M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
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The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10.
face and rises in a small tube. as shown in Fig. abrupt pressure increases force them
Fig. pitting.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. like surface tension. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Absolute pressure. ft Capillarity. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere.
. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. or liquid surface.7 psia. Gage pressure. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Thus. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. portions of the liquid vaporize. is small and insignificant in most problems. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. 21. and freezing damage to concrete. although negligible in many water engineering problems.2. Its value
Fig. at sea level. 21. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. (21. decreases with increasing temperature. 21. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. psia. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.1.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Its temperature variation. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. is concave upward. however. In equation form. Meniscus.21. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. is pressure above or below atmospheric.1) where h = capillary rise.000 ft is shown in Fig.4 s Section Twenty-One
at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. 21.7 psi. When the liquid is in a closed container. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Surface tension and capillarity. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. formation of spray from water jets. 21. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. ft σ = surface tension. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. respectively. psi. are significant in others. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. as shown in Fig. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces.3. Inc.
as shown in Fig. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields
V = velocity. and the force due to pressure p2. Then. the pressure acts equally in all directions. ft2/s. absolute viscosity. In hydraulics. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0.4. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. Viscosity. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. are a combination of the kinematic units
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid.2) where τ = shearing stress. 21. and cross-sectional area A.5
Fig. or completely turbulent flow exists. Click here to view.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. or implode.00001059 ft2/s. on the bottom surface. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. also called the coefficient of viscosity. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. of length and time.3
Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. or dynamic viscosity. psf. on the top surface. Since the prism is at rest. psf. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. ft. is a measure of its resistance to flow. lb/ft3. At any depth. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. the force due to pressure p1. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points.
. which extend into the pores of the metal. 21. (Pressures as high as 350. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21.8) to determine whether laminar. µ of a fluid. Inc. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. All rights reserved. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. ft/s y = depth.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. lb/ft2
21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is so named because its units.3 Fluid Pressures
Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. transitional. ft2.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. and pitting appears.
6 s Section Twenty-One
.3a) by A yields (21.6) can be simplified by setting
– – surface. the depth of the centroid.4). Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.3.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.4.7)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft.4
Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. psf. (21. (21. For horizontal surfaces. the pressure. Taking ∆h to be h. Click here to view.3a) Division of Eq. 21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.4) Equation (21. ft2. and y sin θ = h .21.6) – ∫ydA = y A. then p2 is p. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. the depth below the water surface.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. (21. Equation (21. ft. 21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. Inc. and other water control structures. dams. The resultant pressure force P. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. tanks. Therefore.5)
21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. Figure 21.1
Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces
This is important in the design of weirs. (21.3b) then becomes (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. p1 is atmospheric pressure. lb/ft3.
(21. lb. however. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. at depth h. Thus. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. where w is the specific weight of water. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).
5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. the total force P = whA. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. Inc. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. (21.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.8) equals –A. psf.g. Thus. Example 21.7).
where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.
Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. Click here to view. The denominator of Eq. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.2° to the horizontal (Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. (21. (21. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.g. Hence y .7). The location of the center of pressure.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.7
Fig.) but acts at a point (c. with
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.5). (21.p. 21.8). 6.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . of the surface about its centroidal axis.). 21.6 (see also Fig. represented by the length yp. Pyp = ∫y dP.) that is below the c. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. Otherwise. ft. – From Eq. 21. where K is the radius of gyration.29).
.p. if that locus is a straight line.
All rights reserved. Also. K2 = point G.08. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.7
Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.3.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.0 + 2.21.) of common shapes.0 + 0.42 ft. 21.08/5 = 5.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Note: 1.
. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.9).0 ft.g.1.2
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces
The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged
Fig. Inc. (21. From Eq. Therefore. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the
Thus.8. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. 21. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0) = 5. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.8 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.42 = 5. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. yp = 5.
21. P = 62.5 + 1/ (5. however. (See Example 21.6
Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.
. (See Example 21. so the weight of the water is 19.4 = 1220 lb = PV.7). the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. – From Eq. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.5 × 5 = 780 lb. The corresponding angle is 57.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. (b) Free-body diagram.4 × 2.564.14 × 25/4 = 19. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Example 21.9
Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. 21.9). such as for a taintor gate (Fig. 2. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. When water is below the curved surface. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.4°. PH = whA = 62. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.6 ft3.6 × 62.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.9. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals
The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. 21. Click here to view. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.
Fig. Its angle with the horizontal is known. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. (21. and for a constant-radius surface. Inc.2.6w = 19. 21.
21. Inc. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently
Fig. Manometers indicate h.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies
The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. p = wh.21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. 21.10 s Section Twenty-One
21.b. Click here to view. ft4
V = volume of displaced liquid. is indicated by the metacenter. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.5 Manometers
A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. All rights reserved. (21. (21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.10b.
21. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. 21. The stability of a ship. Given in feet by Eq. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. ft3 ys = distance. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.4). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.10
Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. the pressure head.10a).g. or the difference in head.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of
moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. ft.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. 21. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. (21. whether floating or submerged. For a body to be in equilibrium.
.10b). The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship..).
What is hm?
Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.17 psi. 21.11): piezometer.4 lb/ft3. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Basic types of manometers. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.11a is 2. All rights reserved. (a) Piezometers. The piezometer (Fig. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. However. (c) differential
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The liquid is water with w = 62.11
accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig.11 manometer. although the latter is most common. Click here to view. U-tube manometer. 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.12c). Example 21. 21. (b) U-tube manometer. Inc. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. 21. and differential manometer.
. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. 21. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.
21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the
Fig.12 s Section Twenty-One
For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. 21. the Utube manometer (Fig. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. In this application. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. Inc.12c).21. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Very low pressures.
. 21. A movable scale. including negative gage pressures. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. as opposed to a fixed scale. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid.11b) is used. All rights reserved.
21.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. ft. Equation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6).5. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. Example 21.
. such as ft of water or psi. psf.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. and z is 1. 21.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. For example.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. that is. is magnified by the differential manometer.4 × 0. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. if the actual difference is 0. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.4 × 2. the magnification will be 2. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf p2 = pressure at 2.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
For fluid energy.4: A differential manometer (Fig. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.0 and 2. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62.25 ft. Inc.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.25 ft of water. The differential manometer (Fig. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. psf. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence.11) where Z1 = elevation. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. One factor.75 + 13. and the right side. however. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. Most of them. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. ft. 21. the total energy per unit weight at 2. 32. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. hm1 is 9 in. Above 5. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. All rights reserved. or sump. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.12a. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.0 ft. such as might be required in laboratories. Click here to view. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. in the manometer. psf w = specific weight of fluid.40.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. the actual pressure difference.4 × 2. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. as shown in Fig. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.6 × 62.13
indicating liquid. hi is 2.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid
21. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. when expressed in feet of water. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. 21.
The pressure at B. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.
It equals WVa2 / 2g.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. through friction. ft. lb/ft3. 21. a
Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. (See Example 21. Kinetic energy at the section.14 s Section Twenty-One
(21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.
. As indicated in Fig. The total energy. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa.11). Inc. lb. however. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. ft2.5. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. above some arbitrary datum. velocity.
Fig. Example 21.14. where Va is the velocity. varies with velocity. V2/2g. This term hf. ft/s = Q/A. 21. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and pressure (Fig.13). The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.14) pa/w is called pressure head. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21.4 ft3/s.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. ft/s. 21. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. All rights reserved. where W is the weight. Usually. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Click here to view.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head.13. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. and pressure. 21. velocity. where Q is the quantity of flow. or the total head ft: (21. ft3/s. 21. Average velocity.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. (21. velocity head. ft. across the area of the section A.
. The energy grade line.
Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Also. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. 21. sometimes called the total head line.14 = 10 ft/s. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. hf = 50 – 1.55 = 48.15
Fig. (21. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. respectively.4/ 3.45 ft. A change in momentum. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. respectively. gate valve. and any bends. ft. Hence. 21.9). All rights reserved. direction.7. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Inc. or magnitude of flow. or impulse-momentum equation:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Art. while in pressure flow. since the pipe has free discharge. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.15).12) yields
where hf is the friction loss. Click here to view. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. p2 = 0. Z2 = 0.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. The slope
of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. In openchannel flow. which may result from a change in either velocity. Thus substitution in Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is equal to the impulse. 21. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.
The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.1 Rx = –82. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. 21.96 cos 53.96 sin 53.700/82.5°.21. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.200 + Rx = 1.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.15) first in the X direction.4/ 32.5) = 65. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.600 lb In the Y direction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.1 and the density ρ = 62. Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 lb.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.11) or (21. lb.2° – 13. since ∆Vy = –(–7. Fx = 181.78.000 cos 53.2° – 71. Click here to view. 21. Inc.
Fig.332π = 71.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.16 s Section Twenty-One
(21. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.16.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.500 lb.200 lb. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. All rights reserved. then in the Y direction. P2 = ppA2 = 13. (21. since ∆Vx = –(7. Then. Fy = –181. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.2° + Ry = 1. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.600.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78 Ry = 145.12)] but may be used separately. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.5 ft/s. and at 2.94 × 100 × 65.2= 1. (See Example 21. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.94 × 100 × 4. Let R be the force.2° – 0) = 4.
.000 sin 53. which is to be determined).15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. With p1 known.6. To find F. apply Eq. so θ = 60. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. (21.94. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.
simulations of prototype behavior are possible. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. In the preceding example. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. In water resources engineering. such as a river. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. gravity. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. or prototype. erosional scour. or drainage basin. or proposed works. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. With hybrid models.
. For instance. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. In most models. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. such as storm rainfall. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis
requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.
21. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results.7. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. to a given set of stimuli. It is.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this way. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype.7. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. 1. the capability of the computing resources.1
Similitude for Physical Models
A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. droughts. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. operate. Inc. however. momentum. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. All rights reserved. See also Art. A fourth mode of modeling. employs both physical and mathematical models. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. hybrid modeling. Popular before the advent of digital computers. Physical models are expensive to build.7 Water Resources Modeling
A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. Click here to view. viscosity.17
21. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. alternative management schemes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Usually. aquifer. and surface tension. and through execution of the computer program. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Therefore.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. All rights reserved. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. The Reynolds number is (21. 32. Once the length ratio has been set.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.18 s Section Twenty-One
the prototype does not introduce serious error. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. the length ratio is the only variable. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. The inertial force. Click here to view.21a)
(21. viscosity.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. The Froude number is (21. Similarly. Reynolds number. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.22) where ρ = density of fluid. ft2/s. Then (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.21. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. such as depth or diameter). the formation of drops and air bubbles. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic.
. (21. entrainment of air in flowing water. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. which is always a predominant force.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. Ratios of the forces of gravity. Inc. Froude number. the model is termed a true model. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. such as spillways and weirs.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. The Weber number is (21. Squaring both sides of Eq. and Weber number. (21. respectively. and one other force are made proportional. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.20) R is dimensionless. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.
the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. One type of model. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood.S. mathematical models are.19
Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. These expressions. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. Sr = 1. viscous. For instance.25) In models of rivers and channels.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. inertial. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Rr = Lr. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. in turn. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In some cases. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. All rights reserved.26) where V = mean velocity.7.
Types and Applications of Mathematical Models
Used in many applications of water resources engineering. and through execution of the computer program. such as flow networks.
