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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
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4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. formation of spray from water jets. Click here to view. psi. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. 21. however. 21. like surface tension. psia.21. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. 21. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.3.7 psi. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. and freezing damage to concrete.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. (21. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. is pressure above or below atmospheric. or liquid surface. Meniscus.1) where h = capillary rise. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Its value Fig. as shown in Fig. Absolute pressure. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. All rights reserved. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. In equation form. Thus. pitting. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. When the liquid is in a closed container.1. is small and insignificant in most problems. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Inc. Surface tension and capillarity. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. are significant in others.2. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. 21. as shown in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Its temperature variation. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. at sea level. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. face and rises in a small tube. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gage pressure.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. respectively. ft σ = surface tension. portions of the liquid vaporize. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. 21. is concave upward. ft Capillarity.000 ft is shown in Fig. although negligible in many water engineering problems.7 psia. decreases with increasing temperature.
2) where τ = shearing stress. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. psf. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. or dynamic viscosity. In hydraulics. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. which extend into the pores of the metal. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. Since the prism is at rest. It is so named because its units. or implode. to collapse. or completely turbulent flow exists. lb/ft3. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. on the top surface. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas.8) to determine whether laminar. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. ft. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. ft2/s.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. At any depth. also called the coefficient of viscosity. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. as shown in Fig. 21. psf.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2.5 Fig. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. absolute viscosity. µ of a fluid. on the bottom surface. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary.00001059 ft2/s. ft2. Inc. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. All rights reserved. the force due to pressure p1. of length and time. Click here to view. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. the pressure acts equally in all directions. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. lb/ft2 21. 21. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. and pitting appears. ft/s y = depth.4. . (Pressures as high as 350. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. transitional. and cross-sectional area A. Viscosity. is a measure of its resistance to flow. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. Then. and the force due to pressure p2. 21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University.
where w is the specific weight of water.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. Click here to view. dams. 21. and y sin θ = h . For horizontal surfaces. psf. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).6) – ∫ydA = y A. 21. the depth of the centroid. ft2. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.5) 21. Figure 21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. (21. The resultant pressure force P. the depth below the water surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. (21. Equation (21. lb/ft3. and other water control structures. tanks. . ft.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.3. then p2 is p. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.21. Taking ∆h to be h.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. the pressure. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4) Equation (21. ft.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.3b) then becomes (21.3a) by A yields (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. Therefore. Thus. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. (21. (21. Inc. however. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. (21. lb. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.4.3a) Division of Eq. All rights reserved. (21.4). at depth h.
is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Thus. Example 21.5). yp may be calculated directly from Eq.2° to the horizontal (Fig. (21. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.6 (see also Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.p. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. Inc. psf. (21. where K is the radius of gyration. The denominator of Eq.g. All rights reserved.8) equals –A.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. if that locus is a straight line. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. 21.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) but acts at a point (c.7).1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. Click here to view. the total force P = whA. The location of the center of pressure.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. . 6. 21. (21. Otherwise. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. Pyp = ∫y dP.).7 Fig.29).8).p. 21. 21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. of the surface about its centroidal axis.g. Hence y . – From Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7). represented by the length yp. (21.) that is below the c. (21.
42 = 5.42 ft. yp = 5.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. P = 62. (See Example 21.0 ft.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. .08. 21.21. Therefore. Inc. 21. Click here to view.3. All rights reserved. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9). (21.0) = 5. Also.0 + 126.96.36.199 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.g. From Eq.5 + 1/ (5. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.08/5 = 5. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. K2 = point G. 21. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.) of common shapes. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. however.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 + 0. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. Note: 1.
When water is below the curved surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2. Click here to view.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Example 21. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. .4 × 2. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.6w = 19. Inc.9. so the weight of the water is 19. (21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. 2. 21. – From Eq. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. 21. The corresponding angle is 57. (b) Free-body diagram. Its angle with the horizontal is known. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. and for a constant-radius surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. 21.9 Fig. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.14 × 25/4 = 19.564.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.7).6 ft3.9). All rights reserved.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. (See Example 21.6 × 62. PH = whA = 62. Fig.4°.4 = 1220 lb = PV. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.5 × 5 = 780 lb. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
10a). which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. ft. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.. whether floating or submerged. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.4). For a body to be in equilibrium. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. 21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.g. 21. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. Inc. or the difference in head.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. is indicated by the metacenter. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. Click here to view. the pressure head. . Manometers indicate h.10b. (21. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. (21. 21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. Given in feet by Eq. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight.10b). p = wh. The stability of a ship. All rights reserved. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. 21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.). The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.b. ft3 ys = distance. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.21.
11 manometer. Click here to view. What is hm? Fig. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12c).11a is 2. . Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Basic types of manometers. U-tube manometer. Example 21.4 lb/ft3. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. (b) U-tube manometer. Inc. All rights reserved. 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.17 psi. 21. 21. and differential manometer. The piezometer (Fig.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21. (a) Piezometers.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). although the latter is most common. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. However. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. The liquid is water with w = 62.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11): piezometer.
12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. All rights reserved. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.11b) is used. including negative gage pressures. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. Very low pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Inc. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. A movable scale. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. In this application.21. the Utube manometer (Fig. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.12c).12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. 21. . as opposed to a fixed scale. 21.
may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.4 × 2.12a. if the actual difference is 0. psf p2 = pressure at 2. when expressed in feet of water.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. the magnification will be 2.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. ft.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. is magnified by the differential manometer. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. that is. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. 21.6).6 × 62. 21. hm1 is 9 in. Click here to view. Above 5. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. psf w = specific weight of fluid. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. hi is 2. For example. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.4 × 0. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. psf.4 × 2. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62.0 ft.11) where Z1 = elevation. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. ft.25 ft of water.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. The pressure at B. Most of them. 32. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. the total energy per unit weight at 2.13 indicating liquid. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Example 21.5. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. Inc. . All rights reserved. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. 21. such as ft of water or psi. such as might be required in laboratories. psf.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. the actual pressure difference. and z is 1. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.40. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.0 and 2.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. in the manometer. and the right side.75 + 13.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. One factor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4: A differential manometer (Fig. 21. as shown in Fig.25 ft. or sump. The differential manometer (Fig. however.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. however. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.
11). when added to the downstream side of Eq. lb. and pressure. The total energy. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. This term hf. Example 21. (21. ft.13).21. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. Usually. 21.4 ft3/s. Average velocity. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. 21. through friction. 21. ft/s = Q/A. velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. above some arbitrary datum. however. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and pressure (Fig. where Q is the quantity of flow.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.14) pa/w is called pressure head. 21. All rights reserved.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.13. varies with velocity. Kinetic energy at the section. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. . lb/ft3. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. ft/s. Click here to view.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. a Fig. V2/2g.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. velocity head. 21. Fig. velocity. As indicated in Fig. where W is the weight. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. (See Example 21. or the total head ft: (21. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. It equals WVa2 / 2g. across the area of the section A. ft3/s.5. Inc. ft2.14. ft. where Va is the velocity.
direction. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. p2 = 0. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Hence. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. All rights reserved.9).15). Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. In openchannel flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Inc.55 = 48. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. respectively. sometimes called the total head line. while in pressure flow.4/ 3. (21. is equal to the impulse.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. since the pipe has free discharge. 21. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. 21. respectively. ft. Also. or magnitude of flow. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. The energy grade line. Thus substitution in Eq.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. gate valve. Z2 = 0.14 = 10 ft/s. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. hf = 50 – 1. and any bends. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. 21. Art. which may result from a change in either velocity. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.45 ft. A change in momentum.7. .15 Fig.
which is to be determined).78 Ry = 145.1 and the density ρ = 62.2= 1.6.600.332π = 71.200 + Rx = 1.16. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.4/ 32. (21. lb.2° – 13.96 sin 53. . The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.5°.500 lb. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.000 lb. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.700/82. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. 21. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.5 ft/s.5) = 65.21. since ∆Vx = –(7.15) first in the X direction. since ∆Vy = –(–7. All rights reserved. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. P2 = ppA2 = 13.94. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. so θ = 60.2° + Ry = 1.000 sin 53.94 × 100 × 4.78. Click here to view.200 lb. To find F. 21.12)] but may be used separately.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. (See Example 21.96 cos 53. Fig. and at 2. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.2° – 71.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. Then. then in the Y direction. (21. Example 21.1 Rx = –82. apply Eq. Fx = 181.94 × 100 × 65. Inc. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.000 cos 53. With p1 known.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.2° – 0) = 4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.600 lb In the Y direction. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. Let R be the force. Fy = –181.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.11) or (21.
1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. or proposed works. In most models. complex three-dimensional flow patterns.7. or prototype. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Physical models are expensive to build. aquifer. viscosity. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Usually.7. . 21. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. or drainage basin. and through execution of the computer program. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. employs both physical and mathematical models. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Inc. In water resources engineering. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. In this way. With hybrid models. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. to a given set of stimuli. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. operate. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. erosional scour. such as storm rainfall. For instance.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. the capability of the computing resources. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. alternative management schemes. momentum. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.17 21. such as a river. however. A fourth mode of modeling. droughts. See also Art. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. It is. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Click here to view. and surface tension. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Popular before the advent of digital computers. gravity. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. hybrid modeling. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. In the preceding example. 1.
