M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

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21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

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2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. and freezing damage to concrete. although negligible in many water engineering problems. formation of spray from water jets. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Its value Fig. are significant in others. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. ft Capillarity. Click here to view. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. as shown in Fig. 21.1) where h = capillary rise. 21. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. . lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. In equation form.1.7 psi. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. respectively.2. is concave upward. or liquid surface. Surface tension and capillarity. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. Thus. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Meniscus. psi. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. When the liquid is in a closed container.000 ft is shown in Fig. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure.3. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. like surface tension. decreases with increasing temperature. 21. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. however. Gage pressure. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. psia. (21.7 psia. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. at sea level. pitting. face and rises in a small tube. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. is small and insignificant in most problems. ft σ = surface tension. Its temperature variation. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Inc. Absolute pressure. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. 21.21.

lb/ft2 21. ft. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. the pressure acts equally in all directions. psf. lb/ft3. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. and the force due to pressure p2.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. is a measure of its resistance to flow. psf. Viscosity.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Click here to view. absolute viscosity. It is so named because its units. as shown in Fig. also called the coefficient of viscosity.8) to determine whether laminar.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. 21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. At any depth.4.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 Fig. ft2. the force due to pressure p1. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. and pitting appears. ft2/s.2) where τ = shearing stress. or dynamic viscosity. or implode. ft/s y = depth. to collapse. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. transitional. In hydraulics. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. on the top surface. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. Since the prism is at rest. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which extend into the pores of the metal. µ of a fluid. All rights reserved. Inc. Then. 21. of length and time. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. 21.00001059 ft2/s. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. (Pressures as high as 350. on the bottom surface. and cross-sectional area A. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. or completely turbulent flow exists. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. .

3a) Division of Eq. ft2. ft. the pressure. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. (21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). at depth h.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. where w is the specific weight of water.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Thus. (21.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.3b) then becomes (21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.3. Taking ∆h to be h. 21.5) 21. Therefore. (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the depth of the centroid. and other water control structures. ft.3a) by A yields (21. psf. (21. lb. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.4). Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. Figure 21. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. and y sin θ = h . 21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. The resultant pressure force P.4) Equation (21.4.21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. however. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. Click here to view. dams. . p1 is atmospheric pressure. the depth below the water surface. lb/ft3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. tanks. Inc.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. For horizontal surfaces.6) – ∫ydA = y A. (21. then p2 is p. Equation (21. (21. All rights reserved.

Inc. – From Eq. Thus. ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. .8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. 21. the total force P = whA. Example 21.p. 6. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.) but acts at a point (c. (21. The denominator of Eq. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. if that locus is a straight line.g.5). (21. Hence y .5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.29). represented by the length yp. All rights reserved. (21.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. where K is the radius of gyration.7). It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.2° to the horizontal (Fig.p. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 (see also Fig. Click here to view. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.7).9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.). Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. 21. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.) that is below the c. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Pyp = ∫y dP. (21. The location of the center of pressure. psf.g. of the surface about its centroidal axis.8). Otherwise.8) equals –A. 21. (21. 21. 21.7 Fig.

21. 21. P = 62. Also.0 + 2.9).) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Inc. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.42 ft. Note: 1. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. All rights reserved. (See Example 21.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.0) = 5.5 + 1/ (5.42 = 5.08/5 = 5. 21. (21.3. K2 = point G. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. . Therefore. Click here to view.08. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.21.) of common shapes. however.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.0 ft.8.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. yp = 5.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.1. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.g.0 + 0. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. From Eq.

All rights reserved. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. Click here to view. PH = whA = 62. Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.9). 21. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. and for a constant-radius surface. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.Water Resources Engineering s 21. – From Eq. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.9 Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. so the weight of the water is 19. When water is below the curved surface. 21. Inc. Example 21. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. 2. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.6 × 62.4°. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2. 21.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.9. . The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.6w = 19. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.14 × 25/4 = 19. (21. (b) Free-body diagram.4 × 2.7). Its angle with the horizontal is known.5 × 5 = 780 lb. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. The corresponding angle is 57. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. (See Example 21. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.564.6 ft3. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.

It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.4).21. 21. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. whether floating or submerged. Manometers indicate h.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.b. is indicated by the metacenter.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10b.g. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. 21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.10a).10b). The stability of a ship. (21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. or the difference in head. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. ft3 ys = distance. Click here to view. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.).4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. the pressure head. 21. (21.. p = wh. For a body to be in equilibrium. Inc. . 21. Given in feet by Eq. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. 21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. (21. ft. All rights reserved. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.

(c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.17 psi. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. (b) U-tube manometer. (a) Piezometers. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Click here to view. 21. . Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21. The piezometer (Fig.4 lb/ft3. The liquid is water with w = 62. and differential manometer. What is hm? Fig. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig.12c). Basic types of manometers. All rights reserved.11 manometer. 21. However. although the latter is most common. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21.11a is 2. Inc. U-tube manometer. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less.11): piezometer.

The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. 21. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. A movable scale. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. All rights reserved. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. including negative gage pressures. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. as opposed to a fixed scale. 21. . In this application. 21.12c). (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. Click here to view.11b) is used. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. the Utube manometer (Fig. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. Inc.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. Very low pressures. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.

21. psf.12a.4 × 2.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. 32. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. One factor. such as ft of water or psi. if the actual difference is 0. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.5.75 + 13. however. is magnified by the differential manometer. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. ft. however. psf p2 = pressure at 2. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.0 ft. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. and z is 1. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. the magnification will be 2.13 indicating liquid. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. and the right side.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. 21. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.0 and 2. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. when expressed in feet of water. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. All rights reserved. hi is 2. hm1 is 9 in.4 × 2. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. psf w = specific weight of fluid. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. Above 5. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.6).4: A differential manometer (Fig. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. psf. .4 × 0. Inc. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. the total energy per unit weight at 2.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. such as might be required in laboratories.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. that is. Most of them. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. 21. or sump. The differential manometer (Fig. as shown in Fig. Click here to view. For example.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.40.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. 21.25 ft. ft. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The pressure at B. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the actual pressure difference. Example 21.25 ft of water.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. in the manometer.6 × 62.11) where Z1 = elevation.

21.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Average velocity.5. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. Kinetic energy at the section. above some arbitrary datum.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3. where Va is the velocity.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. As indicated in Fig. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. velocity. (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Fig.13). ft2.4 ft3/s. however. It equals WVa2 / 2g. (See Example 21. Inc. V2/2g.14. and pressure. and pressure (Fig. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. ft3/s. ft/s.21.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. All rights reserved. 21. ft. ft/s = Q/A. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. ft. 21. through friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lb.14) pa/w is called pressure head. when added to the downstream side of Eq. velocity head. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Example 21. Usually. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. varies with velocity.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.13. where Q is the quantity of flow. This term hf. a Fig. The total energy. where W is the weight.11).11) applies only to an ideal fluid. . Click here to view. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. 21. or the total head ft: (21. 21. across the area of the section A. velocity.

hf = 50 – 1. Art. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow.7. Click here to view. while in pressure flow. which may result from a change in either velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.14 = 10 ft/s. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Also. Inc. In openchannel flow. respectively. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. 21. 21. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.15). or magnitude of flow. sometimes called the total head line. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. respectively. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Thus substitution in Eq. (21. Since the datum plane passes through point 2.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Hence. and any bends.15 Fig. . The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. is equal to the impulse. gate valve. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Z2 = 0. 21.55 = 48. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.9). direction. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. A change in momentum.4/ 3. All rights reserved. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. The energy grade line.45 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. p2 = 0. since the pipe has free discharge.

5°.94.12)] but may be used separately.600. Fx = 181.15) first in the X direction.21.1 and the density ρ = 62. so θ = 60. Then. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. (21.96 sin 53.11) or (21.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.94 × 100 × 65. Click here to view. 21. Fy = –181. since ∆Vx = –(7. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.200 lb.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.200 + Rx = 1. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. (See Example 21. apply Eq. P2 = ppA2 = 13.78. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. and at 2. With p1 known.2° – 0) = 4.700/82.000 cos 53. (21. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.2° + Ry = 1. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.2° – 13. To find F. 21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.600 lb In the Y direction. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.500 lb.332π = 71. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. which is to be determined).2° – 71.5) = 65. lb.16. since ∆Vy = –(–7.94 × 100 × 4.000 sin 53.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.78 Ry = 145.6.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. Inc.2= 1.4/ 32. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. then in the Y direction. All rights reserved. Example 21.1 Rx = –82.96 cos 53. Let R be the force.000 lb. Fig. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.5 ft/s.

Click here to view. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. In the preceding example. Physical models are expensive to build. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations.17 21. aquifer.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. For instance. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. or prototype. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. such as a river. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. erosional scour. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. . Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. All rights reserved. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. to a given set of stimuli. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. droughts. or drainage basin. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. or proposed works. In this way. It is. the capability of the computing resources. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.7. momentum. however. In most models. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. Popular before the advent of digital computers. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. hybrid modeling. and through execution of the computer program.7. In water resources engineering. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. 21. A fourth mode of modeling. viscosity. 1. See also Art. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. gravity. alternative management schemes. With hybrid models. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Inc. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. such as storm rainfall. and surface tension. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Usually. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. operate. employs both physical and mathematical models.

21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. Click here to view.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. viscosity. (21.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. such as spillways and weirs. Similarly.20) R is dimensionless. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The Reynolds number is (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Ratios of the forces of gravity. ft2/s. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. Then (21. Froude number. and one other force are made proportional. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. The Froude number is (21.22) where ρ = density of fluid. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The inertial force. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.21. Squaring both sides of Eq. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. the length ratio is the only variable. Inc. Once the length ratio has been set. and Weber number.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. the formation of drops and air bubbles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. entrainment of air in flowing water. 32. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. such as depth or diameter). The Weber number is (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. All rights reserved. the model is termed a true model.21a) (21. which is always a predominant force. Reynolds number. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. (21. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. . respectively.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Therefore. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. in particular.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number.S.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design.26) where V = mean velocity. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. (21. This type of model is called a distorted model.7. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. In some cases. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. All rights reserved. Sr = 1. (21. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. the logical representation of prototypes. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. viscous. Hence. mathematical models are. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. such as a morning-glory spillway. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. in turn. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. One type of model. called a movable-bed model.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. Rr = Lr.24). and infiltration parameters. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. and through execution of the computer program. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. (21. 21. . For instance. catchment areas. such as flow networks. The U. ft/s R = hydraulic radius.23a) (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.25) In models of rivers and channels. Click here to view.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. For such models. Inc. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. inertial. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. These expressions.