. (21. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. the logical representation of prototypes. and infiltration parameters. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. catchment areas.23a)
(21. Inc. such as a morning-glory spillway.Water Resources Engineering s 21. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. Click here to view. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. Hence. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio.
21. The U.24). This type of model is called a distorted model. in particular. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. called a movable-bed model. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. For such models. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.
8 Laminar Flow
In laminar flow. or both. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. quantity and quality of water supply. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. of all databases and software. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. hydrologic forecasting. Also. as in annular passages. “Water Resources Planning. Rothfus.17. “Handbook of Hydrology. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Inc. watershed hydrology. This approach.” D. density. G. and is given by
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and R. R.)
The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. 1957. wave or tidal analyses. For closed conduits other than circular. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. and turbulent flow results. flood or drought impacts. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. F. reservoir regulation. and groundwater yield. shown in Fig. All rights reserved. hydrodynamics. or pollution. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. impacts of dam breaks. Walker. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. when fully implemented. channel and river hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. (D. S. vol. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. Maidment. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. and private sectors. however. and among water resources modelers in the government. (J. landfill leachate analyses. New York. if comparisons of different plans are required. seepage. and viscosity and the size of the conduit.” N. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. design of hydraulic structures. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. A. ecosystem impacts and restoration. flow routing. Grigg. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. 21.2). Zipparo and H. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Whan. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall.” V. Hasen. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. In object-oriented software. academia. Hoggan.
.20 s Section Twenty-One
into one entity. Click here to view. the model output required for design or evaluation. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread.)
21. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. sediment or pollutant transport. Art. 3. This.21. evaporation and irrigation. 21. H.” McGraw-Hill. R. As a general rule. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. As this shearing stress increases. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. As a result. J.
Brater. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. than for laminar flow (Fig.19. Click here to view. 21. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.
(E. F. 21. ft L = length of pipe section considered. at completely turbulent flow.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.)
21.9 Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. handbook of Hydraulics.” 6th ed.29) For laminar flow. causing the flow to become turbulent.
Fig..27) where V = fluid velocity. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. These disturbances create eddies. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.18. In this region.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21
Fig. New York. In laminar flow.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. 21. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. McGraw-Hill Book Company. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. 21. as shown in Fig. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. Eq. laminar flow is unstable. ft/s D = pipe diameter. 21.
.l9. ft ρ = density of fluid.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. 21. Therefore. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. (21.
(21. 32. a disturbance will probably be magnified. it is not practical to treat it analytically. the flow is completely turbulent.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. the velocity distribution is more uniform. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. flow is laminar in circular pipes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. All rights reserved. As the Reynolds number increases. (21.17). As a result. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 32.
ft f = friction factor (see Fig.19) L = length of pipe.0002 0. 21.0002 – 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. ft V = velocity of fluid. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.9.19) to Determine f
ε.0005 – 0. (21. 32. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.003 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.001 0. Moody. All rights reserved.03 – 0.008 – 0.21.19
Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.0005 – 0. (L. 21.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. The head loss is independent of the pressure.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. (21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. Inc.001 – 0.) Because Eq.00085
One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. 21.0005 0.
The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.22 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. F.003 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.008 0. ft D = diameter of pipe.00003 0.1
Table 21. November 1944. Click here to view.0002 0. enamels. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. 21.
21. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
where D is the pipe diameter. which requires experience in its choice. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:
(21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. (Although based on surface roughness. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.11 (p.3
Through experimentation. See also Table 22. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.34d)
(21. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. Click here to view. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.3.31) where V = velocity.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.4 and 21.31) gives (21.2
where Q = flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. ft L = length of pipe. ft/s C = coefficient.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dependent on surface roughness.
21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. Inc. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.34b) (21.
This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.33c)
(21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.9.4
This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.33b)
21.32) where n = coefficient.
Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.9.9. All rights reserved. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. 21. (21.) Substitution into Eq. ft S = head loss due to friction. ft/s C1 = coefficient.34e) where V = velocity. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. Tables 21. (21.33d)
(21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.
(21.017 0.7: Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.
21.014 0. (See Exam-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7.016 To 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.010 To 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.015 0.013 0.015 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.010 0.010 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.017 0. (21.012 0. Example 21.017 Use in designing
Q = discharge.4 Values of n for Pipes.35b)
(21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. in short pipelines.013 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. However. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0.013 0.013 0.015 0. Inc.012 0.017 0.35a)
With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.015 0.015 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.012 0. enlargements.24 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21. bends.035 0.017 0.) Flow between reservoirs. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. because
(21. 21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. (21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes
Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. Click here to view. ft3/s hf = friction loss.014 0.012 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.011 0. All rights reserved.017 From 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.20 ple 21.36) for a check.
37): (21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. minor losses must be considered. 140 Large sizes.21). 120 Centrifugally spun. 21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.10.2 ft/s
It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. (21.7. good workmanship.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 120 24 in and over. London.10. steel forms. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. (A. Inc.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. (21.
these losses may exceed the friction losses.21 are approximate. the values of K in Fig..39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.3 Sudden Contraction
The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.
. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.38) A special application of Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21.1 Sudden Enlargements
The following equation for the head loss. Ltd. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 115 12 in. so a full velocity head is lost. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 21. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. ft/s g = 32. wood forms. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).37):
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.)
40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined
21. 135 In good condition. determined experimentally by Brightmore.” Constable & Co. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 110
(21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. (21. regardless of age. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula
Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. are presented in Table 21. 105 30 in and over. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. is (21. H.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.25
Table 21. 10 years older Average value. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. 80 4 in. 85 16 in.37) or (21. 110 4 in. 120 Large sizes. Gibson.2 Gradual Enlargements
The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Table 21.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.10.. good workmanship. Click here to view. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.
and at bends is given by (21.3 0.6 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.0 5.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0. All rights reserved.71 0.76 0.25
The values in Table 21.0 1.8 0.10. D = pipe diameter. Inc.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.5 0.7 0. fully open Swing check valve.80 K = 0. fully open Angle valve. such as valves and elbows.89 1.
Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence
Table 21.42) Table 21.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses
The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.6 0.5 0.64 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21 of the sides.9 0.05 K = 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.4 0.1 0.68 0.62 0.2 0.0 2.
.21.66 0. Click here to view.2 2. fully open Gate valve.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.
Globe valve.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.50 K = 0.8 are only approximate. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.4
21.2 0. For these reaTable 21.81 0.26 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.63 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.9 0.
manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.
21. its effect should be taken into account. If this velocity is significant. All rights reserved. Ito. and angle of bend. there is disagreement.27
sons. Orifices may have any shape. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. New York.44) where Q = discharge. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21.” Journal of Research.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Hasen. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.. 21.42).42).9 for low velocity of approach. 21. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. J. Equation (21.23. 1. July 1938. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. or rectangular. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. series D. For low heads.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. (21. square. McGraw-Hill. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.
. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1960. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. Beij. Zipparo and H.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. vol. (21. Click here to view. Inc. however. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. not including friction loss. Experiments on smooth pipes. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. (H.11. although they are usually round.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. H. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.45)
21.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air
Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. no. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. 21. (V. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Reynolds number. not including friction loss in the bend. National Bureau of Standards. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.11 Orifices
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. this error is corrected by the C values. Figure 21. The data are in agreement that the head loss. (K. the bend loss essentially remains constant. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. (21. vol. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.22: (21. 21.)
Fig. 82. Inc.” 4th ed.
0. ft 0.596 0.23
Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.598 0.628 0.623 0.604 0.613 0.602 0. (21.619 0.599 0. of circular orifices.597 0.597 0.46) The actual velocity..602 0.601 0.614 0.618 0.616 0.610 0.660 0. determined experimentally.599 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.595 0.” 1886.602 0.601 0.0
0. Z1 = h.596 0.604 0.644 0.593 0.593 0.607 0.595 0.631 0.616 0.0 Head.599 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.617 0.594 0.622 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.598
* Hamilton Smith.610 0.02 0.601 0.603 0.627 0.1 0.632 0. “Hydraulics. and Eq.
.605 0.621 0.612 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.603 0.602 0.600 0.623 0.99.611 0. and Z2 = 0.595 0.618 0.598 1.603 0.630 0.601 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.606 0.609 0.623 0.28 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.606 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.605 0. to
Fig. ft 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.592 0. Jr. Inc.607 0.599 0.611 0.593 0. 21. ft 0.602 0.605 0.596 0.603 0.641 0.608 0.655 0.652 0.615 0.600 0.614 0.04 0.608 0.614 0.605 0.629 0.637 0.637 0.594 0. the vena contracta.608 0.637 0.598 0.628 0.602 0.612 0.607 0.45) becomes (21.590 0.21.596 0.04 0.636 0.02 0.617 0.618 0.602 0. With the reference plane through point 2.643 0.5 2 2.592 1.634 0.632 0.619 0.648 0.602 0.596 0.4 0.1 0.6 08 1 1.94 to 0. Click here to view.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.613 0 610 0. All rights reserved. V1 = 0.600 0.648 0.600 0.626 0.596 0.604 0.591 0.
24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.61 to 0.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.3 Discharge under Falling Head
The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. see E. F.11. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. Brater. “Handbook of Hydraulics.25. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. 21. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. All rights reserved. between 1 and 2. Figure 21. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.” 6th ed. (21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. Eq. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. (21.
Discharge through a submerged
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.)
21. Click here to view.25 orifice. In Fig.
. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. the contraction is completely suppressed. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the
the area of the orifice. 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.
21. 21. Inc.11. 21. New York.67. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because
more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. McGraw-Hill Book Company.29
Fig. ft.48) is obtained.2 Submerged Orifices
Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.47) where hL = losses in head. With a partly suppressed orifice. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.24b..
(21.21. All rights reserved.56). where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. (21.
(21.58)].58) Equation (21. 21. is that for a parabola: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. when y = h1.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.
.26): (21.50) where a = area of orifice. Eq. (21.4 Fluid Jets
Where the effect of air resistance is small.11.51) upon integration becomes (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.59).56) Fig.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. obtained by solving Eq. s The Y coordinate is (21. Inc. 32. ft h2 = head at the end.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. to time t. (21. (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. Click here to view. Eq.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.57) (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. ft2
A = area of reservoir.58) gives (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. 21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. For simplicity.50) becomes (21. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.23). (21. when y = h2.57) for t and substituting in Eq. 21. Rearranging Eq.30 s Section Twenty-One
volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.55)
21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.49) Solving for dt yields (21.
Inc. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Therefore.27. (21. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. ft2
Fig.67 V T / 2g = 0. however.75. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. When this happens. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.42) of 0.00 VT / 2g – 0. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. Click here to view.
. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. (21. a K value for Eq.28).
Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes
When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. Equation (21.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21.80. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.33VT / 2g. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.82.29. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.27) but the head loss is larger. 21.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. 21. 21.5 a T T Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. For a short tube flowing full. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes
This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.82 VT)2/2g = 0. psf w = unit weight of water.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. 21.11.00 and the coefficient of veloci-
21.67 V2T /2g.
21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. In the tube or pipe. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.11.82.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.67 V2 ) = 0.31
ty Cν = 0. 21. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. if one exists).
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. 21. As the water flows into the reservoir. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.12 Siphons
A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig.