And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. the model is termed a true model. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. viscosity. such as spillways and weirs. respectively. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Reynolds number. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.20) R is dimensionless. which is always a predominant force. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Ratios of the forces of gravity. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. such as depth or diameter).2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . ft2/s. (21.21a) (21. Squaring both sides of Eq. The Froude number is (21. (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. the formation of drops and air bubbles. entrainment of air in flowing water. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. and Weber number. The Reynolds number is (21. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. Froude number. Similarly.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. The inertial force. Inc.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Once the length ratio has been set. Click here to view. Therefore. 32.21. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. and one other force are made proportional. The Weber number is (21. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21.22) where ρ = density of fluid. Then (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. the length ratio is the only variable.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S.26) where V = mean velocity. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number.25) In models of rivers and channels.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3.23a) (21. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. Sr = 1. For instance. Inc.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. These expressions. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. For such models. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. In some cases. Hence.24). and through execution of the computer program.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. the logical representation of prototypes. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. and infiltration parameters. (21. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. The U. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. Rr = Lr. . such as flow networks. in turn. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. One type of model.7. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. viscous. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. such as a morning-glory spillway. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. catchment areas. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. (21. mathematical models are. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. in particular. Click here to view. called a movable-bed model. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). (21.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. All rights reserved. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. 21. This type of model is called a distorted model. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. inertial. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch.
the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. As a result.2). and viscosity and the size of the conduit. Click here to view. R.21.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. or pollution. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. flood or drought impacts. 21. Inc. As this shearing stress increases. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. academia. seepage. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. landfill leachate analyses. 1957. watershed hydrology. All rights reserved. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. of all databases and software. Whan. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. ecosystem impacts and restoration. Hoggan. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. vol. New York. “Water Resources Planning.17. “Handbook of Hydrology. and private sectors. For closed conduits other than circular. R. (D. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. sediment or pollutant transport. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. Hasen. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. and R. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. (J. As a general rule. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. channel and river hydraulics.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. A. Art. density. Rothfus. Grigg. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. flow routing.” D. F. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. . and turbulent flow results. impacts of dam breaks. evaporation and irrigation. In object-oriented software. 3. J. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.” N. reservoir regulation. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. and among water resources modelers in the government.” McGraw-Hill. design of hydraulic structures. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. if comparisons of different plans are required. Maidment. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. This approach. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Zipparo and H. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. wave or tidal analyses. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Also. and groundwater yield. shown in Fig. G. the model output required for design or evaluation. 21. hydrologic forecasting. H. as in annular passages. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. S. Walker. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. This. or both.” V. when fully implemented. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. hydrodynamics.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.) 21. quantity and quality of water supply. however. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces.
Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. Fig. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. ft/s D = pipe diameter. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company.19. Click here to view. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. Inc. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. 32.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. than for laminar flow (Fig. These disturbances create eddies. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.21 Fig. (21. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. 21. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. In this region. In laminar flow. 21.) 21. ft ρ = density of fluid. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. F.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. 21.” 6th ed.29) For laminar flow.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. New York.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. As the Reynolds number increases.18.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. As a result. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. 32.17). 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. handbook of Hydraulics. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. at completely turbulent flow. Therefore. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. it is not practical to treat it analytically. (21. the flow is completely turbulent. (E. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. flow is laminar in circular pipes.l9.. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. laminar flow is unstable. the velocity distribution is more uniform. . this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. as shown in Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Brater. (21.27) where V = fluid velocity. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. a disturbance will probably be magnified. causing the flow to become turbulent. All rights reserved. ft L = length of pipe section considered. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics.
19) for evaluating the friction factor f. 21.0005 0.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.001 – 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.008 – 0. (L.03 – 0. (21. enamels.0005 – 0.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.19) to Determine f ε.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. November 1944.001 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.21.0002 – 0. Moody. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. Click here to view. All rights reserved. (21. ft V = velocity of fluid. Inc.19) L = length of pipe. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.00003 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.) Because Eq. The head loss is independent of the pressure.003 – 0. F.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft D = diameter of pipe. 32.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.003 0.0002 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.9.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. 21. 21.008 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.0005 – 0. 21.0002 0. . the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.
33b) (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.34e) where V = velocity.3.31) gives (21. (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.33c) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. 21. where D is the pipe diameter.34b) (21.34d) (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. .3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft S = head loss due to friction. (21. ft L = length of pipe. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. Inc. Click here to view.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.31) where V = velocity. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.11 (p. All rights reserved.) Substitution into Eq.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. (Although based on surface roughness. See also Table 22. which requires experience in its choice.34c) 21.9.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.4 and 21.33d) (21.32) where n = coefficient. ft/s C1 = coefficient. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.9. (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. dependent on surface roughness.33e) 21. 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft3/s. ft/s C = coefficient. Tables 21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9.
35c) (21.36) for a check. enlargements. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.012 0. (21.35b) (21.011 0.013 0.013 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in short pipelines.014 0.20 ple 21.013 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.015 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.) Flow between reservoirs.017 0.013 0.010 To 0. 21. . Example 21.017 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.013 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.017 From 0.012 0.016 To 0. However.010 0. and valves and other pipe fittings. Inc. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. (21.015 0.4 Values of n for Pipes. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.010 0.7.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.7: Figure 21.015 0.012 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. bends.015 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.012 0. because (21.21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.015 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.035 0.014 0. (21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. 21.017 Use in designing Q = discharge. Click here to view.017 0.017 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. ft3/s hf = friction loss.
2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. Ltd. 120 24 in and over. . Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.7.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 120 Large sizes. so a full velocity head is lost.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.38) A special application of Eq. (21.37): (21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. is (21. good workmanship. good workmanship.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. (21.. 21. regardless of age. Click here to view. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 140 Large sizes.21 are approximate. are presented in Table 21. Gibson. minor losses must be considered. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 21. steel forms. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.Water Resources Engineering s 21.10. (21. 115 12 in.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. the values of K in Fig. 120 Centrifugally spun. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. Table 21. (A. 110 (21. ft/s g = 32. 10 years older Average value. determined experimentally by Brightmore. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.21). A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.37) or (21. 135 In good condition. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. H.10. 110 4 in. Inc. 21. 105 30 in and over. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.” Constable & Co.25 Table 21.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.. 21. ft.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.10. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. London. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 85 16 in. 80 4 in. All rights reserved. wood forms.
6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0. Click here to view.66 0.2 2.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 0.63 0. 21. fully open Swing check valve.4 0.71 0.6 0.0 Table 21.5 0. and at bends is given by (21.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.9 0.81 0.7 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.62 0.89 1.8 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.05 K = 0.2 0.21 of the sides. such as valves and elbows.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Globe valve. All rights reserved.3 0.0 2.0 5.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.2 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21. Inc.68 0.5 0.0 1.25 The values in Table 21.76 0. .50 K = 0.6 0.80 K = 0.1 0. D = pipe diameter.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.4 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 are only approximate.10.42) Table 21.8 gives some typical K values for these losses. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. For these reaTable 21. fully open Gate valve.64 0. fully open Angle valve.
For low heads.27 sons. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. (H.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.. its effect should be taken into account.22: (21. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. (K. (21. square. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. 1960. vol. July 1938. 82. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. 21.11. (21.) Fig.” 4th ed. McGraw-Hill. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. Orifices may have any shape. Inc. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. 21. the bend loss essentially remains constant. or rectangular. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. (V. not including friction loss in the bend. 21. Hasen. Zipparo and H.42). Experiments on smooth pipes. National Bureau of Standards. vol. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Inc. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. J. no. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. 21. Figure 21. series D.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. All rights reserved.44) where Q = discharge. . and angle of bend. New York.” Journal of Research.43) where ∆ = deflection angle.9 for low velocity of approach. 21.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. there is disagreement. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Beij. Click here to view. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. (21. this error is corrected by the C values.23. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21.45) 21. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Reynolds number. H.42). The data are in agreement that the head loss.. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.Water Resources Engineering s 21. not including friction loss. Equation (21. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. although they are usually round. If this velocity is significant. Ito. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. 1.
Jr.602 0.610 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.630 0.655 0..591 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia. ft 0.660 0.” 1886. p1/w = p2/w = 0.596 0. Inc.622 0. .606 0.644 0.593 0.99.602 0.46) The actual velocity.608 0.618 0.590 0.04 0.627 0.599 0. V1 = 0.598 0.45) becomes (21.602 0.604 0. With the reference plane through point 2.610 0.601 0. to Fig. Click here to view.595 0.607 0.609 0.602 0.641 0.603 0.614 0.0 Head.600 0.619 0.0 0.600 0. ft 0.597 0.602 0. ft 0.621 0.595 0.595 0.02 0.596 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.592 0.1 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 0.632 0.596 0. 21. “Hydraulics.616 0.601 0.616 0.617 0.605 0.605 0.637 0.597 0.600 0.615 0.636 0.596 0. determined experimentally.598 * Hamilton Smith.594 0.601 0.604 0.637 0.643 0.648 0.619 0.611 0.623 0.612 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.648 0.592 1.599 0. and Eq.614 0.608 0.618 0.602 0.602 0.617 0. the vena contracta. of circular orifices.600 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.601 0.603 0.632 0.607 0.623 0. (21.94 to 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.628 0.603 0.605 0.6 08 1 1.599 0.623 0.614 0.603 0. Z1 = h.592 0.652 0.613 0.02 0.628 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2. and Z2 = 0.612 0.594 0.608 0.629 0.604 0.637 0.606 0.602 0.631 0.598 1.613 0 610 0.607 0.593 0.1 0. All rights reserved.21.593 0.605 0.599 0.634 0.618 0.626 0.596 0.04 0.5 2 2.611 0.596 0.598 0.
48) is obtained. “Handbook of Hydraulics.29 Fig. 21.11. New York. the area of the orifice. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. (21.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.47) where hL = losses in head. see E. Eq. ft. 21. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.25.61 to 0. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. 21. Brater. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Inc.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.67.11.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.) 21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Click here to view. .. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.25 orifice. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. In Fig.” 6th ed. Figure 21. between 1 and 2. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. 21. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. F. With a partly suppressed orifice.24b. the contraction is completely suppressed. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. All rights reserved.
59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. 32. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.58) Equation (21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. All rights reserved. Click here to view. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.50) becomes (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. 21.49) Solving for dt yields (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. (21. is that for a parabola: (21. (21.11. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. Rearranging Eq. 21.50) where a = area of orifice.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.51) upon integration becomes (21. s The Y coordinate is (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.56) Fig. 21.26): (21. Inc. to time t. Eq. ft2 A = area of reservoir.23).57) for t and substituting in Eq. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.59). the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. ft h2 = head at the end.55) 21.56).21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. when y = h1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.58)]. (21. obtained by solving Eq. For simplicity. (21. (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.58) gives (21. when y = h2. Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21. (21.57) (21. .
28). Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.27) but the head loss is larger.80. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.31 ty Cν = 0. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.00 VT / 2g – 0. (21.11. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. a K value for Eq. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. however. . and the loss coefficient K equals 0.27. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.5 a T T Fig. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. if one exists). 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.67 V T / 2g = 0.82.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 Fig.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. psf w = unit weight of water. Equation (21. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. 21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. 21. 21. 21.67 V2 ) = 0.33VT / 2g.82.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.11. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.67 V2T /2g. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. 21. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.29.42) of 0.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. Click here to view. Therefore.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. In the tube or pipe.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. All rights reserved. For a short tube flowing full. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0. 21. Inc. Fig. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. (21. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.75. When this happens.
the tube must flow full. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. this momentum drops to zero.30).31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. 21. The pipe shown in Fig. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. All rights reserved. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. either above or below the normal pressure. but at a pressure much higher than normal. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. the water in the pipe is motionless. When a valve is closed. Every time the flow rate is changed. Fig. Inc. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Click here to view.32). At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. However. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. either increased or decreased.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure.29. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. the pressure in the pipe falls.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. As the water flows away from the closed valve. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For this analysis to be valid. 21.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Fig. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21. As the water flows into the reservoir.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. The change causes a pressure rise. it causes water hammer.
2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. Fig. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. ft 21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.63). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 1. Click here to view. 21.64) 21.63a) becomes (21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. (21. approximate solution. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.63a) In terms of pressure head. s A plot of pressure vs. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. All rights reserved.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. (21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.13. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. For instantaneous closure: (21. .13. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. 43. Inc. Eq. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. (21. Equation (21.
5 ft2. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure..65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. to apply Eq. Inc. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft.32. (V.) Example 21. .61). A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. 21. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. the increment of time. All rights reserved. is g = acceleration due to gravity. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. length = 3000 ft.63). ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. s T = actual closure time of valve. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements.) Velocity of pressure wave.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings.” 4th ed. each causing an individual pressure wave. area = 78. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. equals L /aU. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. diameter = 10 ft. from Eq. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. and Ao the original area of the valve opening..21. (21. Click here to view. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. Zipparo and H. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. ft L = length of pipeline. (21.63). such as L/aU. McGraw-Hill. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.63). Thus.2 × 108 psf. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. J. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. (21. 32. penstock thickness = 1 in. (21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. then that obtained from Eq. (21. where ∆t. Inc. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hasen. With the head known. (21. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. New York. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. where a equals any integer. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Vo the original velocity. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. Once the time interval has been determined.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.
3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.66) where p = internal pressure. in effect. Usually. and the pressure rise. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. in Assuming T = 4.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. Fig.90 s. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. on the pipe material is (21.75 s. 21. When a valve is suddenly opened. All rights reserved.34 tension. The water column. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits.33) must still be designed for water hammer.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. floats on the line. it is by no means the only one.Water Resources Engineering s 21.13.34). Various types of relief Fig. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. the stress. 21. 21. lb Hence.63). The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. psi.64) gives the following result: 21. the closure is instantaneous. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.90 s. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. When a valve is suddenly closed. from Eq. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. is Pipe Stresses 21. . Inc. approximate equation (21. 21. (21. to prevent water hammer. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. (S. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. P Timoshenko and J.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. For concrete pipes. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. “Theory of . psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. is (21. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. If D/t is less than 10. Art. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. . however.” 2nd ed. (21. Click here to view.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. 21. All rights reserved. psi.. However. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.10). the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. Eq.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. this analysis is approximate. Equation (21. (21. New York.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. (21. The internal diameter is used in Eq. The stress. For steel pipes. due to a temperature change is (21. In this case. However. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses.67). (21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.21. if expansion joints are to be used.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. it acts like a beam. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.67) for concrete pipe. Eq. 6. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. Gere. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. In all bends.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.6). but it is usually small enough to be neglected. Inc. In Fig. 21. The force diagram in Fig.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. elastic Stability. M.
ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. exit conditions. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.71) where R = resultant force on bend.37 Fig. or other embankment. However. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. 32. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. 62. Inc.71) give a quick solution. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In small pipes. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. (21. Click here to view. the joints must also be able to take these forces.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. (21. . an exact theoretical analysis.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.70) and (21. however. a railroad. 21. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. psf w = unit weight of water. canal. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. and slope. Eqs.
) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Click here to view. and the control will still be at the inlet.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. computer software. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. 21.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Portland Cement Association. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. All rights reserved. the culvert flows full. 21. but they do not cover Fig. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.37). that is. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. charts. For this reason. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.” EB058W. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. 21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. slope is greater than the critical slope. (21. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. 21.23).38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.38).18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.21.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. and the Manning equation for friction loss. 21.36). (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.33d) or (21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. the following equation is obtained: (21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. Inc. the normal depth (Art. .30)].73) 21.
ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. (21. for the open-channel condition (Fig.74) Fig. Fig.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. and dn < dc .39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. 21. and dn > dc .76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. depending on the head.74) yields (21. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. Thus.39 Fig. flow depends on inlet condition. open-channel flow takes place. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21.39). 21. When slope is less than critical. (21. 21. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. ft V = velocity in culvert. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. ft Equation (21.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. 21. Click here to view.20) 21. Discharge is independent of slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and slope of culvert.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. When slope exceeds critical.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions.75) Substituting this into Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. normal pipe flow occurs.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. . Discharge depends on head H. When the slope is less than critical. The discharge.23). loss at entrance. Inc. 21. 32. The fluid flows under pressure.
21. 21. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. Most culverts.41). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. (21. ft To solve Eq. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. If the head on a culvert is high. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. If the friction slope approaches critical.76). however. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. (21. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. Inc. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig.37). When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. When the friction slope is flat. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.40). which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. ft dn = normal depth of flow.21. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. (21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.76). (21.39). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. 21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. and discharge is given by Eq.18). If this condition exists. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. .72). Click here to view. All rights reserved. 21.76).
Inc.15 0. (21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. But H = 5 + 0.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. the flow is under pressure. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. 21. First find dn. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.72) yields Q =Va = 9. Substitution in Eq. groove or bell. (21. with Eq. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Find: size of culvert.72) applies. (21.8 ft3/s Table 21.40). When the entrance is not submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. 21.013. Example 21.01. n = 0.6. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. These values are for culverts flowing full. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. Click here to view.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. groove or bell. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. slope = 0. Fig.73). square edge Concrete pipe. and the entrance will not control. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Application of Eq.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. 21. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. length = 300 ft.5 0. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.95 × 4 = 39. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. All rights reserved. Since the culvert is under pressure.44) for discharge through an orifice.9 0. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. (21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.18 and 21. .9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.72) and (21. (21.41 For entrance control.10 0.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and free exit. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.19). Eq. projecting Concrete pipe. Table 21.
the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21.03 to 1. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.79) The velocity head HV. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. or the total-head line.36 for prismatic channels. however.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. Thus. ft.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. minus the free surface width. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. It is expressed in feet as (21.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.77) where V = average velocity. (21.79). within a hydraulic jump. ft3/s. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. depth of flow is constant throughout. In a uniform channel. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow.21. ft2 When the discharge is constant. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. 21. or open-channel flow. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. The wetted perimeter is the length. ft. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. or slope. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. normally taken as 1. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. ft. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. It has uniform flow if the grade. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. is generally given by (21. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. Equation (21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. plus the velocity head at the point. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. and is given by (21. 32. Figure 21. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. Click here to view. All rights reserved. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. It is. Hence.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. (21.
21. T. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.Water Resources Engineering s 21. F. slope. As the depth decreases downstream.43 Fig. All rights reserved.” 6th ed. McGrawHill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. ft. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. ft. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. For a rectangular channel. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. 21. . normal depth decreases downstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.43.42 is called the normal depth dn. (See. E. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. Eq. Click here to view. Inc. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (V. (21. in which T is the top width of the channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.44.43).43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.84) reduces to Fig. roughness.) (21. New York. and discharge are known.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. as shown in Fig. the specific energy also decreases. 21. for example.. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.84) where A = area of flow. New York. Chow.83) Brater. 21.
23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.44). For a given value of specific energy. The flow there is called subcritical flow. . (21. 21.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.43. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.21. (21. Inc. ft3/s d = depth of flow. All rights reserved. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. for a given discharge. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. (21.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the depth is below critical. New York). F. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.84) is called the critical depth dc.84). or conversely. For rectangular channels. “Handbook of Hydraulics. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.” 6th ed. (21.. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. 21. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. Brater.84) may be reduced to (21. 21.44). ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. the depth is greater than critical. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. and flow is supercritical. 21. Click here to view.
21.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. 21. (21. It can be seen from Fig. once calculated. p. along with a high loss of energy. 21. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.44). Critical depth. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For every depth greater than critical depth. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth.57). regardless of slope. a hydraulic jump will occur. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. indicating an irreversible occurrence. flow is supercritical. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. flow is subcritical. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. [As indicated by Eq. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. 21.45 where dc = critical depth. as indicated in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. without turbulence. ft3/s b = width of channel. 21. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. Inc. . however.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.87) Fig.85). should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.52b. All rights reserved. 21.45. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. (21. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. Such a change occurs gradually.
and adverse slope. Eq. These curves are divided into five groups.L. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. horizontal. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. 21.and critical-depth lines. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.11. 21. at an arbitrary elevation.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and A for adverse.L.L.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.D. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Department of Agriculture. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.25). Click here to view. . are identical for a channel of critical slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.90) where A = area of flow.46. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. are in Table 21. is replaced by a horizontal line. and the N. H for horizontal. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).21. 21. Chow. therefore.23). there must be a continuing maintenance program. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. (See also Art.46a and b.S. ft V = mean velocity of flow. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (Although based on surface roughness.L. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.89) may be written (21. Inc. 21. New York.D. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. the average n values given in Table 21. and the critical-depth line C. Dr. The M2 curve forms between the normal. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. and C.D. The N. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.) 21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. S for steep (supercritical). All rights reserved.46c and d. T. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. as shown in Fig. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. C for critical.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.D.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. E.L.89) Since the discharge Q = VA.9 and Table 21. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. 21. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. 21. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). and two types for channels of critical.D. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. (21.
