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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

like surface tension.7 psia. psi. Absolute pressure. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. portions of the liquid vaporize. Meniscus. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Its value Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its temperature variation. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. 21. 21. as shown in Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. at sea level. 21. respectively. Thus. In equation form. although negligible in many water engineering problems. 21. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. (21. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. ft Capillarity. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Click here to view. is small and insignificant in most problems. and freezing damage to concrete.1) where h = capillary rise.000 ft is shown in Fig. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. decreases with increasing temperature. 21. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere.7 psi. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. psia. face and rises in a small tube. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Gage pressure. pitting. formation of spray from water jets. When the liquid is in a closed container. Surface tension and capillarity. . All rights reserved.21. as shown in Fig.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. are significant in others. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Inc. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.2. however. ft σ = surface tension. or liquid surface.1. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. is pressure above or below atmospheric.3. is concave upward.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube.

the pressure acts equally in all directions. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. ft2/s. It is so named because its units. transitional. to collapse. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. 21. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. lb/ft3. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. as shown in Fig. psf. Since the prism is at rest. and cross-sectional area A. Click here to view. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. which extend into the pores of the metal. In hydraulics. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. on the top surface. ft/s y = depth. 21. Then. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. and pitting appears. Viscosity. µ of a fluid. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. psf. ft. of length and time. or implode. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h.2) where τ = shearing stress.Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. on the bottom surface. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas.00001059 ft2/s.4. the force due to pressure p1. absolute viscosity. Inc. or dynamic viscosity. At any depth. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. lb/ft2 21.5 Fig. and the force due to pressure p2. 21. All rights reserved. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. or completely turbulent flow exists. (Pressures as high as 350. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21.8) to determine whether laminar. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. . also called the coefficient of viscosity. ft2. is a measure of its resistance to flow.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.

3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface.5) 21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. (21. the pressure.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. lb/ft3.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.4). Figure 21. 21. (21. and other water control structures. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. Click here to view. p1 is atmospheric pressure.3a) Division of Eq. (21. ft. Therefore. (21.4) Equation (21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Thus. Inc. The resultant pressure force P.3.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . lb. where w is the specific weight of water. at depth h. ft2. psf. (21. the depth of the centroid.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA.4. then p2 is p. 21. tanks. For horizontal surfaces. however. (21. Equation (21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).6) – ∫ydA = y A. dams. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. the depth below the water surface.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Taking ∆h to be h. ft.3b) then becomes (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.3a) by A yields (21.21. and y sin θ = h .6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.

8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. (21.7). Inc.) but acts at a point (c.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. All rights reserved. where K is the radius of gyration. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.8) equals –A. Hence y . The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. – From Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf. 21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.). 21. Click here to view. The location of the center of pressure. 6. (21. (21. The denominator of Eq. ft. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.7 Fig. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. represented by the length yp. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.p.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. . 21. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 .Water Resources Engineering s 21.g.5).g.2° to the horizontal (Fig. 21. Thus. of the surface about its centroidal axis.p. Example 21.6 (see also Fig.) that is below the c. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.8). if that locus is a straight line. 21.7).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.29). the total force P = whA. (21. Pyp = ∫y dP. (21. Otherwise.

1. From Eq. All rights reserved. 21. Inc.0 ft.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.0) = 5.21. K2 = point G.42 ft.08.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.) of common shapes. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. Therefore. yp = 5.9).0 + 2.08/5 = 5. 21.g. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.8.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. however. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. . 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. (See Example 21. 21. Also.42 = 5.0 + 0. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.3. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. Note: 1.5 + 1/ (5. P = 62. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.

The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.564.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its angle with the horizontal is known.14 × 25/4 = 19. 21.9 Fig. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.7). The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. . Inc. and for a constant-radius surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. 21. 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. All rights reserved. (21.2. 2. When water is below the curved surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.6 × 62. 21.4 × 2.6w = 19.9. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface.4°. The corresponding angle is 57. (b) Free-body diagram. so the weight of the water is 19. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.9). – From Eq. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.6 ft3.5 × 5 = 780 lb. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (See Example 21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. Example 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. Fig. PH = whA = 62.

For a body to be in equilibrium..). The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. (21. 21. is indicated by the metacenter. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. whether floating or submerged.10b. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.b.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. the pressure head. . (21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. 21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. ft3 ys = distance. or the difference in head. p = wh. 21. 21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The stability of a ship.g. Inc. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.10b). Manometers indicate h. All rights reserved. (21. Click here to view. Given in feet by Eq.10a). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. ft.4). All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.

However. . usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. All rights reserved.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.4 lb/ft3. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.12c).11a is 2. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. The liquid is water with w = 62.11 manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Basic types of manometers. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.17 psi. 21. U-tube manometer. (b) U-tube manometer.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21. and differential manometer. Inc. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21. Example 21. The piezometer (Fig.11): piezometer. What is hm? Fig. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. 21. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. although the latter is most common. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. (a) Piezometers. Click here to view.

the Utube manometer (Fig. All rights reserved. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A movable scale. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.12c). Click here to view. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. 21. 21. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11b) is used.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. including negative gage pressures. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.21. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. 21. Inc. as opposed to a fixed scale. Very low pressures. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. In this application. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.

0 ft. The differential manometer (Fig.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. Click here to view.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. ft. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. psf p2 = pressure at 2. in the manometer. when expressed in feet of water.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.4: A differential manometer (Fig. is magnified by the differential manometer. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.25 ft. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. such as might be required in laboratories.13 indicating liquid.6 × 62. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. Above 5.5. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. 21. Example 21. Most of them. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. psf.12a. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. if the actual difference is 0.11) where Z1 = elevation.25 ft of water. The pressure at B.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. ft. or sump. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. Inc.4 × 2. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1.40. One factor. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. that is.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21.6). the actual pressure difference. For example.4 × 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. hi is 2. psf w = specific weight of fluid. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. 21. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. however. as shown in Fig. however. psf.4 × 2. such as ft of water or psi. the magnification will be 2. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. All rights reserved. the total energy per unit weight at 2. and z is 1. hm1 is 9 in.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. 21. .11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.0 and 2. 21.75 + 13. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. and the right side. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. 32.

11). ft3/s.4 ft3/s. lb/ft3. 21.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. V2/2g. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Kinetic energy at the section. Average velocity. ft2.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. 21.5. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where W is the weight. ft. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. above some arbitrary datum. (21. The total energy. lb. Example 21. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. or the total head ft: (21. across the area of the section A. 21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid.13).13. ft/s. ft/s = Q/A. All rights reserved. It equals WVa2 / 2g. ft. This term hf. and pressure (Fig. varies with velocity. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. a Fig. (See Example 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. however. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. As indicated in Fig. and pressure. Fig. where Va is the velocity. through friction. velocity head.21. Inc.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.14) pa/w is called pressure head. . Usually.14. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. velocity. where Q is the quantity of flow. velocity. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. 21.

(21.14 = 10 ft/s. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. since the pipe has free discharge. 21. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. which may result from a change in either velocity. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. sometimes called the total head line. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. direction. is equal to the impulse. The energy grade line. 21.7.15).15 Fig.9). Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.4/ 3. ft. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. . A change in momentum. gate valve.45 ft. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Z2 = 0. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. hf = 50 – 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. Also. Art. All rights reserved. Thus substitution in Eq. p2 = 0. respectively. Hence. Inc. and any bends. Click here to view. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In openchannel flow. while in pressure flow.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. or magnitude of flow. 21.55 = 48.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. Fx = 181. (See Example 21. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.2° + Ry = 1.15) first in the X direction.2° – 13.000 cos 53. so θ = 60. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.1 and the density ρ = 62.78.4/ 32. since ∆Vy = –(–7.94. Fig.2° – 0) = 4.5°.000 lb. Then. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. and at 2. Example 21. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.1 Rx = –82.21. With p1 known. P2 = ppA2 = 13.5) = 65. Let R be the force.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2= 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. lb.500 lb.5 ft/s. All rights reserved. apply Eq. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.16.11) or (21. Click here to view.332π = 71. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. (21. 21. then in the Y direction.2° – 71. 21. To find F.94 × 100 × 65.200 lb. Fy = –181.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.000 sin 53.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. . which is to be determined).700/82.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.96 sin 53.600.6. Inc.12)] but may be used separately.94 × 100 × 4.200 + Rx = 1.96 cos 53. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. since ∆Vx = –(7.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. (21.78 Ry = 145.600 lb In the Y direction.

For instance. .7. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. to a given set of stimuli. the capability of the computing resources. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. A fourth mode of modeling. or drainage basin. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. alternative management schemes. Popular before the advent of digital computers. It is. and surface tension. or prototype. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. or proposed works.17 21. In this way. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Usually. hybrid modeling. droughts. Physical models are expensive to build. such as storm rainfall. In water resources engineering. operate. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. 1. employs both physical and mathematical models. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. With hybrid models. however. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. All rights reserved. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. erosional scour. Click here to view. such as a river. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. viscosity. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. aquifer.7. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. See also Art.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. In the preceding example.Water Resources Engineering s 21.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. gravity. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Inc. momentum. In most models. and through execution of the computer program. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. 21. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models.