Fig. this momentum drops to zero. 21. Inc. either above or below the normal pressure. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. either increased or decreased. As the water flows away from the closed valve.30). Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.32).32 s Section Twenty-One
Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. For this analysis to be valid. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. Click here to view. When a valve is closed. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. The change causes a pressure rise.29. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. the tube must flow full. 21. 21.31
Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. the pressure in the pipe falls. 21. All rights reserved.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.13 Water Hammer
Water hammer is a change in pressure. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. but at a pressure much higher than normal. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe.
21. the water in the pipe is motionless. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. it causes water hammer.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Every time the flow rate is
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pipe shown in Fig.21. However.
43. s A plot of pressure vs. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. For instantaneous closure: (21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. Equation (21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.2 Gradual Closure
The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.13. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. (21.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.63a) becomes (21. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. Inc. Click here to view.64)
of flow and the length of the pipeline.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.13.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity)
D = diameter of pipe. Eq.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. approximate solution. 1. 21. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. (21.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. ft
21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.63a) In terms of pressure head. All rights reserved.63).
. 21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Instantaneous Closure
The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.
65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity..32. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. Inc. J.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.63). head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. (V. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.) Example 21.34 s Section Twenty-One
where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. Thus. the esti-
= 3180 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Vo the original velocity. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. length = 3000 ft. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. equals L /aU.63). this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. All rights reserved. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. (21. from Eq. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. Zipparo and H. New York.61). The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). and Ao the original area of the valve opening..65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. diameter = 10 ft.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. each causing an individual pressure wave. (21. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. 21. McGraw-Hill. the increment of time. Hasen. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. With the head known. where a equals any integer. is
g = acceleration due to gravity. to apply Eq.2 × 108 psf.63). (For penstocks as shown in Fig. (21. where ∆t. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. (21. Inc. penstock thickness = 1 in. s T = actual closure time of valve. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21.
. (21. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. area = 78.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.” 4th ed. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. such as L/aU. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. then that obtained from Eq. ft L = length of pipeline. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. Once the time interval has been determined. 32. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.) Velocity of pressure wave. Click here to view. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. (21. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.21. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.5 ft2.
21.34). in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.
Internal pipe pressure produces hoop
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in
Assuming T = 4. All rights reserved.34 tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psi. Various types of relief
Fig. 21. it is by no means the only one. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis
The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.13. floats on the line. Fig. the stress. Click here to view.75 s.66) where p = internal pressure. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. is
Pipe Stresses 21. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank.3 Surge Tanks
It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. The water column. approximate equation (21. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. When a valve is suddenly closed. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21.33) must still be designed for water hammer. to prevent water hammer.64) gives the following result:
21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. the closure is instantaneous. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. on the pipe material is (21. When a valve is suddenly opened. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. lb Hence. Usually.90 s.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. (21.
. in effect. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. 21. from Eq.35
valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. Inc. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. and the pressure rise.63). 21.90 s.
17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends
It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water.
. All rights reserved. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. For concrete pipes. However.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe
If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.. 21. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. due to a temperature change is (21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. if expansion joints are to be used. Inc. The force diagram in Fig. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. Art.67). however. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. P Timoshenko and J. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. (21. However.36 s Section Twenty-One
From the derivation of Eq. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. (21. M. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.” 2nd ed.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. it acts like a beam. this analysis is approximate. If D/t is less than 10. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. The internal diameter is used in Eq. New York. (21. Equation (21. is (21. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. In Fig. (21. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. Eq.67) for concrete pipe. 21. For steel pipes. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. The stress. Eq. “Theory of .67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed.21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (S.
21. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.6). 6.10). 21. In this case. elastic Stability. In all bends. psi.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g
21.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. Click here to view. psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. Gere. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints
21.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis
If a pipe is supported on piers.
the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. a railroad.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.37
Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. (21. however. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. Click here to view. exit conditions. is usually unwarranted because of the rela-
. the joints must also be able to take these forces. Eqs. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.
A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. or other embankment. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. canal.71) where R = resultant force on bend. All rights reserved. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.
P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. 32. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. In small pipes.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. an exact theoretical analysis. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.71) give a quick solution. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 62. psf w = unit weight of water. Inc. 21. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. and slope.70)
Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.70) and (21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. However.
21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper
In a culvert with a critical slope. 21.
.38 s Section Twenty-One
tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.33d) or (21. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the control will still be at the inlet. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. charts. 21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. 21. and the Manning equation for friction loss. Inc.37). The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. All rights reserved.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.23).72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.30)]. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. For this reason. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.36). Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. 21. and the discharge is independent of the slope. the normal depth (Art.” EB058W. Click here to view. slope is greater than the critical slope.38). Portland Cement Association. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the following equation is obtained: (21. (21. but they do not cover
Fig.21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. that is. the culvert flows full. 21.
ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.
where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. When slope exceeds critical.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. 21. Thus. The fluid flows under pressure.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Discharge depends on head H.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes
Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. open-channel flow takes place. (21. 21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. 21.39
Fig. flow depends on inlet condition. 21.
The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. 32. loss at entrance.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge is independent of slope. Click here to view.
.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. for the open-channel condition (Fig.74)
Fig. All rights reserved.20)
21. When slope is less than critical. When the slope is less than critical.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.
Fig. and slope of culvert. Inc.23).72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. and dn > dc . ft V = velocity in culvert.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. 21. and dn < dc . normal pipe flow occurs. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.74) yields (21. 21.75) Substituting this into Eq. ft Equation (21. (21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. depending on the head.39). Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. The discharge.
39).40). (21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.76).37). If the head on a culvert is high. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and
Fig. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. (21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream.21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. Most culverts. however. All rights reserved.72). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. 21. If this condition exists.18). (21. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. and discharge is given by Eq. 21.76). 21.76).40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.
. Click here to view. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. 21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Inc. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.41). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. When the friction slope is flat. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. ft dn = normal depth of flow.40 s Section Twenty-One
S = slope of energy grade line. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. ft To solve Eq. (21. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. If the friction slope approaches critical. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.
9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. square edge Concrete pipe.
Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Inc.8 ft3/s Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.72) applies. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Table 21. First find dn.5 0.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.08
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with Eq. groove or bell.18 and 21.33a) gives
a pipe flow condition will result.
Application of Eq. n = 0. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. and the entrance will not control. Find: size of culvert. and free exit. (21. When the entrance is not submerged. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Eq. But H = 5 + 0. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. (21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.15 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2.95 × 4 = 39. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. slope = 0. Substitution in Eq. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. projecting Concrete pipe. These values are for culverts flowing full.72) and (21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. the flow is under pressure. Click here to view. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. All rights reserved. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.44) for discharge through an orifice. Example 21. To calculate the hydraulic radius.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.19). 21.6. length = 300 ft.41
For entrance control.013. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.
21.40). groove or bell. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.73).9 0. 21. (21. (21.
Fig.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts
Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. Since the culvert is under pressure.10 0.01.72) yields
Q =Va = 9.
. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.
The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. ft. depth of flow is constant throughout. ft. or open-channel flow.
21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. Figure 21.21. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. ft3/s. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. In a uniform channel. minus the free surface width.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. All rights reserved. is generally given by (21. (21. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. (21. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. The average velocity of flow V is defined
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. It is. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. and is given by (21.
Free surface flow.42 s Section Twenty-One
Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.79) The velocity head HV. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. Thus. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. normally taken as 1. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.03 to 1. It has uniform flow if the grade. Inc. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. plus the velocity head at the point. or slope. however. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. ft. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.79). Hence.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels
A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. within a hydraulic jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.77) where V = average velocity.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. The wetted perimeter is the length. ft2 When the discharge is constant. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Click here to view.36 for prismatic channels.
. It is expressed in feet as (21. or the total-head line. Equation (21. 32.
due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. for example. 21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.
in which T is the top width of the channel. 21.43. normal depth decreases downstream. and discharge are known. (See. ft. 21.
Brater. For a rectangular channel. roughness. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. (21. 21. ft.43
Fig. Click here to view. McGrawHill Book Company. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 6th ed. 21.
where A = area of flow. E. or to the diameter of a circular channel.84) reduces to
Fig. New York. As the depth decreases downstream..22 Normal Depth of Flow
The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. as shown in Fig.43).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft
R = hydraulic radius.42
Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.) (21. Eq.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.44. All rights reserved. (V. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. 21. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. slope. the specific energy also decreases. F.42 is called the normal depth dn. Chow. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. T.
44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.84) is called the critical depth dc. the depth is greater than critical. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. The flow there is called subcritical flow.84). He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. (21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. (21.
21. ft3/s d = depth of flow.
(21.44 s Section Twenty-One
In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. Eq. All rights reserved. New York). and flow is supercritical.44). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. For rectangular channels.” 6th ed. 21.
. (21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. for a given discharge.44).43. Brater. 21. For a given value of specific energy.. or it may be found directly from tables (E. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.84) may be reduced to (21. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. the depth is below critical. or conversely. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow
The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. Inc. F. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. Click here to view. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21.86)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
ft3/s b = width of channel. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.57). Such a change occurs gradually. a hydraulic jump will occur. p. flow is subcritical. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. Click here to view.45.87)
Fig. indicating an irreversible occurrence. All rights reserved. For every depth greater than critical depth.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as indicated in Fig. It can be seen from Fig. regardless of slope. 21. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.52b. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. flow is supercritical. however. (21.44). once calculated. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again.
. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.
21. Inc. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. 21. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels
One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. 21.85). Critical depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. [As indicated by Eq. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.45
where dc = critical depth. 21. 21. along with a high loss of energy. (21. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.45
Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. without turbulence.
C for critical. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. 21. (See also Art.D. and A for adverse. at an arbitrary elevation. S for steep (supercritical). All rights reserved.D.L. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. 21.
.23).D.L. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). there must be a continuing maintenance program. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. Inc.21. H for horizontal. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.9 and Table 21. Eq. and C. is replaced by a horizontal line.D. Department of Agriculture. New York. 21. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. the average n values given in Table 21. The N.and critical-depth lines. are identical for a channel of critical slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft V = mean velocity of flow. The M2 curve forms between the normal.46c and d. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. E.D. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. T. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.46a and b.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. (Although based on surface roughness. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. (21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.L.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Chow. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.11.)
21. and adverse slope.L. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.46 s Section Twenty-One
where R = hydraulic radius. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). are in Table 21. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. 21.25).S.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.90) where A = area of flow. and the critical-depth line C.L. Click here to view. horizontal. as shown in Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.89) may be written (21. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. 21.46. and two types for channels of critical. 21.4. therefore. These curves are divided into five groups. Dr.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow
Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. and the N.
025 0. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Dredged earth a.080 0. Concrete (unfinished) a. 21.016 0.035 0.023 0.018 0.050 0. Smooth b.025 0.022 0.012 0.017 0.015 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical
Table 21.012 0.010 0.013 0. Dense brush. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. All rights reserved. Planed. Light brush on banks 3.025 0. Inc. Rough C. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. 21. Corrugated 2. Asphalt a.013 0. Clean.050
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.015 0. Steel form b.100 0.060 0.