013 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.120 0. The S2 curve.035 0.016 0. Wood a.017 Max 0. Gunite. No vegetation b. Smooth wood form c.032 0.016 0. Dense weeds. Inc.025 0. Concrete a.025 0.050 0. respectively). Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Click here to view.013 0.016 0. .022 0.025 0.014 0. Smooth and uniform b. Unlined channels 1. Rock cuts a. Jagged and irregular 0.025 0. Gunite.012 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Rough wood form B.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Clean. Concrete (unfinished) a. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Lined channels 1. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.030 0.035 0.020 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.025 0. Cemented rubble b. untreated 3.016 0.011 0.060 0.014 0.025 0.46a and b.035 0.028 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.030 0.015 0.017 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.022 0.012 0. Planed. Rough C. Dredged earth a. Metal a. wavy section 4.040 0.46i and j.040 0.012 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Excavated earth.018 0.027 0.035 0.030 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Dry rubble 5.021 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. 21.015 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Dense brush.100 0.019 0.080 0.014 0.016 0. straight and uniform a.015 Avg 0.012 0. Corrugated 2.011 0.021 0.013 0. All rights reserved. Float finish b.140 0. high stage 2. With short grass.023 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. after weathering b.018 0. good section c.013 0. few weeds c.013 0. Smooth b. Asphalt a. Light brush on banks 3. Masonry a.033 0.080 0.024 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. 21.050 0.010 0.014 0.022 0.023 0. Steel form b.033 0. high as flow depth d.
The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Inc.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.. 21.D.21. and A profiles. critical-depth line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. H. All rights reserved.D. indicates normal-depth line. The curves in Fig. C. N. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. Click here to view. Examples in Fig. 21.46k and l.L.L.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21. .46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.
Click here to view. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. All rights reserved. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. gate.5. weir. with relatively small variation. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages.) 21. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.47. or reaches.. and step methods. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. For step-method computations. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. known as its celerity.and direct-integration methods are in V. For the section of channel in Fig. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Inc. Explanations of both the graphical.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. depending on the type of flow.77) if the depth were zero. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. New York. New York. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). Solutions available include the graphical-integration. dam. the channel is divided into short lengths.” McGraw-Hill. direction-integration. . French. For subcritical flow conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. T. 21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. (R. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.51). When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.27. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. 21. Chow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. (21. free overfall. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. each reach is solved in succession. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. Inc. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. The wave travels at a speed. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. See Art. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. H.
92) (21. prismatic channels.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach.93) where R = hydraulic radius. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. hi.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. Inc. 21.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2.91) for L gives (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. and – SL = hf. (21. respectively. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. and vice versa. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. ft. the longer the backwater curve profile. Solving Eq.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. the – eddy loss. not the channel bottom. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. rearranged as follows: Fig. the head loss. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. as given by Eq. due to friction in the same reach. 21. All rights reserved. (For uniform. is negligible and can be ignored.82). the change in elevation. ft.93). ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. The smaller the value of n. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Therefore. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. . (21.21.
and it is therefore often accounted for. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is obtained from Eq. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. All rights reserved. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. Eddy loss. ft. Z2. from 0 to 0.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. which.92). Finally. Inc. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L.51 may be some intermediate depth. (21.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. the average friction slope for the reach. or roughness. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Click here to view. The value of total head computed from Eq. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. ft.93). Therefore. computations progress toward the initial section. referred to a horizontal datum.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. after substitution of H from Eq. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. respectively. Since this step method is a converging process. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps.96). (21. S. (21. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.1 for converging reaches. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.94). ft. in natural channels.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. at sec– tions 1 and 2. becomes (21. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. . Then. Then. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. ft/s. total head H. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Next. sometimes called impact loss. and about 0. (21.95) The coefficient k is 0. (21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach.95). The total head at any section of the channel is (21.47. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. grade. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers.93).Water Resources Engineering s 21. For lined channels. Next. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. (21. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. 21. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.2 for diverging reaches. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. respectively. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. the friction loss. (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.
The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. 21. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis.21.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area)..1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. 21.27. However.23).52b. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways.48). depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. Bureau of Public Roads.S. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. H. French. The upstream surface of the jump. The effect of bridges. U. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. as shown in Figs. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and J. respectively. 21. a gate. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. and determine the discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. . and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. velocity. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. Fig. Utilizing the above data. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. is a turbulent mass of water. approach roadways. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.51 and 21. bridge piers. Federal Highway Administration. Department of Transportation. 2nd ed. New York. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. N.1 ft in elevation. 21. Inc. known as the roller. 21. Bradley. 1970. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. however. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.48 Hydraulic jump. or other obstruction. All rights reserved. known as the length of jump. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. If the two values of total head do not agree. Click here to view. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).” Hydraulics Design Series no. 1. 21. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir.
27.100).53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2.104) = discharge.49) is given by (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. or alternate depths. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. This difference (Fig. 21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.100) Equation (21. ft d2 = depth after jump. ft/s. where L is a characteristic length.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. 32. For rectangular channels. and g = acceleration due to gravity. in Eq. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. (21.99) where M = mass of water. ft.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. For open-channel flow.102) Equation (21. ft w = unit weight of water. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. (21.99).16)]. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.105) where A = area of flow. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. All rights reserved. ft/s2.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. s (21.82).98) and (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. Click here to view. 21. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. V is the mean velocity. d2 must also equal dc. . ft3/s = unit of time. Inc. (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. this resultant pressure force is (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.
5 to 9. If the tailwater is too low. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. the flow is critical and there is no jump. This jump may be called a steady jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The jump is called an undular jump. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. 21. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron.5 to 4. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.5. . A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. Click here to view. This jump may be called a weak jump. can travel for miles. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. For F1 = 9. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.21. For F1 = 4. the jump will be drowned out. All rights reserved.49.27. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. there are undulations on the surface. In either case. The jump action is rough but effective. For F1 = 1.0 and larger. For F1 = 1 to 1.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. and the performance is at its best.7 to 2.0. depending on local conditions.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. 21. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. which. For F1 = 2. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. depth after the jump.23). for example. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. The jump is well-balanced.5. 21.S. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. 21. This jump may be called a strong jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. which gives discharge vs. very commonly in canals. Inc. were classified by the U. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig.7. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. below a spillway. chute. For F1 = 1. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. If the tailwater is too high. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected.
50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. prepared by V. But it has been determined experimentally. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. These features are expensive to build.27.51. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. 21.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. T. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. . Bureau of Reclamation. Accessories. All rights reserved. therefore. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. 21. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.55 curve involve changing the crest length.S.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. changing the apron elevation.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21. The resulting curve (Fig. Click here to view.27. This length (Fig. 21. and sloping the apron. 21. (21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.105).Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Chow from data gathered by the U. The curve. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place.
7dc for simplicity. 21. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. for simplicity. All rights reserved.52b. (21. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. 21. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. . but it is normally assumed to be 0. the jump occurs in the steep region. 21.26. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.101) with d1 given. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. using the step methods of Art. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. the jump moves to a new location downstream. as shown in Fig. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. As depth d2 is lowered. (21. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. the jump moves downstream to a new position. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. Click here to view. Inc. as theory would indicate. CB.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig.101). The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. 21. less than. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.5% of critical depth. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.46e and c). Conversely. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. computed from Eq.75h in the absence of better information.52. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. that flow is uniform. 21. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. as shown in Fig. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. 21.23) to mild. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. curves AB and ED in Fig. which occurs near the channel drop-off. The actual depth at the brink is 71. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB.21. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. A horizontal intercept FG. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.52a. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. It is assumed. equal in length to L. between lines CB′and EO. if the downstream depth is lowered. equal to the computed length of the jump. respectively (Fig.51. computed from Eq. 21. If d2 is less than d′ .102). The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. the computed length of jump.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. ft.23). A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d).52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. Then. then the assumed discharge is correct.. or (b) below it. (21.) 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. 21. where He is the specific energy head. Brater. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.82) and (21. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. H. ignoring entrance loss. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. From Q = AV. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Click here to view.53a).106) where b is the channel width. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0.. F. Inc. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.” McGraw-Hill. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.51. on the channel entrance. ft3/s. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. French. Inc. and the slope of the channel. New York. ft. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.3 for one with squared ends. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. 21. a new discharge is assumed. 21. If the entrance loss must be considered. . All rights reserved. or (a) above it. 21. if not. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance.53). ft. (R.” 6th ed. and discharge is at a maximum. 21. ft. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.85)]. the entrance loss. is (21. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.
33). This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. 21. 21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).58 s Section Twenty-One Fig.53b. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. Click here to view.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.53b).53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. a new discharge is chosen. 21. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. ft. d is normal depth. All rights reserved.21. producing flow. ———— charge. then the discharge is correct. (b) mild-slope channel. 21. 32. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. 21. 21. 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. if not. (21.2 ft/s2. He is the specific energy head. where He – d is the actual head. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. ft3/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83). and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.22). the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.23). If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. and g is acceleration due to gravity. Inc. . ft. ft2. (In Fig.
83)]. or mV2 /rc for m. Thus. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. ft. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. ft. curve (Fig. Inc. (21. the true value of y would be only a few inches. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. 21. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. of the center line of the channel. All rights reserved. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.107) The theoretical difference y. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. The error will not be great. In this range. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. where V is its average velocity. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. 21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. 21. (21.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. If the bend continues long enough. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. ft. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. and rc the radius of curvature. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.23). Therefore. a unit mass of water. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. ft /s. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. when a stream enters a curve. however. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.108). A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. 21.59 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. recross as shown. The cross slope required for 21.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.21. 21. an increase in friction loss results. C. (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Scobey. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. 21. . which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. phase. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. with sufficient accuracy. depths along the inside wall. The second is a negative wave. (21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. a series of standing waves are produced.16)] . and should be used with discretion. and continue crossing and recrossing. flows around a bend in a channel. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. These waves cross at M.55). This angle may be determined from the equation (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. Inc. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. This angle may be found from (21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. All rights reserved. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. His values have not been evaluated completely. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Fig.” U. Click here to view.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.S. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.23). One is a positive wave.110) for θ in Eq. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Two waves form at the start of the curve. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. 21. by (21. (F. however. Department of Agriculture. Technical Bulletin 393. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.111).
a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. For outlet-type structures.54). if friction is ignored. 21.44. plus any transition and friction losses. To place a transition properly between two open channels. 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth.44. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. ∆V is the velocity change. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. 21. where K. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. and g = 32. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. 21. In this range. When proceeding downstream through a transition.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. .33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.113) angle of about 12.2 ft/s2. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. The transition loss. the average velocity decreases. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Inc. p. change from subcritical to supercritical. equals about 0.56. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. such as flow-rate changes. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.2 for welldesigned transitions. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve.8[∆(V2/2g)]. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. as shown in Fig. ft. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. Many variables. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. wall roughness. Click here to view. therefore.1 for an inlet-type structure. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and channel shape and slope. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. the loss factor. All rights reserved.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. ft/s.23). 21. Straight. If friction is ignored. low-head-loss transfer of flow. 21. 21.57). respectively. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. or change from supercritical to subcritical.
