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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
3. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. All rights reserved. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube.1.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Its value Fig. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. and freezing damage to concrete.1) where h = capillary rise. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. 21. respectively. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. psia.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. at sea level. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is concave upward. Absolute pressure. In equation form. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Thus. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig.21. When the liquid is in a closed container. psi. (21. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. Surface tension and capillarity. formation of spray from water jets. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. . ft σ = surface tension. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid.7 psia. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Its temperature variation. 21. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. portions of the liquid vaporize.7 psi. decreases with increasing temperature. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. although negligible in many water engineering problems. or liquid surface. like surface tension. however. 21. ft Capillarity. 21. is small and insignificant in most problems. are significant in others. Click here to view.2. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. pitting. 21.000 ft is shown in Fig. Gage pressure. face and rises in a small tube. Meniscus. as shown in Fig. Inc.
4.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. In hydraulics. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. transitional. is a measure of its resistance to flow. which extend into the pores of the metal. Inc.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. or completely turbulent flow exists. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. absolute viscosity. At any depth. psf.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. It is so named because its units. Then. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the force due to pressure p2. on the top surface. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.2) where τ = shearing stress. . µ of a fluid.5 Fig. or dynamic viscosity. of length and time. and cross-sectional area A. Viscosity. the pressure acts equally in all directions. ft2/s. All rights reserved. 21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. or implode. on the bottom surface. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. also called the coefficient of viscosity. Since the prism is at rest. and pitting appears. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.8) to determine whether laminar. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. 21. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. ft/s y = depth. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. psf. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. ft2. to collapse. lb/ft2 21. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. the force due to pressure p1. (Pressures as high as 350. as shown in Fig. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. lb/ft3.00001059 ft2/s.
21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. lb/ft3. at depth h. ft2. however. Figure 21. psf.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. then p2 is p. Therefore. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA.3.4. (21.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. tanks. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where w is the specific weight of water. ft. Equation (21. (21. Click here to view. Taking ∆h to be h. For horizontal surfaces. and other water control structures.3a) Division of Eq.3a) by A yields (21.4) Equation (21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.6) – ∫ydA = y A.3b) then becomes (21. 21. All rights reserved. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. and y sin θ = h . The resultant pressure force P.4). the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. the depth below the water surface. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. (21. Thus.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. dams. Inc.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. ft. 21. the depth of the centroid. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. lb.5) 21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. the pressure. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. . (21.
All rights reserved. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. The denominator of Eq. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.2° to the horizontal (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5).7). 21. 21.7). yp may be calculated directly from Eq.) but acts at a point (c.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.8).7 Fig. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. represented by the length yp.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. (21.) that is below the c. Inc. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. ft. of the surface about its centroidal axis. (21.p. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. psf. Otherwise.6 (see also Fig.g. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.g. Hence y . the total force P = whA.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. if that locus is a straight line.). Pyp = ∫y dP. The location of the center of pressure. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. 21. Example 21. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. 21. .5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.8) equals –A.p. 21. (21. 6. Thus. where K is the radius of gyration. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . Click here to view. (21.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.29). – From Eq.
) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. 21.1. Therefore. Also.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. P = 62.42 ft.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.08.0 + 0. 21. 21.) of common shapes. From Eq. yp = 5. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.9). and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. (21.8.g.0 ft.0 + 2. Inc. (See Example 21. Note: 1.21. All rights reserved. 21.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.42 = 5. . K2 = point G. however. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.5 + 1/ (5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.08/5 = 5.0) = 5.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.
so the weight of the water is 19. (See Example 21.4°. 21. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.6 × 62. and for a constant-radius surface.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.2. Inc. When water is below the curved surface. Its angle with the horizontal is known. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.564. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.4 × 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.14 × 25/4 = 19.9). Vertical component of pressure acts upward.6 ft3. (21.7). (a) Pressure variation over the surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. – From Eq.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.5 × 5 = 780 lb.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.9 Fig. Example 21. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. The corresponding angle is 57. .6w = 19. 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. PH = whA = 62. 21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. All rights reserved.9. (b) Free-body diagram.
The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.10a).10b. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. ft3 ys = distance. Manometers indicate h.b. p = wh. Given in feet by Eq. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. (21. Click here to view.21. 21. All rights reserved. whether floating or submerged.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The stability of a ship. or the difference in head. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.g. 21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. 21.10b). A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. the pressure head..). (21. ft. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. 21. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. 21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. is indicated by the metacenter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. For a body to be in equilibrium. .10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance.4).
Inc. .11): piezometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. although the latter is most common. The liquid is water with w = 62.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. Click here to view. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example 21. Basic types of manometers.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. The piezometer (Fig. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. 21. U-tube manometer.11 manometer. 21. 21. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11a is 2. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. However.17 psi. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. What is hm? Fig. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. (a) Piezometers.12c). (b) U-tube manometer. and differential manometer. All rights reserved. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.4 lb/ft3. 21.