“Handbook of Hydrology. seepage. the model output required for design or evaluation. shown in Fig. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. and among water resources modelers in the government.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. R. Click here to view. (D. quantity and quality of water supply. and groundwater yield. R. however. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. hydrodynamics. academia. 21. G. For closed conduits other than circular. “Water Resources Planning. or both.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. if comparisons of different plans are required. Grigg. As this shearing stress increases. when fully implemented. Hasen. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification.” D. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Whan. sediment or pollutant transport. This approach. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. New York. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. J. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Also. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. S. All rights reserved. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. . the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. F. flood or drought impacts. vol. In object-oriented software. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. This. hydrologic forecasting. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. 21. Maidment. Zipparo and H. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. wave or tidal analyses. Hoggan. 3. and R. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As a result. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. flow routing.) 21. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall.17. of all databases and software. landfill leachate analyses.2). and private sectors. evaporation and irrigation. Inc. As a general rule.” N. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. (J. watershed hydrology. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. density. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Rothfus.” V. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. or pollution. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. as in annular passages. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. impacts of dam breaks. channel and river hydraulics. reservoir regulation. Walker. A. 1957. and turbulent flow results. Art. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. design of hydraulic structures.21. H. ecosystem impacts and restoration.

28) where hf = head loss due to friction. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. 21. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. Eq. 32. the flow is completely turbulent. (21. ft ρ = density of fluid. (21.29) For laminar flow. 21. as shown in Fig. 21. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. at completely turbulent flow. flow is laminar in circular pipes.” 6th ed. Click here to view. As a result. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. In this region. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. ft/s D = pipe diameter. (21. 21. a disturbance will probably be magnified. 21. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. Fig. Inc.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. Brater. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32.Water Resources Engineering s 21. it is not practical to treat it analytically. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. These disturbances create eddies. F. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. (E.) 21. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. All rights reserved. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. ft L = length of pipe section considered. As the Reynolds number increases. causing the flow to become turbulent. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.21 Fig. laminar flow is unstable. Therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. than for laminar flow (Fig.27) where V = fluid velocity.17). ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. In laminar flow. handbook of Hydraulics. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.l9. 21.18. the velocity distribution is more uniform. .19. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.

F.03 – 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. All rights reserved.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. ft D = diameter of pipe.19) to Determine f ε.0005 – 0.0005 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.003 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. Inc. Moody.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.19) L = length of pipe.0002 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft V = velocity of fluid. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The head loss is independent of the pressure.0005 – 0. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.21.9. (21.008 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. (L. 21. 21. (21.008 – 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.00003 0.0002 0. 21. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. November 1944.) Because Eq. .19) for evaluating the friction factor f. Click here to view. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.003 – 0.001 0. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. enamels.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.001 – 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. 32.0002 – 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.

Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. ft/s C = coefficient. which requires experience in its choice.3.34e) where V = velocity. All rights reserved.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.9. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.34d) (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.33e) 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Substitution into Eq.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. (21.31) where V = velocity. where D is the pipe diameter. dependent on surface roughness.9.Water Resources Engineering s 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. (21. .3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.4 and 21. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. (Although based on surface roughness.34b) (21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft3/s.9. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.31) gives (21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.32) where n = coefficient. Inc. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. ft S = head loss due to friction. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft/s C1 = coefficient.33c) (21. See also Table 22.33b) (21. 21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. ft L = length of pipe.11 (p. Tables 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. 21.34c) 21.33d) (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.

012 0. (21. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.017 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. ft3/s hf = friction loss. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.013 0. However.013 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.014 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. Example 21.015 0.) Flow between reservoirs.010 To 0.015 0.014 0.7: Figure 21.010 0. bends. .035 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. Inc.013 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. because (21. and valves and other pipe fittings.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.35b) (21. enlargements.011 0.7. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.016 To 0.015 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.012 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.017 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.015 0.20 ple 21.4 Values of n for Pipes.017 From 0.36) for a check.012 0.017 0.010 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.015 0.21.017 0. Click here to view. (21.35c) (21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. in short pipelines.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.013 0.012 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. (21.013 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. All rights reserved.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. 21. 21.

) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.25 Table 21. determined experimentally by Brightmore. are presented in Table 21.. where V is the velocity in the pipe. so a full velocity head is lost. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 115 12 in.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s g = 32. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 120 Large sizes. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. steel forms. 110 (21. Click here to view. (21. 110 4 in.21 are approximate. H. 21. (21. Table 21.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. the values of K in Fig. (A. All rights reserved. 80 4 in. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. Inc.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. ft.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).21). 105 30 in and over. 85 16 in. 120 Centrifugally spun.10. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. London.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Ltd. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. is (21.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. good workmanship.10. (21. 10 years older Average value.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. minor losses must be considered.37) or (21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.” Constable & Co. 135 In good condition. 21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.10. wood forms. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 21.37): (21. good workmanship. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe..38) A special application of Eq. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. 120 24 in and over. Gibson.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. 140 Large sizes.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. regardless of age.7.

and at bends is given by (21.9 0.8 0. fully open Angle valve.89 1.21.6 0.4 21.10. Inc.0 2.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.62 0. All rights reserved. fully open Swing check valve.6 0.0 1.0 Table 21.4 0. fully open Gate valve. .76 0.2 0. D = pipe diameter.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Globe valve.2 0.71 0.8 are only approximate.81 0.0 5.25 The values in Table 21.05 K = 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.1 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.64 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.80 K = 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.3 0.5 0.7 0.63 0.50 K = 0.42) Table 21.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10. Click here to view.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.68 0. 21.2 2.21 of the sides.9 0. For these reaTable 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as valves and elbows.66 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.5 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.

27 sons. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. McGraw-Hill. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and angle of bend. Experiments on smooth pipes.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. 1960. Figure 21. (H.44) where Q = discharge. however. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Orifices may have any shape. square. no. vol. Inc. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.” 4th ed.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. H. 1. vol. not including friction loss. (21. For low heads. its effect should be taken into account. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. this error is corrected by the C values. 21.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. the bend loss essentially remains constant.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. If this velocity is significant. Ito... measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. (21. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.42). All rights reserved. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.9 for low velocity of approach. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. New York. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. (K. Equation (21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. series D.42). “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.23.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. July 1938.” Journal of Research. The data are in agreement that the head loss. 21. National Bureau of Standards.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. 82.11. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. (21. 21. Beij. (V. although they are usually round. Inc.22: (21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. . When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Hasen. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. not including friction loss in the bend.) Fig. Zipparo and H. or rectangular. Reynolds number. 21. there is disagreement.45) 21. J. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.

600 0.619 0.643 0.594 0. to Fig.632 0.618 0.610 0.605 0.621 0.618 0.615 0.599 0..593 0.596 0.603 0. and Eq.592 0.616 0.609 0.616 0. determined experimentally. Inc.6 08 1 1.597 0.648 0.637 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.600 0.660 0.611 0.600 0.46) The actual velocity.1 0. ft 0.5 2 2.628 0.593 0.602 0.614 0.630 0.590 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. Z1 = h.592 1.603 0. Jr.637 0.608 0.605 0. of circular orifices.599 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.605 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.1 0.611 0.613 0.622 0.598 0. and Z2 = 0.601 0.604 0.627 0.605 0.601 0.596 0.602 0.598 * Hamilton Smith. Click here to view. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.02 0.648 0.599 0.623 0.598 0.0 Head.637 0.614 0.602 0.631 0.617 0. .607 0.606 0. the vena contracta.21.596 0.” 1886.612 0.602 0.601 0.629 0.594 0.603 0.604 0.99.608 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.608 0.04 0.595 0. ft 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.632 0.623 0.596 0.610 0.603 0.595 0.613 0 610 0.595 0. 21. With the reference plane through point 2.45) becomes (21.4 0.600 0.04 0.602 0.94 to 0.604 0. All rights reserved.636 0.614 0.596 0. ft 0.596 0.618 0. (21.607 0.623 0.597 0.619 0.0 0.602 0.592 0.612 0.599 0.626 0.617 0.598 1.644 0.602 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.601 0.628 0.591 0. “Hydraulics. V1 = 0.593 0.02 0.652 0.607 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.641 0.634 0.602 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.606 0.655 0.

25 orifice. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. New York. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.25.29 Fig.24b. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.11. 21.) 21. the area of the orifice. ft.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. the contraction is completely suppressed.61 to 0.67. With a partly suppressed orifice. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. F.” 6th ed. 21.48) is obtained.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. (21.. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.11. see E. (21. 21. 21. Figure 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. All rights reserved. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. In Fig. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. 21.47) where hL = losses in head. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Brater. between 1 and 2. Eq. . (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

(21.11.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. when y = h1.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. . 21.58) Equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 32. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. ft2 A = area of reservoir.49) Solving for dt yields (21.59).57) for t and substituting in Eq. For simplicity.58)]. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eq. (21. Click here to view. (21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.50) where a = area of orifice. 21. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. s The Y coordinate is (21. ft h2 = head at the end. is that for a parabola: (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.21. (21.56) Fig.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. when y = h2. (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.50) becomes (21.55) 21.51) upon integration becomes (21.56).30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.57) (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. 21. Eq.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. obtained by solving Eq. (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.23). Inc. to time t.58) gives (21.26): (21. Rearranging Eq. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. (21.

31 ty Cν = 0. a K value for Eq. Fig.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. however.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.82. (21. .29. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.28).67 V2 ) = 0.27) but the head loss is larger.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.80.27. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. When this happens. For a short tube flowing full. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.11. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. 21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33VT / 2g. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. Therefore.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.42) of 0. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. if one exists). ft2 Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0. psf w = unit weight of water. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. All rights reserved. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.11. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.00 VT / 2g – 0. In the tube or pipe. Click here to view. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. Inc.5 a T T Fig.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.75. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.82. Equation (21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. 21. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. 21. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.67 V2T /2g. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. (21.

and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. but at a pressure much higher than normal. 21. 21. this momentum drops to zero. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. As the water flows into the reservoir. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. When a valve is closed. Every time the flow rate is changed. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. it causes water hammer.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. Fig. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. The pipe shown in Fig. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. As the water flows away from the closed valve. All rights reserved. 21. 21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°.29.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. the pressure in the pipe falls. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. Inc.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. For this analysis to be valid.30). At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.21. 21. the tube must flow full. However. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. either above or below the normal pressure. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. Click here to view. 21. 21. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. The change causes a pressure rise. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Fig. . This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. either increased or decreased. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop.32). The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. the water in the pipe is motionless.