59. trapezoidal weirs. 21. 21. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. the weir is submerged or drowned. and. as shown in Fig. the weir has free discharge. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. All rights reserved. 21.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Fig.000556. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 21. Inc. from which a = 0. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. If the discharge is partly under water.000556(10)2 = 0.000556(20)2 = 0.58 Sharp-crested weir.222 ft. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. 21. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. Click here to view. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. triangular or Vnotch weirs. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. For Fig. trapezoidal weirs. 21. y = ax2.59 Weir not sharp-crested. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. triangular weirs.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.5 = a(30)2.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.34.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig.21. such as broad-crested weirs.58).57. such as rectangular weirs. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. In contrast. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. measured from A or B. and parabolic weirs.
a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.34. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.115) where Q = discharge. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Chow. 21. A V-notch weir (Fig.58) (V.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.116) corrects for the effects of friction. To be fully ventilated.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21.5H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. . At very low heads. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. 2. Inc. Hence. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. If P is less than Fig. contraction of the nappe. New York). A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. below the crest. All rights reserved. thus causing a contraction of the flow. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. One such equation.5H upstream from the weir. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. ft The head should be measured at least 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. T. 21.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. 21. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Equation (21. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. 21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length.60 V-notch weir.5H for a complete crest contraction to form.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.
62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.61) (E. measured from notch bottom. New York).118) Fig.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.119) where Q = discharge. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. vol.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. (21.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.2) when low discharges are to be measured. Inc. F. His values were summarized by Brater.5H upstream from the weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft H = head.118)] 21. 69. 21. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. The effective length L. Fig.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. T.34. . The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. Discharge is given by (21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. All rights reserved. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. there are two end contractions and N = 2. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig.” 6th ed.21. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. there is one end contraction and N = 1.34. 21. 21. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. (21.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. Click here to view. Lenz.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. 21. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. McGraw-Hill Book Company.34. ft. 21. 1943).4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.
Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21.34.) To use the Villemonte equation. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. velocity head of approach. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. ft/s V /2g = Hν.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig.122) where H = measured head. All rights reserved. using this rate and the required depths. (21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge Qs.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used.) Equation (21. . ft3/s. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. p. Eq. 21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. ft. (21. Where great accuracy is essential. 21.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. Thus. (J. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. which may be done as follows: First. 21. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. 866. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. heavily constructed devices.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. ft V = velocity of approach. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.59). R. 1947. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. or both. and finally total head.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n.34. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 25. Then. Inc. From this total head. and then. using this discharge. Click here to view. Dec. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. ft3/s. neglecting the velocity head. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. for such weirs. 21. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. Typically.121) where Q = discharge. velocity head. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.115) is rewritten in the form (21. Villemonte.” Engineering News-Record. 2 21. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. compute the velocity of approach. Fig.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. 32.
21. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. Department of the Interior.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. ft (U. head in relation to design heads. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. F. For each change of nappe shape. Click here to view. and approach velocity. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. For conditions of design head Table 21. DC 20402. Inc. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. where approach velocities are high.” Government Printing Office. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. The effect is most critical for low heads.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. starting with the corrected discharge.2 of the head. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. .02 0.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. the head in relation to the design head. All rights reserved. thickness of pier.S. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. Washington. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. But the process should be repeated. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. Therefore. For conditions of design head Hd.20 0.12.5Hd > r* > 0. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.13. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.10 H. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.123) where L = effective crest length. 21. and the approach velocity. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. ft L′ = net crest lengths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.34. “Design of Small Dams. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.
and therefore of an ogee crest. depends on the head producing the discharge. 21. For flow at heads lower than the design head. T. 21.65.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.34. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.122). The ogee-crested weir (Fig.67 Fig. Fig. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Design of Small Dams. Washington. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. called the design head Hd. Of the above rules. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.” Government Printing Office. According to Chow.66 of the head. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. New York). Figure 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. however.64) has such a shape.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. 1. . where discharge is given by Eq. 21.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Chow. Click here to view. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. Inc. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 2. for a sharp-crested weir. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.S. Consequently. DC 20402. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. (21. All rights reserved. Chow. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. Department of the Interior. 21.5H upstream. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. The shape of this nappe. This relationship is shown in Fig. This manual and V. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. T. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at the point of maximum contraction. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. (U.
(From “Design of Small Dams.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.21.) Fig.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Figure 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.66. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.” U. Bureau of Reclamation. .66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.” U. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. Inc. New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Bureau of Reclamation. the flow differs from ideal.S.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. All rights reserved.S. Click here to view.
Unless otherwise noted.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. New York. because of its sharp upstream edge.14. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.69 Broad-crested weir. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Inc. 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. Weirs of irregular section. has contraction of the nappe.) Fig. E. .34. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Bureau of Reclamation. Values of the discharge coefficient. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Figure 21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. for example.68. (See. All rights reserved. 21. 21.” 6th ed.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. the nappe springs free.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.” 6th ed.. 21. a plane horizontal crest.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. F. F. where the velocity of approach is not high. Brater. the coefficient of discharge.34. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.69 Fig.” U.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. Figure 21. are used as spillways and control structures.) 21. (E.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics.67 and 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. fairly common in waterworks projects. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. is determined from Fig. appear in Table 21. (21. compiled by King.S. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if flow is at other than the design head.. Click here to view.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. therefore. New York. and sharp right-angled edges. (From “Design of Small Dams. Brater.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
92 3.64 2.67 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.07 3.32 2.68 2.0 1.29 3.63 2.48 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.68 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.8 1. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.00 2.68 2.6 1.4 0.32 4.56 2.26 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 3.32 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Heavier silt sizes.64 2.31 3.58 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.66 2.66 2.68 2.63 2.00 2.20 3. valves.62 2.50 H. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.68 2. such as gates.67 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.32 3.32 3.38 2.44 2.64 2. .32 1.68 2. Inc. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water. and turbines.0 2.65 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 2.77 2.54 2.68 2.66 2.70 2.04 3.0 3.79 1.60 2.70 2.32 3. Click here to view.65 2.32 3. those forming the bed load.75 2.64 2.80 2.07 3.97 3.63 2.32 3.32 3.00 2.92 2.32 3.32 3.61 2.65 2.69 2.32 3.07 3.32 3.32 3. ft 0.67 2.66 2.31 3.32 3.60 2.72 2.72 2.32 2.19 3.88 10.60 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.34 2.28 3.5 2.32 3.08 3.32 3.63 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.64 2.32 3.64 2.76 2.81 2. which are often of equal consequence.64 2.20 3.31 3.64 2.89 3.30 3.50 2.64 2.00 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.75 2.68 2. or soil. erosion.89 2.32 3. ft 0.68 2.32 3.2 1.69 2.88 3.32 3.54 2.00 2.63 2.5 5.63 2.68 2.32 3.69 2.32 3.08 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.75 2.64 2.05 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.32 5.8 2.32 3.98 3.65 2.50 2.65 2. 21.32 3.65 2.67 2.65 2.32 3.30 3.63 2.32 3.64 2.88 2.32 3.63 2.6 0.21.70 2.07 3.64 2.49 2.28 3.67 2.76 2.03 3.4 1.64 2.75 2. such as a reservoir.0 4. A density current.32 3.50 2.86 2.5 3.74 2.32 1.69 2.85 3.72 2.85 2.63 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.64 2.32 3.60 2.66 2.73 2.32 3.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3. with its load of suspended silt.68 2.32 3.07 3.70 2.61 2.32 3. those carried in suspension.63 21.64 15. once formed. This incoming water.32 3.70 2.5 4.32 3.89 3. The smaller silt sizes.68 2.63 2.80 2.0 5.32 3.70 2.92 3. All rights reserved.32 3.14 3.20 3.00 2.00 2.75 2.32 3.35.74 2.64 2.79 2.2 0.64 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.
and often extend to the reservoir outlet. By this method. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. overtopping. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. However. however. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. once formed. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time.39. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. 21. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. Inc.35. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. are coarsegrained. These currents are stable. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. landslide. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see Art. the rate is not uniform during the year. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. because of variations in rainfall.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. Of course. or from year to year.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. on the other hand. formed from the bed load. Click here to view. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. When neither can be done. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. All rights reserved. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. The most common manner of destruction. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. . (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. or failure of materials.
Inc. 21. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. Therefore. Therefore. (21. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. discharge.124) where Gb = total bed load. But for the most part. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.21.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data.35. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. which varies with both slope and discharge. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. which generally occurs only during a storm. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. .1). however. Therefore. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. and boulders. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. ft qo = critical discharge. According to Witzig. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. Frequently. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. All rights reserved. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. Click here to view. A mean grain size of 0. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. ft3/s b = width of river.0 ft/mi. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. gravel.
such as an hour. discharges into streams. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. groundwater flow. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir.S. rivers. Current data. . for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. runoff. and their reaction with their environment. or digital microchip technology. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. planting of burned-over areas. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. All rights reserved. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. if the dam is raised at a later date. A. or year.S. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. (W. in the form of synoptic weather charts. It continually records. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. Einstein.” U. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. infiltration. New York. Inc. Weather Bureau is 24 h. which are of two types. check-dam construction. day. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. Graf. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. circulation. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. recharges groundwater. debris barriers. their chemical and physical properties.S. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. their occurrence. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. by ink pen and revolving drum. Click here to view. Use of vegetation screens. on or near the land surface. (21-124). Department of Agriculture. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. In this cycle. (See H.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. contour plowing.) culation. infiltrates into the soil.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. and stream flow 21. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. such as wind. H. For instance. are published daily by the U. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. including their relation to living things. lakes. and distribution. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. and the stream velocity. Such screens. Weather Bureau.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and pressure. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. The second type is a nonrecording gage. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. water evaporation from oceans.73 dation. evaporation. or a combination of the two. temperature.
mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. shallow pools and 11 for large. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. in of mercury. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy.” McGraw-Hill. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. plant. Not all rain reaches the ground. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. has a relatively large surface area. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. R. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. commonly termed consumptive use. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. The Meyer equation [Eq. called interception. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.126) where E = evaporation rate. in of mercury.. In evaporation. branches. see D. and other vegetation surfaces. Inc. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. equal to 15 for small. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Evaporation may occur from free-water. On an annual basis. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Evapotranspiration.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. This phenomenon. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. In transpiration. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. Inc. (21. tropical and subtropical regions. New York. and plantleaf surfaces.125)]. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. and it increases as wind velocity increases. All rights reserved. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. . “Handbook of Hydrology.125) (21. Evapotranspiration is important because. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. ground. especially if the reservoir is shallow. developed from Dalton’s law. on a long-term basis. Of the three. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water.21. A portion may evaporate as it falls. Maidment. Click here to view. or ground surfaces. while another portion may be caught on leaves. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content.