Inc.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. The inertial force. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. ft2/s. the model is termed a true model. 32. the formation of drops and air bubbles. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. entrainment of air in flowing water. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Then (21.21a) (21. respectively. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. which is always a predominant force. Squaring both sides of Eq. and Weber number.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. such as depth or diameter).16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. (21. The Reynolds number is (21. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio.22) where ρ = density of fluid. viscosity. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. . Froude number. (21. the length ratio is the only variable. Once the length ratio has been set. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. and one other force are made proportional. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. such as spillways and weirs. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Ratios of the forces of gravity. Reynolds number. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Therefore. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Similarly.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. All rights reserved.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. The Weber number is (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion.20) R is dimensionless. The Froude number is (21.

ft/s R = hydraulic radius. mathematical models are.7.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. called a movable-bed model. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. Inc. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.S. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. The U. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Sr = 1. and infiltration parameters.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Rr = Lr. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. Click here to view. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. ft ν = kinematic viscosity.26) where V = mean velocity. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. For such models. These expressions. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. catchment areas. 21. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. For instance. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. viscous.24). inertial. and through execution of the computer program. the logical representation of prototypes. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. In some cases. One type of model. such as flow networks. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. All rights reserved.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. This type of model is called a distorted model. (21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. (21. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. Hence. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in particular. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. (21. . Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. in turn. such as a morning-glory spillway.25) In models of rivers and channels. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. model designs are often based on the Manning equation.23a) (21. are linked together to represent the system as a whole.

this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. and groundwater yield. 21. density.” N. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. impacts of dam breaks. vol. Grigg. wave or tidal analyses. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. or pollution. and private sectors. ecosystem impacts and restoration. Walker. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. Art. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes.) 21. “Handbook of Hydrology. when fully implemented. G. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. In object-oriented software.” V. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. channel and river hydraulics. the model output required for design or evaluation. and viscosity and the size of the conduit.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid.” D. New York. . Also. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. watershed hydrology. academia. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. design of hydraulic structures. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. A. and R. quantity and quality of water supply. Rothfus. This.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. For closed conduits other than circular. (J. R.17. reservoir regulation. seepage. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. and among water resources modelers in the government. flood or drought impacts. 3. 21. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. Maidment.2). as in annular passages. of all databases and software.21. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. S. however. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. hydrologic forecasting. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. flow routing. Inc. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. J. (D. if comparisons of different plans are required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As this shearing stress increases. evaporation and irrigation. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. Hasen. As a result. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Click here to view. This approach. and turbulent flow results. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. H. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts.” McGraw-Hill. R. sediment or pollutant transport. 1957. hydrodynamics. Whan. Zipparo and H. Hoggan. shown in Fig. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. As a general rule. All rights reserved. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. landfill leachate analyses.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. “Water Resources Planning. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. or both. F.

laminar flow is unstable. Fig. . this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. In this region.Water Resources Engineering s 21.17). Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. All rights reserved.. than for laminar flow (Fig. (21. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.29) For laminar flow. (E. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. as shown in Fig.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. ft L = length of pipe section considered. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. 21. (21. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. causing the flow to become turbulent.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. 21. ft/s D = pipe diameter.18. 21. 21. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Inc.27) where V = fluid velocity. the velocity distribution is more uniform. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. These disturbances create eddies. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. at completely turbulent flow. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. As a result. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. ft ρ = density of fluid. (21. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. As the Reynolds number increases. the flow is completely turbulent.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.19.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. In laminar flow.” 6th ed. it is not practical to treat it analytically. handbook of Hydraulics. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Therefore. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. Eq. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. New York. Click here to view. F. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. a disturbance will probably be magnified. Brater. flow is laminar in circular pipes.) 21. 32.21 Fig.l9. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics.

) Because Eq. 21. ft V = velocity of fluid. 32. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.03 – 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. The head loss is independent of the pressure.0005 – 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.0002 – 0.19) to Determine f ε. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.19) L = length of pipe.008 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. 21.0002 0.008 – 0.0005 – 0. Click here to view.00003 0. Moody. (21. Inc. November 1944.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. . 21.003 0.21.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9.001 – 0. (21. enamels. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. ft D = diameter of pipe. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.001 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.003 – 0.0002 0. F. All rights reserved. 21.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.0005 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (L.

(Although based on surface roughness.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34d) (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. Tables 21. All rights reserved.33d) (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.) Substitution into Eq. which requires experience in its choice. 21. . Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.3. ft S = head loss due to friction. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft L = length of pipe.34e) where V = velocity. where D is the pipe diameter. (21. (21. 21. Click here to view. ft3/s.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. ft/s C1 = coefficient. ft/s C = coefficient.34b) (21.33b) (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.4 and 21.9. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.34c) 21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.9.31) gives (21. Inc.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.32) where n = coefficient. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.31) where V = velocity. See also Table 22. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. dependent on surface roughness.33e) 21.33c) (21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.9.11 (p. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.

the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.016 To 0.010 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.35b) (21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.010 0. 21. .36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. enlargements. 21.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.015 0.010 To 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. (21. in short pipelines.017 0.017 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss. Example 21.015 0.012 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.017 0. and valves and other pipe fittings. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. However.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.36) for a check.013 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.014 0.) Flow between reservoirs.015 0.013 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.035 0. (21.4 Values of n for Pipes.7.015 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. because (21.012 0. Inc.7: Figure 21.017 From 0.011 0.012 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.21. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.013 0.012 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. All rights reserved. bends.017 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0.014 0.20 ple 21.015 0.35c) (21.013 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.

Gibson. steel forms.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. good workmanship. 80 4 in. is (21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. (21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. All rights reserved.21).25 Table 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. are presented in Table 21. Table 21. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 110 4 in.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 85 16 in. London. 115 12 in. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. the values of K in Fig.10. 105 30 in and over. good workmanship. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. (21.. 135 In good condition.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 120 Large sizes. Inc.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.. Click here to view. 21.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 21.21 are approximate. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. ft. .40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.38) A special application of Eq. 120 24 in and over.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. Ltd. wood forms. minor losses must be considered. (A. 21. 110 (21.37): (21. H. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. so a full velocity head is lost.10. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction.37) or (21. 140 Large sizes. 10 years older Average value.” Constable & Co. regardless of age.10.7. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. ft/s g = 32. 120 Centrifugally spun.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

4 0.63 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. fully open Swing check valve.71 0. fully open Gate valve. D = pipe diameter.21. Click here to view.1 0.0 Table 21.8 are only approximate.2 0.0 2. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.7 0. For these reaTable 21.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. All rights reserved.4 21.68 0. .25 The values in Table 21.9 0.5 0. Globe valve.76 0.62 0.89 1.2 0.2 2. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and at bends is given by (21.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.42) Table 21.10.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.9 0. fully open Angle valve.66 0.8 0.0 1. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.81 0. such as valves and elbows. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. 21.0 5.21 of the sides.50 K = 0.05 K = 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.80 K = 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.64 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.6 0.

National Bureau of Standards. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. The data are in agreement that the head loss. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. Ito. 21. or rectangular. its effect should be taken into account. (21. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. (K.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. H. (21. there is disagreement. 21. square. Inc. Click here to view. (H.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.44) where Q = discharge. 21. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. For low heads. 82. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. July 1938. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. 21.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.45) 21. and angle of bend. the bend loss essentially remains constant.42).” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Orifices may have any shape. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. J. 1960. If this velocity is significant. Zipparo and H.11. Reynolds number.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits.42). ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. 1. McGraw-Hill.) Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Beij. Figure 21. not including friction loss in the bend. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.27 sons. vol.. Inc. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. All rights reserved. not including friction loss. series D. Hasen. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.” Journal of Research. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. this error is corrected by the C values.9 for low velocity of approach.22: (21.23. Equation (21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. New York. Experiments on smooth pipes. 21. (21. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. . decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. vol. no. (V. although they are usually round.43) where ∆ = deflection angle.” 4th ed. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.

0 0.592 1.610 0. and Eq.599 0.627 0. Click here to view.600 0.655 0.602 0.637 0.636 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.600 0.601 0.613 0 610 0.596 0.632 0.623 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.634 0.596 0.602 0.02 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0. Inc. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.600 0.596 0.608 0.603 0.619 0.601 0.626 0.601 0.605 0.605 0.” 1886. 21.614 0.614 0.593 0.607 0. to Fig.611 0.643 0.612 0.599 0.597 0. V1 = 0.45) becomes (21.598 1.4 0.606 0.641 0.604 0.04 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.618 0. With the reference plane through point 2.617 0.631 0.602 0.632 0.594 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path. the vena contracta.622 0.1 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.598 0. ft 0.602 0.604 0.597 0.99. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 2 2.613 0.602 0.592 0.604 0.594 0.623 0.602 0.611 0. Jr. .629 0.615 0.595 0.591 0.595 0.617 0.612 0.607 0.596 0.644 0.608 0.602 0.637 0.618 0.590 0.603 0.603 0.601 0.628 0. ft 0.648 0.596 0.593 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.648 0.602 0.04 0.0 Head.21.592 0.621 0. All rights reserved.595 0.637 0.596 0.593 0.628 0.660 0.606 0.616 0.598 0.600 0.605 0.616 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.607 0. Z1 = h.609 0.619 0.599 0. and Z2 = 0.6 08 1 1.. ft 0.02 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. “Hydraulics. determined experimentally.605 0.603 0.1 0.652 0. of circular orifices.46) The actual velocity.618 0.630 0.610 0.614 0.608 0.94 to 0.599 0.623 0.

25. see E. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. All rights reserved.11. Inc.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.11. (21. 21. F. between 1 and 2.61 to 0. (21.” 6th ed. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. In Fig.25 orifice. the area of the orifice.48) is obtained. 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. 21. 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.67. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Eq. “Handbook of Hydraulics. . New York. ft. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. With a partly suppressed orifice.24b. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.47) where hL = losses in head.29 Fig.) 21. Click here to view. Figure 21.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. (21.

. (21. Eq.56). 32. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. Eq. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. (21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.23).26): (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.59). Click here to view.50) where a = area of orifice. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.11. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. (21.57) (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. is that for a parabola: (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.58) Equation (21. (21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. 21. when y = h1.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. For simplicity. s The Y coordinate is (21.58)]. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.56) Fig. (21. 21.58) gives (21. Rearranging Eq. (21. ft h2 = head at the end.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.57) for t and substituting in Eq. obtained by solving Eq. ft2 A = area of reservoir. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. All rights reserved. when y = h2.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.50) becomes (21. (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. to time t. 21.55) 21.

Fig. however. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.31 ty Cν = 0. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. In the tube or pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Equation (21. 21. (21.33VT / 2g. When this happens.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. For a short tube flowing full.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.27) but the head loss is larger.75. . 21.00 VT / 2g – 0. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. psf w = unit weight of water.82. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. Therefore. All rights reserved. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.27. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. a K value for Eq.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. 21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. 21. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.67 V2T /2g.67 V T / 2g = 0. Inc. 21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.82. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.5 a T T Fig.42) of 0. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. 21. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1.29.11. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. Click here to view. (21.67 V2 ) = 0. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.80.82 VT)2/2g = 0.11. if one exists). ft2 Fig. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.28).