43. (21.13. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. Equation (21. ft 21. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. .61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.63a) becomes (21. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. (21. 1.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. approximate solution. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.64) 21. Inc. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. Eq.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. Click here to view. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.63). The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. 21.63a) In terms of pressure head. 21.13. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. All rights reserved. For instantaneous closure: (21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. s A plot of pressure vs.

Once the time interval has been determined.63). Thus. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. J. where ∆t.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.63). (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.) Example 21. s T = actual closure time of valve.5 ft2. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 32. . where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. (21. to apply Eq. (21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.63). (21. With the head known. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. (21. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. Vo the original velocity. where a equals any integer. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.) Velocity of pressure wave. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. length = 3000 ft. each causing an individual pressure wave.21. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. penstock thickness = 1 in. ft L = length of pipeline. from Eq. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time.. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. New York.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.32. Inc. McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. is g = acceleration due to gravity. area = 78.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. then that obtained from Eq. the increment of time. Hasen. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. diameter = 10 ft.2 × 108 psf. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. 21. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. (V. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. such as L/aU. (21. Inc. (21. equals L /aU.61). Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. Zipparo and H. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq.” 4th ed.

from Eq. floats on the line.34 tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. it is by no means the only one. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.66) where p = internal pressure. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. in effect. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. is Pipe Stresses 21. The water column. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. 21. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.64) gives the following result: 21. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. the closure is instantaneous. Click here to view. 21. Inc.34).90 s. psi. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. When a valve is suddenly opened. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. Various types of relief Fig. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When a valve is suddenly closed. in Assuming T = 4.75 s. lb Hence. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. and the pressure rise.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. to prevent water hammer.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. All rights reserved. 21. Usually.90 s. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank.63). The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. approximate equation (21. the stress. . Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.33) must still be designed for water hammer.13. 21. on the pipe material is (21. (21. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water.

. New York. Equation (21. 21. The internal diameter is used in Eq.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. (21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. is (21. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. Inc.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.21.10). 21. elastic Stability. (21.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.67). the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. (21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. Art. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. In this case.” 2nd ed. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. The stress. In Fig.6). When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. In all bends. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. Eq. 21. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. M. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. If D/t is less than 10. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. 21.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. it acts like a beam. however. Gere. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The force diagram in Fig. (S. “Theory of .) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. P Timoshenko and J. Eq. (21. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. 6.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. However.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. . psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. this analysis is approximate. However. if expansion joints are to be used. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. For steel pipes. due to a temperature change is (21.67) for concrete pipe. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. For concrete pipes. McGraw-Hill Book Company. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. psi.

37 Fig.70) and (21. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. 21. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. . the joints must also be able to take these forces. 62. exit conditions. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. (21. However. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. or other embankment. a railroad. (21. Click here to view. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. and slope. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. 32. canal.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid.71) give a quick solution. however.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. All rights reserved. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. Eqs. an exact theoretical analysis. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.71) where R = resultant force on bend. psf w = unit weight of water. Inc.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. In small pipes. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow.

and the Manning equation for friction loss.38). The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. but they do not cover Fig. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.30)]. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. 21. the normal depth (Art. the following equation is obtained: (21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. that is. 21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . 21. Inc.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. 21.37). slope is greater than the critical slope. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. and the control will still be at the inlet. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.36).21. All rights reserved. For this reason.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. (21. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. the culvert flows full. and the discharge is independent of the slope. charts.23).22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. 21. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. computer software. 21. .33d) or (21.” EB058W.73) 21. Portland Cement Association.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.

ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. The discharge. flow depends on inlet condition. 21. 21. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. 21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. normal pipe flow occurs. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. 21. 32. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. and dn > dc . ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. ft V = velocity in culvert.39 Fig.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. The fluid flows under pressure.39).72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Fig. Discharge depends on head H.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.74) Fig.20) 21. (21.23). When slope is less than critical. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Discharge is independent of slope. All rights reserved. and dn < dc .2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. ft Equation (21. Inc. When slope exceeds critical. loss at entrance.75) Substituting this into Eq. Click here to view. and slope of culvert. (21. When the slope is less than critical. 21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Thus. open-channel flow takes place. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for the open-channel condition (Fig. .74) yields (21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. depending on the head.

When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths.37). and discharge is given by Eq. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. When the friction slope is flat.41).40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. 21. Inc. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.72). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. If this condition exists. ft dn = normal depth of flow. 21. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. 21. (21.76). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. 21. (21.40). This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. ft To solve Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.18). the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. If the head on a culvert is high. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. Most culverts. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.76).21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. If the friction slope approaches critical. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.39).76). however. . This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. (21. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig.

9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.9 0. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. and free exit.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. 21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. First find dn. projecting Concrete pipe. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.41 For entrance control. (21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. These values are for culverts flowing full. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.95 × 4 = 39. groove or bell. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.8 ft3/s Table 21.01. But H = 5 + 0. (21. Since the culvert is under pressure.10 0.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.18 and 21. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. When the entrance is not submerged.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.44) for discharge through an orifice. . But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. 21. with Eq. groove or bell.72) yields Q =Va = 9.19).73). the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.72) applies. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Eq. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.15 0. Example 21. 21. and the entrance will not control.40).72) and (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. Inc.013. Click here to view. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. (21. the flow is under pressure.5 0. To calculate the hydraulic radius. slope = 0. All rights reserved. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. (21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. n = 0. length = 300 ft. Substitution in Eq. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. 21. (21. square edge Concrete pipe. Find: size of culvert. Application of Eq. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Table 21.6.

ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. or the total-head line. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. depth of flow is constant throughout.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. (21. It is expressed in feet as (21. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. and is given by (21. 21. The wetted perimeter is the length.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. It is. ft2 When the discharge is constant.03 to 1. ft. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. within a hydraulic jump. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. It has uniform flow if the grade. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He.79) The velocity head HV. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. normally taken as 1. ft. Thus.21. In a uniform channel. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. minus the free surface width. Figure 21.79). Inc.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. . from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. ft3/s. plus the velocity head at the point.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. or open-channel flow.77) where V = average velocity. ft. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. Hence. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. is generally given by (21. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. or slope. Equation (21. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. Click here to view. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. All rights reserved. however.36 for prismatic channels. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.

F.” 6th ed. or to the diameter of a circular channel. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. (See.44. slope. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. 21. as shown in Fig. 21. Eq. As the depth decreases downstream. in which T is the top width of the channel.) (21.83) Brater. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. E.43).84) reduces to Fig. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. for example. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. McGrawHill Book Company.42 is called the normal depth dn. All rights reserved. Click here to view.84) where A = area of flow. 21. 21.43 Fig. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. the specific energy also decreases. . It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. New York. Chow. 21. T. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. Inc. (V. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. ft. 21. normal depth decreases downstream. roughness. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. (21. ft.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and discharge are known.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.43. For a rectangular channel.

F.43. (21. the depth is below critical. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44). Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.” 6th ed. For a given value of specific energy. 21.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. . (21. Eq. and flow is supercritical. New York). 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. Click here to view. or conversely.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.44). In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. Inc. for a given discharge.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. The flow there is called subcritical flow. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.84) is called the critical depth dc. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. For rectangular channels.84). As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. ft3/s d = depth of flow. Brater. the depth is greater than critical. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.84) may be reduced to (21. All rights reserved. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.21.

21. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. however. 21. Click here to view. regardless of slope.85). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. 21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.57). For every depth greater than critical depth. [As indicated by Eq.87) Fig. All rights reserved. flow is supercritical. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21.45. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth.52b. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. Critical depth.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. ft3/s b = width of channel. 21.45 where dc = critical depth. a hydraulic jump will occur. It can be seen from Fig. Such a change occurs gradually. flow is subcritical. 21. 21. once calculated. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. .44).24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. as indicated in Fig. along with a high loss of energy. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. (21. 21. without turbulence. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. (21. p. indicating an irreversible occurrence. Inc. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.

Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. 21. 21.) 21. are in Table 21. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.89) may be written (21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope.46a and b.L. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.90) where A = area of flow. New York. at an arbitrary elevation.25). When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.11. E.L. is replaced by a horizontal line. Chow. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. (Although based on surface roughness. 21. (21. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.D.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.9 and Table 21. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. the average n values given in Table 21. horizontal. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. there must be a continuing maintenance program. These curves are divided into five groups. and A for adverse. The M2 curve forms between the normal.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. 21. Department of Agriculture. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. Dr. H for horizontal. and two types for channels of critical. 21. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.D. 21. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. therefore.D. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Eq. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. T.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.S. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. as shown in Fig.46c and d.L. and the N. and the critical-depth line C. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.L. C for critical.and critical-depth lines.23).L. and C. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.D.D. ft V = mean velocity of flow. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. (See also Art. and adverse slope. are identical for a channel of critical slope. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). The N. S for steep (supercritical). The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Inc. All rights reserved.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.46.4.

011 0.120 0.019 0.050 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.030 0.030 0.012 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. 21. Dense brush.013 0.016 0. Lined channels 1.016 0.023 0.022 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.035 0. respectively).020 0.015 0.013 0.050 0. Smooth and uniform b.013 0. 21. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.100 0. Concrete a.025 0. Smooth wood form c. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.028 0. good section c.46i and j. wavy section 4.014 0.033 0. Dredged earth a. Corrugated 2.022 0.080 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Dry rubble 5. high as flow depth d. after weathering b.012 0. Smooth b.014 0. Light brush on banks 3.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.035 0. Click here to view.060 0.025 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.021 0. With short grass. straight and uniform a.027 0.016 0. untreated 3. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.022 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.035 0.012 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Rough wood form B. . Gunite. 21.011 0.014 0.017 0. Gunite.018 0.025 0.025 0.040 0.018 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Inc.017 Max 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Rock cuts a.015 0. The S2 curve. Concrete (unfinished) a.040 0.014 0.033 0.015 Avg 0. Jagged and irregular 0.016 0.016 0. No vegetation b.023 0. Cemented rubble b. 21.080 0. Steel form b. Clean. Dense weeds.010 0.035 0. Float finish b. Planed.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.025 0. Excavated earth.030 0.013 0. All rights reserved. Rough C. Wood a. commonly called a drawdown curve.46a and b.025 0.032 0.012 0. Metal a. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. high stage 2. Asphalt a. Masonry a. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.024 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.021 0. few weeds c.140 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Unlined channels 1.013 0.