. Concrete a. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Excavated earth.014 0.050 0. Smooth wood form c. Smooth and uniform b.030 0.016
0. Gunite.023 0.035 0.018 0.014 0.013 0.025 0. Gunite.035
0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Float finish b.035
0.027 0.011 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.025 0.012 0. The S2 curve.019 0.022 0. With short grass.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Rock cuts a.022 0. high as flow depth d.011 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. wavy section 4.016
0. Unlined channels 1. untreated 3.033 0.016 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.013 0. Dry rubble 5. Wood a. Cement-mortar surface 3.46a and b.021 0. Jagged and irregular 0. after weathering b.025 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.040 0.021 0. 21.040
0.030 0. Metal a. high stage 2.47
The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.120 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Cemented rubble b.013 0. Rough wood form B. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.017 Max 0. straight and uniform a.080 0.024 0.032 0.014 0.014 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Masonry a. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. respectively).012 0. Dense weeds. good section c.033 0. No vegetation b.46i and j.140 0.028 0. Click here to view.020
0.015 Avg 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Lined channels 1. few weeds c.030 0.016 0.
The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at
Fig. 21. N.21.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.L.D. H.D.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and A profiles. critical-depth line. All rights reserved.
.46k and l. indicates normal-depth line. C.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.48 s Section Twenty-One
depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. 21.. Examples in Fig. The curves in Fig.L. 21. 21.
The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. Explanations of both the graphical. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. New York. each reach is solved in succession.26 Backwater-Curve Computations
The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. 21. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. For subcritical flow conditions. (21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.)
21. New York. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. ft/ft of channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. free overfall. weir. dam. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. Click here to view.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction.47. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. or reaches. The wave travels at a speed. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. Inc.
. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. (R. depending on the type of flow. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. and step methods. direction-integration. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. the channel is divided into short lengths. H.49
a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq.77) if the depth were zero. Inc. All rights reserved. known as its celerity. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths.51). A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. T. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.5. gate. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” McGraw-Hill. See Art. 32. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. French. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Chow. For the section of channel in Fig. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. 21. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.and direct-integration methods are in V. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. with relatively small variation. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.27. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. For step-method computations.
21. ft. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. the longer the backwater curve profile. due to friction in the same reach. Click here to view. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. (For uniform.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. respectively.50 s Section Twenty-One
So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rearranged as follows:
Fig. Inc. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.93) where R = hydraulic radius. 21.91) for L gives (21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. is negligible and can be ignored.47
Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. hi. prismatic channels. ft. the – eddy loss. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. and – SL = hf. Therefore. 21. All rights reserved.82).93). The smaller the value of n. (21. (21. (21. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. and vice versa. the change in elevation.22) but
where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. 21. not the channel bottom. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. Solving Eq. the head loss.
.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. as given by Eq.92) (21.
or roughness. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. ft. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. For lined channels.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section.2 for diverging reaches. ft/s. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. becomes (21. S. (21. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. is obtained from Eq. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.92).97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2.95) The coefficient k is 0. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Inc. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. (21. Then. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Therefore.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.97) must agree with the value of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig.95). the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. grade.94).5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. computations progress toward the initial section. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. respectively. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. (21.51
may be some intermediate depth.96). Finally. All rights reserved. from 0 to 0. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. (21. Next. respectively. (21.
. which. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. Since this step method is a converging process. Then. 21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. and it is therefore often accounted for. Eddy loss. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error.93). and about 0.47. the average friction slope for the reach. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. ft. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. (21. after substitution of H from Eq. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. referred to a horizontal datum. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. The value of total head computed from Eq. sometimes called impact loss. in natural channels. Next. (21.1 for converging reaches. ft. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.93). A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Z2.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. total head H. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. the friction loss. Click here to view.
Inc. 21. Federal Highway Administration. 21. U. a gate. 21. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. Department of Transportation.21. The effect of bridges. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. However.48
Hydraulic jump. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.. and J. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 ft in elevation. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.” Hydraulics Design Series no. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.
Fig. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. as shown in Figs.
21. Bureau of Public Roads. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope.27 Hydraulic Jump
This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. 1970. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. or other obstruction.27. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. 2nd ed. If the two values of total head do not agree. Click here to view. All rights reserved.48). H.S. velocity. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. approach roadways. N.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. is a turbulent mass of water. respectively. The upstream surface of the jump.52b. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. New York. 21. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas.51 and 21. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. Bradley. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). 1.
21. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.
. however. known as the length of jump. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. known as the roller.23). and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Utilizing the above data. bridge piers. French.52 s Section Twenty-One
total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. and determine the discharge. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area).
This difference (Fig. ft/s. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. (21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.104) = discharge. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation
dc = critical depth for the channel. d2 must also equal dc. (21.82). ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. this resultant pressure force is (21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. For open-channel flow. 32. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.49) is given by (21.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels
The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft/s2.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.99). or alternate depths.27.100) Equation (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. Inc. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.102) Equation (21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. ft w = unit weight of water.101)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99) where M = mass of water.100). ft3/s = unit of time.
21. (21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. Click here to view. where L is a characteristic length. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. ft d2 = depth after jump. 21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.98) and (21.
. V is the mean velocity.98) where d1 = depth before jump.16)]. ft. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft
g = acceleration due to gravity. All rights reserved.105) where A = area of flow. For rectangular channels. s (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.53
which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.
The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.S. 21. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. For F1 = 4. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. which.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator
A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. For F1 = 9.
21. This jump may be called a weak jump. All rights reserved.0. For F1 = 1 to 1. the flow is critical and there is no jump. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.21. The jump action is rough but effective. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. for example. Click here to view. 21. 21.5 to 9. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.5. In either case. there are undulations on the surface. This jump may be called a steady jump.5.
.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. chute. were classified by the U. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. the jump will be drowned out.7. can travel for miles. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. For F1 = 1. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. For F1 = 2.54 s Section Twenty-One
For rectangular channels. very commonly in canals. which gives discharge vs. For F1 = 1.23). Inc. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.7 to 2. The jump is called an undular jump. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.5 to 4. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. depending on local conditions. depth after the jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. below a spillway. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. If the tailwater is too low. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. This jump may be called a strong jump. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating
Fig. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.0 and larger. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. If the tailwater is too high.49.27. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the performance is at its best. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The jump is well-balanced. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1.
curve involve changing the crest length. Inc.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. prepared by V.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump
It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump
The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.
21. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21. Accessories. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Bureau of Reclamation. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. 21. and sloping the apron. But it has been determined experimentally.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. These features are expensive to build.48) defies accurate mathematical expression.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. Click here to view. The curve.S. This length (Fig. All rights reserved. The resulting curve (Fig.27.51.
. Chow from data gathered by the U. 21. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. (21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.27. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the
Fig.105). therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. T. changing the apron elevation. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. 21. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
101) with d1 given. equal in length to L. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.21. between lines CB′and EO. All rights reserved. Conversely. equal to the computed length of the jump. less than.102). respectively (Fig. computed from Eq. if the downstream depth is lowered. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. It is assumed. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. curves AB and ED in Fig. (21. 21. as theory would indicate. the 1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52. (21. Inc. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. 21. 21. 21. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. The jump may be expected to form between the
points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.52b. the jump moves to a new location downstream. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.101).51
Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate.52a.
The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. for simplicity. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. the jump moves downstream to a new position. the jump occurs in the steep region. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. 21.
. Click here to view. The actual depth at the brink is 71. using the step methods of Art. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.7dc for simplicity. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.51. the computed length of jump. as shown in Fig. 21.26. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig.5% of critical depth. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. computed from Eq.56 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. CB. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. 21. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.23) to mild.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O.75h in the absence of better information. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. A horizontal intercept FG. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. (21. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. 21. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. which occurs near the channel drop-off. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. but it is normally assumed to be 0. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. as shown in Fig.46e and c). As depth d2 is lowered. 21. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. If d2 is less than d′ . The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. that flow is uniform.
21. ft.51. F. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved.53a).52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. is (21.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel
The discharge Q.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if not.106) where b is the channel width. ft. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Then. and discharge is at a maximum.23).. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. (R.)
21.. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. 21.” 6th ed. ignoring entrance loss.
. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section.85)]. New York.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the
Fig. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. New York. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. 21. From Q = AV.57
jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. then the assumed discharge is correct.3 for one with squared ends. ft. where He is the specific energy head. Inc. Click here to view. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity
the discharge for rectangular channels. 21. a new discharge is assumed. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water.53). Brater. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. and the slope of the channel. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. ft. 21.82) and (21. H. or (b) below it.
sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. on the channel entrance. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. Inc. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. ft3/s. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.” McGraw-Hill. If the entrance loss must be considered. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. French.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d).Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. or (a) above it. the entrance loss.
The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. 21.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope
When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53
Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. (21. He is the specific energy head. ———— charge. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. (b) mild-slope channel.58 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.22). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (In Fig.2 ft/s2. 21. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. ft.53b). and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig.
21. Click here to view. d is normal depth.23). 21.21. ft. a new discharge is chosen. 21.53b. and g is acceleration due to gravity. where He – d is the actual head. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. then the discharge is correct. 21. ft3/s. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 32.83). if not. All rights reserved. Inc. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).33). producing flow. ft2. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.
21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of the center line of the channel. or mV2 /rc for m. Thus. (21. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. 21.59
21. the true value of y would be only a few inches. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.
. Click here to view.23). The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. (21. where V is its average velocity. (21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. when a stream enters a curve. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels
Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. Inc. The error will not be great. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.108). the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. 21.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency
If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. ft. ft. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. In this range. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area.107) The theoretical difference y. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. ft. ft /s. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. Therefore. All rights reserved. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. however.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.83)]. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. If the bend continues long enough. a unit mass of water. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. and rc the radius of curvature. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. by (21. Scobey. All rights reserved.55).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with sufficient accuracy.
Fig. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.111). (F.110) for θ in Eq. The second is a negative wave. This angle may be found from (21. One is a positive wave.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. (21. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. an increase in friction loss results. His values have not been evaluated completely.60 s Section Twenty-One
Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. a series of standing waves are produced. C.S.16)] . and should be used with discretion. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. 21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. These waves cross at M. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.” U. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. 21. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. however. 21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.23).110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. (21. Technical Bulletin 393. Inc. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. recross as shown.
.21. Two waves form at the start of the curve. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. phase. Click here to view.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels
When water. depths along the inside wall. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. flows around a bend in a channel. (21. and continue crossing and recrossing. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. The cross slope required for
21. Department of Agriculture.
The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. low-head-loss transfer of flow. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. ft.56.61
equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.2 ft/s2. When proceeding downstream through a transition. or change from supercritical to subcritical. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. If friction is ignored. In this range. 21. equals about 0.
. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21. p. 21.8[∆(V2/2g)]. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.44. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. the loss factor.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. change from subcritical to supercritical. Many variables. For outlet-type structures.
21. Inc. 21. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. ft/s. The transition loss. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. and channel shape and slope. respectively.Water Resources Engineering s 21. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. To place a transition properly between two open channels. plus any transition and friction losses. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21.33 Transitions in Open Channels
A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. Straight. as shown in Fig.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths.2 for welldesigned transitions. where K.54). After such a water-surface profile is chosen. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. Click here to view.1 for an inlet-type structure. ∆V is the velocity change. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. All rights reserved. and g = 32. wall roughness. 21. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if friction is ignored. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve.1 [∆(V2/2g)].23).57). the average velocity decreases. such as flow-rate changes.44.113) angle of about 12. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. therefore. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an
Fig. 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). The transition length that produces a smoothflowing.
000556(10)2 = 0. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section.59
Weir not sharp-crested. 21. Inc. from which a = 0. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. such as broad-crested weirs.000556.000556(20)2 = 0. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. and.1 Types of Weirs
A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig.57
Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. Click here to view.5 = a(30)2.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Fig. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. In contrast.222 ft.59. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.
