pressure regulators and altitude. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. For example. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. All rights reserved. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min.114 s Section Twenty-One
control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. which connects the barrel to the main. tube. Often. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. The wetbarrel. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. or California type. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant.60 Metering Devices
Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Because of high head losses. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. such as trunk lines
21. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems.

All rights reserved. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it.115
of distribution systems. or nutating-disk types. Click here to view. respectively. vertical velocity components. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones.150) where Q = flow rate. and cost. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. such as meters for individual customer connections. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. are the most common velocity-type devices. Inc. The standard venturi meter (Fig. rotary. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. “Handbook of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) As in venturi meters.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. The nutating disk is used. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. A clicking noise.
(21.91. called a Price meter. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter
d1 = diameter of main section. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. simplicity and ease of repairs. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. amount of head loss through the meter. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. 21. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. 21. The cup-type meter. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. nozzle. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston.” 6th ed.149) Hydraulics.5% within the normal test-flow limits. New York. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. which do not affect propeller meters.
. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. F. However. durability. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. or modifications thereof. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. for metering domestic-service connections. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. see E. Brater. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.61 Water Rates
The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. fire use. flat rate is falling into disuse. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. (b) Nozzle meter. Inc.
Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. load factors. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered.21. and block rate. 21. seasonal use. and similar items. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. (c) Orifice-
21. fixed charges on capital investment. peak rates of use.91 plate meter. or to some other recognized system. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. utility-type enterprises.
. and development of the system. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. step rate. Rate structures are typ-
ically based on demand. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses.116 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. if any. Click here to view.

where applicable. where the majority of small users are. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. including metering and billing. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. draft tube. turbines and governors. tunnel. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0.152a)
Hydroelectric Power and Dams
Hydroelectric plants. All rights reserved. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. canals. and (3) cost. called the demand component. Inc. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. depends on the peak usage of a customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21.
21. When fixing a system of rates. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. S. tunnels. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. Cost component 3.
. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. buying water from a wholesale supplier. switching equipment. Click here to view.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation
Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. of serving an individual customer. generators and exciters. It is generally recognized that residential areas. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. and. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Cost component 2. and transformers. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. pumping energy. This charge is usually small. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. called the commodity component. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. called the customer component. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a building to house the machinery and equipment. penstocks. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. treatment chemicals.117
With step rate. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Cost component 1. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.746 kW 1 kW = 1. For most distribution systems.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes.

the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. run-of-river plants with storage. Therefore. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Then.92). generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. On a weekly cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage.21. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. or seasonal cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. Storage can be provided for a daily. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. to be used at some future time. Click here to view. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. and peak-load plants. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. power production being only incidental. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from
η
Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. base-load plants. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. On a seasonal cycle. weekly. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. On a daily cycle. 21. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. All rights reserved. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. weekly.
. If the minimum flow is very low.118 s Section Twenty-One
(21. Inc. It can be computed on a daily. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. during periods of peak power demand (Fig.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. such as navigation. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. or yearly basis.

(V. (Department of Water and Power. buttress. All rights reserved. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. Click here to view. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Figure 21. This silt pressure can be cal-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Calif. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high
power demand. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. Its distribution is triangular. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.” 4th ed. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom.63 Dams
Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. arch. it usually is not as economical. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Zipparo and H. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.119
Fig. When needed. Inc. and rock-fill. New York.)
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. earth. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight.. Force F2 represents silt pressure. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. 21.)
steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. 21. J. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The main classifications are gravity. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Los Angeles. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.92). Hasen.
.92
Daily load curves for generating plants. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1.

Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. In the past. Inc.153). This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.425h above the base. ice. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. These accelerations occur in every direction. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. A close approximation of the force. given by Eq. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. (21. however.21. 434. (E. ice pressures as high as 50. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake.153) where w = unit weight of water. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.120 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Most dams in seismically active regions in
the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. In cold climates. May 1946. vol. presented by Edwin Rose. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.93
Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. Click here to view. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. p. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.93 by forces F4 and F5.” discussion by von Karman. 21. which forms on the reservoir surface. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. 98. was developed by von Karman.) (21. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. All rights reserved. A method of calculating these forces. which create forces on any object resting on it. today it is realized these values are much too high. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.1 g. 21. Rose. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 psf.
. 1933.