60 and 0. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Climatic characteristics a. insects.70. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. On large reservoirs. Hexadeconal. Classified by the path taken to a channel. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. subsurface runoff.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. wind tends to push the film to the shore. although it may vary between 0. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. 21. New York. perhaps several years. tropical. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. snow. (D. aquatic life. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. intensity. frost. After joining stream flow. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. except in arid.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.. birds. Inc. is in widespread use. hail. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. R. Moving laterally. depending on the geographical region. or groundwater runoff. Click here to view. to reach a channel. time distribution. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Maidment. Precipitation—form (rain. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. or cetyl alcohol. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. natural or manmade. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Subsurface flow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. runoff may be surface. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. also known as interflow. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. where it continues as channel or stream flow. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. dew). is that flow supplied by deep percolation. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Thus. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. and biologic attrition. All rights reserved. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. called a Class A Level Pan. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. “Handbook of Hydrology. and storm seepage. effective rain includes subsurface flow. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. or excess rain.80. duration. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Commonly. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. subsurface. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. or groundwater flow.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. In practice. Groundwater flow. It appears in surface channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. subsurface storm flow. . Inc. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm.
areal distribution. All rights reserved. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. stratification Fig. the U. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Wind—velocity. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. 21. Drainage-basin characteristics a.S. extremes during precipitation c. direction of storm movement b. special-interest items. and completeness of the hydrologic records. shape.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. extremes of flow. Inc. detail.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. orientation. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. 21.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries.S. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. soil moisture. and the accuracy desired. Temperature—variation. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. Weather Bureau. Geologic—soil type. general location. Topographic—size. elevation.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Click here to view. Geological Survey.70. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. groundwater formations. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. yearly flow volume. recurrence interval. drainage net. artificial drainage. . are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. Humidity e. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. permeability. Agricultural Research Service. slope. roughness. land use and cover. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Atmospheric pressure f.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Geological Survey. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. channels (size. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.S. duration d. mean flow.S. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Geological Survey. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. the detail required in the final answer. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. both published and unpublished.” U. lakes and other bodies of water. These papers contain records of daily flow. 21. 21. antecedent precipitation. International Boundary Commission. slope. TVA. frozen ground during storms. shape of cross section. length) b. as shown in Fig. and various state and local agencies. the quantity and type of data available.21. snow storage. Solar radiation 2. direction. and Weather Bureau.S. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.
Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. All rights reserved.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. the second to major hydraulic structures. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Chow. 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. T. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. As an example.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. 3. Inc. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. for example. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity.128) 21.127) where Q = peak discharge. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. 5. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. a 50. Click here to view. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.or 100-year-frequency storm. The values of C in Table 21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. 4. in/h A = drainage area. . Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. 1962). Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. and large downstream damage potential. others give the complete hydrograph. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. great importance. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.41. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement.
and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. years duration of storm.60 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 – 0.22 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.129) Table 21.85 0.80 – 0. 21. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.129). Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.40 0. is a convenient. or ditches. Click here to view.40 – 0. (21.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. (21.71 and Table 21. Sherman. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. avg.10 – 0. the flow time in streets. avg.90 0. After determining the time of concentration.30 0. (21. All rights reserved. 2% Sandy soil.35 0.10 – 0.95 0.89)] .15 – 0.20 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. 2–7% Heavy soil. Inc. streets.41. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.10 – 0.) The flow time in gutters. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ditches. “Handbook of Hydrology. min time of concentration Fig.05 – 0.70 0. New York. in/h respectively. and the flow time in conduits.95 0.25 0. 21.75 – 0.50 0. steep.95 0. coefficient. steep. Equation (21.70 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.128) or Eq.21. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.127). Inc. b.. 21. gutters. (See D. (21.18 – 0.75 0.70 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. detached Multiunits. 7% Heavy soil.80 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. 2% Heavy soil.95 0.13 – 0.50 – 0.60 – 0. or any equivalent method.70 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil. n.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.17 0.50 – 0. K. flat.85 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.75 – 0. Maidment.20 – 0.16). .15 0.20 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.25 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.” McGraw-Hill.10 0. R.70 – 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.40 0.25 – 0. flat. factor.60 0.30 – 0.
501-505.” Engineering News-Record.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. 4. that is. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.79 Table 21.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. usually 1 acre). The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. Thus. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. termed a unit period. 108. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. vol. subdivision may be required. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. 3. 2. (Leroy K. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. and more accurate than any such set of factors.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. The method is summarized by the formula (21. termed a unit storm. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. JanuaryJune 1932. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. Click here to view. . easier. pp. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. All rights reserved. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. the time of storm runoff. If the watershed is very large. Inc. This requires that a storm of short duration. Sherman. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin.
5. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds.73). All rights reserved. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. 21. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Illustrated in Fig. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.21.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. For ease of manipulation. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. Usually. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21. Click here to view. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. . because of storm variations. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance).72. Then. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. perpendicular to direction of flow. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. Also.81 21. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. (R. McGraw-Hill. Maidment. This loss. 21. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.) where Q = flow rate..42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. 21. Click here to view.. Inc. vol. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Inc. (See D. K. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This method was developed by Franklin F. 21.” McGraw-Hill. Linsley et al.. . pt. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.” 3rd ed. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. 19. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. New York. 447–454). during heavy storms. New York.131) period. “Hydrology for Engineers. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. “Handbook of Hydrology.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. I. Fig. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.) Fig.. R. pp. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Inc. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.74).
water softening costs. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase.21. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. Frequently. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Click here to view. usually a number of years. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. recycling. quantity. among others. safe yield. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. wastewaters.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). groundwater levels. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. and overdraft. All rights reserved. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Deteriorating water quality. poor-quality replenishment waters. rather than a change in volume. Regardless of how it is defined. (A base period is a period of time. Inc. alternative management plans should be formulated. or other causes.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. . Following the preceding preliminary work. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. and indirect water-quality use costs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. because of impermeable layers above and below it. cost of replenishment water. and quality of water supply. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. and methods of wastewater disposal. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. quantity. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. quality. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. need for excessive pumping lifts. These costs include increased soap costs. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. and location of artificial replenishment. is a confined or artesian aquifer. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. source. present and future water demands should be determined. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters.
Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. Linsley et al. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. flood. surface-water delivery facilities. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. culinary. Bear. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. decreasing percentage increase. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” R. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. Click here to view. Water-supply facilities consist of collection.” 3rd ed. geographical boundaries. “Groundwater Engineering. land speculation. percentage increase.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. or other unforeseen emergency. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. financially feasible. commercial.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. industrial. transmission. and public. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic.. wastewater disposed. legal. amount and location of groundwater extractions. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Therefore. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. and age of the city. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. K. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. bathing. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. The smaller the system. “Water Resources Planning. and natural and artificial replenishment. however. Hydrology for Engineers. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented.” N. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. no. .) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. (“Ground Water Management. is a very difficult task. Kashef. New York. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. 1987.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. graphical comparison with other cities. I. irrigation. fire. institutional. industrial. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. and sanitary purposes. storage. pumping. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. American Society of Civil Engineers. Grigg.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. water used. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. 21. sanitary. motels. fire-fighting. S. apartments.. J. 40. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. and hotels for drinking. and environmental factors. distribution. and treatment works. All rights reserved. such as industrial development. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. Inc. Estimation of future population. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. washing.” A.
presents Table 21. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. and quality of the water. air conditioning. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the demand for it decreases.17.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. .” 1979. and time of day. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. cost. Calif. and unauthorized uses. Public use of water for parks. and air conditioning purposes. but because of the high rate at which it is required. standard of living. The national demand-rate data. such as the climate. month.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. quality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and faucets. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. and pressure.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. if the cost of water increases. and year. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. type of service (metered or unmetered). Mo. State of California Office of Planning and Research. janitorial. as presented in Table 21. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. pressure. degree of industrialization. Public Health Service Report.S.21. mainly because of the lack of large industries. The “California Water Atlas. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. cost. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Demand rates vary with time of day. valves. Table 21. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. cooling. degree of industrialization. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. it may control the design of the facilities. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. are the average of a range of values. reservoir evaporation. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. and cleaning. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Click here to view. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Inc. influence the demand rate for water. meter malfunctions. public buildings. Normally. size of the city. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. All rights reserved. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. lawn sprinkling. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. especially if portions of the city are unsewered.
The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. In selection of a source of supply.000 70. to a large extent. climate. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 60. cost.4 2. valley cities.000 48. diversification is essential for reliability.000 8. the effect of warm.000 17.000 4. 21.000 6.000 85. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 40. and in some cases.3 Duration.000 1. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. is frequently undesirable.000 125. quality. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.5 14. and streams. Cost.000 10. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 12.18 Required Fire Flow.000 40.000 40.000 110. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.2 8. In some local areas.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 90. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. Total dependence on a single source.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 5. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.8 7.000 200.6 1.6 4. MG = million gallons. Click here to view.000 85. .000 90.3 0. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. † MGD = million gallons per day. and politics. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.0 7. gal/min P = population.000 80. Inc. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 28. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 120.0 1.000 5.000 80. legality.4 17. industrialization. The source must Table 21.000 10.500 2.000 40. inland. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 40.000 55. but the demand rate is high. however. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.2 2.000 3. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 40.8 6.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. however.000 2.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.4 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 3.9 4. Moreover.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. Hydrant Spacing.8 2. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.6 11. such as lakes. MG† 0.000 100. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. In the atlas. In the past.000 * American Insurance Association.000 1. All rights reserved.000 4.000 40. interdependent.132) where G = fire-demand rate. rivers.18.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
dependent on local conditions. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. temperature.” U.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.S. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. The measurements should include pH. In addition.5 mg / L 0. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.5 – 8.21. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. 21.S. calcium hardness. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. Click here to view. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Inc. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. All rights reserved. and calculation of the Langelier index. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. American Water Works Association.3 mg / L 0.” American Public Health Association.22.21.) Source Protection s The U. .22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.) At the discretion of the state. alkalinity. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. (See also Art. total dissolved solids.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. such as sulfates and chlorides.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See R.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. and size and shape of the settling basin. 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. depth ho . to be used in Eq.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.46. slow and rapid sand filtration. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. Mich.0 < R < 2000. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. and width B.. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. calculated with ν = νs. disinfection. unpleasant tastes and odors. 21. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. B. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. V the flowthrough velocity. velocity is constant. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. Inc. such as those mentioned above.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. mm If R > 2000. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. (21. (21. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. 21. and softening (see also Art. In the region where 1. Newton’s law applies: (21. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Ann Arbor.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. shape.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.0. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. . is equal to or less than 1.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Click here to view.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Figure 21. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig.51). Pojasek. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Figure 21. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.134). the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. (Usually. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. temperature and viscosity of the water.001 and 5. Reynolds numbers. particulate and colored matter. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. For this ideal basin. coagulation-sedimentation.