But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise.30). the water in the pipe is motionless.29. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. the pressure in the pipe falls. 21. either above or below the normal pressure. However. Inc. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. the tube must flow full. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it causes water hammer. The pipe shown in Fig. When a valve is closed. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. Fig. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The change causes a pressure rise. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.32). The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. Every time the flow rate is changed. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. 21.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For this analysis to be valid.21. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. . As the water flows away from the closed valve. 21. Fig.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. either increased or decreased. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. but at a pressure much higher than normal. this momentum drops to zero. 21. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. 21. Click here to view. As the water flows into the reservoir.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21. All rights reserved. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.

13. (21. All rights reserved. 21.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. ft 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 43. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. Inc. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. Equation (21. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. approximate solution. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.63a) becomes (21. Eq. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. (21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.13.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Fig.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. For instantaneous closure: (21. .33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. 1.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.64) 21. 21.63a) In terms of pressure head. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. Click here to view.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. s A plot of pressure vs. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.63). The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.

where ∆t. Once the time interval has been determined.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. diameter = 10 ft. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).63). (21. (21. (21. is g = acceleration due to gravity. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. (21. 32.” 4th ed.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. (21. 21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. s T = actual closure time of valve. Click here to view. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.32. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.61). All rights reserved. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. ft L = length of pipeline. McGraw-Hill. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. New York. penstock thickness = 1 in.) Example 21.2 × 108 psf.. (21. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. With the head known. length = 3000 ft. (V. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve.) Velocity of pressure wave. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. Zipparo and H.63).2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. J. Hasen. where a equals any integer. area = 78.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. then that obtained from Eq. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. Inc.21. the increment of time. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir.5 ft2.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.63). initial velocity = 10 ft/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. each causing an individual pressure wave. such as L/aU. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. Inc. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. from Eq. Vo the original velocity. to apply Eq. equals L /aU. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. Thus.

All rights reserved. and the pressure rise. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.90 s. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. on the pipe material is (21. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. Click here to view. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. 21.13. it is by no means the only one. . The water column. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. 21. from Eq. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. Usually.34). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.75 s. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. Various types of relief Fig. in Assuming T = 4.63). approximate equation (21. floats on the line. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. lb Hence. Inc. psi.66) where p = internal pressure.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.90 s. (21.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. When a valve is suddenly opened. the stress. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.64) gives the following result: 21. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed.34 tension.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. the closure is instantaneous.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.33) must still be designed for water hammer. is Pipe Stresses 21. to prevent water hammer. 21. in effect.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. elastic Stability. However.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. (21.6). The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam.” 2nd ed. 21. The stress. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. In this case. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.21. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. psi. it acts like a beam. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.10). P Timoshenko and J. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. The force diagram in Fig. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. Gere. M. (21. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. due to a temperature change is (21. New York. (S. this analysis is approximate. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. If D/t is less than 10. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. Art.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. Click here to view. 21. 21.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. Equation (21. In Fig.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. All rights reserved. (21. For steel pipes. 21. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it.67). the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided.67) for concrete pipe. Eq.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. .67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. The internal diameter is used in Eq.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. (21. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. 6. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. Inc. Eq. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. “Theory of . is (21. In all bends. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. However. McGraw-Hill Book Company. if expansion joints are to be used.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. For concrete pipes.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.

(21. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. or other embankment. exit conditions. 32.71) where R = resultant force on bend. a railroad. and slope. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. psf w = unit weight of water. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. 62. Click here to view. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21.71) give a quick solution.37 Fig. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Eqs.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. However. however. (21.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. the joints must also be able to take these forces. All rights reserved. In small pipes. . The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.70) and (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. an exact theoretical analysis.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. canal. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.

the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. Portland Cement Association.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. the following equation is obtained: (21.33d) or (21. and the Manning equation for friction loss. the normal depth (Art. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.21. All rights reserved. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. 21.73) 21. 21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.” EB058W. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. 21. 21.23). . and the control will still be at the inlet.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. For this reason. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. computer software. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Inc. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the culvert flows full. Click here to view. 21. (21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.38). charts. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. but they do not cover Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. that is. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.36). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.30)].37).

Water Resources Engineering s 21. .37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. Fig. and dn < dc . and slope of culvert.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. 32. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. and dn > dc . normal pipe flow occurs. Discharge is independent of slope. ft V = velocity in culvert. The fluid flows under pressure. When slope exceeds critical. flow depends on inlet condition. 21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.75) Substituting this into Eq. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. open-channel flow takes place. (21.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. ft Equation (21. loss at entrance.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21.74) yields (21. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.74) Fig. 21. Discharge depends on head H.39 Fig. Thus. When slope is less than critical.39). When the slope is less than critical. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.23).20) 21. 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. All rights reserved. Click here to view. The discharge.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. (21. 21. for the open-channel condition (Fig. 21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. depending on the head.

and discharge is given by Eq. 21. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. If this condition exists. ft To solve Eq. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft dn = normal depth of flow. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. 21. Inc. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. 21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.39).21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. If the friction slope approaches critical. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig.40). (21. . (21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream.41). however.76). Click here to view. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. 21. Most culverts.18).76). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.76).37). (21. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. (21.72). When the friction slope is flat. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the head on a culvert is high. All rights reserved. 21.

33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. Find: size of culvert.8 ft3/s Table 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.01. (21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. groove or bell. But H = 5 + 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.19). Substitution in Eq. All rights reserved. (21. Since the culvert is under pressure.013. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. (21.18 and 21. (21. and the entrance will not control. Eq. groove or bell.6. To calculate the hydraulic radius.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.72) yields Q =Va = 9. First find dn. When the entrance is not submerged. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.15 0.40). then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. and free exit. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Table 21. 21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. slope = 0.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. Application of Eq.9 0. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. 21.72) applies. projecting Concrete pipe. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.5 0. Inc. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.72) and (21. (21. square edge Concrete pipe. Example 21. . it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.73).10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. These values are for culverts flowing full. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. with Eq.44) for discharge through an orifice. Fig.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. 21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. length = 300 ft.41 For entrance control. n = 0. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.10 0. Click here to view. the flow is under pressure.95 × 4 = 39.

The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. ft. or slope. Click here to view. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. ft. (21. plus the velocity head at the point. however. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. depth of flow is constant throughout. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. within a hydraulic jump. It is expressed in feet as (21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. and is given by (21. Hence. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. minus the free surface width. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. Inc.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.77) where V = average velocity. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. Figure 21. normally taken as 1. ft3/s. 21. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. The wetted perimeter is the length. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow.79).42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. In a uniform channel. Equation (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. ft2 When the discharge is constant. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It has uniform flow if the grade. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.36 for prismatic channels. (21. It is. or open-channel flow. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section.03 to 1. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Thus. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. is generally given by (21. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.21. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. . Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.79) The velocity head HV. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. or the total-head line. ft.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.

. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.43.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. T. New York. 21.” 6th ed. ft. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. as shown in Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. McGrawHill Book Company.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.84) where A = area of flow. All rights reserved. 21.43 Fig. 21. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics. normal depth decreases downstream. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. in which T is the top width of the channel.44. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. E. F. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft. roughness. (21. As the depth decreases downstream.42 is called the normal depth dn. (V. slope. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.43). 21. New York. (See. for example.84) reduces to Fig. Eq. 21. and discharge are known.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow.) (21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. For a rectangular channel. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.. or to the diameter of a circular channel. the specific energy also decreases.83) Brater. Click here to view. 21.

Brater. or conversely. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. the depth is below critical. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.84) may be reduced to (21. New York).44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Eq.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.84) is called the critical depth dc. ft3/s d = depth of flow. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. The flow there is called subcritical flow. . Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. 21. 21.43. (21. Click here to view. Inc.” 6th ed. For a given value of specific energy. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.84). and flow is supercritical. 21.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. For rectangular channels. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.44). the depth is greater than critical. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. “Handbook of Hydraulics. for a given discharge.44). (21. F.

without turbulence. 21.85). depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. 21.45 where dc = critical depth.87) Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. All rights reserved. 21. Click here to view. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. 21. 21. however. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. flow is subcritical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. indicating an irreversible occurrence. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. Such a change occurs gradually.45.52b. once calculated. p. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. . The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. It can be seen from Fig. For every depth greater than critical depth. Critical depth. along with a high loss of energy. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth.57). [As indicated by Eq. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. regardless of slope. Inc. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. as indicated in Fig. (21.44). flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. a hydraulic jump will occur.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. 21. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s b = width of channel. flow is supercritical. (21.

as shown in Fig. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.D. C for critical.25).D. 21. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. S for steep (supercritical).89) Since the discharge Q = VA.) 21. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.L.D.89) may be written (21. is replaced by a horizontal line. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. and two types for channels of critical.21. and the N.46a and b.9 and Table 21. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.D.4. Chow.S. E. 21. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. are in Table 21. and A for adverse. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Inc.L. These curves are divided into five groups. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Department of Agriculture. 21. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. and adverse slope. Dr. H for horizontal. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope.46.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. ft V = mean velocity of flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. 21. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.L. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. The M2 curve forms between the normal. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. . Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.D.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and C. All rights reserved. horizontal. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. (Although based on surface roughness. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.46c and d. (See also Art.11. and the critical-depth line C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. T. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.L. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). at an arbitrary elevation. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.23).88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. The N. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.L. New York. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. 21. therefore.and critical-depth lines.90) where A = area of flow. 21. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. the average n values given in Table 21. Eq. (21. Click here to view. there must be a continuing maintenance program. are identical for a channel of critical slope.

No vegetation b.014 0.025 0.028 0. Light brush on banks 3.017 Max 0. Planed. Lined channels 1.015 Avg 0. untreated 3.050 0. Rough wood form B.080 0.018 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.040 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. Wood a.014 0.060 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.022 0.025 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.035 0.014 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.025 0.020 0. Masonry a. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21. high stage 2. Smooth wood form c. Rough C.012 0. Inc.022 0.010 0.027 0. 21. respectively).025 0.012 0.030 0. Clean. Rock cuts a. Unlined channels 1. Asphalt a.018 0.011 0. Concrete a.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Concrete (unfinished) a.46i and j.012 0.015 0. Dredged earth a.022 0.030 0.021 0. Click here to view.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. wavy section 4. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.120 0. Smooth and uniform b. 21.033 0.016 0. Dense brush. high as flow depth d. good section c.080 0. 21. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.025 0. All rights reserved.013 0. . 21. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.021 0.032 0. Jagged and irregular 0.011 0. few weeds c.016 0. Metal a. Cemented rubble b.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.033 0. after weathering b.035 0.023 0.014 0.140 0. The S2 curve.023 0.013 0. Dense weeds.46a and b.016 0.013 0. Dry rubble 5. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.016 0.030 0.013 0. Steel form b. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.024 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.015 0. Excavated earth.035 0.040 0. Float finish b.025 0.013 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.016 0. Gunite. straight and uniform a.050 0.012 0. Smooth b. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Corrugated 2.100 0.017 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.019 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Gunite. With short grass.035 0.

indicates normal-depth line.21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.D.L.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . and A profiles.46k and l.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.L. The curves in Fig. 21. Inc. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Click here to view. H. critical-depth line. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. 21.. Examples in Fig. N. 21. C.D.

