M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

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21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

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respectively. When the liquid is in a closed container.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. portions of the liquid vaporize. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. 21. ft Capillarity.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. . is concave upward. Meniscus. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. 21. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. at sea level. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. Gage pressure.000 ft is shown in Fig. although negligible in many water engineering problems. ft σ = surface tension. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. decreases with increasing temperature. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. pitting. 21. In equation form.1) where h = capillary rise. 21. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. is pressure above or below atmospheric.7 psia. Its temperature variation. are significant in others. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. formation of spray from water jets. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. however. Thus. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Surface tension and capillarity. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. like surface tension. psi. (21. Its value Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. and freezing damage to concrete. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.2. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. All rights reserved.7 psi. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. as shown in Fig.1.21. Absolute pressure.3. Inc.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. as shown in Fig. psia. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is small and insignificant in most problems. or liquid surface. Click here to view. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. 21. face and rises in a small tube.

as shown in Fig. the force due to pressure p1. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. and the force due to pressure p2. In hydraulics. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. the pressure acts equally in all directions. ft2/s. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. It is so named because its units. which extend into the pores of the metal. or completely turbulent flow exists. ft. and cross-sectional area A. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or implode.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Viscosity.00001059 ft2/s. psf. lb/ft3. . At any depth. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. on the top surface. transitional. to collapse. is a measure of its resistance to flow. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. 21. Inc. 21. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Click here to view. and pitting appears.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. or dynamic viscosity.8) to determine whether laminar. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. µ of a fluid. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. psf.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.2) where τ = shearing stress. Since the prism is at rest. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. absolute viscosity.4. ft2.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Then.5 Fig. (Pressures as high as 350. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. ft/s y = depth. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. also called the coefficient of viscosity. 21. of length and time. lb/ft2 21. All rights reserved. on the bottom surface.

tanks. (21. Inc. and other water control structures. where w is the specific weight of water. All rights reserved. dams. ft. lb.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.5) 21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.3b) then becomes (21. the depth of the centroid.3a) by A yields (21. 21. For horizontal surfaces.3a) Division of Eq. (21. ft2. Equation (21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. ft. then p2 is p.21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). Figure 21. the pressure. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. the depth below the water surface. however. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.4). 21.6) – ∫ydA = y A.4) Equation (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. (21. Click here to view. (21. The resultant pressure force P. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. Taking ∆h to be h.3. (21.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. at depth h. . and y sin θ = h . (21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4. Therefore. p1 is atmospheric pressure. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Thus.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. psf. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. lb/ft3.

29).9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. psf. represented by the length yp.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. where K is the radius of gyration. (21. Hence y .6 (see also Fig. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. (21. The denominator of Eq. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.) that is below the c.8) equals –A. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Pyp = ∫y dP. of the surface about its centroidal axis. – From Eq. (21. (21.). yp may be calculated directly from Eq. 6. if that locus is a straight line. The location of the center of pressure.8). Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . . (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.g. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.7 Fig. 21. Inc. Example 21. 21.7). Thus. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.7).g. ft.p. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. the total force P = whA. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. 21.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.2° to the horizontal (Fig. Click here to view.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. 21.p. All rights reserved.) but acts at a point (c. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. Otherwise.5). where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.

4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.0) = 5.42 ft.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.g. Therefore. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. Click here to view.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. P = 62. (See Example 21.21. 21. 21. From Eq.3.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. All rights reserved. yp = 5. Also. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. however. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.08. K2 = point G.1. Note: 1. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.) of common shapes.5 + 1/ (5.8.0 + 0.9).0 ft. .08/5 = 5.0 + 2.42 = 5. 21. 21.

5 × 5 = 780 lb. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. so the weight of the water is 19. PH = whA = 62. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. (See Example 21. All rights reserved.2. Click here to view.4 × 2. 21. Inc.7).9. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.9 Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.4 = 1220 lb = PV. 21. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. When water is below the curved surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. 21. Fig.6 ft3. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. (b) Free-body diagram.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. 2. – From Eq.4°. Example 21.9). The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. The corresponding angle is 57. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.6w = 19. . 21. (21. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. and for a constant-radius surface.6 × 62. Its angle with the horizontal is known.14 × 25/4 = 19. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.564.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

The stability of a ship. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. (21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance.10a). It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. (21.10b. 21.21. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. . p = wh. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.b.g. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Given in feet by Eq.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. is indicated by the metacenter. ft.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. 21. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. Inc. (21. Click here to view.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. 21. 21. All rights reserved. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.4). It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.. or the difference in head. For a body to be in equilibrium. whether floating or submerged. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. 21.). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manometers indicate h. ft3 ys = distance. the pressure head.10b). ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.

Basic types of manometers.12c).11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. 21.11): piezometer. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig.17 psi. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. although the latter is most common.11 manometer. . (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11a is 2. and differential manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21. Click here to view. The piezometer (Fig. U-tube manometer.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.4 lb/ft3. 21. 21. (a) Piezometers. What is hm? Fig. Inc. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. All rights reserved. 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. (b) U-tube manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. However. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). usually heads of 5 ft of water or less.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.

the usual indicating liquid is mercury. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. All rights reserved. . High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. 21. Inc.12c). can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. as opposed to a fixed scale. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. A movable scale. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.11b) is used. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. the Utube manometer (Fig.21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. Very low pressures.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. 21. Click here to view. In this application.

4 × 2. 21. such as ft of water or psi.5. psf w = specific weight of fluid. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. however.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. or sump. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62.75 + 13.4: A differential manometer (Fig.0 and 2. hm1 is 9 in. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.13 indicating liquid. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.4 × 2. 21.6 × 62. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. Click here to view. 21.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. Most of them. the total energy per unit weight at 2. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. and the right side.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. is magnified by the differential manometer. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. ft. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.25 ft.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. Inc. The differential manometer (Fig. One factor. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. the magnification will be 2.11) where Z1 = elevation. if the actual difference is 0. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. For example.6).0 ft. 32. when expressed in feet of water.4 × 0. as shown in Fig. psf. 21. hi is 2. ft. in the manometer. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. the actual pressure difference. Above 5. psf p2 = pressure at 2. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. such as might be required in laboratories. psf. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. however.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. . the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. All rights reserved.12a. Example 21.25 ft of water. The pressure at B.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.40. and z is 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. that is.

5.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.14. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. ft/s = Q/A. velocity. and pressure. As indicated in Fig. 21. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.4 ft3/s.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. Example 21. Usually.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. Click here to view.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. (See Example 21. where Q is the quantity of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. and pressure (Fig. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. 21. where W is the weight. 21.11).) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Average velocity. ft. All rights reserved. Kinetic energy at the section. or the total head ft: (21. a Fig. ft/s. It equals WVa2 / 2g. (21.21. varies with velocity.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. however. lb/ft3. through friction. The total energy. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Inc. across the area of the section A. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where Va is the velocity. velocity head. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. Fig.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid.14) pa/w is called pressure head.13. 21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. lb. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. . ft2. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.13). ft3/s. This term hf. V2/2g. above some arbitrary datum. 21. velocity. ft.

Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Inc. gate valve. Also.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. or magnitude of flow. In openchannel flow. Hence. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.55 = 48. respectively. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. 21. Thus substitution in Eq. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.4/ 3.7. 21.45 ft. which may result from a change in either velocity. 21. Click here to view. A change in momentum.14 = 10 ft/s. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. (21. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. sometimes called the total head line. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.15). it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. ft. while in pressure flow. is equal to the impulse. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The energy grade line. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. hf = 50 – 1.9). All rights reserved. Art. Z2 = 0. direction. since the pipe has free discharge. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. respectively. .15 Fig. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. p2 = 0. and any bends.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.

21. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. Click here to view. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.2= 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.16.94 × 100 × 4.96 cos 53.000 cos 53.12)] but may be used separately.78 Ry = 145.1 Rx = –82.2° – 0) = 4. Fig.700/82.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.500 lb.2° – 71. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.600 lb In the Y direction. since ∆Vx = –(7.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.94 × 100 × 65.94. since ∆Vy = –(–7.2° + Ry = 1. . All rights reserved. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.332π = 71. then in the Y direction.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. (21. and at 2. Example 21.15) first in the X direction. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.6.21.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.5°. Fx = 181.000 sin 53. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.600. lb. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.5) = 65.5 ft/s.200 + Rx = 1. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. Fy = –181.4/ 32. Let R be the force. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. Inc. so θ = 60.11) or (21. P2 = ppA2 = 13. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. With p1 known. apply Eq.1 and the density ρ = 62.200 lb. (See Example 21. To find F. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. (21. Then.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. 21.78. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.2° – 13. which is to be determined).96 sin 53.000 lb.

Click here to view. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations.7. In this way. Usually. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. All rights reserved. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. or availability of data to support the modeling effort.17 21. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. viscosity. such as storm rainfall. It is. See also Art. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. . complex three-dimensional flow patterns. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. to a given set of stimuli. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. operate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Popular before the advent of digital computers. droughts. alternative management schemes. In the preceding example. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. A fourth mode of modeling. such as a river.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. and through execution of the computer program. Inc. In most models. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. With hybrid models. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. 1. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. employs both physical and mathematical models. In water resources engineering. aquifer. or proposed works. however. For instance. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. gravity. the capability of the computing resources.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. momentum. and surface tension. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. erosional scour. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Physical models are expensive to build. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. 21. or prototype. hybrid modeling. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. or drainage basin. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype.7. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype.

ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. the length ratio is the only variable. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Then (21. The Froude number is (21. Ratios of the forces of gravity. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. 32. and one other force are made proportional. which is always a predominant force. The Reynolds number is (21. All rights reserved. (21.20) R is dimensionless. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. entrainment of air in flowing water.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. ft2/s. viscosity. respectively. the model is termed a true model. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Inc. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Similarly. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. Squaring both sides of Eq. The Weber number is (21. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio.21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Therefore.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.21a) (21. the formation of drops and air bubbles. .17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Froude number. Reynolds number. (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. Once the length ratio has been set.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.22) where ρ = density of fluid. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. such as depth or diameter). and Weber number. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. The inertial force. such as spillways and weirs. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. Click here to view.