The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. However. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site.121
imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. and clay.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is available and clayey materials must be imported. but it does not pro-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. sand. Hence. and uplift forces are smaller. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. engineers assumed that. All rights reserved. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. Inc. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. their relative importance is much different. uplift is not so important. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. or failure of the foundation material. such as sand and gravel. In the multiple-arch. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. When the base is not drained. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. but its formwork is more expensive. On arch dams. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. First. Click here to view. Although there are many types of buttress dams. but the structural design is much more critical. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. overturning by rotating about the toe. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. however. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. however.
. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. rock flour. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. however. Recent belief. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. If a large quantity of pervious material. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. If the deflections are not equal. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. silt. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. because of bearing contact. In the past. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The modes of failure are also the same. They are not suited to most sites.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (V. therefore. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. or wood over concrete. If pervious material is not available. Temporary facings are usually of wood. S.
. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations.3 on 1.21. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. Inc. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. onto the fill. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Leakage should be expected. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Today. Bureau of Relamation. bonding into the dumped rock. Click here to view. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled.” 4th ed. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. The downstream face is usually 1. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.3 on 1. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. however. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. All rights reserved. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Army Corps of Engineers. McGraw-Hill Book Company. U. 21. New York. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. and an upstream impervious facing.122 s Section Twenty-One
vide the flexibility of clay materials. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. providing power. Hasen. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” EM 1110-2-2300. For dams over 200 ft high. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. although steel has been used occasionally.” U. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. For some types of soil. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The facing is usually concrete. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Zipparo and H. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. the natural angle of repose of rock. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. J. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation.94). bearing on the rubble cushion. The cutoff wall is usually concrete.. S.)
21.64 Hydraulic Turbines
In the past.

Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. This creates a force on the runner. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. their efficiency decreases rapidly. 21.123
bine. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. if the load drops below 50%. Hasen. In these. As the water flows through the tur-
21. All rights reserved.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner.95a). The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.94 turbine. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. The propeller turbine (Fig. wicket gates. 21. and the fixed-blade type. J. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. located just outside the perimeter of the runner.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs
Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. Click here to view. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. 21. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. When the power demand on the turbine changes.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. McGraw-Hill Book Company. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. and draft tube.
Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic
In most impulse turbines. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. At heads below 100 ft. the propeller-type (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Zipparo and H.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.
.95c). the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. wicket gates. Inc. however. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. and draft tube. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. however. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows.)
Fig. At heads above 1000 ft. 21.. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. In such installations. The wicket gates. (V. runner. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. However. it changes direction. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. runner.” 4th ed.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65. widely used for concrete dams because.95
Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis.1 Spillways
An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.
21. 21. Inc. This type of spillway is
Fig. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.21. if designed correctly. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. All rights reserved. the dam will not be damaged by the water. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (b) Kaplan.
.124 s Section Twenty-One
out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. (c) axial flow.

Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Thus.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the head increases. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Once this second condition is reached. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. open channel. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit.” Government Printing Office. A siphon spillway (Fig. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. All rights reserved.S.96
Siphon spillway. siphon spillways hold the water
Fig. called an ogee spillway.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. or ogee in cross section. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Inc. Click here to view. The weir can be sharp-crested. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. Washington. both depending on the head on the weir. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. DC 20402). 21. The air vent shown in Fig. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. This type of spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.125
The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. In a shaft spillway. lined.34). 21. In a chute spillway.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. “Design of Small Dams. In a side-channel spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur.
. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. 21. the siphon’s intake is sealed. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining.Water Resources Engineering s 21. flared. When the head is relatively low. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. model tests are usually employed.

All rights reserved.65. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation.
21.65.
21. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. making removal difficult. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.21. To do this. the pipes fail. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.2 Intake Structures
The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. In a taintor gate (Fig.3 Crest Gates
These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. In contrast. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. and providing support for the conduit.98
Bear-trap gate. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. 21. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.
Fig. Inc. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.97
Taintor gate. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.126 s Section Twenty-One
The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21.
level of a reservoir within close limits. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Click here to view. controlling flow. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.97). excluding debris and ice from a conduit.5 ft/s.
Fig. causing damage and hampering operation. 21. On large stop-log installations. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.

Cleasby. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. L. 21. 21.127
Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. (V. All rights reserved. J..” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and H.” 4th ed. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The drum gate (Fig. “Water Supply Engineering. J. and J.98. Hasen. Doland. E.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. Zipparo and H.) Fig. Babbitt. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.99 Drum gate.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To raise a bear-trap gate. Because of the large recess required in the dam. J. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. New York. as shown in Fig.
. Inc. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. drum gates are not suited to small dams.

. All rights reserved. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.128
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.blank page 21.