H. and A profiles.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.21. C. 21. The curves in Fig.D.L. Examples in Fig.D.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.L.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. 21. indicates normal-depth line. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. critical-depth line. N. All rights reserved. 21.46k and l. Inc. .. 21.

For the section of channel in Fig. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. Explanations of both the graphical. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.and direct-integration methods are in V. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical).27. For subcritical flow conditions. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. or reaches..91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2.” McGraw-Hill. known as its celerity.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. H. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. 21. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. free overfall. . (21.) 21. weir. each reach is solved in succession. gate. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. See Art.5. (R. French. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. T. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Click here to view. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. and step methods. direction-integration. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. New York. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. with relatively small variation. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. For step-method computations. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.51). Inc. dam. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. Chow. the channel is divided into short lengths. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.77) if the depth were zero. The wave travels at a speed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. 21.47. New York. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. depending on the type of flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. 21. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. All rights reserved. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 32.

93). 21. 21.82). and – SL = hf. rearranged as follows: Fig. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. (21. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. the – eddy loss. . and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. due to friction in the same reach. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. 21. the change in elevation. (For uniform.92) (21. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. prismatic channels. and vice versa. the longer the backwater curve profile.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. Click here to view. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. as given by Eq.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line.21.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. Inc. (21. not the channel bottom.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. All rights reserved. hi. Therefore. respectively. ft. the head loss. is negligible and can be ignored. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.93) where R = hydraulic radius.91) for L gives (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. Solving Eq. The smaller the value of n. (21.

by a slight increase in Manning’s n. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. (21. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.93). after substitution of H from Eq. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump.1 for converging reaches.94). Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Since this step method is a converging process. (21. (21. Z2. Inc. total head H. (21. or roughness. The value of total head computed from Eq. Click here to view. Finally. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. ft. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. .97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. (21. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. grade. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical.51 may be some intermediate depth. at sec– tions 1 and 2.93). in natural channels. (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. is obtained from Eq. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. which. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. S. sometimes called impact loss. 21.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Next. respectively. ft/s. and about 0. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Then. becomes (21. respectively. Eddy loss. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. from 0 to 0. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. and it is therefore often accounted for.95). Then. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. referred to a horizontal datum.96). and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. ft. (21. Therefore. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21.95) The coefficient k is 0. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. Next. computations progress toward the initial section. All rights reserved.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. For lined channels. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. (21. ft. the average friction slope for the reach. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. the friction loss. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach.92).2 for diverging reaches.47.

23). known as the roller. Click here to view. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. Utilizing the above data.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. approach roadways. . and J. 1970. is a turbulent mass of water. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.1 ft in elevation. Fig. known as the length of jump. 21. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Inc. If the two values of total head do not agree. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.48). determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. H. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.S. 21. 21. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. All rights reserved. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. 1. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). as shown in Figs. however. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. Bureau of Public Roads. or other obstruction.48 Hydraulic jump. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.27. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. Bradley.51 and 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. New York. velocity. 21.52b. Department of Transportation. However. and determine the discharge.” Hydraulics Design Series no. The effect of bridges. U. 21. N. respectively. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. a gate. 21. The upstream surface of the jump. 2nd ed. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. Federal Highway Administration. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. French. bridge piers..21.

104) = discharge. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.100) Equation (21. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21.99).98) and (21. For rectangular channels. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.105) where A = area of flow. For open-channel flow. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. V is the mean velocity. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft3/s = unit of time. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.100). The depth before a jump is the initial depth. 21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.82). or alternate depths. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. 32. (21. s (21. ft.102) Equation (21. d2 must also equal dc. (21. (21. ft w = unit weight of water. ft/s. 21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. All rights reserved.49) is given by (21. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.27. Inc.16)]. this resultant pressure force is (21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. ft2 T = width of free surface. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. This difference (Fig. ft d2 = depth after jump.98) where d1 = depth before jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in Eq. Click here to view. ft/s2. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. .99) where M = mass of water. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where L is a characteristic length.

If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.5 to 4. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. This jump may be called a strong jump. This jump may be called a steady jump.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. The jump action is rough but effective.21. If the tailwater is too high. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. 21. Inc. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. 21. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.0 and larger. All rights reserved. If the tailwater is too low. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. which gives discharge vs. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. The jump is well-balanced. chute. For F1 = 9. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. depending on local conditions. For F1 = 2.5.S. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. For F1 = 4. Click here to view.7 to 2. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. 21. and energy dissipation may reach 85%.7. the jump will be drowned out. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. For F1 = 1 to 1. For F1 = 1. Various forms of hydraulic jump. and the performance is at its best. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. . were classified by the U. can travel for miles. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. This jump may be called a weak jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected.5 to 9.23). The jump is called an undular jump. 21. there are undulations on the surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0.49.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. very commonly in canals. for example. depth after the jump. which. In either case.5. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. For F1 = 1. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.27. the flow is critical and there is no jump. below a spillway. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1.

was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. T. Inc. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. This length (Fig. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. prepared by V. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.51. These features are expensive to build.27. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. therefore.S. (21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U. 21. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. Accessories. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. 21. 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. changing the apron elevation. and sloping the apron. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Click here to view.55 curve involve changing the crest length.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.105).50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. 21. The curve.27. .48) defies accurate mathematical expression. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. But it has been determined experimentally. The resulting curve (Fig.

The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. 21. as theory would indicate. 21. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.7dc for simplicity.46e and c). is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. (21. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump.52. that flow is uniform. respectively (Fig. computed from Eq. Inc. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. Click here to view. as shown in Fig. . except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. which occurs near the channel drop-off. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction.21.101) with d1 given. using the step methods of Art. 21.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. as shown in Fig.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. curves AB and ED in Fig. CB. the jump occurs in the steep region. As depth d2 is lowered. 21. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.101). With values of d2 obtained from Eq.75h in the absence of better information. If d2 is less than d′ . if the downstream depth is lowered. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. equal in length to L. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The actual depth at the brink is 71. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. Conversely.26. A horizontal intercept FG. equal to the computed length of the jump.52b.102). for simplicity. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. 21. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. 21. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.52a. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. 21. but it is normally assumed to be 0. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. 21. the computed length of jump. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. It is assumed. (21.5% of critical depth. All rights reserved. (21. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. less than. between lines CB′and EO. computed from Eq. 21. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED.51.23) to mild. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the jump moves downstream to a new position. the jump moves to a new location downstream.

F. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. ft. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section..” McGraw-Hill. Inc. 21. a new discharge is assumed. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. ignoring entrance loss. New York.53a). ft.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. 21. 21.85)].51. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. Click here to view. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. the entrance loss. then the assumed discharge is correct. and discharge is at a maximum. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). From Q = AV..106) where b is the channel width. Then. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. 21. If the entrance loss must be considered.) 21. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. French. or (b) below it. ft. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (R. .23).28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero.Water Resources Engineering s 21. H.82) and (21. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. All rights reserved. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.53).57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.” 6th ed. (21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. Inc. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. is (21. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. Brater. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 for one with squared ends. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. or (a) above it.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. “Handbook of Hydraulics. if not. ft3/s. New York. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. on the channel entrance.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. where He is the specific energy head. ft. and the slope of the channel.

21.83). ft. 21. 21. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.23). d is normal depth.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.21.53b. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel.33). The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. a new discharge is chosen. . ———— charge. ft. 21. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig.22). All rights reserved. (In Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. then the discharge is correct. ft3/s. Inc. ft2. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. 21.53b). is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. if not. (21. producing flow. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. (b) mild-slope channel.2 ft/s2. Click here to view. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. and g is acceleration due to gravity. where He – d is the actual head. He is the specific energy head.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. 32.

This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. (21. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. The error will not be great. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. of the center line of the channel. where V is its average velocity. a unit mass of water. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. however. .31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. and rc the radius of curvature. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. or mV2 /rc for m.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. the true value of y would be only a few inches.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Therefore. when a stream enters a curve.59 21.83)]. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed.23). ft /s. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. Click here to view. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. 21.107) The theoretical difference y. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. ft. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. curve (Fig. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. 21. All rights reserved. 21. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. (21. In this range. Inc. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. ft.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. 21. ft.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. Thus.108). There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. (21. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. If the bend continues long enough.

and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. These waves cross at M. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. and continue crossing and recrossing. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. The cross slope required for 21. and should be used with discretion. The second is a negative wave. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. (F.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.23). with sufficient accuracy. Two waves form at the start of the curve. His values have not been evaluated completely. phase.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.110) for θ in Eq.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. C. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. recross as shown. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. . A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. depths along the inside wall. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. One is a positive wave.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Scobey. Technical Bulletin 393. (21. This angle may be found from (21. by (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. (21.21. Fig. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. however. Click here to view. 21. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0.S. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. Inc. Department of Agriculture. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.” U.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.16)] .55). an increase in friction loss results.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. 21. a series of standing waves are produced. flows around a bend in a channel.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. of greater-than-average surface elevation. All rights reserved. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.111). 21.

In this range. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. the loss factor.8[∆(V2/2g)]. When proceeding downstream through a transition. 21. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.57). The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump.44. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. To place a transition properly between two open channels. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. For outlet-type structures. 21. equals about 0.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths.54).5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. p. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. respectively. 21.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.2 ft/s2. change from subcritical to supercritical. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. 21. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The transition loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where K.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Straight.23). if friction is ignored. or change from supercritical to subcritical. 21. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. such as flow-rate changes.113) angle of about 12. the average velocity decreases. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.44. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. and channel shape and slope. If friction is ignored.1 for an inlet-type structure. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. as shown in Fig. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. is given by K(∆V2/2g). Click here to view. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. ft/s. plus any transition and friction losses. 21. and g = 32. All rights reserved. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. therefore. wall roughness. Many variables. ∆V is the velocity change. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. . a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. low-head-loss transfer of flow. ft. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.2 for welldesigned transitions. Inc.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig.56. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. 21.