(R. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. Inc.5. depending on the type of flow. New York. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. the channel is divided into short lengths. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. known as its celerity. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. For subcritical flow conditions. T. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream.and direct-integration methods are in V. Chow. 21. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. or reaches. All rights reserved. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. French. Click here to view.) 21. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. with relatively small variation. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. For step-method computations.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq.47. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical).2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. free overfall. For the section of channel in Fig. See Art. New York. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.. The wave travels at a speed. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. dam.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.77) if the depth were zero. direction-integration. each reach is solved in succession.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. gate.51). weir. and step methods. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Explanations of both the graphical. 21. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.27.” McGraw-Hill. 21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. H. (21.

of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. due to friction in the same reach. and – SL = hf. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. prismatic channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. and vice versa. Therefore. as given by Eq. Inc. (21. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. the longer the backwater curve profile. not the channel bottom.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. (21. 21. the – eddy loss. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. ft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. 21.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. 21.93) where R = hydraulic radius. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. (21.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. respectively. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. .92) (21. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. The smaller the value of n. rearranged as follows: Fig. hi. Click here to view. ft.91) for L gives (21. (For uniform. All rights reserved. the change in elevation. the head loss.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.93).21. is negligible and can be ignored. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.82). Solving Eq.

Then.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. The value of total head computed from Eq. or roughness. Since this step method is a converging process. computations progress toward the initial section.1 for converging reaches. Inc. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Click here to view. is obtained from Eq. (21. Next.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. total head H. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.47. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.96). the friction loss. ft. Therefore. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve.Water Resources Engineering s 21.92). referred to a horizontal datum. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.93). Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps.95). ft/s. Then. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq.94). Finally. Z2. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels.93). . (21.51 may be some intermediate depth. after substitution of H from Eq. in natural channels. from 0 to 0. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. 21. (21. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.2 for diverging reaches. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. All rights reserved. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. Next. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. sometimes called impact loss. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. (21. Eddy loss. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. For lined channels. ft. and it is therefore often accounted for. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. S. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. respectively. ft. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. (21. which. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. (21. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. (21.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.95) The coefficient k is 0. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. the average friction slope for the reach. and about 0. respectively. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. (21. grade. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. becomes (21.

If the two values of total head do not agree.1 ft in elevation. 2nd ed. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. 21. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. N. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. 1. Federal Highway Administration. however.23). The effect of bridges. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. bridge piers. approach roadways. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). and determine the discharge. Inc. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. U. French.51 and 21. Click here to view. and J.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. The upstream surface of the jump. Bureau of Public Roads. Utilizing the above data. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. H. Fig. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations.” Hydraulics Design Series no.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. 21. All rights reserved. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. Department of Transportation. However. 21. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. 21. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).27.. is a turbulent mass of water.48). Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.21. . Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. 21. as shown in Figs.S. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. known as the roller. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. respectively. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. known as the length of jump. Bradley. or other obstruction.52b. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.48 Hydraulic jump.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. 1970. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). New York. a gate. velocity.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.27.98) and (21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. This difference (Fig.82). or alternate depths. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s2. s (21. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.104) = discharge. d2 must also equal dc. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. (21.100) Equation (21. ft3/s = unit of time.99).99) where M = mass of water. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump.102) Equation (21. ft. Inc.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. .101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s. 32.100). where L is a characteristic length. (21. this resultant pressure force is (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. For rectangular channels. 21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft2 T = width of free surface.16)]. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. and g = acceleration due to gravity.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. V is the mean velocity. For open-channel flow. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. 21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.49) is given by (21. (21. Click here to view.98) where d1 = depth before jump. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.105) where A = area of flow. (21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft d2 = depth after jump. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft w = unit weight of water. in Eq.

The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. depending on local conditions. the flow is critical and there is no jump. For F1 = 9. which. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron.0 and larger. If the tailwater is too high. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth.5 to 9. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. For F1 = 4. If the tailwater is too low. chute. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. This jump may be called a steady jump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. depth after the jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. For F1 = 1. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump.5.5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The jump action is rough but effective. and the performance is at its best. For F1 = 1. can travel for miles. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. .49. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. the jump will be drowned out. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. which gives discharge vs. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.0. This jump may be called a strong jump. For F1 = 2.27. Click here to view. below a spillway. 21. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. All rights reserved. For F1 = 1 to 1. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. 21. Various forms of hydraulic jump. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.21. very commonly in canals. The jump is well-balanced. Inc.S. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.7 to 2. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. The jump is called an undular jump. for example. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. there are undulations on the surface.23). In either case. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. were classified by the U. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.7. 21. 21. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.5 to 4. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. This jump may be called a weak jump.

21. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed.27. Accessories. All rights reserved. 21. 21. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. Chow from data gathered by the U.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.105). such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.55 curve involve changing the crest length. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. 21. and sloping the apron. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. This length (Fig. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. These features are expensive to build.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. therefore. T.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The curve. prepared by V. Inc. . But it has been determined experimentally. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. Click here to view.51. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.S. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.27. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. Bureau of Reclamation. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. changing the apron elevation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The resulting curve (Fig. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. 21.

The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O.23) to mild. It is assumed. as shown in Fig. that flow is uniform. less than. (21. If d2 is less than d′ . If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. The actual depth at the brink is 71. the computed length of jump. the jump occurs in the steep region. the jump moves to a new location downstream. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. As depth d2 is lowered. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. Conversely. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.75h in the absence of better information. equal to the computed length of the jump. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. computed from Eq. (21. Click here to view. .26. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.52a. 21. using the step methods of Art. which occurs near the channel drop-off. if the downstream depth is lowered. With values of d2 obtained from Eq.101).102). CB. 21. 21. A horizontal intercept FG.52b. 21. Inc. 21.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap.21. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. All rights reserved. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. 21. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.5% of critical depth.7dc for simplicity. as theory would indicate. computed from Eq.52. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. curves AB and ED in Fig.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. respectively (Fig. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. for simplicity.46e and c). 21. the jump moves downstream to a new position. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. between lines CB′and EO. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.101) with d1 given. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. equal in length to L. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. (21.51. but it is normally assumed to be 0. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.

82) and (21..52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.3 for one with squared ends. Click here to view. ft. the entrance loss. (21. 21. ft. 21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. Inc. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. ft3/s.51.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics.. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.23). If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. and discharge is at a maximum. is (21. . and the computations continued until a balance is reached. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. French. ignoring entrance loss. a new discharge is assumed. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. New York. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. 21.” McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. F. if not. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). If the entrance loss must be considered.53).57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. Then.85)]. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.) 21. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. H. on the channel entrance. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.” 6th ed. and the slope of the channel. ft. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or (a) above it. then the assumed discharge is correct. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where He is the specific energy head. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or (b) below it. 21. ft.53a). (R. 21. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.106) where b is the channel width. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. Inc. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. From Q = AV.

and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. 21. Inc. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig.33). 21.2 ft/s2. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. if not. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. then the discharge is correct. a new discharge is chosen.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. d is normal depth.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. (In Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. ft3/s. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 32. 21.53b). where He – d is the actual head.83). and g is acceleration due to gravity.22). 21. (21.53b. . and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. ft.23). He is the specific energy head.21. (b) mild-slope channel. ———— charge. ft2. producing flow.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.

ft. when a stream enters a curve. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.107) The theoretical difference y. If the bend continues long enough. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. of the center line of the channel. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. where V is its average velocity. All rights reserved. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. Therefore. curve (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. Thus. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. a unit mass of water. Inc. 21.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. and rc the radius of curvature. . if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. or mV2 /rc for m. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle.83)]. the true value of y would be only a few inches. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. (21.23). The error will not be great. ft /s.108). The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21.59 21. In this range.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. 21. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. ft. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. 21. ft. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. (21. (21.

are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and should be used with discretion. a series of standing waves are produced. Fig. Inc.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. recross as shown. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. by (21. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. The second is a negative wave. “The Flow of Water in Flumes.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. phase. All rights reserved. an increase in friction loss results.16)] .21. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.55). The cross slope required for 21. (21. His values have not been evaluated completely. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. and continue crossing and recrossing. . Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.110) for θ in Eq.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. with sufficient accuracy. 21. (21. Click here to view. One is a positive wave. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.” U.111). with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.23).110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Department of Agriculture.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. (F. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. C. This angle may be found from (21.S. however. 21. Technical Bulletin 393. Scobey. 21.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. depths along the inside wall. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. flows around a bend in a channel. These waves cross at M.

56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. 21.2 ft/s2. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. as shown in Fig.44. or change from supercritical to subcritical. To place a transition properly between two open channels. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. p. All rights reserved. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. if friction is ignored. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. For outlet-type structures. plus any transition and friction losses. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this range.54). The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). 21. Many variables. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. the average velocity decreases. where K. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. Inc. 21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows.2 for welldesigned transitions. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. therefore. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1.8[∆(V2/2g)]. The transition loss. .1 for an inlet-type structure. 21.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. 21. low-head-loss transfer of flow.44.23). the loss factor. change from subcritical to supercritical. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. If friction is ignored. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. ∆V is the velocity change. When proceeding downstream through a transition.113) angle of about 12. 21. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. ft/s. such as flow-rate changes. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. Click here to view. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. wall roughness. equals about 0. and channel shape and slope. ft.57). Straight. 21.56.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. and g = 32.

from which a = 0.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. For Fig.000556(20)2 = 0. y = ax2. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. 21. the weir is submerged or drowned.34. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.222 ft. If the discharge is partly under water. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. In contrast. 21. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. trapezoidal weirs.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. such as rectangular weirs.21. triangular weirs.000556(10)2 = 0. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. triangular or Vnotch weirs. Fig.000556.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. such as broad-crested weirs. Click here to view. as shown in Fig. 21. 21.59. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.57. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.59 Weir not sharp-crested. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and parabolic weirs. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.5 = a(30)2. . the weir has free discharge. 21. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola.58 Sharp-crested weir. measured from A or B. 21.58). trapezoidal weirs. and. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. Fig. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.

ft The head should be measured at least 2. below the crest. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. T. . A V-notch weir (Fig.116) corrects for the effects of friction. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. If P is less than Fig. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.115) where Q = discharge. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. To be fully ventilated. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. 2. Equation (21. thus causing a contraction of the flow.34.5H. 21. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. 21. One such equation.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The height of weir P must be at least 2. New York). All rights reserved. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. Inc. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.60 V-notch weir. 21. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. Click here to view.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.58) (V. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length.5H upstream from the weir.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. contraction of the nappe. Chow. Hence. At very low heads. 21.