Click here to view. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. and through execution of the computer program. the logical representation of prototypes.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. . ft ν = kinematic viscosity. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. These expressions. 21. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. called a movable-bed model. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. Rr = Lr.7.23a) (21. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. such as a morning-glory spillway.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. All rights reserved. in turn. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. In some cases. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. Inc. (21. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. and infiltration parameters. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. viscous.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. (21. For such models. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio.24). Sr = 1. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.26) where V = mean velocity. mathematical models are. inertial. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.25) In models of rivers and channels. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. The U.S. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. in particular. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. For instance. One type of model. Hence. catchment areas. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. This type of model is called a distorted model. such as flow networks.

and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. For closed conduits other than circular. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section.) 21. 21. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. sediment or pollutant transport. Maidment. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.” D. G.” McGraw-Hill. S. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. seepage. or both. flood or drought impacts. and among water resources modelers in the government. reservoir regulation. design of hydraulic structures. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. if comparisons of different plans are required. the model output required for design or evaluation. and turbulent flow results. ecosystem impacts and restoration. evaporation and irrigation. “Water Resources Planning.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 3. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. Grigg. New York. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code.” V. In object-oriented software.2). The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. shown in Fig. J. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. Hasen. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. and groundwater yield. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. R. and private sectors. Also. vol. Inc. A. Whan. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. as in annular passages. “Handbook of Hydrology. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. This.17. R. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Hoggan. landfill leachate analyses. As a result. impacts of dam breaks.21. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. when fully implemented. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. and R. H. hydrodynamics. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. . channel and river hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. F. however. hydrologic forecasting. (J. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. This approach. 1957. flow routing. of all databases and software. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. wave or tidal analyses.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. As this shearing stress increases. Walker. density. All rights reserved. Click here to view. watershed hydrology. Zipparo and H. 21. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. Art. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. quantity and quality of water supply. Rothfus.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. (D. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity.” N. academia. As a general rule. or pollution. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation.

Brater. 21.18. New York. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. In laminar flow. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. 32. flow is laminar in circular pipes. In this region. 21. Fig. As a result. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. (21. laminar flow is unstable.l9. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a disturbance will probably be magnified. Click here to view. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Eq. (21. ft ρ = density of fluid.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.19. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. All rights reserved. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.27) where V = fluid velocity. F. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. handbook of Hydraulics. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. (E. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. Inc.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. causing the flow to become turbulent.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq..18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. 21. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.” 6th ed. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. 32. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. ft L = length of pipe section considered. . the flow is completely turbulent. McGraw-Hill Book Company.21 Fig.17).2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. than for laminar flow (Fig. These disturbances create eddies. 21. it is not practical to treat it analytically. as shown in Fig. (21. ft/s D = pipe diameter. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. at completely turbulent flow. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.) 21.29) For laminar flow. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. the velocity distribution is more uniform.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Therefore. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. As the Reynolds number increases. 21. 21. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.

All rights reserved.0005 – 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. 21. 21. ft V = velocity of fluid. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. enamels. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.003 – 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.008 – 0.0002 – 0.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. 21. F.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21.03 – 0.19) L = length of pipe. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.0005 – 0. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.19) to Determine f ε.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. . (L. Click here to view.001 – 0. 21.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. November 1944.21. 32.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.) Because Eq.008 0.9. Moody. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.0002 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.0002 0. (21. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. ft D = diameter of pipe. 21.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. Inc.001 0.00003 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.0005 0.003 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.

32) where n = coefficient. Tables 21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. 21. which requires experience in its choice. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. dependent on surface roughness. (Although based on surface roughness. (21.34e) where V = velocity.31) gives (21.9. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.33c) (21.34d) (21. . ft/s C = coefficient.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. All rights reserved.33b) (21. Click here to view.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft S = head loss due to friction.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.34c) 21. See also Table 22. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.31) where V = velocity. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.3. ft L = length of pipe. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. ft/s C1 = coefficient. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s.11 (p.33e) 21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.) Substitution into Eq.9.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. where D is the pipe diameter. 21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.9. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.4 and 21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.33d) (21. (21.34b) (21. (21.

21. (21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.015 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.012 0.35b) (21.010 To 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.4 Values of n for Pipes. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.013 0.010 0.035 0.017 0.7: Figure 21. . Click here to view.013 0. because (21.012 0.7. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.013 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.012 0.017 0. and valves and other pipe fittings. (21. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.016 To 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.015 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.014 0. (21. All rights reserved. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.017 From 0.015 0.011 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.015 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. ft3/s hf = friction loss. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.) Flow between reservoirs.017 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.36) for a check.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.010 0.014 0. Example 21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.015 0. However. Inc.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.017 0. bends.35c) (21. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. enlargements.012 0.20 ple 21. 21. 21.013 0. in short pipelines.013 0.

120 24 in and over.10. (21.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.37) or (21. All rights reserved.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. good workmanship. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. 120 Large sizes. 10 years older Average value. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. ft.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. (21. the values of K in Fig.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.7.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.. H.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. (A. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. determined experimentally by Brightmore.” Constable & Co. 80 4 in. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. where V is the velocity in the pipe. are presented in Table 21. 135 In good condition. so a full velocity head is lost. Table 21.10. 110 4 in. Inc. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 21. 85 16 in.21 are approximate.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. good workmanship.38) A special application of Eq. regardless of age.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.25 Table 21. 115 12 in. minor losses must be considered. steel forms. 21.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. Ltd. 140 Large sizes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 105 30 in and over. . 21. (21.37): (21. 21. London. Click here to view.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer..Water Resources Engineering s 21. wood forms. Gibson. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.10.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. ft/s g = 32. 120 Centrifugally spun. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.21).37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is (21. 110 (21.

0 1.7 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.9 0. fully open Angle valve.10.81 0.63 0. For these reaTable 21.21 of the sides. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.89 1. Click here to view. fully open Gate valve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.4 0.80 K = 0.68 0.6 0.8 0.2 2.64 0.5 0.4 21.2 0.0 5.6 0.62 0. Globe valve.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.0 Table 21.76 0.8 are only approximate.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.5 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10. All rights reserved. 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. D = pipe diameter.3 0. and at bends is given by (21.05 K = 0. .0 2.66 0.42) Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as valves and elbows.25 The values in Table 21.71 0.1 0. Inc. fully open Swing check valve.2 0.50 K = 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.9 0.

ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. (V. (21. the bend loss essentially remains constant. there is disagreement.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.45) 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. this error is corrected by the C values. not including friction loss in the bend.” 4th ed.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. Hasen. J. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. Figure 21. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results.9 for low velocity of approach. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. 21. 82.. (H. Zipparo and H.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Ito. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. Click here to view. The data are in agreement that the head loss. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.42).42). and angle of bend. no.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. (21.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21.27 sons.) Fig. Equation (21.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits.22: (21. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.44) where Q = discharge. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. New York. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. For low heads. National Bureau of Standards. although they are usually round. Beij. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.23. not including friction loss. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. 21. 21. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. .. its effect should be taken into account. vol. 1960. H. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. 21. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. Orifices may have any shape. or rectangular.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. (K.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Inc. McGraw-Hill. series D. Reynolds number.” Journal of Research. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.11. Experiments on smooth pipes. vol. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. 1. square. July 1938. however. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. If this velocity is significant.

(21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.608 0. .04 0. V1 = 0.604 0. “Hydraulics.608 0.615 0.612 0.652 0.623 0.600 0.648 0.610 0.607 0.4 0.617 0.596 0.592 1.634 0. Inc.601 0.602 0.600 0.592 0.605 0.616 0.617 0.0 Head. and Z2 = 0.594 0.595 0.593 0.45) becomes (21.619 0.04 0.614 0.607 0.598 0.602 0.596 0. ft 0.632 0.593 0.599 0.637 0.600 0.660 0.602 0.604 0.609 0.592 0. ft 0.598 1.6 08 1 1.5 2 2. the vena contracta.602 0.605 0.1 0.607 0. Jr.612 0.623 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.46) The actual velocity..604 0.641 0.603 0.619 0.596 0. ft 0.597 0.643 0.602 0. of circular orifices.593 0.648 0. 21.94 to 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.618 0.601 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.599 0.637 0.603 0.598 0.655 0.603 0.606 0.629 0.590 0.628 0. determined experimentally.600 0.631 0.614 0.605 0.611 0.597 0. Click here to view.591 0.21.623 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.594 0.602 0.627 0.02 0.621 0. With the reference plane through point 2.99.636 0. Z1 = h.1 0.637 0.616 0.602 0.618 0.02 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.596 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.611 0.614 0.602 0.613 0.599 0.595 0.605 0. All rights reserved.601 0.” 1886. and Eq.630 0.622 0.613 0 610 0.0 0.599 0.595 0.628 0.610 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.596 0.608 0.626 0.603 0.601 0.618 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.632 0. to Fig. Typical values of Cν range from 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.596 0.644 0.606 0.

All rights reserved. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.) 21.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. between 1 and 2. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.61 to 0. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. ft. Eq.25 orifice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.. . Assuming V1 ≈ 0. 21. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see E. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. (21.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. the area of the orifice.11. F.29 Fig. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. Brater. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. the contraction is completely suppressed.11. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.47) where hL = losses in head.” 6th ed. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. 21.67. New York. 21. Figure 21. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.24b.48) is obtained. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. In Fig. With a partly suppressed orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Click here to view.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. (21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.25.

49) Solving for dt yields (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.57) (21.59). 21.58) Equation (21.23). All rights reserved. (21.26): (21. . (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. is that for a parabola: (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir. to time t.21. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.56) Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. s The Y coordinate is (21.50) where a = area of orifice.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. 32.51) upon integration becomes (21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. ft h2 = head at the end. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.50) becomes (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. Eq.57) for t and substituting in Eq. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.58) gives (21. Click here to view.58)]. (21.11. when y = h2.56). ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. For simplicity. Inc. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. when y = h1.55) 21. obtained by solving Eq. (21. (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. Rearranging Eq.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. 21. (21. 21.

82 VT)2/2g = 0. For a short tube flowing full.28).6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. (21. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. 21. 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.11. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.80. however.29. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. Equation (21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. All rights reserved. In the tube or pipe.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.27. . ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. 21. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. Therefore. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. When this happens.33VT / 2g.5 a T T Fig. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.82.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge.67 V2T /2g. 21.00 VT / 2g – 0. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 V2 ) = 0. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. if one exists). 21.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11.31 ty Cν = 0.75.27) but the head loss is larger. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. psf w = unit weight of water. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. Click here to view.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.42) of 0.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. a K value for Eq. ft2 Fig.67 V T / 2g = 0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. Inc.82. 21.

21. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21. this momentum drops to zero. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. For this analysis to be valid. . The change causes a pressure rise. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. 21.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Fig. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. the pressure in the pipe falls. 21. either above or below the normal pressure. but at a pressure much higher than normal. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. Every time the flow rate is changed. 21. All rights reserved. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. the water in the pipe is motionless. either increased or decreased. When a valve is closed.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them.21.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. it causes water hammer. The pipe shown in Fig. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. Fig. Inc.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.32). The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.30). But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. As the water flows away from the closed valve. As the water flows into the reservoir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.29. 21. However. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. the tube must flow full. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir.

Inc.13.63a) In terms of pressure head. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. All rights reserved.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. ft 21. Eq. 43. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. For instantaneous closure: (21.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. s A plot of pressure vs. 1. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline.63). (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Equation (21. (21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. 21. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.63a) becomes (21.64) 21.13. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. (21. approximate solution. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. Click here to view. .2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. Fig. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.

61). penstock thickness = 1 in.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.” 4th ed. length = 3000 ft. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. to apply Eq. . (21.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. All rights reserved. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. (V. Thus. where a equals any integer. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. the increment of time. New York. (21.63). The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. equals L /aU. Inc. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. 32. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement.63). With the head known. is g = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. Hasen.21. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. where ∆t.5 ft2. ft L = length of pipeline. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. Inc.32.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity.. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. area = 78. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. (21.2 × 108 psf. Click here to view.63). ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir.) Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. then that obtained from Eq. 21. from Eq.. Zipparo and H. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. Vo the original velocity.) Velocity of pressure wave. Once the time interval has been determined. (21. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. such as L/aU. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. diameter = 10 ft. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. each causing an individual pressure wave. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. (21. s T = actual closure time of valve. (21. J. McGraw-Hill. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.

Usually.33) must still be designed for water hammer. lb Hence.90 s. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension.13.75 s. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. 21. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. . The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.63). where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. on the pipe material is (21. is Pipe Stresses 21. in Assuming T = 4.64) gives the following result: 21. floats on the line.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.66) where p = internal pressure. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. (21. Various types of relief Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. to prevent water hammer. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. The water column.90 s. 21. All rights reserved. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. approximate equation (21. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. Click here to view. Inc. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. it is by no means the only one. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. from Eq.34). in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. Fig. 21.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the closure is instantaneous. psi.34 tension. the stress. When a valve is suddenly opened. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. and the pressure rise. in effect.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.

This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.67) for concrete pipe.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. Inc. All rights reserved. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses.6). psi. 21. this analysis is approximate.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.10).21. (21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. Gere. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. (21.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. however.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. New York. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. However. “Theory of . ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. For concrete pipes.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In this case.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. 6.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. However.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. (21. Eq. 21. Equation (21.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. M. (S. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. If D/t is less than 10.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. In Fig.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. 21. For steel pipes. due to a temperature change is (21. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. 21. elastic Stability. Eq. The stress.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. P Timoshenko and J. The internal diameter is used in Eq.67). if expansion joints are to be used. Art. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. . is (21. Click here to view.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. it acts like a beam. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling.” 2nd ed. The force diagram in Fig. In all bends. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. (21. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.

70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or other embankment.37 Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.70) and (21. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. and slope. 32. exit conditions.71) where R = resultant force on bend. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. 21.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.71) give a quick solution. canal. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. However.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. psf w = unit weight of water. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. a railroad. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. . lb/ft3 Q = discharge. Eqs. (21. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. All rights reserved. an exact theoretical analysis. Click here to view. the joints must also be able to take these forces. Inc. In small pipes. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. (21. 62.

21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.33d) or (21. the following equation is obtained: (21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. the normal depth (Art. All rights reserved. the culvert flows full. but they do not cover Fig. 21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. Click here to view. 21.” EB058W. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. For this reason. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. and the control will still be at the inlet.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Portland Cement Association. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Inc.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results.30)]. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.37).21. .38). and the discharge is independent of the slope.36). computer software. slope is greater than the critical slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. charts. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. and the Manning equation for friction loss. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.73) 21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. 21. (21.23). the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. that is. 21.

37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. open-channel flow takes place. Inc.74) Fig. When slope exceeds critical. The fluid flows under pressure. and dn < dc . ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Fig. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. for the open-channel condition (Fig.20) 21. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. 21. The discharge. and dn > dc . Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.23).72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.Water Resources Engineering s 21.74) yields (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft V = velocity in culvert. Click here to view. 21. Discharge depends on head H.75) Substituting this into Eq. When slope is less than critical.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Thus. 21. depending on the head. All rights reserved.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. normal pipe flow occurs.39). ft Equation (21. . 21. 21. flow depends on inlet condition. 32. and slope of culvert.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. Discharge is independent of slope. loss at entrance. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions.39 Fig. (21. When the slope is less than critical. (21.

and discharge is given by Eq.76). Click here to view. If this condition exists.72). ft To solve Eq.37). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. ft dn = normal depth of flow.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. . it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. (21.21.39). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.41). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. If the friction slope approaches critical. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. When the friction slope is flat. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. (21. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit.40). The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. All rights reserved. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.76). 21. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. (21.76). which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.18). (21. Inc. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. Most culverts. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. 21. 21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the head on a culvert is high. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. however. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. 21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. 21. 21.

(21.72) and (21. But H = 5 + 0. n = 0. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. All rights reserved.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. projecting Concrete pipe. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. 21. with Eq. Since the culvert is under pressure. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.18 and 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 0. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. the flow is under pressure. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. and the entrance will not control. When the entrance is not submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Application of Eq. Click here to view. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.15 0.72) yields Q =Va = 9.8 ft3/s Table 21. .95 × 4 = 39. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. and free exit.19). Inc. Eq. (21. 21. 21.10 0.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.44) for discharge through an orifice.9 0. groove or bell.40). the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. slope = 0. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. groove or bell. Table 21.01. (21. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. length = 300 ft. Substitution in Eq.73). square edge Concrete pipe. 21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. (21. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Find: size of culvert.41 For entrance control. (21.013. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. Fig.72) applies. First find dn. These values are for culverts flowing full.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.6. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Example 21.

79). ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. Hence. ft. is generally given by (21. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. 21. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. (21. depth of flow is constant throughout. Figure 21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. It has uniform flow if the grade. It is expressed in feet as (21. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. Inc. normally taken as 1.79) The velocity head HV.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. . ft3/s. or open-channel flow.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.21. In a uniform channel. ft. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. or slope.77) where V = average velocity. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. within a hydraulic jump. minus the free surface width. The wetted perimeter is the length. It is. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. or the total-head line. plus the velocity head at the point.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. Equation (21. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Click here to view. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. and is given by (21. however. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. All rights reserved.03 to 1. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. ft2 When the discharge is constant. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. 32. (21. Thus. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.36 for prismatic channels.

Chow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As the depth decreases downstream. as shown in Fig.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.84) reduces to Fig. 21. in which T is the top width of the channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. (See. T.43 Fig. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. 21. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. 21. ft.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. 21. New York.43. F.) (21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.. Inc. E. Click here to view. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21.84) where A = area of flow. and discharge are known. or to the diameter of a circular channel.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. slope. 21. normal depth decreases downstream.44. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. McGrawHill Book Company. roughness.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Eq. (21. All rights reserved. .42 is called the normal depth dn. New York. “Handbook of Hydraulics.43). For a rectangular channel. for example.” 6th ed.83) Brater. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. the specific energy also decreases. (V. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.

Brater. and flow is supercritical.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.43. McGraw-Hill Book Company. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. For rectangular channels. F. 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. or it may be found directly from tables (E. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.84) is called the critical depth dc.. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. (21. the depth is greater than critical.” 6th ed. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. Eq. 21.84) may be reduced to (21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. The flow there is called subcritical flow.44). New York). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44). In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. 21. for a given discharge. ft3/s d = depth of flow. (21. For a given value of specific energy. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. . Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.84). the depth is below critical. Inc. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.21. All rights reserved. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. or conversely. (21. Click here to view.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

87) Fig. Click here to view. 21.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. It can be seen from Fig. (21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.85). ft3/s b = width of channel. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. indicating an irreversible occurrence. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. (21. however. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. without turbulence. flow is subcritical.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. 21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. . but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. 21. Inc.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.45 where dc = critical depth. flow is supercritical. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth.52b. Critical depth. regardless of slope. All rights reserved. p. as indicated in Fig. [As indicated by Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a hydraulic jump will occur. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. Such a change occurs gradually. once calculated. 21. 21.44). along with a high loss of energy. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.45. For every depth greater than critical depth. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. 21.57). should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. The N. (Although based on surface roughness. Inc.L.23). It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.46.D. there must be a continuing maintenance program. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.L. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. New York. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Eq. . H for horizontal. and two types for channels of critical. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. therefore. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. 21.46a and b. (See also Art. and adverse slope. ft V = mean velocity of flow.and critical-depth lines. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. The M2 curve forms between the normal.9 and Table 21. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. 21.25). the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. at an arbitrary elevation. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. (21. and the N.L. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.D. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.L. Department of Agriculture. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. Chow. 21. and A for adverse. the average n values given in Table 21. 21. Click here to view. These curves are divided into five groups. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. horizontal. are in Table 21. E. and the critical-depth line C. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. All rights reserved. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.90) where A = area of flow.S. as shown in Fig.D. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.L.D.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). 21. are identical for a channel of critical slope. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.46c and d. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.) 21. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.21. Dr. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. C for critical. and C. S for steep (supercritical). T.89) may be written (21. is replaced by a horizontal line.11.D.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.4. 21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Rock cuts a. Concrete (unfinished) a.019 0. Dense brush.140 0.030 0.033 0.017 Max 0. .013 0. Steel form b. high stage 2.010 0. Smooth wood form c.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.023 0. 21.035 0.012 0. Float finish b. Light brush on banks 3. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. after weathering b.015 0.050 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.013 0.016 0. Cemented rubble b. Concrete a.028 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.025 0. Rough wood form B.025 0.022 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. commonly called a drawdown curve. good section c.035 0.46a and b.080 0. high as flow depth d. Gunite.012 0.012 0. With short grass.022 0.035 0.040 0.021 0. Smooth and uniform b.016 0.016 0.013 0. Masonry a.050 0.032 0. Clean. Asphalt a. respectively). Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. 21.025 0.014 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Excavated earth. Planed.030 0.023 0.013 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.018 0.46i and j. Jagged and irregular 0.060 0.016 0. Dredged earth a. The S2 curve.014 0.080 0.014 0.033 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Inc.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.027 0. Lined channels 1.014 0.024 0. Rough C.017 0. straight and uniform a.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.022 0. wavy section 4.025 0. Dense weeds.015 Avg 0. Dry rubble 5. Corrugated 2. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.035 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.011 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.012 0.021 0. few weeds c. 21. Click here to view. untreated 3.040 0.020 0.016 0. Smooth b.011 0.025 0.030 0. All rights reserved. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Metal a.018 0. No vegetation b. 21. Wood a. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Unlined channels 1.100 0.025 0.120 0.015 0. Gunite.013 0.