34.59. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.5 = a(30)2.58). such as rectangular weirs. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. measured from A or B. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.000556(10)2 = 0.57. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. as shown in Fig. 21. 21. .000556. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. from which a = 0. and parabolic weirs. If the discharge is partly under water. triangular weirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. All rights reserved. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. Fig. such as broad-crested weirs. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21.58 Sharp-crested weir.59 Weir not sharp-crested. y = ax2.000556(20)2 = 0.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. triangular or Vnotch weirs. and. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. For Fig. In contrast.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. trapezoidal weirs. 21. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. the weir is submerged or drowned.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. 21. Click here to view. 21. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.21. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. the weir has free discharge. Inc. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. trapezoidal weirs. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.222 ft. 21.

60 V-notch weir. 2. . ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.5H.5H upstream from the weir. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.115) where Q = discharge. Inc. 21. ft The head should be measured at least 2.116) corrects for the effects of friction.58) (V. Click here to view.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. contraction of the nappe.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Chow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.34. Equation (21. 21. If P is less than Fig. thus causing a contraction of the flow. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. To be fully ventilated. Hence.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. The height of weir P must be at least 2.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. 21. 21. One such equation. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. At very low heads. A V-notch weir (Fig. below the crest. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. New York). “Open-Channel Hydraulics. T. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.

21. 1943). 69. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.. Lenz. Discharge is given by (21.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.34. 21. there are two end contractions and N = 2.118) Fig.119) where Q = discharge.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. ft H = head. vol.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head.34. . The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. His values were summarized by Brater. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. T.5H upstream from the weir. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. Inc. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Click here to view. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. (21.118)] 21. 21. ft. F. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. measured from notch bottom. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.61) (E. 21. 21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. 21. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. All rights reserved.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir.2) when low discharges are to be measured. New York).3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.” 6th ed. The effective length L.34. there is one end contraction and N = 1. 21.

for that weir by a function of H2/H1. Typically. Eq. for such weirs. and then. 2 21. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. heavily constructed devices. 21. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. or both.59). neglecting the velocity head. ft3/s. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.34. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. ft V = velocity of approach. The discharge Qs. From this total head. velocity head of approach. Villemonte. and finally total head. Thus. 32. ft3/s.121) where Q = discharge. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. ft.122) where H = measured head. (J. velocity head.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. 25. R. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. using this rate and the required depths. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. 866. .65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. All rights reserved. Click here to view.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. Then. using this discharge. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge.) Equation (21. p. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21.34. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.115) is rewritten in the form (21.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. 21. compute the velocity of approach.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft/s V /2g = Hν.) To use the Villemonte equation. Where great accuracy is essential.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. 21. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1947.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. Dec.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. (21. (21. Fig. which may be done as follows: First. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.” Engineering News-Record. compute a trial discharge from the measured head.

1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. For conditions of design head Table 21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.02 0.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. The effect is most critical for low heads. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. starting with the corrected discharge. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. For each change of nappe shape. But the process should be repeated. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.123) where L = effective crest length. “Design of Small Dams.12. 21. where approach velocities are high. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. For conditions of design head Hd.34. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Department of the Interior. ft L′ = net crest lengths. thickness of pier. Click here to view.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. and the approach velocity. Therefore.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. Inc. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. the head in relation to the design head. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. DC 20402.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 0. All rights reserved. ft (U.” Government Printing Office. and approach velocity. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. F. head in relation to design heads. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.S. .21.2 of the head.5Hd > r* > 0.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.13. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.10 H. Washington.

thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. 21. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. Department of the Interior.S.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. T. For flow at heads lower than the design head. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. 1. Consequently. (U. According to Chow. (21. Chow. 21. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head.5H upstream. All rights reserved. Of the above rules. 21. The shape of this nappe. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. T. New York). the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Fig. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. however. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic.65. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. . 21. Washington. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. Inc. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.66 of the head. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. for a sharp-crested weir. Figure 21. called the design head Hd. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.67 Fig. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. 2.64) has such a shape. 21. Chow. depends on the head producing the discharge. “Design of Small Dams. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.34. DC 20402. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. where discharge is given by Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. This relationship is shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This manual and V. and therefore of an ogee crest.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. at the point of maximum contraction.” Government Printing Office.122).

Bureau of Reclamation.) Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams.S. (From “Design of Small Dams. New York.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. the flow differs from ideal. Fig. . Figure 21.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. Inc.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 21. 21.21.” U.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.66.” U. Bureau of Reclamation.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view.S.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. 21.

34.14. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.69 Broad-crested weir. (E.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. 21.) Fig. appear in Table 21. the nappe springs free.69 Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (See. for example. 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Brater.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. F.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if flow is at other than the design head.68. therefore.” U. “Handbook of Hydraulics. compiled by King. 21. because of its sharp upstream edge.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. 21. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. is determined from Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. the coefficient of discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Brater. Figure 21.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.S.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. Inc. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21.) 21. are used as spillways and control structures. (From “Design of Small Dams. where the velocity of approach is not high. New York. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Click here to view. Unless otherwise noted. Bureau of Reclamation.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Values of the discharge coefficient. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. fairly common in waterworks projects. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. Weirs of irregular section. . a plane horizontal crest. New York. and sharp right-angled edges.34. Figure 21. F. has contraction of the nappe.67 and 21.. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.” 6th ed.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. E.

56 2.8 1.69 2.66 2. those carried in suspension.64 2.00 2.68 2.48 2.64 2.07 3.75 2.85 2.64 2.70 2.00 2.32 3.5 3.2 1.65 2.32 3.32 3.72 2.75 2.08 3.88 2.26 3.32 3.60 2.6 0.32 3.14 3.68 2. .28 3.70 2.32 3.32 3.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.63 2.32 4.66 2.50 2.4 0.75 2. Inc.65 2.28 3.64 2.64 2.32 3. 21.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water. Click here to view.79 2.07 3.64 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.5 4.32 3.63 2.32 3.04 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.07 3. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.68 2.74 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 3.0 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.32 2.72 2.50 H.64 2.8 2.08 3.61 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 3.67 2.62 2.68 2.68 2. such as a reservoir.0 3.63 21.74 2.64 2.85 3.32 3.66 2.00 2.32 3.88 3. The smaller silt sizes.70 2. This incoming water.20 3.98 3.64 2.61 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.38 2.54 2.68 2. such as gates.30 3.68 2.76 2.68 2.68 2.66 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.75 2.86 2.68 2.32 3.89 3.32 3. ft 0.63 2.2 0.31 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.32 2. erosion.64 2.32 3.31 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.81 2.32 3.32 3.80 2.32 3.89 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir.21.54 2. or soil.32 3.63 2.75 2.64 2.97 3.32 3.0 5.32 3. All rights reserved.68 2.63 2.60 2.49 2.65 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0. ft 0.64 2.70 2.65 2.72 2.64 2. which are often of equal consequence.0 4.64 2. and turbines. valves.44 2.30 3.79 1.89 2.92 3.05 3.32 3.64 2.32 3.69 2.32 5.32 3.20 3.65 2. once formed.50 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging. Heavier silt sizes.0 1.00 2.20 3.07 3.07 3.92 2.50 2.5 5. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.63 2.66 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.32 1.60 2.32 3.67 2.60 2.6 1.68 2.67 2.65 2.19 3.73 2.67 2.64 15.70 2.64 2.32 3.4 1.5 2.65 2. those forming the bed load.32 3.63 2.76 2.64 2.69 2.69 2.32 3.32 1.31 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.63 2.32 3.88 10.03 3.77 2.32 3.35. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.70 2.00 2.80 2.29 3. with its load of suspended silt.67 2.32 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.00 2.00 2. A density current.34 2.32 3.63 2.92 3.63 2.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.58 2.32 3.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. see Art. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. All rights reserved. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. By this method. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. 21. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project.39.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. are coarsegrained. on the other hand. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Of course. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. because of variations in rainfall. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. overtopping. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. 21. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. The most common manner of destruction. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. .2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. These currents are stable. Click here to view. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. once formed. landslide. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years.35. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. however. formed from the bed load. Inc. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. or failure of materials. When neither can be done. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. the rate is not uniform during the year. However. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. or from year to year. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake.

The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. All rights reserved. (21. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. which generally occurs only during a storm.35. 21. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. ft3/s b = width of river.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1.1). These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. A mean grain size of 0. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. which varies with both slope and discharge. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Frequently.124) where Gb = total bed load. Therefore.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. Click here to view.0 ft/mi. According to Witzig. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. Therefore. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. gravel. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21.21. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. . The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. But for the most part. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. however. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. ft qo = critical discharge. discharge. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. Inc.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Therefore. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. and boulders. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. this silt comes from land-surface erosion.

It continually records. Use of vegetation screens. and distribution. their occurrence. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. or year. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth.S. in the form of synoptic weather charts.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval.S. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. The second type is a nonrecording gage.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. evaporation. check-dam construction. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. In this cycle. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Department of Agriculture. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Einstein. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. lakes. circulation. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. are published daily by the U. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. including their relation to living things. New York. . and stream flow 21. For instance. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage.S. infiltrates into the soil. day. infiltration.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and their reaction with their environment. their chemical and physical properties. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. All rights reserved. if the dam is raised at a later date. (See H. Current data. Graf. Click here to view. and the stream velocity. groundwater flow.) culation. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. Such screens. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth.73 dation. H. Inc. such as wind. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. rivers. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. contour plowing.” U. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. temperature. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. discharges into streams. Weather Bureau. and pressure. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. planting of burned-over areas. by ink pen and revolving drum. runoff. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. or digital microchip technology. recharges groundwater.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. Weather Bureau is 24 h. (21-124). on or near the land surface. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. which are of two types. A. (W. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. debris barriers. or a combination of the two. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. water evaporation from oceans. such as an hour. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period.

. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. ground. R. and plantleaf surfaces. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. “Handbook of Hydrology. Evapotranspiration is important because. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. on a long-term basis. Click here to view. plant. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. has a relatively large surface area.125)]. see D. and other vegetation surfaces. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Inc. (21. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York.. The Meyer equation [Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. Evapotranspiration.125) (21. A portion may evaporate as it falls. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. equal to 15 for small. developed from Dalton’s law. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. In transpiration.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. (21. or ground surfaces. called interception. Maidment. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. Of the three. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. Not all rain reaches the ground. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. commonly termed consumptive use. shallow pools and 11 for large. especially if the reservoir is shallow. On an annual basis. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. while another portion may be caught on leaves. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. in of mercury. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. branches.” McGraw-Hill. This phenomenon. Inc. Evaporation may occur from free-water. and it increases as wind velocity increases. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. tropical and subtropical regions. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations.21.126) where E = evaporation rate. In evaporation. in of mercury.

subsurface. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Groundwater flow. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. intensity. or cetyl alcohol. In practice. effective rain includes subsurface flow. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Moving laterally. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. although it may vary between 0. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. snow. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. birds. except in arid. subsurface runoff. perhaps several years. 21. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. All rights reserved. tropical. New York. After joining stream flow. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. aquatic life. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness.60 and 0. Maidment. Inc. Click here to view. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Hexadeconal. and biologic attrition. hail. or groundwater flow. time distribution. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft.70. “Handbook of Hydrology. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. dew). infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. It appears in surface channels. insects. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. or groundwater runoff. It is positioned 6 in above the ground.” McGraw-Hill. Commonly.80. Precipitation—form (rain. Climatic characteristics a. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. R. . where it continues as channel or stream flow. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. duration. to reach a channel. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used.. also known as interflow. natural or manmade. Classified by the path taken to a channel. Subsurface flow. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. runoff may be surface. is in widespread use. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Inc.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. called a Class A Level Pan. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. and storm seepage. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. subsurface storm flow. frost. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. (D. Thus. depending on the geographical region. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. or excess rain. On large reservoirs.

as shown in Fig. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. extremes of flow. artificial drainage. Geological Survey. general location. detail. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. recurrence interval. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. International Boundary Commission. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. mean flow. stratification Fig. These papers contain records of daily flow. Solar radiation 2. the U. lakes and other bodies of water. Temperature—variation. groundwater formations. roughness. areal distribution. 21. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. snow storage. Weather Bureau. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. Inc. Topographic—size.S. antecedent precipitation. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. permeability.70. shape. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Drainage-basin characteristics a. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. direction. slope. land use and cover. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. Geological Survey. both published and unpublished. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Click here to view. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. Humidity e. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. 21. soil moisture.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. channels (size. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Agricultural Research Service. Atmospheric pressure f. TVA. the quantity and type of data available.S. direction of storm movement b. elevation. 21. slope. length) b. All rights reserved. special-interest items. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. extremes during precipitation c. the detail required in the final answer. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shape of cross section.S. orientation. Geological Survey. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Geologic—soil type. and the accuracy desired. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. Wind—velocity. and various state and local agencies. and Weather Bureau. 21.” U. frozen ground during storms.S.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. .S.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. yearly flow volume. and completeness of the hydrologic records. duration d. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.21. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. drainage net. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies.

. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. for example.or 100-year-frequency storm.41. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. the second to major hydraulic structures. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. great importance. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. Inc. 2. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.127) where Q = peak discharge. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Click here to view. a 50. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chow. in/h A = drainage area. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. others give the complete hydrograph. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. As an example. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. and large downstream damage potential. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 1962). All rights reserved.128) 21. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. 4. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. T. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. The values of C in Table 21.77 found in the determination of flood runoff.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Several methods yield only peak discharge. 3. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. 5. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.

127).20 – 0.95 0. 2% Sandy soil.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.25 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. (See D.50 – 0.17 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.85 0.41.” McGraw-Hill. Maidment.75 0.20 0.70 0.60 0.50 – 0.10 – 0. avg. “Handbook of Hydrology. avg.70 – 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. in/h respectively.95 0.30 – 0.71 and Table 21. factor. or ditches.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.60 – 0. years duration of storm.129) Table 21. flat. the flow time in streets. (21. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. 21.35 0. gutters. 21. . 21. steep.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. coefficient.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. (21. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.95 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.70 – 0. steep. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.20 – 0.70 0.128) or Eq. 2% Heavy soil. flat. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.05 – 0.10 0.15 – 0.25 – 0. R.16).13 – 0. b. Inc.85 0.80 0. New York. After determining the time of concentration..40 0. 7% Heavy soil. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. Sherman.60 – 0.80 – 0. Inc.89)] .75 – 0. detached Multiunits.129). attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. Click here to view. All rights reserved. (21. and the flow time in conduits.18 – 0.70 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. or any equivalent method.50 – 0.40 – 0. K. 2–7% Heavy soil. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.21.15 0.22 0. min time of concentration Fig. 2–7% Sandy soil.) The flow time in gutters. is a convenient. (21.95 0. ditches.30 0. n.90 0.10 – 0.50 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. Equation (21.10 – 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.40 0.75 – 0.25 – 0. streets.

) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. This requires that a storm of short duration. 108. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. All rights reserved. . The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. 3. JanuaryJune 1932. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. (Leroy K.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. usually 1 acre). “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. termed a unit storm. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. If the watershed is very large.79 Table 21. The method is summarized by the formula (21. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. and more accurate than any such set of factors. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. pp. termed a unit period. that is. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff.” Engineering News-Record. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. 2. Sherman. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.Water Resources Engineering s 21. subdivision may be required. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Click here to view. 4. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. vol. the time of storm runoff. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. easier. Inc. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 501-505. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff.

21. which is of fixed intensity and duration.72. For ease of manipulation. Click here to view. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Then. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. because of storm variations. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Inc. 21. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . 21. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period.21. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Usually. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. 5. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. Illustrated in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.73). All rights reserved.

Inc. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. perpendicular to direction of flow. McGraw-Hill. . 19. 21. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.” McGraw-Hill.. Linsley et al. New York. “Handbook of Hydrology. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. 447–454). during heavy storms. pp. (See D.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.74). a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Inc. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. R.131) period. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. I.. pt. Inc. This loss.Water Resources Engineering s 21. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand.) Fig. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration.81 21. Maidment. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.. Also. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. “Hydrology for Engineers. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.” 3rd ed. vol. New York.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. 21. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. K. Click here to view. (R. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.) where Q = flow rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This method was developed by Franklin F. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. 21. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. All rights reserved.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Fig.

A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. cost of replenishment water. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. quantity. and overdraft. or other causes. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. These costs include increased soap costs. All rights reserved. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. recycling. water softening costs. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. present and future water demands should be determined. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. and quality of water supply. and methods of wastewater disposal. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. usually a number of years. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Click here to view. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. alternative management plans should be formulated. Deteriorating water quality. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. groundwater levels. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. rather than a change in volume. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. need for excessive pumping lifts. and location of artificial replenishment. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). quantity. (A base period is a period of time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. . Following the preceding preliminary work. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Inc. Regardless of how it is defined.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Frequently. quality. safe yield. poor-quality replenishment waters.21. among others. wastewaters. and indirect water-quality use costs. is a confined or artesian aquifer. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. source. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. because of impermeable layers above and below it. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities.

Estimation of future population. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. fire. and public.” 3rd ed.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. graphical comparison with other cities. 1987. decreasing percentage increase. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. institutional. fire-fighting. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. no. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. The smaller the system. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. distribution.” N. and environmental factors. or other unforeseen emergency. is a very difficult task. Linsley et al. Grigg. flood. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. storage. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. geographical boundaries. and natural and artificial replenishment. apartments. wastewater disposed. surface-water delivery facilities. pumping. irrigation. Bear. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. percentage increase. Therefore. Water-supply facilities consist of collection.” R.. Inc. J. 21.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. amount and location of groundwater extractions. 40. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. motels. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. land speculation. I. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” A. transmission. water used. and age of the city. such as industrial development. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. sanitary. industrial. “Groundwater Engineering. All rights reserved. American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. bathing. commercial. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. S. K. “Water Resources Planning. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and treatment works. . Kashef. financially feasible. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Click here to view. industrial. (“Ground Water Management. legal. and hotels for drinking. washing. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. culinary. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. however. and sanitary purposes. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. New York. may drastically alter mathematical estimates.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. Hydrology for Engineers.

but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. it may control the design of the facilities. if the cost of water increases. month. State of California Office of Planning and Research. are the average of a range of values. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. and air conditioning purposes. and year. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but because of the high rate at which it is required. type of service (metered or unmetered). cost. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. the demand for it decreases. air conditioning. influence the demand rate for water. Calif. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Demand rates vary with time of day. mainly because of the lack of large industries. reservoir evaporation. and pressure. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning.17.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. presents Table 21. Table 21. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses.21. . valves. size of the city. All rights reserved. and faucets. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Public Health Service Report. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. The “California Water Atlas. The national demand-rate data. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Mo. degree of industrialization. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Inc. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Normally. standard of living. and quality of the water.” 1979. cooling.S. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. cost. quality. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. janitorial. pressure. and cleaning. such as the climate. degree of industrialization. public buildings. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Click here to view. and unauthorized uses. and time of day. meter malfunctions. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. lawn sprinkling. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as presented in Table 21. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Public use of water for parks. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses.

4 17.000 12.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.6 1. The source must Table 21. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.000 2.4 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 5.2 2. Inc. climate. valley cities. industrialization.000 48. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.6 11.000 40.8 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.000 40. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. † MGD = million gallons per day. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. cost.000 85. In some local areas. quality.000 4.000 40. .18 Required Fire Flow. In the past. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 8.000 200.8 7. Cost.000 120.000 80.3 5.000 3. Total dependence on a single source.18.2 8.0 3.000 1.000 60.9 4.000 40.5 14.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. and politics.000 90.000 125.3 0. such as lakes. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 6.000 40.000 1.000 80. Moreover. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.500 2.000 28. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. however.0 7.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.Water Resources Engineering s 21. inland. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Click here to view. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. MG = million gallons. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. gal/min P = population. All rights reserved. MG† 0. diversification is essential for reliability. and streams. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 70. rivers. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. but the demand rate is high. In selection of a source of supply.000 17. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 40.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.0 1.000 * American Insurance Association.000 10.000 10. Hydrant Spacing. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 4.132) where G = fire-demand rate.4 3. is frequently undesirable. legality.000 85. 21. to a large extent. however.8 6. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. and in some cases. the effect of warm.000 55. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.3 Duration. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. interdependent.000 40.6 4.000 100.000 110.000 90. In the atlas.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. 21. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. In addition. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. total dissolved solids. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Inc.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.) At the discretion of the state. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.21. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.5 mg / L 0.21.S.) Source Protection s The U.” U. calcium hardness.22.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Click here to view. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. temperature. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. and calculation of the Langelier index. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.5 – 8. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.” American Public Health Association. All rights reserved. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. alkalinity. such as sulfates and chlorides.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See also Art. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. dependent on local conditions. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. . as indicated by the following extract: Table 21.3 mg / L 0. American Water Works Association. The measurements should include pH. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.

and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. All rights reserved. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. Figure 21. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. and size and shape of the settling basin. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Figure 21. disinfection. Mich. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. 21. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. Inc.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.134) where CD is the drag coefficient..76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. 21. is equal to or less than 1. Newton’s law applies: (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. calculated with ν = νs. Inc.134). and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. coagulation-sedimentation. such as those mentioned above. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Pojasek. slow and rapid sand filtration. Click here to view.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. . B. mm If R > 2000. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. V the flowthrough velocity.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. (See R.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. Ann Arbor. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. however. (21. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo .0. 21. velocity is constant.51). to be used in Eq. In the region where 1. and width B.46. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. (Usually. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. unpleasant tastes and odors.0 < R < 2000. particulate and colored matter. For this ideal basin.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.001 and 5. shape. and softening (see also Art. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. Reynolds numbers. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. 21.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. depth ho . temperature and viscosity of the water. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist.