McGraw-Hill Book Company. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. 21. The effective length L. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. All rights reserved. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Lenz. ft. Click here to view. vol.118)] 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.34. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. 21. Fig. (21. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.119) where Q = discharge. (21.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. New York). 21. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq.21. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.2) when low discharges are to be measured. 21.5H upstream from the weir. T.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.61) (E.” 6th ed.118) Fig. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. ft H = head.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. His values were summarized by Brater.34. F. there is one end contraction and N = 1. there are two end contractions and N = 2. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.34. measured from notch bottom. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. Inc. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.. . “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. Discharge is given by (21. 69. 1943).

Fig. ft V = velocity of approach.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. Dec. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.34.115) is rewritten in the form (21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. Typically.34. R. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 32.121) where Q = discharge. Inc. 21. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. All rights reserved. ft/s V /2g = Hν. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use.59). ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. 1947. velocity head. ft. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.” Engineering News-Record. Thus. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. 25. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. heavily constructed devices. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. using this rate and the required depths. p.) Equation (21. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.) To use the Villemonte equation. using this discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.122) where H = measured head. neglecting the velocity head. (21. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. and then. ft3/s. Click here to view. compute the velocity of approach. and finally total head. (21. Then.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. Where great accuracy is essential. . for such weirs. 866. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. From this total head. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. 21. which may be done as follows: First.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. velocity head of approach. or both. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. 2 21. The discharge Qs. Villemonte. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. Eq. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. 21.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. (J.

such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Washington. Department of the Interior. For conditions of design head Hd. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.S.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. Inc.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. head in relation to design heads. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. But the process should be repeated. . This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. where approach velocities are high. and the approach velocity.20 0. and approach velocity.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. Click here to view.10 H. (3) Broad-crested Table 21.” Government Printing Office. “Design of Small Dams. Therefore. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. ft L′ = net crest lengths. For conditions of design head Table 21.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. thickness of pier. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.12. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.21.34. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.123) where L = effective crest length.02 0. the head in relation to the design head.5Hd > r* > 0. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. F. All rights reserved. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For each change of nappe shape. DC 20402. starting with the corrected discharge. ft (U. The effect is most critical for low heads.13. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. 21.2 of the head. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding.

for a sharp-crested weir. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht.65. depends on the head producing the discharge. According to Chow. 21.” Government Printing Office. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. called the design head Hd. Chow. Of the above rules. and therefore of an ogee crest. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow.67 Fig. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. however.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. This manual and V. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic.64) has such a shape.66 of the head. Figure 21. Consequently. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head.122).S. 21.5H upstream. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. 21. (21.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Click here to view. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 2. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. New York). Inc. (U. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency.34. The shape of this nappe. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. This relationship is shown in Fig. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. 21. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. Fig. Chow. 1. Washington. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. at the point of maximum contraction. T. For flow at heads lower than the design head. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. T. . DC 20402. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. where discharge is given by Eq. Department of the Interior. “Design of Small Dams.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face.

(From “Design of Small Dams.S.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Fig. . (From “Design of Small Dams. All rights reserved. Inc. Click here to view.” U. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. New York.21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. 21. 21.” U. Fig.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. Figure 21. the flow differs from ideal. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.66. Bureau of Reclamation.S. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Bureau of Reclamation. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.

68. 21. a plane horizontal crest.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. (E. and sharp right-angled edges. Bureau of Reclamation. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Figure 21. Brater. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. because of its sharp upstream edge. Inc. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.” 6th ed. Brater. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. if flow is at other than the design head.34.. E. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. F.14. fairly common in waterworks projects.67 and 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. are used as spillways and control structures.” U. Weirs of irregular section. Click here to view. where the velocity of approach is not high.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.69 Broad-crested weir. . appear in Table 21.” 6th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S. the coefficient of discharge. 21. Values of the discharge coefficient.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. New York. New York. the nappe springs free.69 Fig.) 21.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. (21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) Fig.. (See. F.34. compiled by King. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Unless otherwise noted. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. Figure 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (From “Design of Small Dams.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. for example. has contraction of the nappe. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. is determined from Fig. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. therefore.

60 2.63 2.70 2. or soil.32 3.32 3. erosion.67 2.68 2.32 3.63 2.68 2.32 3.68 2.07 3.60 2.79 2.72 2.4 1.63 2.67 2. A density current. .54 2.32 3.92 3. with its load of suspended silt.68 2.92 3.66 2.88 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.67 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.64 2.64 2.61 2.32 3.32 3.72 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.68 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.31 3.20 3.86 2.70 2.64 2.32 3.03 3.32 1.75 2.62 2.5 3. valves.64 2.56 2.63 2.63 2.80 2.89 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.07 3.63 2.32 3.32 3. those forming the bed load.32 3.69 2.50 H.65 2.00 2.85 2.34 2.64 2. ft 0.07 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.31 3. such as a reservoir.8 2.66 2.58 2.00 2.72 2.07 3.64 2.5 5.76 2.2 1.64 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.50 2.64 2.32 3.5 4. All rights reserved. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.00 2.65 2.32 3.66 2.04 3.00 2.08 3.64 15. which are often of equal consequence.0 4.65 2.32 3.63 2. ft 0.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.75 2.69 2. those carried in suspension.0 1.66 2.68 2.14 3.69 2.63 21.28 3.60 2.64 2.32 3.38 2.68 2.70 2.2 0.8 1.64 2.19 3.26 3.32 3.68 2.70 2.50 2.64 2.32 3.65 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.66 2.32 3.89 3.31 3.88 3.65 2.32 2.54 2.48 2.32 3.21. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.76 2. 21.60 2.6 0.92 2.32 3.0 5.32 3.32 3.32 3.74 2.05 3.32 2.64 2.6 1.77 2.32 3.80 2.69 2. Heavier silt sizes.61 2.00 2.65 2. such as gates.32 3.32 3.89 2.75 2.68 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.35.63 2.63 2.73 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.68 2.32 4.65 2.88 10.74 2.0 2.79 1.20 3.85 3.4 0.28 3.30 3.49 2.32 1.32 5.50 2.68 2.63 2.32 3.64 2.68 2.00 2.32 3. This incoming water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.75 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.32 3.98 3. and turbines.32 3.75 2.00 2.20 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.67 2.32 3.64 2.32 3.08 3.64 2. Click here to view.67 2.32 3.70 2.32 3.07 3.32 3.64 2.32 3. The smaller silt sizes. once formed.0 3.5 2.29 3.32 3.81 2.97 3. Inc.70 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.30 3.44 2.64 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.

Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. see Art. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. All rights reserved. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. 21. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. However. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. on the other hand. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. and often extend to the reservoir outlet.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm.39. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined.35. overtopping. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. Inc. landslide. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. By this method. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Click here to view. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Of course. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. the rate is not uniform during the year. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. because of variations in rainfall. The most common manner of destruction. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. are coarsegrained. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. or failure of materials.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . once formed. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. or from year to year. formed from the bed load. When neither can be done. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. These currents are stable. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. If sediment deposits are periodically above water.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. however. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. 21. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime.

0 ft/mi. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Frequently. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. however. According to Witzig. (21. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. All rights reserved. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. . which generally occurs only during a storm. gravel. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35. ft3/s b = width of river. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. 21. Click here to view. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data.21. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. which varies with both slope and discharge. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. discharge. Therefore.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. But for the most part.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data.1). A mean grain size of 0. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Inc. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. Therefore. and boulders. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. ft qo = critical discharge. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.124) where Gb = total bed load. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. Therefore.

for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. circulation. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. and distribution.S. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and pressure. . In this cycle.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. infiltration. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Weather Bureau. lakes. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. which are of two types. and the stream velocity. Department of Agriculture. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. Current data. water evaporation from oceans. New York. contour plowing. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. All rights reserved. H. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. their occurrence. runoff.) culation. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin.Water Resources Engineering s 21. by ink pen and revolving drum. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. planting of burned-over areas. Click here to view. A. and stream flow 21. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. discharges into streams. Weather Bureau is 24 h. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. rivers. evaporation. such as wind. It continually records. day.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. (21-124). A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U.S. Inc. recharges groundwater. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. or year. check-dam construction. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Graf. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. and their reaction with their environment. their chemical and physical properties. debris barriers. The second type is a nonrecording gage. Einstein. or digital microchip technology.S. temperature. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. (W. in the form of synoptic weather charts. on or near the land surface. such as an hour. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation.73 dation. (See H.” U. if the dam is raised at a later date. For instance. groundwater flow.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. infiltrates into the soil. including their relation to living things. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. Use of vegetation screens. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Such screens. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. or a combination of the two. are published daily by the U.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering.