The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. y = ax2. triangular weirs.
Fig. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.
. as shown in Fig. and parabolic weirs.21.57. trapezoidal weirs.
Sharp-crested weir. the weir is submerged or drowned.34. 21. 2
If the nappe discharges into the air. trapezoidal weirs. For Fig. such as rectangular weirs. If the discharge is partly under water. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. All rights reserved.62 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.34 Weirs
A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. the weir has free discharge. measured from A or B. 21.58). weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into
21. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. triangular or Vnotch weirs.
Equation (21. The height of weir P must be at least 2. One such equation. All rights reserved.58) (V. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. At very low heads. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5H. Chow.5H upstream from the weir. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. A V-notch weir (Fig.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. New York).
21. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.60
V-notch weir. below the crest. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.Water Resources Engineering s 21.63
hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. thus causing a contraction of the flow.34. If P is less than
Fig. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. Click here to view. ft The head should be measured at least 2.
. T. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.116) corrects for the effects of friction.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. contraction of the nappe. To be fully ventilated.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hence. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.115) where Q = discharge. Inc. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. 21. 21.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs
Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. 21. 2.
61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs.118)
21.” 6th ed. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs
The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. Lenz.119) where Q = discharge. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. 21. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. ft.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. there are two end contractions and N = 2. there is one end contraction and N = 1. 21. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. F. (21.21. T. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. Discharge is given by (21.61) (E. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.2) when low discharges are to be measured. 21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. Inc. Click here to view.62
Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. His values were summarized by Brater. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 69. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed.
. vol. New York).5H upstream from the weir. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. ft H = head. (21..34.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs
The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.34. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.118)]
21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. 1943).
The effective length L.64 s Section Twenty-One
where θ = notch angle H = measured head. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.
Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. All rights reserved. measured from notch bottom.34.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.
63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. using this discharge. ft
No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. Click here to view.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.
Fig. and finally total head. 25.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs
The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. heavily constructed devices.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. ft3/s. Typically. 32. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.
. The discharge Qs. From this total head. (21. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. R. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. (21. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. Where great accuracy is essential.) To use the Villemonte equation. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged.63
Submerged sharp-crested weir. p. Eq. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.121) where Q = discharge. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. velocity head. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Then. 21. which may be done as follows: First.122) where H = measured head. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. ft.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. 21. 21. Thus.59).) Equation (21.65
b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. using this rate and the required depths.
its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. ft/s V /2g = Hν.
21. 866. and then.34. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. for such weirs.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
These are sturdy.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. velocity head of approach. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. but
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.34. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft3/s. All rights reserved. Dec. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. or both. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.” Engineering News-Record. neglecting the velocity head.115) is rewritten in the form (21. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Villemonte. ft V = velocity of approach. compute the velocity of approach. (J. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.
5Hd > r* > 0.
. (3) Broad-crested
Table 21. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration.34. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. Department of the Interior. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. For each change of nappe shape. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Government Printing Office. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp
0. All rights reserved.20 0. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.12. ft L′ = net crest lengths. But the process should be repeated. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. Click here to view. For conditions of design head Table 21. ft (U.13.21. and approach velocity. F. DC 20402.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. For conditions of design head Hd. head in relation to design heads. Therefore.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.S.2 of the head. starting with the corrected discharge. “Design of Small Dams. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. thickness of pier. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.10
H. where approach velocities are high. Inc. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.02 0. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. the head in relation to the design head.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Washington. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.66 s Section Twenty-One
compute the first corrected discharge. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. and the approach velocity. The effect is most critical for low heads. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.123) where L = effective crest length. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.
21. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.01 0
* r = radius of abutment rounding.
Fig.122). called the design head Hd. Chow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Figure 21. The shape of this nappe.
weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. “Open-Channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.S. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement.
. For flow at heads lower than the design head. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. DC 20402. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. (21.34. This crest pressure reduces
the discharge below that for ideal flow. Department of the Interior.64) has such a shape.
21. 2. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. however. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Chow. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.65. New York). while 4 is simply a rough approximation. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. where discharge is given by Eq. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. All rights reserved. This relationship is shown in Fig. T. Of the above rules.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.” Government Printing Office. (U. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. for a sharp-crested weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at the point of maximum contraction. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 1. depends on the head producing the discharge.5H upstream. Consequently.66 of the head. According to Chow. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.
Fig. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. T. Inc.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir
The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. 21. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. 21. Washington. “Design of Small Dams. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. and therefore of an ogee crest. Click here to view. This manual and V. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. (From “Design of Small Dams.S. 21. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.)
Fig. Inc.S.68 s Section Twenty-One
. Figure 21.
Fig.” U. Bureau of Reclamation. Click here to view. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.21. New York.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (From “Design of Small Dams.” U. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. the flow differs from ideal. 21.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.66.
(E. Click here to view.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. the nappe springs free. New York. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.69
Fig. Values of the discharge coefficient. Bureau of Reclamation. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.9 Broad-Crested Weir
This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest..Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. E. “Handbook of Hydraulics. has contraction of the nappe. where the velocity of approach is not high.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Inc. appear in Table 21.S. F. are used as spillways and control structures. compiled by King. (From “Design of Small Dams.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine
This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. (21.69
Broad-crested weir..69 shows a broad-crested weir that.)
Fig. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes.34.” 6th ed.)
. F. Figure 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. for example. (See.67 and 21. is determined from Fig.14. because of its sharp upstream edge. All rights reserved. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. if flow is at other than the design head. fairly common in waterworks projects. Brater. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.” 6th ed.34.10
Weirs of Irregular Section
If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. a plane horizontal crest. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
the coefficient of discharge. Weirs of irregular section.” U. Figure 21. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Unless otherwise noted. New York. therefore. 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. and sharp right-angled edges.
19 3.00 2.32 3.64 2.49 2.64 2.32 3. All rights reserved.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 3.5 3.32 3. ft 0.07 3.64 2.0 3.75 2.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.79 2.00 2. and turbines.32 3.2 1.00 2.67 2.64 2.63 2.67 2. those carried in suspension.21.32 3.65 2.30 3.38 2.64 2.32 3.32 3.32 1.31 3.63 2.67 2.88 3.92 3.4 0.67 2.68 2.32 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.68 2.32 3.63 2.68 2.85 2.32 5.32 3.2 0. A density current.32 3.65 2.20 3.32 3.0 2.20 3.29 3.64 2. The smaller silt sizes.32 3.64 2.07 3.32 3.68 2.66 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.0 4.65 2.86 2.64 2.62 2.32 3.70 2.32 3.0 1.76 2.70 2.35.60 2.32 3.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.68 2.64 2.64 15. This incoming water.68 2.68 2.
.68 2.28 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. such as gates.61 2.32 3. ft 0.64 2.32 3.75 2.08 3.32 3. which are often of equal consequence.89 3.76 2.97 3.4 1. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.32 3.75 2. valves.58 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels
Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.32 3.64 2.65 2.05 3.64 2. Click here to view.68 2.32 3.
21.03 3. Inc.64 2.70 2.32 3.32 3.60 2.5 5.34 2.00 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs
Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a
body of still water.63 2.65 2.63 2.74 2.60 2.32 4.5 4.04 3.20 3.73 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.69 2.14 3.56 2.00 2.32 3.77 2.30 3.32 3.28 3.65 2.64 2.54 2.0 5.32 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.88 2.00 2. such as a reservoir. with its load of suspended silt.80 2.64 2.50 2.48 2.75 2.63
21.63 2.69 2. once formed. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.31 3.31 3.79 1.5 2.32 3.00 2.32 3.66 2.8 2.26 3.32 3.92 3.69 2.60 2.66 2.07 3.72 2.64 2.67 2. Heavier silt sizes.8 1.66 2.70 2.98 3.63 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 2. those forming the bed load.32 3.32 1.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.07 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.70 2.70 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.70 2.88 10.89 2.50 2.68 2.66 2.81 2.72 2.92 2.74 2.32 3.68 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.64 2.80 2.68 2. or soil.72 2.85 3.08 3.32 2.6 0.32 3.63 2.54 2.63 2.50 H.69 2.07 3.61 2.6 1. erosion. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.63 2.32 2.65 2.32 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir.75 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.89 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.44 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.
such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. landslide. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. Inc. The most common manner of destruction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. however. see Art. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. However. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. or failure of materials. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. formed from the bed load. By this method. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate
Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Of course. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. These currents are stable. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. or from year to year.
21. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. When neither can be done. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. because of variations in rainfall. once formed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. All rights reserved.
. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. overtopping. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. the rate is not uniform during the year. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents.39. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. on the other hand. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.35. Click here to view.71
Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. are coarsegrained. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. 21. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based.
discharge. 21. Click here to view. gravel.1). The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. and boulders.124) where Gb = total bed load. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time.72 s Section Twenty-One
Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. Frequently. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.21. ft3/s b = width of river. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. Therefore. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.35. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. All rights reserved. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. however.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. Therefore. which varies with both slope and discharge. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. A mean grain size of 0. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. But for the most part. Inc. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. According to Witzig. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. ft qo = critical discharge. Therefore. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.0 ft/mi. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. (21.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data.
. which generally occurs only during a storm.
which are of two types. H.36 Erosion Control
The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. infiltration. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period.S. Current data. such as an hour. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval.
. and distribution. their occurrence. evaporation. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Inc. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. (W. are published daily by the U. or a combination of the two. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. Such screens. lakes. rivers. planting of burned-over areas. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. or year. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. check-dam construction. contour plowing. Weather Bureau is 24 h. and stream flow
21. or digital microchip technology. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq.” U.37 Precipitation
The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. It continually records. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Click here to view. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. such as wind. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. their chemical and physical properties. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. groundwater flow. by ink pen and revolving drum. Weather Bureau. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. and their reaction with their environment. if the dam is raised at a later date.73
dation.S. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes
21. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. For instance. circulation. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. on or near the land surface. (21-124). A. A major concern is the cir-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In this cycle. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Use of vegetation screens. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Department of Agriculture. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. All rights reserved. recharges groundwater. debris barriers. The second type is a nonrecording gage. temperature. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth.S.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (See H. including their relation to living things.
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Graf.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. water evaporation from oceans. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. runoff. Einstein. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. New York. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. infiltrates into the soil. and pressure. in the form of synoptic weather charts. discharges into streams. and the stream velocity. day.) culation.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin.
21. equal to 15 for small. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. has a relatively large surface area. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. ground. Of the three. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy.74 s Section Twenty-One
that are too small. and plantleaf surfaces. R.125)]. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. A portion may evaporate as it falls. see D. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. or ground surfaces. Click here to view. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. (21. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. Not all rain reaches the ground.