L. N.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. indicates normal-depth line. All rights reserved. critical-depth line. Examples in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Inc.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. 21.L. The curves in Fig. and A profiles.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.D. . C.46k and l. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. H. 21.21. Click here to view.

The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. French. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. depending on the type of flow. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. 32.5. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. gate. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. New York. and step methods. 21.) 21. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. the channel is divided into short lengths.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. or reaches. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. The wave travels at a speed.77) if the depth were zero. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. direction-integration. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. Inc.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. with relatively small variation. known as its celerity. dam. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. New York. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. See Art. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction.47. Inc.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. Explanations of both the graphical. weir. free overfall. 21. 21. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow.and direct-integration methods are in V. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.51).” McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. each reach is solved in succession. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. T. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. . Chow. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.27. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. (21. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. (R. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. For the section of channel in Fig. For subcritical flow conditions. H. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. For step-method computations.

and – SL = hf.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. Therefore. hi. (For uniform. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. ft. the change in elevation. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. (21. due to friction in the same reach. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. 21.93). This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. the longer the backwater curve profile. Inc. and vice versa. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2.92) (21. the head loss. prismatic channels. as given by Eq. All rights reserved. rearranged as follows: Fig. Solving Eq.91) for L gives (21. Click here to view. respectively. not the channel bottom.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. ft. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. the – eddy loss. (21. .82). These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve.21.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. (21.93) where R = hydraulic radius. is negligible and can be ignored. The smaller the value of n.

51 may be some intermediate depth. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L.94). (21. Then. Then. respectively.93).2 for diverging reaches. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. grade. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. ft. ft/s.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. is obtained from Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. sometimes called impact loss. (21. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. . All rights reserved. For lined channels. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve.93). Finally. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. becomes (21. from 0 to 0. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. total head H.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Next. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. Eddy loss. in natural channels. computations progress toward the initial section. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. 21. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Z2. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. the average friction slope for the reach. or roughness.92). Since this step method is a converging process. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. The value of total head computed from Eq.96). referred to a horizontal datum. and it is therefore often accounted for. Therefore. (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. respectively. (21. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. (21. (21. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. and about 0. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. ft.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. ft.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. (21. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical.1 for converging reaches. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.95).95) The coefficient k is 0. Click here to view. after substitution of H from Eq. which. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. the friction loss. Inc. (21. Next.47. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. S.

The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Bradley. respectively. The upstream surface of the jump. and determine the discharge. known as the length of jump. French. Utilizing the above data.1 ft in elevation. bridge piers. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.S. Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. velocity.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. a gate. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). 21. known as the roller. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Department of Transportation. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. and J. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. 21. Inc. 1970. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. 21. However. H. or other obstruction. approach roadways.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.21. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. . however. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. Bureau of Public Roads.” Hydraulics Design Series no. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. 2nd ed. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.23). Click here to view. U. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady..1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Federal Highway Administration. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. is a turbulent mass of water. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. 21.48).48 Hydraulic jump. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. 1. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways.27.52b. If the two values of total head do not agree. as shown in Figs.51 and 21. The effect of bridges. N. New York. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.

82). the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.100). or alternate depths. (21.104) = discharge.102) Equation (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For rectangular channels. (21. ft. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. V is the mean velocity.49) is given by (21. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. d2 must also equal dc.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.98) and (21. ft/s.100) Equation (21. 21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. where L is a characteristic length. ft d2 = depth after jump.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. ft w = unit weight of water. Inc.99).100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. This difference (Fig. 32. (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.16)].99) where M = mass of water. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.98) where d1 = depth before jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. s (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.27. For open-channel flow. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. this resultant pressure force is (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. Click here to view. ft3/s = unit of time. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. ft/s2. ft2 T = width of free surface. All rights reserved. . 21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. in Eq.105) where A = area of flow. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.

and energy dissipation may reach 85%. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. All rights reserved.0. for example.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.27. which gives discharge vs.49. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. below a spillway. The jump is well-balanced. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump.0 and larger. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. can travel for miles. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. In either case.7 to 2. 21. This jump may be called a weak jump. there are undulations on the surface. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve.5. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. 21. very commonly in canals. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. .S. For F1 = 1 to 1. For F1 = 9. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. Inc. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. Click here to view. For F1 = 1. and the performance is at its best. The jump action is rough but effective. For F1 = 1. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.5.5 to 9. the jump will be drowned out. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. Various forms of hydraulic jump. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. which. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 2.5 to 4. If the tailwater is too high. 21.23). or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. depth after the jump. were classified by the U. 21. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. If the tailwater is too low. depending on local conditions.21. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. For F1 = 4. The jump is called an undular jump. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. chute. This jump may be called a strong jump.7.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. the flow is critical and there is no jump. This jump may be called a steady jump. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.27. (21. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. 21. 21. This length (Fig. Accessories.51.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. The curve. and sloping the apron. therefore. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.S.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. 21. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. . The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.55 curve involve changing the crest length. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Bureau of Reclamation. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. changing the apron elevation. prepared by V. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These features are expensive to build. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.27. Chow from data gathered by the U. The resulting curve (Fig. But it has been determined experimentally.105). 21. Inc. T.

as theory would indicate. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. the jump moves downstream to a new position. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. between lines CB′and EO. It is assumed. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. that flow is uniform. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. as shown in Fig. 21.7dc for simplicity. curves AB and ED in Fig. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. 21. as shown in Fig. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. Inc. using the step methods of Art. which occurs near the channel drop-off.52. (21. the jump moves to a new location downstream.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. less than. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h.75h in the absence of better information. Click here to view.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. 21. As depth d2 is lowered. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.101).52b.26. A horizontal intercept FG. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. respectively (Fig.51.102).46e and c). The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. 21. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.5% of critical depth. if the downstream depth is lowered. The actual depth at the brink is 71. computed from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. Conversely. CB. 21. If d2 is less than d′ . The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. equal in length to L. but it is normally assumed to be 0. .46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. (21.101) with d1 given. computed from Eq. the computed length of jump. for simplicity. All rights reserved. equal to the computed length of the jump. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than.52a. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. the jump occurs in the steep region.23) to mild. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. 21. (21. 21.

(R.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.23). If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.3 for one with squared ends.85)]. ft. on the channel entrance. is (21. If the entrance loss must be considered. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. and discharge is at a maximum. . From Q = AV. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. 21. H.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. 21. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.” 6th ed. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d).) 21. then the assumed discharge is correct. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. French. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. 21.53a). 21. All rights reserved. (21. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. or (b) below it.. New York. Inc. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. ignoring entrance loss.. Then. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. Brater. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. a new discharge is assumed.106) where b is the channel width. if not.Water Resources Engineering s 21.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.82) and (21. 21. Inc. ft3/s. Click here to view. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. the entrance loss. ft. ft.51.” McGraw-Hill. F.53). then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. “Handbook of Hydraulics. and the slope of the channel. or (a) above it. where He is the specific energy head.

He is the specific energy head. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. (In Fig. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.33). This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. 21.83). d is normal depth. .23). (b) mild-slope channel.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. Click here to view. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.53b. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. (21. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. ———— charge. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21. where He – d is the actual head.22). then the discharge is correct. 32.2 ft/s2. 21. producing flow. 21. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.53b). ft2. a new discharge is chosen. if not.21. ft3/s. Inc. and g is acceleration due to gravity. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. 21. ft.

108). the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. and rc the radius of curvature. or mV2 /rc for m. 21. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. ft. 21. (21. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. . 21. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. (21.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. In this range. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. ft. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. Therefore.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The error will not be great. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. Thus. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. of the center line of the channel.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. curve (Fig. ft /s.83)].107) The theoretical difference y. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. when a stream enters a curve. where V is its average velocity. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon.23). The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. (21.59 21. the true value of y would be only a few inches. If the bend continues long enough. Click here to view. however. Inc. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. ft. 21. a unit mass of water.

Department of Agriculture.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.” U.110) for θ in Eq. flows around a bend in a channel. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. recross as shown. however. and continue crossing and recrossing. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. The cross slope required for 21. Click here to view. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.23). 21. The second is a negative wave.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. and should be used with discretion.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water.S. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E.111). Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. 21. (21. (F. One is a positive wave. a series of standing waves are produced.55). This angle may be found from (21. an increase in friction loss results.16)] . The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Fig. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. depths along the inside wall. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.21. of greater-than-average surface elevation.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. These waves cross at M. phase. Inc. by (21. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. . with sufficient accuracy.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. 21. His values have not been evaluated completely. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. C. Technical Bulletin 393. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. All rights reserved. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. (21. Scobey. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.

1 for an inlet-type structure. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. For outlet-type structures. Straight. respectively. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.44. Click here to view. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour.23). wall roughness. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. ft/s.8[∆(V2/2g)].57).33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. 21. If friction is ignored. 21. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. low-head-loss transfer of flow.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. To place a transition properly between two open channels. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. p. therefore. if friction is ignored. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. where K. 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). ft. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21. Many variables. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. The transition loss. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.2 for welldesigned transitions. change from subcritical to supercritical. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. 21. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. the loss factor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. In this range. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.54). as shown in Fig. Inc. and channel shape and slope. plus any transition and friction losses. ∆V is the velocity change.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. such as flow-rate changes.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. . The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. All rights reserved. 21. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. When proceeding downstream through a transition.113) angle of about 12. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. or change from supercritical to subcritical. equals about 0. the average velocity decreases. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. and g = 32.44.56. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.

Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. 21. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.59. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. For Fig. 21. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.000556(20)2 = 0. .000556. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. and parabolic weirs. trapezoidal weirs. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. such as broad-crested weirs. Fig.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. y = ax2. 21. All rights reserved.34.222 ft. In contrast. the weir is submerged or drowned. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. from which a = 0. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. trapezoidal weirs. 21.000556(10)2 = 0. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.5 = a(30)2. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. Inc. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. and. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.21. 21. 21. such as rectangular weirs.59 Weir not sharp-crested. measured from A or B. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Click here to view.58 Sharp-crested weir.57.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. as shown in Fig. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. 21.58). triangular weirs. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. Fig. the weir has free discharge. triangular or Vnotch weirs. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. If the discharge is partly under water.

Equation (21. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hence. All rights reserved. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. 21. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. thus causing a contraction of the flow. Click here to view.115) where Q = discharge. below the crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. contraction of the nappe. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.60 V-notch weir.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.5H. ft The head should be measured at least 2. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The height of weir P must be at least 2.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. If P is less than Fig. New York).2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21.116) corrects for the effects of friction. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. One such equation. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.58) (V. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. T. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. 2.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. To be fully ventilated. . a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. 21. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. 21. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow. Inc.5H upstream from the weir. At very low heads.34. A V-notch weir (Fig.

62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. there is one end contraction and N = 1. New York). The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. McGraw-Hill Book Company.61) (E. All rights reserved. 21.118)] 21. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. Inc.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. 1943)..5H upstream from the weir.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. vol. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. F. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. (21. ft. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. The effective length L. measured from notch bottom. Discharge is given by (21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. 21. T. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. 21. 21.119) where Q = discharge.21.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 69. His values were summarized by Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. Fig. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Lenz. (21. . of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.118) Fig. ft H = head.34. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. there are two end contractions and N = 2.2) when low discharges are to be measured.34.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.” 6th ed. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. 21.34. Click here to view.

34. Villemonte.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. p. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. ft. velocity head of approach. and finally total head. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.59). ft3/s. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. 21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. From this total head. velocity head. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. The discharge Qs. heavily constructed devices.) Equation (21. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. Thus. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. 21. which may be done as follows: First. 2 21. ft/s V /2g = Hν. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. 32. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.121) where Q = discharge. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. compute the velocity of approach.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.115) is rewritten in the form (21. Dec. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. or both. for such weirs. ft3/s. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. 21. ft V = velocity of approach. 25.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. Inc. and then. (J. 1947. Typically. using this rate and the required depths. Eq.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. All rights reserved. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. using this discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. R. neglecting the velocity head. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 866. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.34. Click here to view.” Engineering News-Record. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel.122) where H = measured head. (21. (21. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.) To use the Villemonte equation. Where great accuracy is essential. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Then. .5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.

21. and approach velocity. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Inc.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. DC 20402.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. (3) Broad-crested Table 21.” Government Printing Office. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.123) where L = effective crest length. All rights reserved.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. Department of the Interior. The effect is most critical for low heads. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. Click here to view.10 H. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. the head in relation to the design head. For each change of nappe shape. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.2 of the head. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. and the approach velocity. F. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.20 0. head in relation to design heads.12. thickness of pier. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. Therefore. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.02 0. For conditions of design head Hd. starting with the corrected discharge.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. where approach velocities are high. .S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13. Washington. 21. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. “Design of Small Dams. ft (U. But the process should be repeated. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.5Hd > r* > 0. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. ft L′ = net crest lengths. For conditions of design head Table 21. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.34.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.

T. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Fig. Figure 21. Consequently.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. New York). T. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. 21. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. Washington. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. Chow.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. .64) has such a shape. where discharge is given by Eq.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. Click here to view. (U. “Design of Small Dams. (21. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. This manual and V. 21. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.122). For flow at heads lower than the design head. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. for a sharp-crested weir. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. and therefore of an ogee crest. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. 21. 21.65. called the design head Hd. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht.S. Department of the Interior. 1. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. at the point of maximum contraction.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. According to Chow. however. Chow. DC 20402.” Government Printing Office. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Inc.34. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.5H upstream. The shape of this nappe.66 of the head. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. This relationship is shown in Fig. depends on the head producing the discharge. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Of the above rules.67 Fig.

S.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. the flow differs from ideal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.) Fig. Inc. Bureau of Reclamation. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. 21. New York. .67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.66. 21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S. Figure 21.21. Bureau of Reclamation.” U.” U. (From “Design of Small Dams.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.

has contraction of the nappe. compiled by King. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bureau of Reclamation. Brater. Unless otherwise noted. and sharp right-angled edges.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. is determined from Fig.. Weirs of irregular section.. Brater. appear in Table 21. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. (21. because of its sharp upstream edge. Figure 21. therefore. 21. Figure 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view.34. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.S. .68.” U. if flow is at other than the design head. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.14. Inc. 21.) 21. fairly common in waterworks projects. (See.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Values of the discharge coefficient.” 6th ed. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. the coefficient of discharge. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. F.34. the nappe springs free. New York. 21. New York. All rights reserved.69 Fig. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. are used as spillways and control structures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. “Handbook of Hydraulics.67 and 21. where the velocity of approach is not high.69 Broad-crested weir.) Fig. for example. F.” 6th ed. (E.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. E.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. a plane horizontal crest.

Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.0 2.64 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.58 2.0 5.32 3.65 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.79 1.92 2.63 2.32 4.32 3.66 2.38 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.70 2.63 2.92 3. This incoming water.0 3.20 3.75 2.08 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.79 2.64 2.00 2.70 2. or soil.64 2.50 2.75 2.21.2 1.62 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water. 21. and turbines.85 3.64 2.75 2.5 5.32 3.67 2.63 2.07 3.88 2.68 2.75 2.66 2.86 2.65 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.60 2. ft 0.32 3. . The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.64 2.32 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.35.32 3.64 2.20 3.32 3.64 15.63 2.32 3. All rights reserved.34 2.80 2.00 2.69 2.73 2. erosion.68 2.67 2.26 3.64 2.32 2.68 2.32 1.64 2.70 2.2 0.76 2.07 3.31 3.63 21.69 2.65 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.49 2.66 2.72 2.60 2.05 3.5 4.32 3.0 1.60 2.68 2. those carried in suspension.54 2.32 3.32 1. Inc.63 2.68 2.00 2.8 2.64 2. Click here to view.32 3.64 2.28 3.32 3.88 10.32 3.68 2.68 2.63 2.31 3.98 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.70 2.61 2.6 0.32 3.80 2.70 2.54 2.32 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.89 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.44 2.61 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3. with its load of suspended silt.88 3.32 3.74 2. which are often of equal consequence.72 2.67 2.63 2.64 2.5 3.32 3.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.63 2.64 2.30 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage. The smaller silt sizes.77 2.32 3.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.08 3.50 2.56 2.07 3.4 1.89 3.32 3.97 3.5 2.8 1.00 2.00 2.63 2.75 2.04 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30 3.32 3. valves.68 2.14 3.00 2.65 2.68 2.67 2.32 3.32 3.6 1.64 2.76 2.70 2. such as a reservoir.67 2.65 2.69 2.32 3.50 H.66 2.20 3.32 3.4 0.32 Breadth of crest of weir. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.68 2.32 3.32 2. such as gates.69 2.65 2.81 2.32 3.00 2.64 2.65 2.28 3.89 2.68 2.68 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.60 2.64 2.85 2.63 2.32 3.0 4. once formed.32 5.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.64 2.32 3. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.66 2.03 3.32 3.50 2.32 3.29 3. those forming the bed load.32 3.07 3. ft 0.31 3.92 3.19 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.07 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 3. A density current.64 2.48 2.32 3.72 2.74 2.

Click here to view. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. the rate is not uniform during the year. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin.39. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. or from year to year. are coarsegrained. landslide. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. because of variations in rainfall. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. see Art. once formed. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. overtopping. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. Inc.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. When neither can be done. Of course. However. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. formed from the bed load. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. . The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. By this method. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. The most common manner of destruction. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall.35. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. All rights reserved. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. 21. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. These currents are stable. 21. or failure of materials.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. however. on the other hand. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density.

The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream.21. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. Therefore. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. gravel. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. But for the most part. All rights reserved.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. and boulders. which varies with both slope and discharge. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. however. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. Frequently.35. . Therefore.124) where Gb = total bed load. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21.1). Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s b = width of river. According to Witzig. (21. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. ft qo = critical discharge. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Click here to view. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Inc. 21. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. Therefore. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. This size range includes particles of coarse sand.0 ft/mi. discharge. A mean grain size of 0. which generally occurs only during a storm. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.

S. Weather Bureau. and pressure. (See H.S. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. if the dam is raised at a later date. or year. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. and their reaction with their environment. check-dam construction. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. New York. (21-124). infiltrates into the soil. their chemical and physical properties. A.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. infiltration. are published daily by the U. including their relation to living things. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. circulation. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. or digital microchip technology. their occurrence. Department of Agriculture. Inc. In this cycle. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. day. or a combination of the two. The second type is a nonrecording gage. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. H. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. and stream flow 21. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. It continually records. water evaporation from oceans. contour plowing. such as an hour. temperature. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. debris barriers. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Such screens. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. runoff. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin.S. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. discharges into streams. and distribution. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Graf. For instance. Use of vegetation screens. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. on or near the land surface. planting of burned-over areas.) culation. (W. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. All rights reserved. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. by ink pen and revolving drum. recharges groundwater. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. lakes.” U. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Current data. and the stream velocity. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. and then flows into the oceans and lakes.73 dation.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. rivers. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. such as wind. Weather Bureau is 24 h.Water Resources Engineering s 21. evaporation. Click here to view. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. Einstein. which are of two types. . groundwater flow.