103.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. at 10 °C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1946. Inc. All rights reserved. 897. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. Click here to view. after Camp.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. (Observed curves.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. p. . vol.) Fig. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 21.
(American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. finely Fig. .93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . J.. 21.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig..” McGraw-Hill. Inc. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common.78b). “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Multistory tanks.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. for example. coagulants are added to the water.46. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. 27. 21. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. G. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. salt. New York. 21.8c. A. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. All rights reserved.5 ft/min (most common velocity. are removed in this basin.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fair.) 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Geyer. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. M. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. short circuiting. Okun. and D. Without coagulants. rectangular (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. C.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. 21. 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . 1. The tubular settler (Fig. Inc. or other indicator to pass through the basin.78a) or circular (Fig. and eddy currents.
All rights reserved. 21. (d) Tubular settler. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.21. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (b) Circular clarifier. Inc.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.
and easier dewatering. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. J. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. and suspended solids. or negatively charged. All rights reserved. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. or neutral in charge. such as paper fiber. turbidity. and nonionic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. Corbitt. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering.. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. Thereby.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. L. consequently. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. L. McGhee. plankton. 18H2O]. highmolecular-weight. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. The filtering process has many components. in some instances. and air jets. Also.. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. organic polyelectrolytes. color. “New Concepts in Water Purification. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. T.” 4th ed. however. A. and neutralization of electrostatic charges.” R. anionic. settling.to 60min range. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. such as mechanical stirrers. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. New York. such as physical straining. polymers have a minor effect on pH. “Water Quality and Treatment. American Water Works Association. such as pH. New York. or positively charged. considering both cost and performance. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Culp.) 21. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. chemical and biological reactions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Culp and R. however. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply.” McGraw-Hill. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Polymers are long-chain. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. temperature. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). coliform organisms. . Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. to get the small floc to agglomerate. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. Anionic polymers. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. ferric chloride (FeCl3). They are available in three types: cationic. and hardness. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Inc.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. (G. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. centrifugal pumps. Click here to view. “Water Supply and Sewerage. color.
the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. 21. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Usually. that will pass 10%. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.25. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. All rights reserved. through the sand and gravel layers.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. .96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. 21. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.79.or mixed-media filtration. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.35-mm range. Click here to view. Inc. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units.to 0. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. and dual. in millimeters.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. The wash- Fig. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The process requires rapid mixing. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.to 12-in layer of gravel. of the sand. by weight. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. depending on the turbidity. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.
Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. The filtering medium may be sand.25 to 1. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. Immediately after washing. filters pass water at a high rate. gal/min b = width of trough. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as rakes. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. or deep coarse-media filters. diatomaceous earth. however. or sand incrustation will be encountered. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. which produces an undertreated effluent. and air jets. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. may be more advantageous. mixed-media. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. or anthracite coal.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. water sprays. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Dual-media. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers.005:1 range. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity.20 to 1. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. creating a high head loss across the filter. . Inc. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.002:1 to 0.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. All rights reserved. bed cracking. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. which is drained to waste.35 to 0.
Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. “Water Supply and Sewerage. New York. . Inc.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Culp and R. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. Click here to view.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. “Water Treatment Plant Design. J. (American Water Works Association. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. “Water Quality and Treatment. Inc.. Regeneration requires between 0.3 and 0. C. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. Fair. (G. perforated.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. All rights reserved. “New Concepts in Water Purification. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness.139) 21. however.136) (21.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. gas. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. and (3) total hardness. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. lime (CaO). respectively. L. such as calcium and magnesium.” 4th ed. and R is the zeolite material. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity.) (21. and D. where 1 gpg = 17. Geyer. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level.21. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.1 mg/L.. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed.” John Wiley & Sons. Culp. “Water Quality and Treatment. sulfates. G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in clear wells. Some. M. A. and American Society of Civil Engineers. New York.” 4th ed. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. American Water Works Association.) 21.” and T. Okun. McGhee. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. In the lime-soda process. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. or open-joint pipes. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. L. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. These materials remove cations.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). J. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit.” 6th ed. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. New York.138) (21. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. carbonates. “Water Treatment Plant Design.
The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. iron. flood control. . All rights reserved.) 21. excessive fluorides.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and D. Inc. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.) 21. reverse osmosis.45). Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. New York. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. chlorine dioxide. despite its low solubility. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. Geyer. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. bromine.. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.1 or 0. 21. odor. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. taste. J.. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.” and T. ozone. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” McGraw-Hill.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. water supply. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. Inc. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. C. detergents. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. ultraviolet light. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. then. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Inc. J.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. activated carbon. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. anion exchange. M. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21.99 water supplies. A. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Filter both solutions.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. irrigation.) respect to carbonates. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Other disinfectants are iodine. cation exchange. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. 21. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lime softening..” John Wiley & Sons. McGhee. New York. Chlorine residuals of 0. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. (G. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. New York.” McGraw-Hill. and lime. and electrodialysis. Okun. manganese. Fair. Click here to view. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.
A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. When the demand rate is known. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Aeri- Fig. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.80. 21. minimum flows will be critical.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. maximum flows will govern.1). Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. areavolume curves (Fig. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Also. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. The mass diagram (Fig. . 21.52. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. 21. Once a reservoir site has been selected.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. Inc. 21. The plot of volume vs.21. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. and Los Angeles. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. If possible. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.101 Fig. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. When the demand drops off.2). particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. is called the thermocline. odor.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. All rights reserved. When the tem- 21. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. In deep reservoirs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.52. pumping plants. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. 21. San Francisco. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. Inc. Click here to view.35 and 21. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. which may be only a few feet thick. 21. give special attention to water quality. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. perature drops in the fall. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. the flow refills the reservoir. such as New York. During hours of maximum demand. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. but there is no circulation across this zone. Major sources of supply for some cities. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. are large distances from the city.
52. M.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 3. vol. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. 21. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. Brune.84). who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. 21.35. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. . The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.83). Brune. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. All rights reserved. A flowing artesian Fig. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. 21. For the correct hydraulic grade. June 1953). 21. For any given storage reservoir. 34.82) (G. no. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. M.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. 21. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Inc. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.103 Fig.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Inc.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Fig. All rights reserved.
1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well..” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Jacob. motor.” 6th ed.53. V. C. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. Hence.53.142) where Q = flow. or driven. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter).104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. J.21. Inc. 5. T. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. December 1938. McGhee. M. 21. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. A.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. ft (Fig. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. no. bored. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. Click here to view. E. (C. Inc.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.143) 21. J. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Fair.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. Theis.” John Wiley & Sons. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. vol. 21. 1940. ft d = diameter of well.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. gal/day. 21. 21. eductor or riser pipe. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 21. Okun. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. vol. waterjet. McGraw-Hill. Geyer. 72. pump (Art.53. 629. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and motor. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. hollow-core. Inc.. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug.83).84). to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. ft The steady flow. The pump. New York. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. p. (G. ditch. p. All rights reserved. C.57).” Economic Geology. . 21.53. 889. 33.. from an artesian well is given by (21. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. and D. screen. or hydraulic rotary methods. ft h = H minus drawdown.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York. “Water Supply and Sewerage.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
polyethylene. brass. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls.21.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. rubber. 21. Since steel is stronger than iron.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. however. and plastics.146) where D = pipe diameter.) At the anode. Copper. and meters destroyed by corrosion. lead. . Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. sealed flanges. (21. riveting. such as polyvinyl chloride. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. polybutylene. but wood is rarely used in new installations. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. In unlined pipes. steel. hydrants. impurities and strains in metals. zinc. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Inc. and ability to withstand external loads. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. pumps. Under favorable conditions. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. bronze. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. A machine that produces a monolithic. or Dresser-type couplings. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.54. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. concrete.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. ft 21. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. All rights reserved. stray electric currents. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Click here to view. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. If it is cement-lined. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. sand. valves. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. plastic. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. an anode and a cathode. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. contact between acids and metals. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. tanks. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. and other appurtenances. are present. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. bacteria in water. valves. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. and sulfur compounds.
such as soda ash. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). cracks. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. At the cathode. use of protective coatings. where e is an electron. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Aluminum.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. 21. for example. water may be treated with bases. Click here to view.86).109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Inc. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. When selecting materials. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. and the more ions. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and Fig. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Also. and treatment of the water. the faster electrons can move through the water. the corrosion process continues (Fig. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). All rights reserved. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. zinc.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. caustic soda. Strains. to prevent corrosion. . Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. 21.
21. Inc. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. z is negative. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Zinc. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. Water enters at the center. psia.) w = unit weight of liquid. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. and the head-discharge relationship. 21. or impeller. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. called a volute (Fig. The centrifugal pump. the most common waterworks pump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. To prevent cavitation. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. and so on on the walls of the pipes. “Water Quality and Treatment. efficiency. ft of water z = elevation difference. New York. in feet. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. hydroxides.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. magnesium. Inc. . 21.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. ft. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. lime. 21. between pump center line and water surface Fig. accomplishes that in two steps.87). it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. horsepower. psia.. oxides. (American Water Works Association.. 21. To have practical meaning. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. Corrosion.88). by (21.147) where pa = pressure. or eye. however.” 4th ed. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. graphite. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. All rights reserved. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. Click here to view. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. “Pump Handbook. New York.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Inc. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.57 and check valves in Art. and air lift. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.. (Also included in Fig. 21. below 200 gal/min. . All rights reserved. J. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. rotary. In a typical water-system analysis. 21. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.” 2nd ed.. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%.111 than the required NPSH. depending on the number of stages. Click here to view. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. 21.) 21.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. pump discharge.58. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. propeller. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. jet. reciprocating. helical. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. (I. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. 21. For that reason. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. as shown in Fig. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. See also Art.89.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. Karassik et al. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. Fig. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. circumstances may dictate one of the other types.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. head. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point.