. Inc. Maidment. On an annual basis. plant. In transpiration. called interception. shallow pools and 11 for large. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage.126) where E = evaporation rate. especially if the reservoir is shallow. branches.. This phenomenon. in of mercury. Evapotranspiration is important because. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region.38 Evaporation and Transpiration
These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere.” McGraw-Hill. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. in of mercury. commonly termed consumptive use. (21. New York. The Meyer equation [Eq. Evapotranspiration. and it increases as wind velocity increases. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. “Handbook of Hydrology. developed from Dalton’s law. Evaporation may occur from free-water. and other vegetation surfaces. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. All rights reserved. In evaporation.125)
(21. Inc. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. tropical and subtropical regions. on a long-term basis. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. while another portion may be caught on leaves. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor
it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Inc. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. R. On large reservoirs. birds. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. hail. is in widespread use. runoff may be surface. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. although it may vary between 0. Moving laterally. Groundwater flow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. insects. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. also known as interflow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. tropical.39 Runoff
This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted.80. frost. (D. Click here to view. depending on the geographical region. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. or excess rain.. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. except in arid. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. All rights reserved. aquatic life. Commonly. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. effective rain includes subsurface flow. New York. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. intensity. Hexadeconal. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. It appears in surface channels. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. called a Class A Level Pan.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Inc. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Thus.75
As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. or cetyl alcohol. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. and biologic attrition. Classified by the path taken to a channel. Maidment. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors.Water Resources Engineering s 21. subsurface runoff. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.70. In practice.
21. After joining stream flow. Precipitation—form (rain. wind tends to push the film to the shore. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. duration. snow. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. natural or manmade. or groundwater flow. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. Subsurface flow. or groundwater runoff. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. subsurface storm flow. to reach a channel.60 and 0. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. time distribution. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. “Handbook of Hydrology. and storm seepage. Climatic characteristics a. dew).
.” McGraw-Hill. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. subsurface. perhaps several years. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm.
The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. 21. the quantity and type of data available.S. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. duration d. elevation. mean flow. and statisti-
cal data pertaining to the entire record. Drainage-basin characteristics a.S. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Agricultural Research Service. Atmospheric pressure f. Geological Survey. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. shape. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Geological Survey. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. direction of storm movement b. the U. International Boundary Commission.21.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. lakes and other bodies of water. yearly flow volume. Wind—velocity. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers.
21. extremes of flow. Topographic—size. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. permeability. detail. shape of cross section. 21. and various state and local agencies. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. and Weather Bureau. All rights reserved.” U. general location. drainage net.
.S. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. artificial drainage. groundwater formations. direction. as shown in Fig. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Temperature—variation.76 s Section Twenty-One
seasonal distribution. areal distribution. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Weather Bureau. land use and cover. soil moisture.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized.70. Solar radiation 2. and the accuracy desired. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. both published and unpublished.
21. channels (size. recurrence interval. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations
The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. the detail required in the final answer. extremes during precipitation c. and completeness of the hydrologic records. slope. frozen ground during storms. TVA. Geologic—soil type.S. snow storage. stratification Fig. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. antecedent precipitation. orientation. Geological Survey. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These papers contain records of daily flow. Click here to view.S. Inc. slope. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. Humidity e.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data
The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. roughness. special-interest items. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. length) b.
The values of C in Table 21. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. T. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.
. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. Inc. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. 5. the second to major hydraulic structures. in/h A = drainage area. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. great importance. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. 3. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. for example. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. As an example. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Several methods yield only peak discharge.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V.128)
21. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. a 50. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. 1962). Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.41. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential.127) where Q = peak discharge. and large downstream damage potential. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Click here to view. Chow. All rights reserved. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.77
found in the determination of flood runoff. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures
The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.or 100-year-frequency storm. others give the complete hydrograph. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. 4. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.
Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.13 – 0.70 0.50 – 0. Equation (21. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. (21.) The flow time in gutters.40 0.80 0.70 – 0. avg. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.75 0.70 0.85 0. b. steep. (21.35 0.95 0.35
where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. detached Multiunits. 21.75 – 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. or any equivalent method.50 0.95 0.60 0.
K.80 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. coefficient.30 – 0. n.25 – 0. or ditches.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. streets. and the flow time in conduits.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.17 0. flat. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.20 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. (21. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. “Handbook of Hydrology.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures
The unit-hydrograph method. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.30 0. Inc.78 s Section Twenty-One
where I = = rainfall intensity.128) or Eq.” McGraw-Hill.90 0. (21. 2–7% Heavy soil.21.25 – 0.85 0.20 – 0.89)] .10 0. ditches. Maidment. widely accept-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.60 – 0.10 – 0.70 – 0. Inc.16). gutters.129)
Table 21. R.50 – 0.22 0. in/h respectively.25 0.10 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. 2% Heavy soil.05 – 0. New York. flat. years duration of storm.75 – 0. (See D.70 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.. min time of concentration Fig. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.
. steep. avg. All rights reserved. factor. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. 2% Sandy soil. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.129).20 – 0.71 and Table 21.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. After determining the time of concentration. is a convenient. the flow time in streets.41.95 0.10 – 0.60 – 0.40 – 0.127).50 – 0. 7% Heavy soil.40 0.15 – 0.15 0. Sherman. and n1
= = =
Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. 21.95 0.18 – 0. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
termed a unit storm. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. 4. 3. termed a unit period. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. This requires that a storm of short duration. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The method is summarized by the formula (21. that is. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. the time of storm runoff. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.” Engineering News-Record.Water Resources Engineering s 21. pp. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. Thus.79
Table 21. vol. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. subdivision may be required. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration.
The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. JanuaryJune 1932. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. easier. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Sherman. 2. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. All rights reserved. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. usually 1 acre). Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. 108. If the watershed is very large. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10
ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. Click here to view. (Leroy K. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h.
Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily.21. Usually. Inc. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. 21. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. Illustrated in Fig.72. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. For ease of manipulation. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.
. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period.80 s Section Twenty-One
by each hydrograph.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. 5. Then. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit
Fig. Click here to view. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.73). 21. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. All rights reserved. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. because of storm variations. 21.
Linsley et al. This loss. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. McGraw-Hill. 19. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. “Handbook of Hydrology. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 447–454). An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. All rights reserved. 21. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.. This method was developed by Franklin F. R. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.131) period. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.) where Q = flow rate..42 Groundwater
Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. perpendicular to direction of flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Inc. Inc. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Also. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. 21. Maidment.” McGraw-Hill. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.
Fig. K. Click here to view. 21. vol. (R. “Hydrology for Engineers. during heavy storms.81
21.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.” 3rd ed. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. (See D. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand..)
Fig.. New York. pp. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. pt. I.
water softening costs. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Frequently. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. usually a number of years. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. present and future water demands should be determined. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. recycling. is a confined or artesian aquifer.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. and location of artificial replenishment. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. groundwater levels.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. or other causes. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. Following the preceding preliminary work. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. (A base period is a period of time. and indirect water-quality use costs. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Regardless of how it is defined.
. because of impermeable layers above and below it. These costs include increased soap costs. and overdraft. quantity. wastewaters. quantity. need for excessive pumping lifts. source.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. rather than a change in volume.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. alternative management plans should be formulated. poor-quality replenishment waters. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. Click here to view. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure.21. cost of replenishment water. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. and methods of wastewater disposal. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. among others. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. All rights reserved. Deteriorating water quality. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts.82 s Section Twenty-One
Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Inc. and quality of water supply. quality. safe yield.
motels. J. McGraw-Hill Book Company. industrial. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. amount and location of groundwater extractions. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. The smaller the system. Grigg. decreasing percentage increase.
A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. Hydrology for Engineers. pumping. New York. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. flood. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. is a very difficult task. legal. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. Bear.
21. and natural and artificial replenishment.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. K.83
Upon completion of the operational and economic studies.43 Water Consumption
The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
. and sanitary purposes. water used. financially feasible. and age of the city. 1987. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. however.” A. industrial. and hotels for drinking. S. geographical boundaries. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. washing. storage. and treatment works. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. “Groundwater Engineering. fire-fighting. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. and public.. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. sanitary. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. transmission. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. percentage increase. and lawn-sprinkling purposes.” R. Kashef. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. fire. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. and environmental factors.. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. distribution.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. commercial. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. (“Ground Water Management. irrigation. Estimation of future population. graphical comparison with other cities. apartments. wastewater disposed. bathing. Therefore. Linsley et al. no. institutional. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. “Water Resources Planning. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. American Society of Civil Engineers. or other unforeseen emergency. land speculation. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. surface-water delivery facilities. such as industrial development. 40. All rights reserved.” N. Inc. I. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.” 3rd ed. culinary. Click here to view.
All rights reserved. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. the demand for it decreases. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. public buildings. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. and air conditioning purposes. Normally. Demand rates vary with time of day. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. The national demand-rate data. and time of day. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. valves. and year. air conditioning. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. cost. Public use of water for parks.84 s Section Twenty-One
Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. size of the city. mainly because of the lack of large industries.S. janitorial. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. and pressure. Calif. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. and cleaning. such as the climate. cooling.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. reservoir evaporation.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. but because of the high rate at which it is required. are the average of a range of values.21. Table 21. month. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities.
. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. lawn sprinkling. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. type of service (metered or unmetered). Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Public Health Service Report. Mo.” 1979. degree of industrialization. quality. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. and quality of the water. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Inc. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. The “California Water Atlas.17. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. if the cost of water increases. as presented in Table 21. State of California Office of Planning and Research. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. pressure. Click here to view. cost. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. it may control the design of the facilities. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. meter malfunctions. and faucets. presents
Table 21. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. standard of living. influence the demand rate for water. degree of industrialization. and unauthorized uses.
MG† 0.18.000 85. such as lakes.000 110. climate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 2. and streams.000 200. cost. quality.000 5. interdependent.3
Duration. Total dependence on a single source.6 4.2 8. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.0 3. Hydrant Spacing.44 Water-Supply Sources
The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 90. is frequently undesirable.5 14. Moreover. and politics. MG = million gallons. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. rivers. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 40. however.000
1. In the atlas. The source must
Table 21. but the demand rate is high.000 80.4 2. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.85
average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. to a large extent.6 1.000 8.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 40.000 40.000
* American Insurance Association. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.18 Required Fire Flow.8 2. † MGD = million gallons per day. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.0 1.000 90. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.
21. and in some cases. In the past.8 6.000 12. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 17.2 2.3 5.000 85. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. industrialization. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. diversification is essential for reliability.000 70. All rights reserved. however. Click here to view.000 40.4 3.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.132) where G = fire-demand rate. gal/min P = population.000 40. inland. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.8 7. the effect of warm.000 40.
. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. valley cities.000 60.3 0. Inc. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1. legality.000 120. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 55. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 80.000 40.000 100.000 48.000 28.9 4. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.4 17.000 4.0 7.000 6.000 4.000 1.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. In some local areas.000
Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. Cost. In selection of a source of supply.000 10.500 2.000 125. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.6 11.000 3.000 10.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
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. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.S. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.” U. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.90 s Section Twenty-One
When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. such as sulfates and chlorides. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained.5 mg / L 0. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. dependent on local conditions.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. (See also Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. temperature. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.) At the discretion of the state. Inc.5 – 8. All rights reserved.21. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. total dissolved solids. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.22. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.3 mg / L 0. and Water Pollution Control Federation. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.) Source Protection s The U.S. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.” American Public Health Association. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. calcium hardness.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards
Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. and calculation of the Langelier index. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. American Water Works Association. In addition. The measurements should include pH. alkalinity. Click here to view. as indicated by the following extract:
Table 21.21. 21. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.
. Inc. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. calculated with ν = νs. however. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. 21.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Reynolds numbers.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.
. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. and size and shape of the settling basin. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.
Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.