21. 21.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. p. vol. 21. (Observed curves.) Fig. 1946. 103. All rights reserved. Click here to view. at 10 °C.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. after Camp. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 897. . Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

or other indicator to pass through the basin.. Geyer.” John Wiley & Sons. Inc. New York. and D. . 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . “Water Treatment Plant Design. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.78b). and eddy currents. Okun. G. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. All rights reserved. J. New York. short circuiting. A. are removed in this basin. Inc.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . occupy less site area than the single-story basin. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Inc. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. The tubular settler (Fig. Fair. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.78a) or circular (Fig.8c. M.. Without coagulants.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Multistory tanks. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 27. salt.” McGraw-Hill. coagulants are added to the water. C.) 21.46.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. rectangular (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. 21. Click here to view. for example. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. 21.5 ft/min (most common velocity. 1. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. finely Fig. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.

(d) Tubular settler. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. 21. All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. Inc. (b) Circular clarifier.

New York. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. and air jets. “Water Supply and Sewerage. however. centrifugal pumps. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. L. The filtering process has many components. L. such as mechanical stirrers. anionic. organic polyelectrolytes. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. in some instances. Corbitt. “Water Quality and Treatment. A. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Click here to view. turbidity. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. New York. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. (G. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. plankton. They are available in three types: cationic. ferric chloride (FeCl3). color. Culp and R. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. or neutral in charge. Culp. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. McGhee. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. coliform organisms. and hardness. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Thereby. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. chemical and biological reactions. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated.” R.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices.Water Resources Engineering s 21.to 60min range. such as pH. Also. and nonionic.” 4th ed. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. highmolecular-weight. All rights reserved. T. or positively charged. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.. consequently. “New Concepts in Water Purification. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. J. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. settling. color. such as physical straining. . lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation.. Anionic polymers. Polymers are long-chain. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. to get the small floc to agglomerate. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). and suspended solids. or negatively charged.) 21. such as paper fiber. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. however. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. however. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. considering both cost and performance. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). and easier dewatering. 18H2O]. polymers have a minor effect on pH.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. temperature. American Water Works Association.

) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU.to 12-in layer of gravel.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid.21. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Usually. of the sand. by weight. Inc. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. and dual. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. that will pass 10%. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. . The process requires rapid mixing. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. addition of a polymer as a filter aid.25. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. The wash- Fig. Click here to view. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. All rights reserved.35-mm range. depending on the turbidity.to 0. 21. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.or mixed-media filtration. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. 21.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. through the sand and gravel layers. in millimeters.79.

35 to 0. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. creating a high head loss across the filter.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. and air jets. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. mixed-media. diatomaceous earth. Inc.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. filters pass water at a high rate.005:1 range. which is drained to waste. however. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Immediately after washing. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.002:1 to 0.20 to 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. such as rakes. may be more advantageous.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.25 to 1. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. or deep coarse-media filters. water sprays. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. gal/min b = width of trough. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. The filtering medium may be sand. Dual-media. which produces an undertreated effluent. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. bed cracking. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. . and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. or anthracite coal.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. All rights reserved.

A. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Regeneration requires between 0. “Water Supply and Sewerage. however.) 21. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. perforated. Geyer.136) (21.) (21.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. (G.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. All rights reserved. respectively. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. and American Society of Civil Engineers.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). McGhee. “Water Treatment Plant Design.21. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Okun. “Water Quality and Treatment. In the lime-soda process. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. such as calcium and magnesium. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Water Quality and Treatment. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. and D.” 4th ed. New York. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. lime (CaO). American Water Works Association. C. in clear wells.” 4th ed. and (3) total hardness. and R is the zeolite material. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. L. New York.1 mg/L. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Culp and R.139) 21. L. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. sulfates. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or open-joint pipes. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21..98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. J.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. (American Water Works Association. gas.” and T.. where 1 gpg = 17. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Inc. These materials remove cations. Inc.” John Wiley & Sons.” 6th ed. J. New York.138) (21. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Culp.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. . M. Fair. New York. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness..3 and 0. carbonates. Some. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. G.

“Water Treatment Plant Design.. Geyer. ozone. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. Chlorine residuals of 0. cation exchange. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. Other disinfectants are iodine. New York. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. J. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.45). Inc. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. Fair. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. taste.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. then. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. J. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. New York. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. iron. flood control. C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. water supply. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. “Water Treatment Plant Design. activated carbon. All rights reserved. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. manganese. ultraviolet light. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. despite its low solubility.” John Wiley & Sons. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.1 or 0.” and T. detergents. and D. bromine..62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Inc. .) 21. lime softening.) respect to carbonates. Click here to view. (G. excessive fluorides. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. 21.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. Filter both solutions. odor. 21. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water Supply and Sewerage. irrigation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. McGhee. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. Inc.) 21. chlorine dioxide.” McGraw-Hill. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. reverse osmosis. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.99 water supplies. A.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water.. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. M. anion exchange. and electrodialysis. Okun. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. and lime. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal.

The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. maximum flows will govern. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. 21. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Inc.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. 21. minimum flows will be critical. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. The plot of volume vs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Also. as is the case for many water-supply projects.52. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Aeri- Fig.1). The mass diagram (Fig. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. When the demand rate is known. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. equitable cost allocation is more difficult.80. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. 21. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. areavolume curves (Fig.21. 21.

35 and 21. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. San Francisco.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. .101 Fig. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. If possible. but there is no circulation across this zone. the flow refills the reservoir. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. Inc. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.52. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Major sources of supply for some cities. Click here to view. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. All rights reserved. When the demand drops off. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. During hours of maximum demand. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. give special attention to water quality. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. 21. which may be only a few feet thick. perature drops in the fall. such as New York. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.2).81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. is called the thermocline. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. pumping plants. and Los Angeles. When the tem- 21. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. 21. odor. are large distances from the city. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.52. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In deep reservoirs.

who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. no. M. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Brune. All rights reserved.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. Brune.52.35.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Inc. .2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. 34. M. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.84). Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 3. vol. 21. 21. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. A flowing artesian Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.82) (G. For the correct hydraulic grade.83). The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. 21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. June 1953).21. 21. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. Click here to view. 21. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. For any given storage reservoir. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 21.

21.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .103 Fig. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. Click here to view.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. All rights reserved.

Fair. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.142) where Q = flow. p. Geyer.” 6th ed. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. “Water Supply and Sewerage. vol. ft The steady flow.53. bored.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. waterjet.143) 21.83). All rights reserved. (C. Inc. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. and motor. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. Click here to view. and D. 21.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. hollow-core. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. screen. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping.57).53. New York. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established.. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). T. Jacob. New York. or driven. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.. 21. McGraw-Hill. Hence.” Economic Geology.53.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. The pump. ft d = diameter of well. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. 21. C. M.” John Wiley & Sons. 21. vol. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. . Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. or hydraulic rotary methods. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. V. motor. 33. ft (Fig. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. 889. 1940. ditch. 21. Theis. eductor or riser pipe. E. 21. 629.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. J. C.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. gal/day. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.21.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. Okun. Inc. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. pump (Art. p. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. A.. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. ft h = H minus drawdown. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. J. no.84).53. Inc. from an artesian well is given by (21. (G. 5. 72. December 1938. McGhee.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).




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Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil.146) where D = pipe diameter. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. and sulfur compounds. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. an anode and a cathode. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. and meters destroyed by corrosion. In unlined pipes. ft 21. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. or Dresser-type couplings. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Copper. Inc. sealed flanges. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins.21. . possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. tanks.) At the anode. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. and ability to withstand external loads. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and other appurtenances. sand. bronze. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. are present. Since steel is stronger than iron. steel. A machine that produces a monolithic. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. Click here to view. however. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. contact between acids and metals. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. rubber. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. Wood pipelines are still in existence. riveting. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. pumps. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. Under favorable conditions. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. polyethylene. valves. brass. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. zinc. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. hydrants. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. If it is cement-lined. bacteria in water. and plastics. impurities and strains in metals. lead. stray electric currents. (21. concrete. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel.54. but wood is rarely used in new installations. plastic. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. polybutylene. All rights reserved. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. 21. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. such as polyvinyl chloride. valves.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Also. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.86). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water may be treated with bases. All rights reserved. When selecting materials. to prevent corrosion. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. where e is an electron. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. and the more ions. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). the corrosion process continues (Fig. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. 21. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. At the cathode. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. the faster electrons can move through the water. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. such as soda ash. and treatment of the water. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. for example. use of protective coatings.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. cracks. and Fig. Aluminum. Strains. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. caustic soda. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. . Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. 21. Click here to view. zinc. Inc.

Inc. 21. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. To prevent cavitation. psia. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. by (21. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. 21. psia. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. lime. magnesium. All rights reserved. (American Water Works Association.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump.87). and so on on the walls of the pipes. Water enters at the center. ft. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. horsepower. however. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. and the head-discharge relationship. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. or eye. efficiency.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. graphite. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. oxides. 21.21.” 4th ed.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.147) where pa = pressure. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. called a volute (Fig. New York. Corrosion. To have practical meaning. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. Zinc. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. 21. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in feet.. McGraw-Hill. ft of water z = elevation difference. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. accomplishes that in two steps. ..88). Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. or impeller. between pump center line and water surface Fig. z is negative.) w = unit weight of liquid. “Water Quality and Treatment. The centrifugal pump. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Inc. the most common waterworks pump. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Click here to view. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. hydroxides.