The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. “Handbook of Hydrology.. New York. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. in of mercury. developed from Dalton’s law. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. plant. and plantleaf surfaces. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. In transpiration. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. see D. while another portion may be caught on leaves. ground. tropical and subtropical regions. has a relatively large surface area. equal to 15 for small. R. commonly termed consumptive use. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. shallow pools and 11 for large. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Evapotranspiration. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content.125)].74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. Maidment. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. . The Meyer equation [Eq. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Inc. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. Evaporation may occur from free-water.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. branches. Of the three. Not all rain reaches the ground. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. called interception. on a long-term basis. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. or ground surfaces. This phenomenon. especially if the reservoir is shallow.126) where E = evaporation rate.125) (21. (21. (21. In evaporation. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. On an annual basis. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground.21. in of mercury. A portion may evaporate as it falls. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. Evapotranspiration is important because. and it increases as wind velocity increases. Click here to view. and other vegetation surfaces. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21.

insects. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path.” McGraw-Hill. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. or excess rain. depending on the geographical region. Precipitation—form (rain. called a Class A Level Pan. and storm seepage. hail. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff.. aquatic life. 21. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. or groundwater flow. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. also known as interflow. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Groundwater flow. Commonly. effective rain includes subsurface flow. although it may vary between 0. It appears in surface channels. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. time distribution. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Maidment. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. except in arid. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. intensity. New York. In practice. and biologic attrition. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. frost. snow. birds. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. dew). All rights reserved. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. subsurface storm flow. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. natural or manmade. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. (D. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Subsurface flow. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years.70. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. tropical. . runoff may be surface. Classified by the path taken to a channel. Climatic characteristics a. is in widespread use.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Moving laterally. “Handbook of Hydrology. Inc. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hexadeconal. or groundwater runoff. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Inc. subsurface.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. After joining stream flow. R.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or cetyl alcohol.80. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. to reach a channel. Click here to view. duration. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. where it continues as channel or stream flow. On large reservoirs. perhaps several years.60 and 0. subsurface runoff.

roughness. 21. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. Atmospheric pressure f. the detail required in the final answer. Inc. yearly flow volume. Wind—velocity. Geological Survey. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. antecedent precipitation. the U. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. 21.70. general location. areal distribution. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. channels (size. and various state and local agencies. Weather Bureau. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. shape. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. Geological Survey. Topographic—size. extremes during precipitation c. and completeness of the hydrologic records. 21. snow storage. Solar radiation 2. elevation. the quantity and type of data available. Geological Survey. These papers contain records of daily flow. mean flow. detail. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. shape of cross section. 21. slope. All rights reserved.S. length) b. land use and cover. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Geologic—soil type. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. drainage net.21.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. both published and unpublished. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. Humidity e. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. direction of storm movement b. .70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Agricultural Research Service.S. and the accuracy desired.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. as shown in Fig. special-interest items. TVA. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. orientation. slope. recurrence interval. frozen ground during storms. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. extremes of flow. groundwater formations.S. Click here to view. lakes and other bodies of water. soil moisture. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. duration d. direction. permeability. and Weather Bureau.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. stratification Fig.” U.S.S. Temperature—variation. artificial drainage. International Boundary Commission. Drainage-basin characteristics a.

3.128) 21. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. T. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. As an example.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in/h A = drainage area. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Inc. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. The values of C in Table 21. All rights reserved. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. a 50. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. great importance.127) where Q = peak discharge. 5. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. 4. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. deep culverts under vital highways and railways.or 100-year-frequency storm. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.41. 1962). . The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 2. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. Click here to view. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. the second to major hydraulic structures. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. others give the complete hydrograph.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Chow. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. for example. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. and large downstream damage potential.

60 0. “Handbook of Hydrology.75 0.10 – 0. and the flow time in conduits.20 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.85 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.30 – 0.13 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. gutters.70 0. R. Click here to view.90 0. is a convenient. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.35 0.17 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. factor. Inc. Equation (21.30 0. Maidment.95 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.” McGraw-Hill.15 0.85 0.20 0. in/h respectively.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.25 – 0.89)] . the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.21.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. 21.16). (21.) The flow time in gutters. (21.80 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. 2% Heavy soil. K.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.50 – 0. Inc.40 0. (See D.15 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.75 – 0.50 – 0. avg. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.60 – 0.70 – 0.25 – 0.128) or Eq.129) Table 21. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. (21.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. New York. (21. or ditches. avg. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. years duration of storm.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.18 – 0.80 – 0.40 0. b. After determining the time of concentration.95 0. Sherman. ditches.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. 2–7% Sandy soil. detached Multiunits. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.50 0.40 – 0.75 – 0. steep.. or any equivalent method.41.25 0.10 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. steep.70 0.20 – 0.22 0.60 – 0. min time of concentration Fig. 21. 7% Heavy soil. . All rights reserved.10 0.71 and Table 21.70 – 0. streets. 2% Sandy soil. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. coefficient.95 0.50 – 0. 21.70 – 0. flat.05 – 0. flat.129).10 – 0.127). the flow time in streets. n.95 0.

All rights reserved. 3.79 Table 21. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. This requires that a storm of short duration. termed a unit storm. termed a unit period. pp. 4. 2.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. . Inc. the time of storm runoff. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. vol. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. JanuaryJune 1932.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. and more accurate than any such set of factors. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff.” Engineering News-Record. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. 501-505. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. Thus. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. easier. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. 108. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. Sherman. The method is summarized by the formula (21. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. subdivision may be required. (Leroy K. usually 1 acre). The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. that is. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. If the watershed is very large. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. Click here to view.

which is of fixed intensity and duration. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Illustrated in Fig.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown.21. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. 21. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Inc. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. For ease of manipulation. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. 5. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Click here to view. Then. Usually. because of storm variations. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72.73). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. All rights reserved. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. .

Inc. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method.. Maidment. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. McGraw-Hill. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. R. Linsley et al. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig.131) period. New York. K.) Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. vol. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. This loss. This method was developed by Franklin F. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Inc. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.” McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Inc. “Hydrology for Engineers. during heavy storms. 21. All rights reserved. 447–454). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. (See D.) where Q = flow rate.81 21. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 3rd ed. Fig. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude.74).. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. . Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. pp. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. 19. pt. Click here to view. perpendicular to direction of flow. I. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. 21. (R. Also. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.

the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. rather than a change in volume. because of impermeable layers above and below it. Frequently. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. among others. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. is a confined or artesian aquifer.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. and indirect water-quality use costs. . All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. and overdraft. quality. and quality of water supply.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. Inc. Regardless of how it is defined. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. These costs include increased soap costs. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. cost of replenishment water. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. safe yield. (A base period is a period of time. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. and location of artificial replenishment. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. need for excessive pumping lifts.21. Deteriorating water quality. wastewaters. poor-quality replenishment waters. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. or other causes. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. source. quantity.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. All rights reserved. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. usually a number of years. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and methods of wastewater disposal. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. recycling. groundwater levels. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. water softening costs. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. alternative management plans should be formulated. present and future water demands should be determined. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. quantity. Following the preceding preliminary work.

Bear. however.” A. bathing. culinary. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” R. land speculation. and environmental factors. I. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. Inc.. legal. apartments. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. transmission. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. decreasing percentage increase. Click here to view. geographical boundaries. water used.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. industrial.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. surface-water delivery facilities. Kashef. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic.. The smaller the system. percentage increase. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. and age of the city. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. Hydrology for Engineers. 1987. financially feasible. McGraw-Hill Book Company. institutional. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. fire. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. American Society of Civil Engineers. Linsley et al. and hotels for drinking. such as industrial development. S. industrial. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. Grigg. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. pumping.” N. no. New York. (“Ground Water Management. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. graphical comparison with other cities. 21. distribution. storage. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. K. sanitary. wastewater disposed. “Groundwater Engineering. Estimation of future population. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. is a very difficult task. 40. irrigation. All rights reserved. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. commercial. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. and sanitary purposes. and natural and artificial replenishment. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. washing.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. “Water Resources Planning. and treatment works.” 3rd ed. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. flood. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and public. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Therefore. fire-fighting. . amount and location of groundwater extractions. motels. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. or other unforeseen emergency. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. J.

84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. State of California Office of Planning and Research. public buildings. pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. and time of day. size of the city. and pressure. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. and year. quality. Table 21. valves. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Calif. Public Health Service Report. cost. cost. Public use of water for parks. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. and air conditioning purposes. are the average of a range of values.S. lawn sprinkling. such as the climate. it may control the design of the facilities. but because of the high rate at which it is required. if the cost of water increases. Normally. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. month. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large.17. air conditioning.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. the demand for it decreases. Water Demand Rate s Many factors.” 1979. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Inc. The “California Water Atlas. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. degree of industrialization. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Demand rates vary with time of day. and unauthorized uses. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. presents Table 21. Mo. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. as presented in Table 21. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. influence the demand rate for water. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. All rights reserved. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. reservoir evaporation. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. mainly because of the lack of large industries. and cleaning. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. meter malfunctions. Click here to view. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. type of service (metered or unmetered). janitorial. standard of living. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. . Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. The national demand-rate data. and faucets. degree of industrialization. cooling. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and quality of the water.

000 90.000 40.5 14.000 40. Click here to view. Cost.000 40. All rights reserved.000 40. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 85.132) where G = fire-demand rate. industrialization.4 3.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 12. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 90.000 85. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and in some cases.000 55. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. is frequently undesirable. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.18 Required Fire Flow.000 8. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 28.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.4 2.2 8. inland. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. rivers.000 10.000 70.000 1. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.6 1. In selection of a source of supply. MG† 0. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. however.500 2. and streams.000 5.000 40. interdependent. cost.000 120. In some local areas. and politics.000 * American Insurance Association.3 Duration.000 80.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 200. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.6 11.000 48. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.18. The source must Table 21. In the past. MG = million gallons.9 4. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.000 17.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.6 4.000 40.000 40.000 4.4 17.3 0.8 7. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. gal/min P = population.8 6. Moreover.000 60.000 4. but the demand rate is high.2 2.3 5. however. climate. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. 21.000 1. .8 2.000 10. to a large extent. Total dependence on a single source.000 6. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.0 1.000 3. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.0 7. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. diversification is essential for reliability. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.000 100.000 2. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 80. quality. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. valley cities.0 3.000 110.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hydrant Spacing. Inc.000 125. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the effect of warm. legality. such as lakes. In the atlas.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. The measurements should include pH. . Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.) At the discretion of the state. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. and Water Pollution Control Federation. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Click here to view. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.” U.5 – 8. (See also Art.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.S. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.) Source Protection s The U. and calculation of the Langelier index. Inc. such as sulfates and chlorides. dependent on local conditions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3 mg / L 0. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.” American Public Health Association.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. temperature. alkalinity.5 mg / L 0. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.22. In addition. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. calcium hardness. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.S. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. All rights reserved. American Water Works Association. 21. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. total dissolved solids.

unpleasant tastes and odors.46. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Pojasek.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. Figure 21. temperature and viscosity of the water. Figure 21. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. Inc.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1.0 < R < 2000. slow and rapid sand filtration. 21. velocity is constant. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. to be used in Eq.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. however. In the region where 1. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. (21.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. shape. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . depth ho . g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Reynolds numbers. and softening (see also Art. calculated with ν = νs. Newton’s law applies: (21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. 21.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.001 and 5. and width B. and size and shape of the settling basin. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. V the flowthrough velocity. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.134). to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. Click here to view. particulate and colored matter. For this ideal basin. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. is equal to or less than 1. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. . Mich. (See R. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. mm If R > 2000. such as those mentioned above. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. coagulation-sedimentation.0. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. disinfection. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. All rights reserved.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. Ann Arbor.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. 21. (Usually. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.51). B. Inc. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. at 10 °C. 21. vol. 103. 897. after Camp. 21. 1946. All rights reserved. (Observed curves. .21. p.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.) Fig. Inc.