Maidment. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. Click here to view. Evaporation may occur from free-water. commonly termed consumptive use. Of the three. or ground surfaces.” McGraw-Hill. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. . in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. and plantleaf surfaces. and other vegetation surfaces. shallow pools and 11 for large. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. ground. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. tropical and subtropical regions. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Not all rain reaches the ground. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Evapotranspiration is important because. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. Inc. especially if the reservoir is shallow. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. and it increases as wind velocity increases. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. New York. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. while another portion may be caught on leaves. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water.125)]. in of mercury. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. On an annual basis. called interception. developed from Dalton’s law. All rights reserved. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.125) (21. branches. Evapotranspiration. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. This phenomenon. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. A portion may evaporate as it falls. In transpiration. In evaporation. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth.21. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. on a long-term basis. plant. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir.126) where E = evaporation rate.. (21. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. “Handbook of Hydrology. in of mercury. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. R. Inc. has a relatively large surface area. see D. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. The Meyer equation [Eq. (21. equal to 15 for small. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.

or groundwater runoff. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. dew). also known as interflow. R. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. time distribution. perhaps several years. Classified by the path taken to a channel. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. effective rain includes subsurface flow. runoff may be surface. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. “Handbook of Hydrology. On large reservoirs. Hexadeconal. although it may vary between 0. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Click here to view. except in arid. and storm seepage. depending on the geographical region. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. It appears in surface channels. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. to reach a channel. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. and biologic attrition. wind tends to push the film to the shore. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.60 and 0. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. intensity. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. snow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Commonly. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Climatic characteristics a. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.70. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. insects. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Maidment. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. 21. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. duration. subsurface storm flow. Moving laterally. New York. hail. natural or manmade. called a Class A Level Pan.” McGraw-Hill. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. is in widespread use. Subsurface flow. aquatic life. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife.. birds. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Precipitation—form (rain. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. (D. or groundwater flow. subsurface. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. or cetyl alcohol. All rights reserved. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. or excess rain. frost. tropical. Inc. Groundwater flow. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. In practice.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. After joining stream flow. Inc. subsurface runoff.80. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind.

These papers contain records of daily flow.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. slope. length) b. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. general location. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Geologic—soil type. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. drainage net. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. orientation. shape. Temperature—variation. snow storage. Drainage-basin characteristics a. . the quantity and type of data available. shape of cross section. permeability. TVA. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. groundwater formations. direction. lakes and other bodies of water. All rights reserved. extremes during precipitation c. the U. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. Agricultural Research Service. direction of storm movement b. 21. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. soil moisture. Geological Survey. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts.S. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. detail. and various state and local agencies.S. and the accuracy desired. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. antecedent precipitation. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.” U. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. elevation. Click here to view. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. 21. Atmospheric pressure f. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. the detail required in the final answer. Weather Bureau. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data.S. Inc. Humidity e. channels (size. Geological Survey. slope. extremes of flow.70. and Weather Bureau. areal distribution. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features.S. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. artificial drainage. roughness. Geological Survey. frozen ground during storms. International Boundary Commission. duration d. Solar radiation 2. 21. mean flow. recurrence interval.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. 21.S. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. land use and cover. yearly flow volume.21.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. special-interest items. and completeness of the hydrologic records.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. Topographic—size. as shown in Fig.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. stratification Fig. both published and unpublished. Wind—velocity. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U.

After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. As an example. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. T. 4. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. the second to major hydraulic structures. Chow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. others give the complete hydrograph. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. 1962). Click here to view. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. a 50. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement.41. 5. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. . The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. 2. Inc. All rights reserved.or 100-year-frequency storm. The values of C in Table 21. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. for example. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Several methods yield only peak discharge.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.127) where Q = peak discharge. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. great importance. 3. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. in/h A = drainage area. and large downstream damage potential. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.128) 21. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

95 0. 21.) The flow time in gutters. flat.25 – 0.95 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.” McGraw-Hill.50 – 0.20 – 0. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. years duration of storm.35 0.71 and Table 21. or ditches.15 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. Equation (21.21. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. ditches.60 – 0.95 0.20 – 0.10 – 0. factor.22 0..13 – 0.10 – 0. 2% Heavy soil.10 – 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.50 0. b. 21.17 0. n. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. avg. R.70 – 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (See D.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. in/h respectively.75 – 0. flat. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.85 0. streets. “Handbook of Hydrology.129).70 0.75 0.25 – 0. min time of concentration Fig. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.41.05 – 0. .70 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. avg. gutters. (21. or any equivalent method.95 0.30 0.60 – 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.70 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.30 – 0.40 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.89)] .16). is a convenient.40 0.129) Table 21. detached Multiunits.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.50 – 0.18 – 0. 21. Inc. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. New York.40 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.85 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. steep. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. K. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.20 0.128) or Eq. Sherman.90 0. (21. steep. All rights reserved. Maidment. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.25 0. 7% Heavy soil.127).15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.70 – 0.60 0.10 0. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the flow time in conduits.50 – 0.80 0. Inc. Click here to view.75 – 0. (21. 2% Sandy soil. coefficient.15 – 0.80 – 0. the flow time in streets. After determining the time of concentration.

Sherman. termed a unit storm. 3. All rights reserved. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. the time of storm runoff.” Engineering News-Record. Click here to view. The method is summarized by the formula (21. 501-505. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Inc. (Leroy K. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. subdivision may be required. 108. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. pp.79 Table 21. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. 4. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. that is. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. This requires that a storm of short duration.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. usually 1 acre). If the watershed is very large. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. and more accurate than any such set of factors.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Thus. easier. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 2. JanuaryJune 1932. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. . is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. termed a unit period. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.

It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm.72. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.73).80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph.21. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. For ease of manipulation.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Usually. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. . The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. 5. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). 21. Then. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Inc. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. because of storm variations. Illustrated in Fig. Click here to view. All rights reserved. 21.

An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall.. 21. Inc. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. perpendicular to direction of flow. K. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Fig. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.) Fig. This loss. “Handbook of Hydrology. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Click here to view. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. New York..73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. during heavy storms. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.81 21. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. vol. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. (See D. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. All rights reserved.” 3rd ed. Inc.” McGraw-Hill.131) period. 21. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. 447–454). those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. New York. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig.74).Water Resources Engineering s 21. I.) where Q = flow rate. “Hydrology for Engineers. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. 21. Maidment. (R. Linsley et al. . The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. Inc.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.. Also. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. pp. pt. R. This method was developed by Franklin F. 19.

safe yield.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). quality. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. and indirect water-quality use costs. All rights reserved. .) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. usually a number of years.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. Inc. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. groundwater levels. or other causes. and quality of water supply. and overdraft. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. quantity. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. wastewaters. is a confined or artesian aquifer.21. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. and methods of wastewater disposal. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. poor-quality replenishment waters. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. water softening costs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Deteriorating water quality. These costs include increased soap costs. rather than a change in volume. because of impermeable layers above and below it. Regardless of how it is defined. present and future water demands should be determined. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Click here to view. among others. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. recycling. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. cost of replenishment water. and location of artificial replenishment. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. alternative management plans should be formulated. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. source. (A base period is a period of time. Frequently. Following the preceding preliminary work. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. quantity. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. need for excessive pumping lifts. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities.

This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. no.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies.” A. and public. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. . and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. and natural and artificial replenishment. irrigation. financially feasible. I. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. industrial. institutional. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as industrial development.. and environmental factors. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. Linsley et al. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. may drastically alter mathematical estimates.” N. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. 1987. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. and sanitary purposes.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Estimation of future population.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. legal. culinary. J. bathing. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. commercial. 21. flood. fire. Hydrology for Engineers. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. however. Kashef. is a very difficult task. pumping. S. apartments. or other unforeseen emergency. transmission. Bear. Grigg. and hotels for drinking. graphical comparison with other cities. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. “Water Resources Planning. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Inc. distribution. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. storage. wastewater disposed. and treatment works. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. K. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 40.” R.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. percentage increase. (“Ground Water Management. American Society of Civil Engineers. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic.. land speculation. fire-fighting. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. sanitary. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. amount and location of groundwater extractions. “Groundwater Engineering. geographical boundaries. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. industrial. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. motels. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. surface-water delivery facilities. decreasing percentage increase. Therefore. The smaller the system.” 3rd ed. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. washing. and age of the city. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. water used.

The national demand-rate data. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities.S. The “California Water Atlas. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. and pressure. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses.21. but because of the high rate at which it is required. as presented in Table 21. Normally.” 1979. Mo. public buildings. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. month. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large.17. State of California Office of Planning and Research. quality. and unauthorized uses. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. mainly because of the lack of large industries. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Public use of water for parks. Inc. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. such as the climate. Demand rates vary with time of day. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. meter malfunctions. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Table 21. type of service (metered or unmetered). and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . if the cost of water increases. air conditioning. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. degree of industrialization. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. janitorial. and time of day. pressure. valves. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. cooling. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and quality of the water. and air conditioning purposes. standard of living. cost. the demand for it decreases. and faucets. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. All rights reserved. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. are the average of a range of values. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. and cleaning. Public Health Service Report. cost. presents Table 21. reservoir evaporation. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Click here to view. degree of industrialization. lawn sprinkling. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Calif. size of the city. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. and year. influence the demand rate for water. it may control the design of the facilities. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. especially if portions of the city are unsewered.

500 2.9 4.000 4.000 40. industrialization. is frequently undesirable. All rights reserved.000 5. but the demand rate is high. diversification is essential for reliability.000 80.6 11.000 4.000 40. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 * American Insurance Association.000 12. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.2 2. interdependent. quality.18. Total dependence on a single source.000 80. such as lakes.000 40. MG = million gallons.000 6.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the effect of warm. and streams. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 3.000 40. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 1. rivers.000 1. The source must Table 21. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.0 3.000 40.000 110. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 85. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.3 5.8 6.000 40.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. Hydrant Spacing.000 60. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. however.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. 21. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.8 7.4 17.0 7. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. † MGD = million gallons per day. MG† 0. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. cost. valley cities.5 14. In the past.6 4.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 90.000 40. inland. climate.000 48.000 85. Click here to view. and in some cases. to a large extent. legality. In the atlas.0 1. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.000 8.000 10.000 10.000 70.3 Duration.000 100. In some local areas. and politics. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.18 Required Fire Flow.3 0.000 200. In selection of a source of supply.000 2. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.2 8.000 120.4 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 125.6 1. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. gal/min P = population. .000 90.4 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 28.000 55. Moreover. however. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 17.8 2. Inc. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. Cost.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. alkalinity. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Inc. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. and Water Pollution Control Federation.” American Public Health Association. total dissolved solids. In addition. such as sulfates and chlorides. The measurements should include pH.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.S.22.S. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.) Source Protection s The U. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.21. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. (See also Art. temperature. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 mg / L 0. . Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. American Water Works Association. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained.3 mg / L 0. 21. Click here to view. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.” U.) At the discretion of the state. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000.21. and calculation of the Langelier index. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.5 – 8. dependent on local conditions. All rights reserved. calcium hardness. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.