. rotary. however. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. (Also included in Fig. 21.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. depending on the number of stages. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. and air lift. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. helical. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.58.) 21. In a typical water-system analysis.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. 21. New York. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Fig. (I. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Karassik et al. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.111 than the required NPSH. 21. See also Art.” 2nd ed. Inc. propeller. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. 21. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. 21. “Pump Handbook. 21. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump.57 and check valves in Art.89. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. For that reason. Click here to view.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. J. below 200 gal/min. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pump discharge. as shown in Fig. reciprocating. jet. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point.. head. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.

ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. gal/min H = head. All rights reserved. r/min Q = discharge. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. which is a function of specific speed.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type.21. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Inc. vanes. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. they can be used only for sediment-free water. either hand. and for Ns above 7500. so that the entire lift is suction.or motordriven. . 21. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Click here to view. utilize piston action to move water. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. cams. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Jet pumps (Fig. which are located at the well bottom.148) where n = impeller speed.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Reciprocating pumps. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. 21. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Because of the close tolerances. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. At sea level. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. (21.90 fied).

Hand or motor power. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. needle. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. cone. McGraw-Hill Book Company. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. solids deposition. J. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Usually. or Neoprene. fast operation. Also.) drives to permit manual operation. Low head loss. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. pressure-regulating. pressure-relief. globe. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. and butterfly. rubber. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. rotates the disk. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. one at the service connection. Check. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. and low head loss when fully open. pumps. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. . even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Corrosion. or corporation cocks. (I. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. below and directly adjacent to the impellers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers.” 2nd ed. globe. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. respectively. plug. tubercle formation. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. primarily because of their low cost. All rights reserved. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates..or oil-lubricated.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft.. If sand is carried out with the water. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. “Pump Handbook. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Karassik et al. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. curb. Click here to view. one just upstream of the meter. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. and easy. availability. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). But these valves cost more than gate. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. New York. which are water. large pressure differences. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. applied through a gear-reduction device. and butterfly valves.113 tion. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. in-service lubrication features. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. air-relief. Simplicity of construction and quick. three valves must be used. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Plug. sluice gate.

tube. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Because of high head losses. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. which connects the barrel to the main. The most common check valve is the swing type. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. All rights reserved. Furthermore. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location.21. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Click here to view. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. such as pressure regulators and altitude. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. For example. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. When the valve is in a closed position. Inc. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Usually. Interior-differential. or California type. and relief valves. rivers. such as trunk lines 21. 21. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. The wetbarrel. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. and large pipes. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. check. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. . these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Many automatic control valves. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Often. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves.

The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. F. The standard venturi meter (Fig. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1.) As in venturi meters. are the most common velocity-type devices. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities.” 6th ed. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Click here to view. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones.115 of distribution systems. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. 21. simplicity and ease of repairs. Brater. which do not affect propeller meters. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. vertical velocity components. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. (21. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. such as meters for individual customer connections. for metering domestic-service connections. and cost. New York. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. A clicking noise. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. The nutating disk is used.150) where Q = flow rate. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. see E. respectively. durability. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. ft h1 = pressure in main section. rotary. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. called a Price meter. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. nozzle. However. amount of head loss through the meter. . flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter.Water Resources Engineering s 21. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section.. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. or modifications thereof.149) Hydraulics. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. The cup-type meter. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.91. All rights reserved. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. Inc. or nutating-disk types. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. 21.

All rights reserved. utility-type enterprises. or to some other recognized system. and development of the system. fire use. and similar items. peak rates of use. .61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (c) Orifice- 21. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. step rate. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. and block rate. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Click here to view. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. flat rate is falling into disuse. if any. load factors.21. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. fixed charges on capital investment. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter.91 plate meter. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. seasonal use. 21. (b) Nozzle meter. Inc.

152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. tunnel. treatment chemicals. buying water from a wholesale supplier. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Cost component 1. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Inc. called the customer component. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. Cost component 3. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. draft tube.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. This charge is usually small.746 kW 1 kW = 1. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. canals. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where the majority of small users are. turbines and governors. S. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. 21. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. generators and exciters. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. switching equipment. For most distribution systems. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and transformers. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. depends on the peak usage of a customer.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. including metering and billing. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. It is generally recognized that residential areas. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. pumping energy. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. tunnels. called the commodity component. Cost component 2. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. and. called the demand component. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. When fixing a system of rates. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a building to house the machinery and equipment. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. . The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. where applicable. penstocks. and (3) cost. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. Click here to view. All rights reserved. of serving an individual customer.117 With step rate. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines.

only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. to be used at some future time. such as navigation. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation.92). Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. weekly. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. and peak-load plants.21. run-of-river plants with storage. Inc. power production being only incidental. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. 21. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. It can be computed on a daily. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. Then. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Therefore. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. On a daily cycle. On a weekly cycle. On a seasonal cycle. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Click here to view. All rights reserved. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. or seasonal cycle. base-load plants. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. weekly. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. or yearly basis. If the minimum flow is very low. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Storage can be provided for a daily. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week.

) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. and rock-fill. All rights reserved. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. arch. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1.92). But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve.119 Fig.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. The main classifications are gravity. (V. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Force F2 represents silt pressure.” 4th ed. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. 21. buttress. (Department of Water and Power. . Hasen. J. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. earth. 21.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. it usually is not as economical.) 21. Its distribution is triangular. Click here to view. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. Figure 21. Los Angeles. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. New York. Inc. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. When needed. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Zipparo and H. Calif. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines.

21. (21. Click here to view. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. vol. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. today it is realized these values are much too high. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.” discussion by von Karman. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. p. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. ice pressures as high as 50.153) where w = unit weight of water. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. A method of calculating these forces.21. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. 434.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. which forms on the reservoir surface. 98. 21. These accelerations occur in every direction. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.1 g. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. given by Eq. . which create forces on any object resting on it. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. was developed by von Karman.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.153). Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ice. 1933.) (21. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. All rights reserved. May 1946. A close approximation of the force. In cold climates. presented by Edwin Rose.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north.425h above the base. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.000 psf. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. (E. however. In the past. Rose.93 by forces F4 and F5. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . because of bearing contact. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. but the structural design is much more critical. however. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. however. is available and clayey materials must be imported. however. In the past. uplift is not so important. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. and uplift forces are smaller. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. However. They are not suited to most sites. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. All rights reserved. Inc. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. overturning by rotating about the toe. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. and clay. their relative importance is much different. engineers assumed that. Recent belief. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. When the base is not drained. such as sand and gravel. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Hence. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. First. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. rock flour. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. but its formwork is more expensive. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. or failure of the foundation material. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. If the deflections are not equal. If a large quantity of pervious material. On arch dams. sand. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. silt. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Click here to view. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The modes of failure are also the same. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. In the multiple-arch. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam.

The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. If pervious material is not available.94). The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. therefore. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. New York. Today. McGraw-Hill Book Company. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical.3 on 1.3 on 1. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. providing power.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. J. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The facing is usually concrete.21. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. onto the fill. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. U. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Zipparo and H. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation.) 21. (V. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. . Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. S. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Army Corps of Engineers. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. For dams over 200 ft high. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. S. however. and an upstream impervious facing. or wood over concrete. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. although steel has been used occasionally. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For some types of soil. The downstream face is usually 1. Inc. Leakage should be expected. All rights reserved. the natural angle of repose of rock. Temporary facings are usually of wood. Click here to view. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Bureau of Relamation. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. If the dam is on a pervious foundation..” EM 1110-2-2300. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. bearing on the rubble cushion. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. bonding into the dumped rock. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. 21. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.” 4th ed. Hasen. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.” U. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.

runner. Hasen.. 21. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. J. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. When the power demand on the turbine changes. 21. and the fixed-blade type. 21. However. such as the Kaplan turbine. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.” 4th ed. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. it changes direction. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. wicket gates.95c). to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. New York. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. and draft tube. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. In such installations. As the water flows through the tur- 21. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. and draft tube. Zipparo and H.94 turbine. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. however. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. control the amount of water that enters the turbine.95a).65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. At heads below 100 ft. Inc. The propeller turbine (Fig.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. .123 bine. however. All rights reserved. if the load drops below 50%.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This creates a force on the runner. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The wicket gates. their efficiency decreases rapidly.) Fig. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. wicket gates. 21. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. the propeller-type (Fig. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. runner. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. At heads above 1000 ft.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. (V. In these. 21. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work.

21. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This type of spillway is Fig.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. (c) axial flow. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. Click here to view. .124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.65. widely used for concrete dams because.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. the dam will not be damaged by the water. All rights reserved. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. (b) Kaplan. if designed correctly. 21.

The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. 21. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. Once this second condition is reached. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Click here to view. 21. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. .96 Siphon spillway. called an ogee spillway. In a shaft spillway. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow.S. “Design of Small Dams. Washington. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. The air vent shown in Fig. model tests are usually employed. This type of spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. A siphon spillway (Fig. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest.” Government Printing Office. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. In a side-channel spillway. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. open channel. Thus. 21.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Inc. All rights reserved. lined. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. When the head is relatively low. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. DC 20402). The weir can be sharp-crested. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. flared. As the head increases. Bureau of Reclamation. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice.34). both depending on the head on the weir. or ogee in cross section. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In a chute spillway.

3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Fig. All rights reserved. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.98 Bear-trap gate. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. controlling flow. . They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.97). making removal difficult. 21. Fig. 21.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. 21. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure.21. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Click here to view. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. and providing support for the conduit. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. To do this. the pipes fail. 21. Inc.5 ft/s. level of a reservoir within close limits.65. On large stop-log installations. In a taintor gate (Fig. causing damage and hampering operation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest.97 Taintor gate. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. In contrast. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.65. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and J.” 4th ed. Babbitt.. drum gates are not suited to small dams. To raise a bear-trap gate.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. All rights reserved. Hasen. (V.98. Cleasby. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. J. Because of the large recess required in the dam. and H. New York. J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. J. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. Click here to view. E. . Zipparo and H. “Water Supply Engineering.) Fig. Doland. The drum gate (Fig. as shown in Fig. L.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.Water Resources Engineering s 21.99 Drum gate.

. Inc.blank page 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Click here to view.

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