. or other indicator to pass through the basin. G. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. Click here to view. Multistory tanks. Inc. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. 1. 21.78a) or circular (Fig.8c. M. and eddy currents..0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. Without coagulants.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. finely Fig.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . 21. 21. Geyer. “Water Treatment Plant Design. rectangular (Fig. coagulants are added to the water..2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. for example. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. Inc.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Fair. The tubular settler (Fig. A. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. short circuiting. 27. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.46. Inc. Okun. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. C.” McGraw-Hill. are removed in this basin. All rights reserved. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. and D. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.) 21. J. 21. salt.78b). New York.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Click here to view. . 21. (d) Tubular settler. All rights reserved.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (b) Circular clarifier. Inc.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21.

Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. color. They are available in three types: cationic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. color. T. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. J. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. however. “Water Quality and Treatment. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced.” R. “Water Supply and Sewerage. such as mechanical stirrers. chemical and biological reactions. such as physical straining. ferric chloride (FeCl3). or positively charged. such as pH. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. and nonionic.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. however. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. centrifugal pumps. Thereby. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. and suspended solids. production of a smaller volume of sludge.. New York. anionic. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. temperature. or neutral in charge. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. consequently. such as paper fiber. considering both cost and performance. L. highmolecular-weight. (G. Inc. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. settling. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. coliform organisms. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. to get the small floc to agglomerate. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h.to 60min range. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. however. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. All rights reserved.. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. New York. and easier dewatering. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Culp and R. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. turbidity. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate).) 21. Also. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. The filtering process has many components. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. or negatively charged. L. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Inc. 18H2O].” McGraw-Hill. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. organic polyelectrolytes. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. McGhee. American Water Works Association. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). Corbitt. in some instances. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and air jets. and hardness. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Polymers are long-chain. Click here to view. Anionic polymers.” 4th ed. Culp. A.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . plankton. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters.

All rights reserved.25.79. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. The process requires rapid mixing. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0.to 12-in layer of gravel. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. that will pass 10%.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in millimeters. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. Inc. depending on the turbidity.to 0. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters.or mixed-media filtration. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. of the sand. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The wash- Fig. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. 21. Click here to view. and dual.35-mm range. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. . through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. by weight.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. through the sand and gravel layers. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. 21. Usually.

The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. All rights reserved. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. . The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. diatomaceous earth. water sprays.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. however. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. may be more advantageous. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs.20 to 1. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. bed cracking. filters pass water at a high rate. The filtering medium may be sand.Water Resources Engineering s 21.002:1 to 0. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. gal/min b = width of trough. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.35 to 0. and air jets. mixed-media. Click here to view.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. which is drained to waste. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Immediately after washing. or anthracite coal. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft.25 to 1. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. which produces an undertreated effluent. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity.005:1 range. creating a high head loss across the filter. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. such as rakes. Inc.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Dual-media. or deep coarse-media filters. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.

and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness.138) (21.139) 21. In the lime-soda process. “Water Quality and Treatment. McGhee. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. Culp and R. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. in clear wells. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.” 6th ed. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. Click here to view. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. lime (CaO). hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. M. sulfates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Culp.” and T. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Regeneration requires between 0.) (21. respectively.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. however. and American Society of Civil Engineers. (G.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Fair. G. Okun. All rights reserved.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. American Water Works Association. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. perforated. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.3 and 0. Geyer. and D. “Water Quality and Treatment..140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. L.” 4th ed. These materials remove cations.21. such as calcium and magnesium. New York.136) (21.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). J. “Water Supply and Sewerage.) 21. C. .” 4th ed.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. carbonates. New York. Some.” John Wiley & Sons. where 1 gpg = 17. gas. (American Water Works Association. and American Society of Civil Engineers.1 mg/L. Inc. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. J.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. New York. L. Inc. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. “New Concepts in Water Purification. or open-joint pipes. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. and R is the zeolite material.. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. “Water Treatment Plant Design.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. and (3) total hardness. A.

If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. J. New York.” McGraw-Hill.. . particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. “Water Supply and Sewerage. flood control. anion exchange. cation exchange. chlorine dioxide. Inc.45). or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Filter both solutions. despite its low solubility. Click here to view. Geyer. A. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples.) 21. detergents. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. 21. Inc. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. odor. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. McGhee.. (G.” McGraw-Hill. J. New York. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Okun. iron. New York. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color.99 water supplies. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. activated carbon. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” John Wiley & Sons. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ultraviolet light.) 21. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. Chlorine residuals of 0. M. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. 21. “Water Treatment Plant Design. lime softening. taste. ozone. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. C.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. irrigation. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. reverse osmosis. manganese. excessive fluorides. Other disinfectants are iodine. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. bromine. and lime. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water.. then. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. and D.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. Inc. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. Fair. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer.1 or 0. and electrodialysis. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. All rights reserved. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. water supply.) respect to carbonates.” and T.

The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. minimum flows will be critical.21.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. . The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. maximum flows will govern. 21. Aeri- Fig. When the demand rate is known. Inc.80 Mass diagram of stream flow.1). Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. as is the case for many water-supply projects. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. 21. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Also. 21. The plot of volume vs. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Once a reservoir site has been selected. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.52. The mass diagram (Fig. areavolume curves (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.80. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Click here to view. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. 21. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs.

Click here to view. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. odor. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. . All rights reserved. are large distances from the city. give special attention to water quality. 21. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. When the tem- 21. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler.52. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. In deep reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity.35 and 21.52.2). chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. such as New York. which may be only a few feet thick. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. and Los Angeles. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. but there is no circulation across this zone.101 Fig. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. perature drops in the fall. If possible. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. San Francisco. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. During hours of maximum demand. Major sources of supply for some cities. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. the flow refills the reservoir.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. Inc. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. pumping plants. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. When the demand drops off. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. is called the thermocline. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. M. For any given storage reservoir.52. 21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.35. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. no.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Inc.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84). it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21.82) (G. Click here to view.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.83). 21. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. vol. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. 34. M. 21. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. June 1953). It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. . All rights reserved. 21. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. Brune. Brune. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. A flowing artesian Fig. 3. For the correct hydraulic grade. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. 21.

83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. All rights reserved.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. Inc.103 Fig.

and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. Inc. bored. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. J. ft (Fig. p. Okun. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. E. 33. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. M. gal/day. 72. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. ft d = diameter of well. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. Geyer.” 6th ed. eductor or riser pipe. 5.” John Wiley & Sons. 21.21. (C.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head.53.. 889.53. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow.53. motor.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. from an artesian well is given by (21.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. C. hollow-core. New York. . A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. New York. (G.84).53. All rights reserved. Hence. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. T. Inc. McGraw-Hill.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft The steady flow. McGhee. ft h = H minus drawdown. no.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. or hydraulic rotary methods. vol. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.143) 21. and D. 21. The pump. December 1938. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. 21. Jacob. 21. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. pump (Art.” Economic Geology. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. waterjet. V. 629. screen. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.57). A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. Click here to view. or driven. and motor. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. J. A.142) where Q = flow. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. Theis. “Water Supply and Sewerage. ditch. C. 21. Inc. Fair..83)..) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. p. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. vol. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. 1940. 21.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

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21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).




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Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

polybutylene. such as polyvinyl chloride. impurities and strains in metals. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure.54. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. but wood is rarely used in new installations. bronze. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Under favorable conditions. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. sand. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. are present. Click here to view. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. All rights reserved. hydrants. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. plastic. polyethylene. however. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. (21. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. valves. ft 21. If it is cement-lined. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since steel is stronger than iron. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. or Dresser-type couplings. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. and other appurtenances. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. riveting. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. steel. zinc. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. and meters destroyed by corrosion. stray electric currents. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. bacteria in water.21. lead. . Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. Wood pipelines are still in existence. tanks. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. A machine that produces a monolithic. and ability to withstand external loads. Copper. sealed flanges. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. In unlined pipes. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. and plastics. valves. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage.146) where D = pipe diameter. and sulfur compounds. Inc. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. pumps. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. contact between acids and metals. brass. concrete. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. an anode and a cathode.) At the anode. rubber. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe.

Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Strains. Also. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. for example. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. where e is an electron. and Fig. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. zinc. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. All rights reserved. use of protective coatings. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas).Water Resources Engineering s 21. water may be treated with bases. Click here to view. to prevent corrosion. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. the corrosion process continues (Fig. such as soda ash. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cracks. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Aluminum. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. When selecting materials. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization).86). Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. 21. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. At the cathode. Inc. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. 21. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. the faster electrons can move through the water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . and the more ions. caustic soda. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. and treatment of the water.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. called a volute (Fig.. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer.” 4th ed. and so on on the walls of the pipes. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Water enters at the center. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. the most common waterworks pump. The centrifugal pump. Click here to view. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. .) w = unit weight of liquid. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. New York. Inc. oxides.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. however.. (American Water Works Association.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. and the head-discharge relationship. psia. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. To have practical meaning. 21. 21. efficiency. between pump center line and water surface Fig. horsepower. or eye. 21. ft of water z = elevation difference.147) where pa = pressure. hydroxides.88). The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. z is negative.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Inc. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. lime. or impeller. All rights reserved. by (21. 21. in feet. To prevent cavitation. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. graphite. McGraw-Hill. psia. Corrosion. accomplishes that in two steps.21. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.87). ft. “Water Quality and Treatment. magnesium. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Zinc. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

Click here to view. 21. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. below 200 gal/min. “Pump Handbook. propeller.89. rotary. 21. head. (I. Karassik et al. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. For that reason. In a typical water-system analysis. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. 21. reciprocating. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. however. J. 21. New York.” 2nd ed.58. 21. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. as shown in Fig. depending on the number of stages. (Also included in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. and air lift. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. 21.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.111 than the required NPSH. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. helical.) 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. See also Art. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.. Fig.57 and check valves in Art.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. jet. pump discharge.