Pojasek. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. and width B.Water Resources Engineering s 21. unpleasant tastes and odors. particulate and colored matter. is equal to or less than 1. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. temperature and viscosity of the water. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. (See R. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid.46. 21. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Ann Arbor. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. All rights reserved. (21. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. and size and shape of the settling basin. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.134). however. V the flowthrough velocity. coagulation-sedimentation. such as those mentioned above.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Mich. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. Newton’s law applies: (21. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. B.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. velocity is constant. (21. Inc. Click here to view.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. . the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. Figure 21. and softening (see also Art. 21. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist.0 < R < 2000. slow and rapid sand filtration.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards.. For this ideal basin. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. Figure 21. mm If R > 2000. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. to be used in Eq.0. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. (Usually.51). νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. Reynolds numbers. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. In the region where 1. disinfection. 21.001 and 5. depth ho . shape. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. calculated with ν = νs. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.

1946.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.) Fig.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.21. . Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view. 897. vol. Inc. 21. 103. (Observed curves. at 10 °C. p. All rights reserved. after Camp. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig.

. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. C.. “Water Treatment Plant Design. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. Fair. and D. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. for example.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . or other indicator to pass through the basin. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Multistory tanks.8c.46.78a) or circular (Fig. 27.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. coagulants are added to the water. Geyer.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . J. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. and eddy currents. rectangular (Fig.” John Wiley & Sons.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. short circuiting. The tubular settler (Fig. 1. finely Fig. M. Without coagulants. Inc. 21. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common.) 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. G. A. 21. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. are removed in this basin. New York. 21. Okun. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. salt.5 ft/min (most common velocity. 21. . Click here to view.78b).

(b) Circular clarifier. (d) Tubular settler. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. .78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. Inc. 21.

not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. in some instances. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. coliform organisms.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. such as pH. ferric chloride (FeCl3). precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. color. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. “Water Supply and Sewerage. “Water Quality and Treatment. turbidity. McGhee. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. temperature. such as paper fiber. and hardness. settling. The speed of the agitators must be great enough.to 60min range. Culp and R. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). consequently. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Click here to view. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Thereby. Polymers are long-chain. or negatively charged.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. plankton.. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Culp. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. considering both cost and performance. . Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. All rights reserved. J. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. or positively charged.” R. or neutral in charge. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. New York. however. They are available in three types: cationic. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. New York. The filtering process has many components. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. anionic. highmolecular-weight. L. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. “New Concepts in Water Purification. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). and easier dewatering. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. Corbitt. to get the small floc to agglomerate. A. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation.” 4th ed. however. such as mechanical stirrers. color. and nonionic. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. production of a smaller volume of sludge. L.) 21. Also. centrifugal pumps. 18H2O]. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Inc. such as physical straining. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. T. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. however. (G.. American Water Works Association. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. organic polyelectrolytes. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. and suspended solids. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. and air jets. chemical and biological reactions. Anionic polymers.

Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid.to 12-in layer of gravel.21. in millimeters. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. that will pass 10%. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. The process requires rapid mixing.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. .79. through the sand and gravel layers. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.to 0. depending on the turbidity. by weight. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. 21.35-mm range. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Inc. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. of the sand. Click here to view. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. 21. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.or mixed-media filtration.25. and dual.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Usually. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. All rights reserved. The wash- Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.

and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. gal/min b = width of trough. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. which is drained to waste. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. water sprays. Inc. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. . All rights reserved. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. which produces an undertreated effluent. however. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. mixed-media.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.25 to 1. and air jets.35 to 0. or sand incrustation will be encountered. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Immediately after washing. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. such as rakes. As clogging begins to occur in the filter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. or anthracite coal.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.20 to 1. The filtering medium may be sand. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. diatomaceous earth.002:1 to 0. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. may be more advantageous. bed cracking. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. creating a high head loss across the filter. or deep coarse-media filters. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. filters pass water at a high rate. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.005:1 range. Dual-media. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Some.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. “Water Quality and Treatment. M.) (21. lime (CaO). synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. “Water Quality and Treatment. Culp.” and T. J. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.. Geyer. gas. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. (American Water Works Association. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. C. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. In the lime-soda process. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. Inc. American Water Works Association. New York. and R is the zeolite material.” 4th ed.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. (G. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.” 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. “Water Treatment Plant Design.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. Regeneration requires between 0. New York. Fair.) 21. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. These materials remove cations. Okun. where 1 gpg = 17. “Water Supply and Sewerage. J. G.3 and 0. and (3) total hardness. and American Society of Civil Engineers. L. or open-joint pipes. Inc. New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. A.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed.” 6th ed. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. L..136) (21. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. carbonates.138) (21. All rights reserved.” John Wiley & Sons. and D. and American Society of Civil Engineers.21.1 mg/L. “New Concepts in Water Purification. perforated. such as calcium and magnesium..139) 21. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. New York. Culp and R. sulfates. . The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. in clear wells. Click here to view. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. McGhee. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. however. respectively. “Water Treatment Plant Design. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. iron.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. ultraviolet light. C. 21.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.) respect to carbonates. Other disinfectants are iodine.1 or 0. irrigation. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Inc. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. M. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. cation exchange. activated carbon. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. flood control. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water.” McGraw-Hill. water supply. 21. and electrodialysis. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. then.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.. detergents. manganese. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. J. bromine. McGhee.) 21. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. ozone. All rights reserved. despite its low solubility. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. A. reverse osmosis. odor. anion exchange. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water.) 21. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. New York. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. New York. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.” John Wiley & Sons. Okun.. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. Click here to view. chlorine dioxide. excessive fluorides.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Filter both solutions. “Water Treatment Plant Design. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. (G. Fair. J. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. Chlorine residuals of 0. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York. . If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water Supply and Sewerage.99 water supplies.” and T. and D.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. lime softening.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.45). Geyer. taste. Inc. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. and lime. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.

All rights reserved. Click here to view. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. 21. 21. The mass diagram (Fig.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. maximum flows will govern.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.80. Also. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. minimum flows will be critical. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Inc. The plot of volume vs. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. When the demand rate is known. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Aeri- Fig. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period.52.1).21.

All rights reserved. which may be only a few feet thick. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. pumping plants.101 Fig. perature drops in the fall. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.52. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. give special attention to water quality.2).1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. If possible. San Francisco. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.52. such as New York. Click here to view.35 and 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. During hours of maximum demand. Major sources of supply for some cities. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. . The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. odor. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. the flow refills the reservoir. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. and Los Angeles. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Inc. 21.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. When the demand drops off. When the tem- 21. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. are large distances from the city. but there is no circulation across this zone. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. In deep reservoirs. is called the thermocline. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. 21.

June 1953).2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. A flowing artesian Fig.35. M.21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. For any given storage reservoir. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 21. 34.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. Brune. Inc. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. 21. 21. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. no. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.83). . so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. M. 21. 21.52. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Click here to view. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 21. 3. 21. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.82) (G. All rights reserved. For the correct hydraulic grade.84). vol. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. Brune. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.

83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Click here to view. 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. All rights reserved.103 Fig. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

53. Jacob.21. Okun. A. 889. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. E. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. bored. Click here to view. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. screen.53. 72. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. or driven. (C. 21.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. p. Inc. 21. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. McGhee. Hence. Inc. 1940.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pump.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. All rights reserved. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. or hydraulic rotary methods.. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.83). 629. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Geyer. eductor or riser pipe. waterjet.142) where Q = flow. ft h = H minus drawdown.. vol. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. J. ditch. “Water Supply and Sewerage. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping.” 6th ed. 21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.” Economic Geology.” John Wiley & Sons. ft (Fig. ft d = diameter of well. J. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. and D.84). 33.143) 21.. C. from an artesian well is given by (21. pump (Art. McGraw-Hill. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. ft The steady flow. V. Theis. 21. 21.53. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). Inc. gal/day. M. New York. New York.57). 21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. hollow-core. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. p. motor. and motor.53. (G.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. December 1938. C. Fair. T. vol. no. . 5.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. however. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. are present. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. Under favorable conditions. and other appurtenances. Copper. lead. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. rubber. and plastics.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. If it is cement-lined. but wood is rarely used in new installations. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. tanks. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. valves. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost.21. zinc. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. sand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. bronze. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. . sealed flanges.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. stray electric currents. A machine that produces a monolithic. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. contact between acids and metals. and meters destroyed by corrosion. hydrants. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. plastic. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe.146) where D = pipe diameter.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. and ability to withstand external loads. such as polyvinyl chloride.54. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. polyethylene. concrete. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. brass. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. steel. All rights reserved. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Wood pipelines are still in existence. polybutylene. Since steel is stronger than iron. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. and sulfur compounds. bacteria in water. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. (21. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. ft 21. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Inc. valves. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. impurities and strains in metals. or Dresser-type couplings. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. an anode and a cathode. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. riveting. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. 21. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. In unlined pipes.) At the anode. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. pumps. Click here to view. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar.

If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). and the more ions. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. where e is an electron. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. . A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. 21. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Also. use of protective coatings. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. the faster electrons can move through the water. to prevent corrosion. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Strains. the corrosion process continues (Fig. and treatment of the water. water may be treated with bases. cracks. and Fig. Inc. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). caustic soda. Click here to view. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as soda ash. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. At the cathode. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. for example.) For an iron pipe exposed to water.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Aluminum. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. zinc. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. 21. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. When selecting materials.86). Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

New York. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. . To have practical meaning. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. z is negative. between pump center line and water surface Fig. Click here to view. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. psia. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. To prevent cavitation. Zinc. and the head-discharge relationship. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. or eye. accomplishes that in two steps. 21. (American Water Works Association. efficiency. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. called a volute (Fig. horsepower..147) where pa = pressure. Water enters at the center.21.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. 21. McGraw-Hill. “Water Quality and Treatment. The centrifugal pump. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode.88).. by (21. the most common waterworks pump. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. 21. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. however. hydroxides. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. 21. Inc. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.” 4th ed. All rights reserved. magnesium. psia. lime. graphite.) w = unit weight of liquid. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. or impeller. Inc. oxides. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy.87). ft. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. in feet.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft of water z = elevation difference. Corrosion. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. and so on on the walls of the pipes.