21.1 Plain Sedimentation
The ideal settling basin (Fig. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.0. is equal to or less than 1. coagulation-sedimentation. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. such as those mentioned above. shape. velocity is constant.134) where CD is the drag coefficient.46. disinfection.001 and 5. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.134). where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.Water Resources Engineering s 21. particulate and colored matter. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Figure 21.51). V the flowthrough velocity. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.0 < R < 2000. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. (See R.46 Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. (21. Pojasek. depth ho . to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. For this ideal basin.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. In the region where 1. to be used in Eq. slow and rapid sand filtration. Figure 21. All rights reserved. Mich. Click here to view. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.91
The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. (21.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. temperature and viscosity of the water. and softening (see also Art. Inc. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. 21. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. unpleasant tastes and odors. and width B. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. B. (Usually. Ann Arbor. Newton’s law applies: (21.
21. mm If R > 2000.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. after Camp. 897. 103. Inc. 21. p.)
Fig. vol. 21.21. at 10 °C. All rights reserved. 1946. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.76
Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. (Observed curves.92 s Section Twenty-One
rectangular (Fig. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. New York. and eddy currents. 21. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. for example.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.5 ft/min (most common velocity. M. 21.)
. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 21. Multistory tanks.. 21.46. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Geyer.” John Wiley & Sons.8c.93
Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . C. 1.78a) or circular (Fig.77
Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. Inc. and D. “Water Treatment Plant Design. New York. or other indicator to pass through the basin. All rights reserved. The tubular settler (Fig. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Okun. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. J. are removed in this basin. Without coagulants. A.78b). 21. 27. Fair. short circuiting.. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. salt. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation
To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. Inc. finely
Fig. Inc. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. Click here to view. coagulants are added to the water.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo .” McGraw-Hill.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.94 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. (d) Tubular settler. (b) Circular clarifier. Inc.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.
. Click here to view. 21. All rights reserved. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.21.
Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. They are available in three types: cationic. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. A. Inc. Corbitt. Culp and R. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in some instances. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. organic polyelectrolytes. J. highmolecular-weight. Also. T. color. All rights reserved. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. (2) flocculation or slow stirring.47 Filtration Processes
Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. consequently. “Water Supply and Sewerage. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc.95
divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. and easier dewatering. turbidity. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. “New Concepts in Water Purification. such as pH. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. such as paper fiber. McGhee. New York. such as mechanical stirrers. New York. Culp. however. however. Thereby. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate).to 60min range. chemical and biological reactions. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. settling. or negatively charged.” R. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. considering both cost and performance. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles.. plankton. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. L. and air jets. “Water Quality and Treatment. (G.” 4th ed. or neutral in charge. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. and nonionic. 18H2O].)
21. color. temperature. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. The filtering process has many components. Inc. to get the small floc to agglomerate. ferric chloride (FeCl3). and hardness.
. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. anionic. L. American Water Works Association. and suspended solids. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. however. such as physical straining. Anionic polymers. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. centrifugal pumps. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. or positively charged. production of a smaller volume of sludge. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin.” McGraw-Hill. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. coliform organisms. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages.. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Polymers are long-chain. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step.
Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.to 12-in layer of gravel. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units.or mixed-media filtration. depending on the turbidity.79
Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. 21.
. Usually. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.to 0. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The wash-
Fig. All rights reserved. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. through the sand and gravel layers. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The process requires rapid mixing. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Click here to view.21. Inc. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. that will pass 10%. in millimeters. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. by weight. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.25.79. of the sand. and dual. 21. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.96 s Section Twenty-One
a polymer as a flocculant aid.35-mm range.
This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. filters pass water at a high rate. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. Immediately after washing.25 to 1.35 to 0. Dual-media. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. creating a high head loss across the filter.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. may be more advantageous.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. The filtering medium may be sand. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. which produces an undertreated effluent.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or anthracite coal. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Inc. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. gal/min b = width of trough. bed cracking. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. which is drained to waste.
. All rights reserved. and air jets. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. diatomaceous earth. such as rakes. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. water sprays. or sand incrustation will be encountered. mixed-media. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity.20 to 1. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. however.005:1 range. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Click here to view. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates.97
water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. or deep coarse-media filters.002:1 to 0.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 mg/L. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. New York. New York. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. respectively. Fair.” 4th ed. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. however. Okun. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. New York. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. or open-joint pipes. “New Concepts in Water Purification.138)
(21.” John Wiley & Sons.. (G. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. and R is the zeolite material. McGhee.139)
21. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].48 Water Softening
Presence of the bicarbonates.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). “Water Quality and Treatment. Inc. lime (CaO). (American Water Works Association. and D. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. In the lime-soda process. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and (3) total hardness. “Water Quality and Treatment. These materials remove cations.21..49 Disinfection with Chlorine
Chlorine in either the liquid. American Water Works Association. such as calcium and magnesium.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York. M. Culp. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.” 6th ed. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness.)
(21. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.98 s Section Twenty-One
Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.. J. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. carbonates. G. Geyer.” and T.)
21. All rights reserved. A. Some. “Water Treatment Plant Design. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.136) (21. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Regeneration requires between 0. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. sulfates. and American Society of Civil Engineers. J.137)
Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. perforated. in clear wells. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. L. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. gas.
. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. C. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. L. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.” 4th ed. where 1 gpg = 17. Culp and R.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed.3 and 0.
or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. New York.” and T. New York. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (G. and recreation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.45). despite its low solubility. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. ultraviolet light.)
21. Okun. 21. Filter both solutions. “Water Treatment Plant Design. anion exchange. cation exchange.” McGraw-Hill. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. irrigation.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. then. Other disinfectants are iodine. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. ozone. taste. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Fair. and electrodialysis. J. odor. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. Inc. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.50 Carbonate Stability
Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.) respect to carbonates. detergents. New York. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.51 Miscellaneous Treatments
Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. reverse osmosis. Inc. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. lime softening.52 Reservoirs
The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. activated carbon. Inc. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. All rights reserved. Geyer. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. chlorine dioxide.1 or 0. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. A. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter.. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. and lime. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. McGhee..” McGraw-Hill.
. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.. C. iron. Click here to view. J. flood control. manganese. Chlorine residuals of 0. M. excessive fluorides. 21. and D. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.)
21. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with
Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. bromine.” John Wiley & Sons. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. “Water Treatment Plant Design. water supply.99
Fig. areavolume curves (Fig.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. 21. minimum flows will be critical. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Also. Click here to view.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1). The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. The plot of volume vs.80. When the demand rate is known. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. 21. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.100 s Section Twenty-One
(see also Art. 21.
. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig.52. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. All rights reserved. The mass diagram (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. maximum flows will govern.21. Inc. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. 21. 21. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.80
Mass diagram of stream flow.
and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.81
Area-capacity curves for a reservoir.52. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.
. San Francisco. perature drops in the fall. but there is no circulation across this zone.1 Distribution Reservoirs
The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. In deep reservoirs. odor.101
Fig. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.52. When the tem-
21. is called the thermocline. A mass dia-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. such as New York. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and Los Angeles.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Click here to view. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. the flow refills the reservoir. are large distances from the city. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. Major sources of supply for some cities. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. give special attention to water quality. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. pumping plants. When the demand drops off. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. 21. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. which may be only a few feet thick. During hours of maximum demand. If possible. Inc.35 and 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color.2). 21. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir.
” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. A flowing artesian
Fig. 21. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. Click here to view. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-
21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. 21.82) (G. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. Brune.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. M. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed.
21. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.102 s Section Twenty-One
gram (Fig.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. vol. June 1953). Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. M. For any given storage reservoir.84).35. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency
The methods of Art. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.53 Wells
A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Inc. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 3.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 34. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.82
Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. 21. no.52. All rights reserved. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. 21.
. 21.83). Brune. 21. For the correct hydraulic grade.21.
Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.83
Gravity well in a free aquifer.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.
. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.
Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.57).)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. bored. from an artesian well is given by (21. J.. 21. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. 72. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.143)
21. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.84). (G. A.53. ft (Fig. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. ft The steady flow. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.142) where Q = flow.2 Flow From Wells
The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. Fair.53. ft h = H minus drawdown. 21..” Economic Geology. Jacob. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. waterjet. V. or driven. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter).1 Drawdown
When water is pumped from a well.3 Excavation of Wells
Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. no. 1940. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. p. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. M. Theis. and D. McGhee.21. 33. C. screen. 889.104 s Section Twenty-One
well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. Geyer.83). J. All rights reserved.” John Wiley & Sons. The pump. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. Inc. eductor or riser pipe. Okun. December 1938. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. E. gal/day. Click here to view. motor. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.
21. (C. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. T. C.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. Inc. 5. “Water Supply and Sewerage. New York. McGraw-Hill.4 Well Equipment
Essential well equipment consists of casing. or hydraulic rotary methods.. 21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous.” 6th ed.
21.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.53. vol.53. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. p. hollow-core. ft d = diameter of well. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. ditch. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug.
21. New York.
. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. and motor. pump (Art. 629. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Inc. Hence. vol.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
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21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
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Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. valves.146) where D = pipe diameter.
21. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle.21. and other appurtenances. polybutylene. pumps. stray electric currents.
(21. Inc. valves. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. tanks. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft
21. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. brass. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. contact between acids and metals. sand. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. bronze. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)
Ha = average head on pipe. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Metals can
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.54. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. are present. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. concrete.) At the anode. plastic. however. hydrants. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. and meters destroyed by corrosion. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years.6 Pipe Materials
Cast iron. polyethylene. such as polyvinyl chloride. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. an anode and a cathode. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls.
. dollars/hp per year
Qa = average discharge. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. sealed flanges. If it is cement-lined. Wood pipelines are still in existence.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems
Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. but wood is rarely used in new installations. Under favorable conditions. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. rubber. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. zinc. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. Click here to view. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. bacteria in water. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. or Dresser-type couplings. lead. and plastics. Copper. impurities and strains in metals. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. riveting. Since steel is stronger than iron. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes.108 s Section Twenty-One
Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. and sulfur compounds. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. All rights reserved. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. and ability to withstand external loads. A machine that produces a monolithic. steel. In unlined pipes.
) For an iron pipe exposed to water. and treatment of the water. cracks. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. 21. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal.86
Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. use of protective coatings.86). and
Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. caustic soda. such as soda ash. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. water may be treated with bases. to prevent corrosion. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Strains. All rights reserved. When selecting materials.
. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. At the cathode. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. the corrosion process continues (Fig. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Click here to view. Inc. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt.109
be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. the faster electrons can move through the water. Aluminum. zinc. and the more ions. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. where e is an electron. Also. for example. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21. Corrosion. hydroxides. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. between pump center line and water surface
Fig. Click here to view.” 4th ed. (American Water Works Association. efficiency.87). psia. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. graphite.147) where pa = pressure. or eye. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. psia.)
w = unit weight of liquid. Zinc. or impeller.88
Volute-type centrifugal pump. in feet. z is negative. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. To prevent cavitation. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. however. oxides. 21.
lime. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump.. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. accomplishes that in two steps. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. McGraw-Hill.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The centrifugal pump. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. Inc. All rights reserved.88). Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. the most common waterworks pump. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. “Water Quality and Treatment. and the head-discharge relationship. ft of water z = elevation difference. 21. and so on on the walls of the pipes.21.110 s Section Twenty-One
by centrifugal force. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. To have practical meaning. by (21. horsepower. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.
. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. ft. magnesium.87
Cathodic protection of a metal. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing
Fig. Inc. New York. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH.56 Centrifugal Pumps
The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. called a volute (Fig. Water enters at the center. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater
21. 21. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates..
“Pump Handbook.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. For that reason. and air lift. 21. jet. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. below 200 gal/min.. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. as shown in Fig.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. 21.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.58. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however.
Fig. See also Art. propeller. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. 21. (I.57 Well Pumps
These are classified as centrifugal. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. 21. Click here to view. depending on the number of stages. J. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates.
. head.57 and check valves in Art. helical. pump discharge. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Karassik et al.” 2nd ed. New York. 21. reciprocating. rotary.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. 21. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In a typical water-system analysis. (Also included in Fig. All rights reserved.89
Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.89. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.)
than the required NPSH.
gal/min H = head. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. Because of the close tolerances. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. either hand. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies.112 s Section Twenty-One
Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type.
. Jet pumps (Fig.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. At sea level. 21. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube.148) where n = impeller speed. which is a function of specific speed. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. utilize piston action to move water. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. vanes. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. and for Ns above 7500. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. cams. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. so that the entire lift is suction. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Reciprocating pumps. Inc. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level.or motordriven.21. r/min Q = discharge. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. which are located at the well bottom.
Section through a jet pump (simpli-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications.90 fied). The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. All rights reserved. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Click here to view. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-
tion. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. and butterfly valves. pumps. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). curb. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. availability. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. one just upstream of the meter. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. and easy. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. (I. globe. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.58 Valves
Water facilities use many different types of valves. But these valves cost more than gate. and low head loss when fully open. globe. plug. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. and butterfly. New York. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. “Pump Handbook.or oil-lubricated. applied through a gear-reduction device.” 2nd ed.. Hand or motor power. Inc.. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Also.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. cone. Plug. rotates the disk. Karassik et al. If sand is carried out with the water. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. pressure-regulating.) drives to permit manual operation. respectively. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. sluice gate. J. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Click here to view. All rights reserved. pressure-relief. which are water. large pressure differences. three valves must be used. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. in-service lubrication features. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. or it may be at the bottom of the well. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. solids deposition. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. air-relief. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. fast operation. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. rubber. Corrosion. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. needle. or corporation cocks. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. or Neoprene. primarily because of their low cost. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Check. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. one at the service connection. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Simplicity of construction and quick.
. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Usually. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. Low head loss. Needle valves are used for accurate
21. tubercle formation. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties.
and large pipes. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Interior-differential. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Inc. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. such as trunk lines
21. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
21. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Furthermore. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface.21. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. and relief valves. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. For example. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. The wetbarrel. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Many automatic control valves. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. The most common check valve is the swing type. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class.60 Metering Devices
Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. a large pumper outlet must be furnished.59 Fire Hydrants
A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Often. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Usually. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. or California type. When the valve is in a closed position. which connects the barrel to the main. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. rivers. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Because of high head losses. All rights reserved. tube. check.114 s Section Twenty-One
control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Click here to view. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve.
However. ft d2 = diameter of throat. The standard venturi meter (Fig. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Click here to view.150) where Q = flow rate. “Handbook of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. ft h1 = pressure in main section. vertical velocity components. called a Price meter. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss.” 6th ed. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems.91. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. The nutating disk is used. are the most common velocity-type devices. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
(21. simplicity and ease of repairs. but they are used primarily in laboratories. 21. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. New York. F. rotary.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. or nutating-disk types. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. which do not affect propeller meters. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. The cup-type meter.
. 21. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.149) Hydraulics. A clicking noise. see E. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. nozzle. Brater.115
of distribution systems. or modifications thereof.. for metering domestic-service connections.) As in venturi meters. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. such as meters for individual customer connections. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. amount of head loss through the meter. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Inc. respectively. and cost. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter
d1 = diameter of main section. durability. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied.5% within the normal test-flow limits. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices.
The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. utility-type enterprises. if any. 21.
. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Inc.
Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter.21. seasonal use. and block rate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.116 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. and similar items.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Nozzle meter. peak rates of use. Rate structures are typ-
ically based on demand. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. and development of the system. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. (c) Orifice-
21. Click here to view. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers.61 Water Rates
The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. or to some other recognized system. load factors.91 plate meter. All rights reserved. flat rate is falling into disuse. step rate. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. fire use. fixed charges on capital investment.
Water Resources Engineering s 21. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. a building to house the machinery and equipment.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. For most distribution systems. called the demand component. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 kW = 1. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. buying water from a wholesale supplier.152a)
Hydroelectric Power and Dams
Hydroelectric plants. It is generally recognized that residential areas.117
With step rate. including metering and billing. where the majority of small users are. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. and.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. draft tube. called the commodity component. When fixing a system of rates. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Inc. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. S. switching equipment. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. and transformers. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Cost component 2. Cost component 1.
21. depends on the peak usage of a customer. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. pumping energy. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Cost component 3. tunnels.
. penstocks. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. of serving an individual customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation
Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. treatment chemicals. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. turbines and governors. where applicable. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. tunnel. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. called the customer component. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. This charge is usually small. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. generators and exciters. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. canals. and (3) cost. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. Click here to view.
On a weekly cycle. base-load plants. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants.
. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. weekly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Inc. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. Storage can be provided for a daily. Click here to view. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage.21. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. such as navigation. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Therefore. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. 21. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. All rights reserved. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. run-of-river plants with storage. On a seasonal cycle. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. weekly. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. to be used at some future time.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. On a daily cycle. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. If the minimum flow is very low.118 s Section Twenty-One
(21. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. and peak-load plants. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from
Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Then. power production being only incidental. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. or yearly basis.92). or seasonal cycle. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. It can be computed on a daily.
Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. it usually is not as economical. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high
power demand. Los Angeles. Inc. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. and rock-fill. 21. (Department of Water and Power. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. buttress. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. (V. Calif. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.Water Resources Engineering s 21.92). Click here to view. All rights reserved. the energy loss may make it uneconomical.92
Daily load curves for generating plants. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. J.” 4th ed.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Its distribution is triangular. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Hasen. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. When needed. arch. 21. earth. The main classifications are gravity. Figure 21. Zipparo and H. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. This silt pressure can be cal-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..)
steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low.119
. Force F2 represents silt pressure.
. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Inc. ice.) (21. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.000 psf. (E. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. 434. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Rose. p. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.” discussion by von Karman. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. In cold climates. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. however.21. given by Eq.93
Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. A close approximation of the force. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. ice pressures as high as 50. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0.120 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.
culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. 1933. All rights reserved. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. May 1946. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. which forms on the reservoir surface.1 g. which create forces on any object resting on it. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. today it is realized these values are much too high. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. presented by Edwin Rose. was developed by von Karman. 98. A method of calculating these forces. 21. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. vol. (21. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.93 by forces F4 and F5. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice.153). Click here to view. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. In the past. These accelerations occur in every direction.153) where w = unit weight of water. Most dams in seismically active regions in
the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.425h above the base.
this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. They are not suited to most sites. silt. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Click here to view. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. On arch dams. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. In the multiple-arch. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. All rights reserved. uplift is not so important. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. rock flour. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. engineers assumed that. Inc. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. but the structural design is much more critical. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. and clay. Hence. The modes of failure are also the same. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. however. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. is available and clayey materials must be imported. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. When the base is not drained. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. but it does not pro-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. such as sand and gravel. because of bearing contact. If a large quantity of pervious material. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. or failure of the foundation material. however. In the past. and uplift forces are smaller. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. First.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their relative importance is much different. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. however. If the deflections are not equal.121
imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. However. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades.
. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. but its formwork is more expensive. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. overturning by rotating about the toe. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Recent belief. sand.
S. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. J.64 Hydraulic Turbines
In the past. Hasen. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. or wood over concrete. Temporary facings are usually of wood. Leakage should be expected. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. If pervious material is not available. New York. onto the fill. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Bureau of Relamation. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. 21. Army Corps of Engineers. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. however.122 s Section Twenty-One
vide the flexibility of clay materials. the natural angle of repose of rock. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1.
. (V. The facing is usually concrete. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. For some types of soil. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult.” EM 1110-2-2300. bonding into the dumped rock. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Click here to view. and an upstream impervious facing. providing power. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Inc.” 4th ed.21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. therefore. S. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. For dams over 200 ft high. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. U. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. although steel has been used occasionally.” U. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.3 on 1. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 on 1. Zipparo and H. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.94). with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Today. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.)
21.. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. The downstream face is usually 1. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. bearing on the rubble cushion. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.
Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. wicket gates. runner.94 turbine. however. In these.)
Fig. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. J. At heads above 1000 ft. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. In such installations.
.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. 21.” 4th ed. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.Water Resources Engineering s 21.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs
Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. runner. 21. 21.95c). efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. As the water flows through the tur-
21. wicket gates. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. However. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. Click here to view. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. and draft tube. The wicket gates. their efficiency decreases rapidly. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. At heads below 100 ft. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles.
Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic
In most impulse turbines. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. it changes direction. 21. 21. The propeller turbine (Fig.123
bine. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.. and the fixed-blade type. and draft tube. New York. the propeller-type (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. Zipparo and H. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. Inc. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. This creates a force on the runner. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines.95a). the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. (V. When the power demand on the turbine changes. All rights reserved. if the load drops below 50%. Hasen. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. however. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. such as the Kaplan turbine.
Click here to view.65. (b) Kaplan. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. the dam will not be damaged by the water. All rights reserved.
Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. widely used for concrete dams because.124 s Section Twenty-One
out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. if designed correctly. Inc. This type of spillway is
Fig. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. (c) axial flow. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.
An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.
overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. open channel. or ogee in cross section. both depending on the head on the weir. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.” Government Printing Office. 21. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. A siphon spillway (Fig. siphon spillways hold the water
Fig.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Washington.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit.96
Siphon spillway. All rights reserved. DC 20402). the siphon’s intake is sealed. As the head increases. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping.34). Click here to view. Thus. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Bureau of Reclamation. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. model tests are usually employed.
. lined.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. “Design of Small Dams. 21. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section.S. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Once this second condition is reached. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The air vent shown in Fig. 21. This type of spillway. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. Inc. 21.125
The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. The weir can be sharp-crested.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. called an ogee spillway. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. flared. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. In a chute spillway. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. When the head is relatively low. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. In a shaft spillway. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. In a side-channel spillway. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir.
Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.2 Intake Structures
The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. 21. In a taintor gate (Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the pipes fail. All rights reserved. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. and providing support for the conduit.126 s Section Twenty-One
The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.98
Fig. 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. On large stop-log installations. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation.21. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. making removal difficult.3 Crest Gates
These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.97
Taintor gate. Click here to view. 21. controlling flow. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.
level of a reservoir within close limits.97). When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. causing damage and hampering operation. In contrast.5 ft/s. To do this. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.
21. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.65.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Babbitt. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. “Water Supply Engineering. drum gates are not suited to small dams. 21. Hasen.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. and H. Inc. Zipparo and H. L. 21.99 Drum gate. The drum gate (Fig. as shown in Fig..127
Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. (V.Water Resources Engineering s 21. E. Doland. Because of the large recess required in the dam. To raise a bear-trap gate.” 4th ed. and J.98. Click here to view.) Fig. New York. J. Cleasby.
. 21. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Inc.blank page 21.128
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.