Inc. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Click here to view. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. All rights reserved. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection.or motordriven. they can be used only for sediment-free water. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. . Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. utilize piston action to move water. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. 21. (21.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. 21. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Reciprocating pumps. Jet pumps (Fig. which are located at the well bottom. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. which is a function of specific speed. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. so that the entire lift is suction. either hand. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications.90 fied). r/min Q = discharge.21. At sea level. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. gal/min H = head. vanes. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. and for Ns above 7500.148) where n = impeller speed. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Because of the close tolerances. cams. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level.

which are water. Corrosion. globe. applied through a gear-reduction device. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. solids deposition. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Hand or motor power. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. If sand is carried out with the water. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells.” 2nd ed. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. globe. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. primarily because of their low cost. Karassik et al. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat.. curb. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. sluice gate. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage.Water Resources Engineering s 21. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. pumps. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. three valves must be used. Also. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Usually. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation.) drives to permit manual operation. and butterfly valves. . A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. respectively. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. or corporation cocks. Plug. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. (I. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. plug. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. But these valves cost more than gate. Inc. Check. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. cone. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Low head loss. one just upstream of the meter. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. fast operation. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and easy. and butterfly. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. needle. rubber. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. pressure-relief. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. The major types of isolating valves are gate. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. or it may be at the bottom of the well. These are generally classified according to the function they perform.113 tion. pressure-regulating. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Click here to view.. “Pump Handbook. air-relief. or Neoprene. J. New York. Simplicity of construction and quick. availability. one at the service connection. large pressure differences. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug.or oil-lubricated. and low head loss when fully open. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. tubercle formation. rotates the disk. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in-service lubrication features.

5 in for a three-way hydrant. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. For example. tube. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. The wetbarrel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Because of high head losses. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Interior-differential. or California type. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and relief valves. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Click here to view. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. and large pipes. Furthermore. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. which connects the barrel to the main. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. 21. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Often. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. check. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Many automatic control valves.21. Inc.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Usually. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. rivers. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. such as trunk lines 21. such as pressure regulators and altitude.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. When the valve is in a closed position. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. All rights reserved. . The most common check valve is the swing type. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening.

Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Click here to view.115 of distribution systems.5% within the normal test-flow limits. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. and cost. for metering domestic-service connections. The cup-type meter. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. Brater. 21. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. or modifications thereof.” 6th ed. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. The standard venturi meter (Fig. rotary. vertical velocity components. (21. New York. amount of head loss through the meter. see E. but they are used primarily in laboratories. simplicity and ease of repairs. ft d2 = diameter of throat. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. nozzle. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. respectively. which do not affect propeller meters.) As in venturi meters. F. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. are the most common velocity-type devices.91. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. such as meters for individual customer connections. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. called a Price meter. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. durability. However. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk.. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. or nutating-disk types. All rights reserved. A clicking noise. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21.150) where Q = flow rate.149) Hydraulics.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Inc. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. The nutating disk is used. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. McGraw-Hill Book Company. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. . The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow.

116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. or to some other recognized system. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and development of the system. 21. fire use. if any. utility-type enterprises. step rate. fixed charges on capital investment. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.91 plate meter. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. seasonal use. peak rates of use. Click here to view.21.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. flat rate is falling into disuse. . and similar items. load factors. and block rate. Inc. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. All rights reserved. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. (b) Nozzle meter. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. (c) Orifice- 21.

where the majority of small users are. and transformers. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. S. called the commodity component. Cost component 1. This charge is usually small. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. where applicable. Cost component 2.117 With step rate.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. draft tube. When fixing a system of rates. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Click here to view. and.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a building to house the machinery and equipment. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. Inc. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. depends on the peak usage of a customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. switching equipment.746 kW 1 kW = 1. called the customer component. It is generally recognized that residential areas. generators and exciters. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. including metering and billing.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. and (3) cost. Cost component 3. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. canals. tunnel. For most distribution systems. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. turbines and governors. pumping energy. buying water from a wholesale supplier. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. penstocks. All rights reserved. 21. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. . the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. tunnels. called the demand component. treatment chemicals. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. of serving an individual customer.

during periods of peak power demand (Fig. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. to be used at some future time. Storage can be provided for a daily. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. 21. run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. or seasonal cycle.92). the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. On a daily cycle. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. weekly. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. On a seasonal cycle. and peak-load plants. Inc. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. such as navigation. base-load plants. On a weekly cycle. or yearly basis. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. All rights reserved. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Then. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities.118 s Section Twenty-One (21.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. . Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Click here to view. Therefore. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. If the minimum flow is very low. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. power production being only incidental. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. It can be computed on a daily. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served.21. weekly.

arch.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Calif. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.119 Fig.. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Inc. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Los Angeles. When needed.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Hasen. J. (Department of Water and Power. 21. The main classifications are gravity. Zipparo and H. (V. buttress. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its distribution is triangular. it usually is not as economical. and rock-fill. Force F2 represents silt pressure. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve.” 4th ed. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. earth. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. . which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. New York. Click here to view. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand.) 21. Figure 21. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.92).

The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. . Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.) (21. 1933. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. 434. p. Click here to view. ice pressures as high as 50. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.000 psf. was developed by von Karman. presented by Edwin Rose. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. A close approximation of the force. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. (E. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake.21. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. which forms on the reservoir surface. 98. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Inc. A method of calculating these forces. (21. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In the past.153). May 1946.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. given by Eq.93 by forces F4 and F5.425h above the base. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. These accelerations occur in every direction. which create forces on any object resting on it. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity.153) where w = unit weight of water. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. 21. today it is realized these values are much too high. 21. Rose. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.1 g. In cold climates. ice.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.” discussion by von Karman.

Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. their relative importance is much different. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. because of bearing contact. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. and clay. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If a large quantity of pervious material. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. However. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. is available and clayey materials must be imported. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. They are not suited to most sites. however. silt. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. First. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. uplift is not so important. but the structural design is much more critical. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. however. rock flour. In the past. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. On arch dams. overturning by rotating about the toe. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. however. engineers assumed that. but its formwork is more expensive. When the base is not drained. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Inc. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. . Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The modes of failure are also the same. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. In the multiple-arch. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. Click here to view. such as sand and gravel. Hence. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. If the deflections are not equal. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. and uplift forces are smaller. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Recent belief. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. or failure of the foundation material. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. sand.

S. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. U. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated.94). Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment.) 21. onto the fill. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. or wood over concrete.3 on 1. If pervious material is not available. All rights reserved. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Army Corps of Engineers. The facing is usually concrete. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. bonding into the dumped rock. Inc. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Temporary facings are usually of wood. (V. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. therefore. The downstream face is usually 1. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons.” EM 1110-2-2300. S.” 4th ed. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. J. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. 21. Leakage should be expected. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Bureau of Relamation. however. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. the natural angle of repose of rock. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Hasen. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. bearing on the rubble cushion. although steel has been used occasionally. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. Click here to view. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Zipparo and H. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. New York..21. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. .3 on 1. For some types of soil. providing power. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Today.” U. For dams over 200 ft high. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. and an upstream impervious facing. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations.

The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.” 4th ed. When the power demand on the turbine changes. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. it changes direction. At heads above 1000 ft. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. . At heads below 100 ft.95c). New York.95a). and draft tube. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft.. Inc. This creates a force on the runner.123 bine. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. Click here to view. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. The propeller turbine (Fig. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. the propeller-type (Fig. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. The wicket gates. 21. All rights reserved. wicket gates. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. 21. and draft tube. (V. runner. In these. 21. wicket gates.94 turbine. such as the Kaplan turbine. In such installations. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. However. if the load drops below 50%.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. runner. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. their efficiency decreases rapidly. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. and the fixed-blade type. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. however. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. As the water flows through the tur- 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. Zipparo and H. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. J. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. Hasen. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads.) Fig.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.

Click here to view. All rights reserved. Inc.65.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. if designed correctly. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. 21. (c) axial flow. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. widely used for concrete dams because. This type of spillway is Fig. the dam will not be damaged by the water.21.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. (b) Kaplan.

a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. As the head increases. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. 21. A siphon spillway (Fig.S. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Thus. DC 20402). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . In a side-channel spillway. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. flared. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Inc. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice.96 Siphon spillway. Once this second condition is reached. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. 21. “Design of Small Dams. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. Washington. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. When the head is relatively low. Click here to view. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. The weir can be sharp-crested. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. The air vent shown in Fig. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. model tests are usually employed. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. open channel. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. called an ogee spillway.34). In a shaft spillway. the siphon’s intake is sealed.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. both depending on the head on the weir. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. In a chute spillway.” Government Printing Office. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or ogee in cross section.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. 21. This type of spillway. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. lined. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping.

allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. controlling flow. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack.65. In a taintor gate (Fig. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Fig. 21. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. 21. On large stop-log installations. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.65.97). the intake towers at Hoover Dam. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. . 21. the pipes fail. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.98 Bear-trap gate.21. In contrast. level of a reservoir within close limits. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. causing damage and hampering operation. Click here to view. making removal difficult. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Fig. and providing support for the conduit. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21. To do this. All rights reserved. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.5 ft/s. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. Inc. 21.97 Taintor gate. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.

) Fig. All rights reserved. New York. Cleasby. J. Hasen. L. Inc.99 Drum gate. Click here to view.98. J. “Water Supply Engineering.. (V.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The drum gate (Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. and H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. E. To raise a bear-trap gate. 21. Zipparo and H. J.” 4th ed. Babbitt. Doland.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. and J.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. as shown in Fig. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of the large recess required in the dam. drum gates are not suited to small dams. 21.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Click here to view.blank page 21.

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