Click here to view.. 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Inc. 21. (Also included in Fig. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. rotary. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. below 200 gal/min.89.58. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. as shown in Fig. and air lift. All rights reserved. head. J. . For that reason. helical.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. reciprocating. Karassik et al. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. In a typical water-system analysis. See also Art. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. depending on the number of stages. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..) 21.” 2nd ed. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. propeller. McGraw-Hill Book Company.111 than the required NPSH. New York. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. 21. circumstances may dictate one of the other types.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. (I.57 and check valves in Art. 21. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. pump discharge. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Pump Handbook. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. 21. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. jet. however. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.

The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. At sea level. so that the entire lift is suction. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type.90 fied). and for Ns above 7500. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cams. gal/min H = head. r/min Q = discharge. . the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller.21. (21. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Inc. either hand. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Reciprocating pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications.148) where n = impeller speed. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head.or motordriven.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. vanes. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. which is a function of specific speed. Click here to view. Because of the close tolerances. which are located at the well bottom. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. 21. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. 21. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. utilize piston action to move water. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Jet pumps (Fig. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. All rights reserved. They have a fixed chamber in which gears.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances.

. or it may be at the bottom of the well. availability. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. and butterfly valves. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Hand or motor power. or Neoprene. primarily because of their low cost. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. or corporation cocks. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. applied through a gear-reduction device. J. globe. respectively. Check.) drives to permit manual operation. Usually. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and easy. and butterfly. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. “Pump Handbook. pressure-regulating. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Low head loss. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Corrosion. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. fast operation.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. If sand is carried out with the water. large pressure differences. sluice gate. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk.” 2nd ed. Simplicity of construction and quick. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Also. Karassik et al. rubber. (I. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. plug. tubercle formation. needle. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. globe. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. rotates the disk. All rights reserved. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. pumps. one at the service connection. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. pressure-relief. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. three valves must be used.. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. solids deposition. Plug. The major types of isolating valves are gate. But these valves cost more than gate.. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.113 tion.or oil-lubricated. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Inc. cone. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and low head loss when fully open. air-relief. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. which are water. one just upstream of the meter. curb. New York. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. in-service lubrication features. Click here to view.

and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. and relief valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. tube. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Furthermore. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Usually. 21. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. rivers. Often. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Click here to view. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Because of high head losses. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. and large pipes. The wetbarrel. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. All rights reserved. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. such as trunk lines 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. which connects the barrel to the main. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. or California type. When the valve is in a closed position. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. The most common check valve is the swing type. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. . these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Inc. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Interior-differential. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class.21. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. check. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. For example. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Many automatic control valves.

Click here to view. but they are used primarily in laboratories. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. Brater. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. or nutating-disk types.5% within the normal test-flow limits. All rights reserved. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. which do not affect propeller meters. 21. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. (21. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Inc.” 6th ed. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. A clicking noise. respectively. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. The standard venturi meter (Fig. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water.) As in venturi meters.. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. However. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. for metering domestic-service connections. The nutating disk is used. F. ft d2 = diameter of throat. or modifications thereof. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement.115 of distribution systems. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.150) where Q = flow rate. simplicity and ease of repairs. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. see E. The cup-type meter. durability.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. New York. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. are the most common velocity-type devices. . nozzle. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.91. amount of head loss through the meter. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. and cost. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems.149) Hydraulics. called a Price meter. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. vertical velocity components. rotary. 21. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. such as meters for individual customer connections. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter.

Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. . Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. This type of charge tends to encourage waste.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. seasonal use. (b) Nozzle meter. fixed charges on capital investment. (c) Orifice- 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses.21. Inc. load factors. and block rate. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. or to some other recognized system. flat rate is falling into disuse. Click here to view. and similar items. peak rates of use. All rights reserved. utility-type enterprises. fire use. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility.91 plate meter. 21. if any. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and development of the system. step rate.

called the demand component. buying water from a wholesale supplier.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. Click here to view. of serving an individual customer. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. It is generally recognized that residential areas. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. canals. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. and (3) cost. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. turbines and governors. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. Cost component 2. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. treatment chemicals. 21. called the commodity component. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. For most distribution systems. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. generators and exciters. penstocks. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. where the majority of small users are. and transformers.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Cost component 1. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. draft tube. switching equipment. depends on the peak usage of a customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. where applicable. When fixing a system of rates. tunnels. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants.746 kW 1 kW = 1. This charge is usually small. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. called the customer component. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. including metering and billing. Inc. . The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. pumping energy.117 With step rate. tunnel. and. Cost component 3.Water Resources Engineering s 21.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. a building to house the machinery and equipment. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. S.

On a daily cycle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. run-of-river plants with storage. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities.92). the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. weekly. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. base-load plants.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river.21. such as navigation. 21. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. Therefore. Then. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. On a weekly cycle. Storage can be provided for a daily. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. or yearly basis. On a seasonal cycle. All rights reserved. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Click here to view. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. It can be computed on a daily. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. If the minimum flow is very low. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. weekly. and peak-load plants. to be used at some future time. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Inc. . Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. power production being only incidental. or seasonal cycle. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day.

The main classifications are gravity. it usually is not as economical. (Department of Water and Power. Zipparo and H. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.119 Fig.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (V.” 4th ed. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. When needed.) 21.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Los Angeles. arch. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. 21. and rock-fill. All rights reserved. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Its distribution is triangular. buttress. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. earth. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. Force F2 represents silt pressure. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Figure 21. Inc.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. New York. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Calif. McGraw-Hill Book Company. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.92). . The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Click here to view. J. Hasen.

All rights reserved. (E.21. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. In the past. 98. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. ice pressures as high as 50. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Inc. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. (21. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. A method of calculating these forces. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. 434. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.” discussion by von Karman.) (21.000 psf. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. p.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. which create forces on any object resting on it. May 1946. Click here to view. 1933.153) where w = unit weight of water.1 g. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. presented by Edwin Rose. 21.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.425h above the base. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. given by Eq. was developed by von Karman. which forms on the reservoir surface. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. however. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. 21. In cold climates. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. .93 by forces F4 and F5. vol.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Rose. ice.153). gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. A close approximation of the force. today it is realized these values are much too high. These accelerations occur in every direction. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.

their relative importance is much different. If the deflections are not equal. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. rock flour. however. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. In the past. however. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. However. however. and uplift forces are smaller. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. The modes of failure are also the same. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. On arch dams. because of bearing contact. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. engineers assumed that. First. but its formwork is more expensive. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. Although there are many types of buttress dams. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. When the base is not drained. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. overturning by rotating about the toe. Recent belief. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. and clay. but the structural design is much more critical. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. Inc. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. If a large quantity of pervious material.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. sand. All rights reserved. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. They are not suited to most sites. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. . The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. is available and clayey materials must be imported. or failure of the foundation material. silt. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. uplift is not so important. In the multiple-arch. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. Hence. such as sand and gravel. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated.” EM 1110-2-2300. All rights reserved. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. therefore.. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. the natural angle of repose of rock. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1.94). Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Inc. or wood over concrete. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. . For dams over 200 ft high. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure.21. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Today. providing power. Hasen. The facing is usually concrete. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. onto the fill. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” U. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Temporary facings are usually of wood. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Zipparo and H. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Army Corps of Engineers. bearing on the rubble cushion. For some types of soil.3 on 1. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. The downstream face is usually 1. and an upstream impervious facing. S. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. bonding into the dumped rock. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. U. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams.) 21. although steel has been used occasionally. S. (V.3 on 1. however. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. 21. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 4th ed. Bureau of Relamation. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. If pervious material is not available. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. J. Click here to view. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Leakage should be expected. New York. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.

such as the Kaplan turbine. New York. The propeller turbine (Fig. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. and draft tube. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. and the fixed-blade type. runner. wicket gates. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. their efficiency decreases rapidly. Inc. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. When the power demand on the turbine changes. At heads below 100 ft. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. The wicket gates. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. 21. Click here to view.. As the water flows through the tur- 21. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.” 4th ed. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. wicket gates. In such installations. In these. 21. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. All rights reserved. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. This creates a force on the runner.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. McGraw-Hill Book Company. However. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. 21. Hasen. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.123 bine. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. runner. however. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.95a). control the amount of water that enters the turbine. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Zipparo and H.95c). problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.) Fig. and draft tube. if the load drops below 50%. 21. .) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.94 turbine. (V. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it changes direction. At heads above 1000 ft. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. the propeller-type (Fig. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. J.

Inc.21. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. the dam will not be damaged by the water. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.65. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This type of spillway is Fig.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. widely used for concrete dams because. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. Click here to view. (c) axial flow. 21. 21. . if designed correctly. (b) Kaplan.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.

S. In a chute spillway. The weir can be sharp-crested. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway.96 Siphon spillway.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. “Design of Small Dams.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. called an ogee spillway. In a side-channel spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway.34). When the head is relatively low. Once this second condition is reached. 21. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. or ogee in cross section. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. flared. 21. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. DC 20402). Bureau of Reclamation. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping.” Government Printing Office. 21. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. lined. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. Washington. A siphon spillway (Fig. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. As the head increases. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. The air vent shown in Fig. In a shaft spillway. . Thus. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. Inc. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. model tests are usually employed. the siphon’s intake is sealed. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. All rights reserved. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. 21. Click here to view. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. This type of spillway. open channel. both depending on the head on the weir. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.

. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the pipes fail. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. causing damage and hampering operation. level of a reservoir within close limits. 21. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. and providing support for the conduit. 21. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. controlling flow.5 ft/s. 21.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.21. Click here to view. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. Inc. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. All rights reserved. Fig. To do this. Fig.98 Bear-trap gate. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack.97). During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required.97 Taintor gate. 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. In a taintor gate (Fig. making removal difficult.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.65. On large stop-log installations. In contrast. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.65.

and H.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Water Supply Engineering. Inc. as shown in Fig. Because of the large recess required in the dam. 21. Hasen. Zipparo and H.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. J. J. The drum gate (Fig. . Click here to view.99 Drum gate. New York.98.) Fig. E. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Cleasby. Babbitt. Doland. To raise a bear-trap gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J.” 4th ed. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. All rights reserved. (V. L. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. 21.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. drum gates are not suited to small dams.. and J.

. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Inc.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.blank page 21.

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