Jet pumps have low efficiencies. vanes. 21. either hand.21. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. which is a function of specific speed. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. 21. All rights reserved. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. and for Ns above 7500. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. (21.90 fied). Inc. They have a fixed chamber in which gears.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. cams. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. At sea level. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Click here to view. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. which are located at the well bottom. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Because of the close tolerances. gal/min H = head.148) where n = impeller speed. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. r/min Q = discharge. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. utilize piston action to move water. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Reciprocating pumps. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller.or motordriven. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. so that the entire lift is suction. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Jet pumps (Fig. they can be used only for sediment-free water.
and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes.. (I. Corrosion. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Click here to view. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. or Neoprene. . or corporation cocks. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. curb. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties.” 2nd ed.. pumps. cone.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). availability. air-relief. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. solids deposition. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. or it may be at the bottom of the well. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. “Pump Handbook. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. large pressure differences. and easy. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Hand or motor power.) drives to permit manual operation.Water Resources Engineering s 21.113 tion. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. Simplicity of construction and quick. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. rubber. three valves must be used. globe. Also. one just upstream of the meter. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. sluice gate. tubercle formation. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. McGraw-Hill Book Company. fast operation. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. and butterfly valves. Low head loss. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Check. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. All rights reserved. But these valves cost more than gate. pressure-relief. If sand is carried out with the water. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates.or oil-lubricated. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. rotates the disk. New York. pressure-regulating. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. The major types of isolating valves are gate. which are water. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Usually. Inc. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. needle. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. respectively. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. J. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and low head loss when fully open. Plug. globe. Karassik et al. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. primarily because of their low cost. plug. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and butterfly. applied through a gear-reduction device. in-service lubrication features. one at the service connection.
Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Usually.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. and large pipes.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. check. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which connects the barrel to the main. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Interior-differential. rivers. When the valve is in a closed position. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. For example. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. . All rights reserved. Furthermore. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. tube. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. The most common check valve is the swing type. such as pressure regulators and altitude. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. The wetbarrel.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. or California type. Inc. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. and relief valves. Click here to view. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Often. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. 21. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Because of high head losses. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Many automatic control valves. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. such as trunk lines 21. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. a large pumper outlet must be furnished.21. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets.
Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. for metering domestic-service connections.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Brater. 21. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. and cost. nozzle. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. called a Price meter. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A clicking noise. durability. However. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. rotary. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft h1 = pressure in main section.91.” 6th ed. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. amount of head loss through the meter. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. 21. respectively. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. ft d2 = diameter of throat.150) where Q = flow rate. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. or nutating-disk types. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. .149) Hydraulics. F. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. or modifications thereof. All rights reserved. such as meters for individual customer connections. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are the most common velocity-type devices. The nutating disk is used. (21. vertical velocity components. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk.. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Click here to view. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. see E. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. The cup-type meter. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. New York. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.) As in venturi meters. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. The standard venturi meter (Fig. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig.115 of distribution systems. which do not affect propeller meters.5% within the normal test-flow limits. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Inc. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. simplicity and ease of repairs.
step rate. seasonal use. flat rate is falling into disuse. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. (c) Orifice- 21. fire use. fixed charges on capital investment. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. All rights reserved. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. 21. and block rate.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. or to some other recognized system. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. and development of the system.21. load factors. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and similar items. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses.91 plate meter. (b) Nozzle meter. peak rates of use. utility-type enterprises. Inc.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. if any.
When fixing a system of rates. tunnel. Cost component 1. buying water from a wholesale supplier. . Click here to view. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. and (3) cost. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. of serving an individual customer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. penstocks. where applicable. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. called the customer component. For most distribution systems. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. where the majority of small users are. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. generators and exciters. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. and transformers. called the demand component. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. Cost component 3. It is generally recognized that residential areas. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. turbines and governors. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. switching equipment. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. This charge is usually small. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. called the commodity component. pumping energy. depends on the peak usage of a customer.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. including metering and billing. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. S. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. draft tube. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. 21.117 With step rate. a building to house the machinery and equipment. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Inc.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. treatment chemicals. canals. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. tunnels. Cost component 2. and.746 kW 1 kW = 1.
ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. weekly. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. or yearly basis. base-load plants. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. power production being only incidental. Storage can be provided for a daily. such as navigation. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. On a weekly cycle. Therefore. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. It can be computed on a daily. If the minimum flow is very low. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. to be used at some future time. . and peak-load plants. weekly.92). 21. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. or seasonal cycle. Click here to view. On a seasonal cycle. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Then. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. All rights reserved. On a daily cycle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence.118 s Section Twenty-One (21.21. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Inc.
All rights reserved. arch. Click here to view. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. When needed. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Inc.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Figure 21. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. (Department of Water and Power. Hasen. J. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. buttress. earth. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Zipparo and H.. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.) 21. Its distribution is triangular. 21. (V. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. it usually is not as economical.92). .Water Resources Engineering s 21. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Force F2 represents silt pressure. 21. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Los Angeles. The main classifications are gravity.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. Calif.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and rock-fill. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir.119 Fig.” 4th ed. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight.
Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. 21. was developed by von Karman. ice pressures as high as 50. These accelerations occur in every direction. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. 21. May 1946.1 g. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. vol.93 by forces F4 and F5. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. .000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. presented by Edwin Rose. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake.000 psf. given by Eq. which forms on the reservoir surface. In the past.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. 434.153) where w = unit weight of water. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. (E. p.21. (21. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. 1933. All rights reserved.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. A close approximation of the force. In cold climates.) (21. Inc.425h above the base. 98.153). Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. which create forces on any object resting on it.” discussion by von Karman. however. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. today it is realized these values are much too high. Click here to view. ice. A method of calculating these forces. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. Rose.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
because of bearing contact. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. sand. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. In the past. however. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. They are not suited to most sites. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. . The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. First. such as sand and gravel. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. overturning by rotating about the toe. however. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. rock flour. If a large quantity of pervious material. Inc. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. uplift is not so important. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. Click here to view. When the base is not drained. and clay. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. All rights reserved. Recent belief. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. However. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. however. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. but its formwork is more expensive. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. or failure of the foundation material. and uplift forces are smaller. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. but the structural design is much more critical. engineers assumed that. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. If the deflections are not equal. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. is available and clayey materials must be imported. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. The modes of failure are also the same. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. their relative importance is much different. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In the multiple-arch. Hence. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. silt. On arch dams. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations.
Temporary facings are usually of wood. For some types of soil. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Zipparo and H. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. therefore. however. S. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. U. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. The downstream face is usually 1. S. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. The facing is usually concrete. New York. or wood over concrete. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.) 21. bearing on the rubble cushion. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.3 on 1. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. Leakage should be expected.21. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage.” U. For dams over 200 ft high. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. and an upstream impervious facing. Bureau of Relamation. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Inc. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. (V. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.. bonding into the dumped rock. although steel has been used occasionally.3 on 1. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. the natural angle of repose of rock. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate.” EM 1110-2-2300. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Hasen. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. J. 21. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Click here to view. onto the fill. All rights reserved. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. If pervious material is not available. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The cutoff wall is usually concrete.94). such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Today.” 4th ed. . Army Corps of Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. providing power. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel.
As the water flows through the tur- 21. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the power demand on the turbine changes. 21. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. the propeller-type (Fig. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. wicket gates. At heads below 100 ft.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. if the load drops below 50%. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as the Kaplan turbine. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Hasen. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. Inc. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. In such installations. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. 21. 21. Click here to view. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity.95a). it changes direction.95c).) Fig. J. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. This creates a force on the runner. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. their efficiency decreases rapidly. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.123 bine. Zipparo and H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. At heads above 1000 ft..95b) and the axial flow (Fig. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. and the fixed-blade type. wicket gates. runner. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. 21. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. however. However.94 turbine. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. In these. (V. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. The wicket gates. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. New York. and draft tube. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type.” 4th ed.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. however. runner. . The propeller turbine (Fig. and draft tube. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. located just outside the perimeter of the runner.
Inc. the dam will not be damaged by the water. widely used for concrete dams because.21. This type of spillway is Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (b) Kaplan.65. All rights reserved. Click here to view.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. .124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. (c) axial flow.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. if designed correctly. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section.
Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. DC 20402). A siphon spillway (Fig. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. lined.” Government Printing Office. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Thus. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. In a side-channel spillway. open channel. 21. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.34). overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. The air vent shown in Fig. All rights reserved. When the head is relatively low. 21. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. As the head increases.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. both depending on the head on the weir. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. “Design of Small Dams. Click here to view. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. This type of spillway. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. flared. 21. In a shaft spillway. model tests are usually employed. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. . The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. In a chute spillway.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or ogee in cross section. called an ogee spillway. 21. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.96 Siphon spillway. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur.S. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. Once this second condition is reached. Bureau of Reclamation. The weir can be sharp-crested. the siphon’s intake is sealed. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Washington.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.
causing damage and hampering operation. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Inc. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. 21. In a taintor gate (Fig. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. the pipes fail. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. Fig. 21.65.98 Bear-trap gate. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. level of a reservoir within close limits. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. 21. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.97). The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. 21. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. To do this. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. On large stop-log installations. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. and providing support for the conduit. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. Fig.65. Click here to view.21. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. . making removal difficult. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.5 ft/s.97 Taintor gate. controlling flow. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. 21. In contrast. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.
21. L. and H. Babbitt. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. as shown in Fig. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. J. and J. E. To raise a bear-trap gate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. J.) Fig.99 Drum gate. J. drum gates are not suited to small dams. The drum gate (Fig. New York. 21.. (V.” 4th ed. Hasen. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Cleasby. Inc.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.98.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Water Supply Engineering. Because of the large recess required in the dam. Doland. . Zipparo and H. 21.
Click here to view. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.blank page 21.
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