12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. In this application.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. . The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. 21. the Utube manometer (Fig. Click here to view. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. including negative gage pressures.11b) is used. 21. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A movable scale. 21. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. as opposed to a fixed scale. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.12c). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc. Very low pressures.21.
6 × 62. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. if the actual difference is 0. however.12a. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.4 × 2. such as ft of water or psi.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5. as shown in Fig. For example. The differential manometer (Fig. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. Most of them.4: A differential manometer (Fig.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.25 ft. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. such as might be required in laboratories. psf p2 = pressure at 2.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.25 ft of water. ft. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. however.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.4 × 2. psf w = specific weight of fluid. Click here to view. Example 21.4 × 0. ft. and z is 1.0 ft. hi is 2. that is. or sump. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. is magnified by the differential manometer. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. One factor. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.13 indicating liquid. the magnification will be 2. .12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. in the manometer. 32. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.0 and 2.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.11) where Z1 = elevation. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. the actual pressure difference. psf. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. and the right side. Inc. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.6).75 + 13. 21. hm1 is 9 in. when expressed in feet of water. All rights reserved. psf. Above 5. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. The pressure at B.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. the total energy per unit weight at 2. 21. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. 21.40. 21.
21. where Va is the velocity. a Fig. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. 21. Click here to view. ft. . 21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. (21. above some arbitrary datum. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. As indicated in Fig. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. Average velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation.13. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. The total energy. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21. 21. (See Example 21. 21. velocity. where W is the weight. Usually.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. Inc. ft. through friction. across the area of the section A. Fig. It equals WVa2 / 2g. and pressure. varies with velocity. when added to the downstream side of Eq.11). where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. however. This term hf.4 ft3/s. velocity head. lb. or the total head ft: (21.5. velocity.13).12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. V2/2g. ft2. ft3/s.14.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. ft/s.21.14) pa/w is called pressure head.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. where Q is the quantity of flow. All rights reserved. ft/s = Q/A. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. Kinetic energy at the section.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. lb/ft3. and pressure (Fig.
9). shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. ft. is equal to the impulse. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. since the pipe has free discharge. sometimes called the total head line. In openchannel flow.12) yields where hf is the friction loss.55 = 48. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. respectively. direction. Hence.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Thus substitution in Eq. and any bends. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Click here to view. or magnitude of flow. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. which may result from a change in either velocity.45 ft. Z2 = 0.4/ 3. Also.15 Fig. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Inc. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. (21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. gate valve. while in pressure flow. 21. p2 = 0.7. respectively. The energy grade line.15). The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. All rights reserved. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. 21. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21.14 = 10 ft/s. hf = 50 – 1. A change in momentum. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. 21. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.
21.6. All rights reserved.600.700/82.332π = 71. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.11) or (21. Fy = –181.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.600 lb In the Y direction. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. To find F.000 cos 53. (21. since ∆Vx = –(7.21.000 lb.5°.2° – 13.2° – 0) = 4.94 × 100 × 4. .2° + Ry = 1.4/ 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.200 lb. so θ = 60.2° – 71.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. then in the Y direction. lb.2= 1. Fig. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.200 + Rx = 1. and at 2. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.78. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.500 lb. since ∆Vy = –(–7.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.000 sin 53. (See Example 21.1 and the density ρ = 62. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. Then.5 ft/s. Click here to view. (21. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.94 × 100 × 65.78 Ry = 145. Example 21.96 cos 53.94. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. which is to be determined).) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. apply Eq. P2 = ppA2 = 13.12)] but may be used separately.96 sin 53. 21. Inc.5) = 65. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. With p1 known.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.16. Let R be the force. Fx = 181. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.1 Rx = –82. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.15) first in the X direction.
The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. or proposed works. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Inc. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. In this way. In the preceding example.7. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. With hybrid models. erosional scour.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. such as a river. alternative management schemes. the capability of the computing resources. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Popular before the advent of digital computers.17 21. Usually. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. In water resources engineering. It is. See also Art. employs both physical and mathematical models. momentum. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. For instance. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. viscosity. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. and surface tension. to a given set of stimuli. droughts. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. . operate. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. hybrid modeling. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. All rights reserved. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. or drainage basin.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. and through execution of the computer program. or prototype. 21. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. 1. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. A fourth mode of modeling. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. aquifer. Click here to view. gravity. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. such as storm rainfall. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Physical models are expensive to build. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In most models.
such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.21. Once the length ratio has been set. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. All rights reserved. respectively. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. viscosity. Click here to view. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. which is always a predominant force. Squaring both sides of Eq. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. The Froude number is (21. the formation of drops and air bubbles.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Ratios of the forces of gravity. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as depth or diameter). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. such as spillways and weirs. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. The inertial force. entrainment of air in flowing water. Inc.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. 32.20) R is dimensionless. Froude number. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21.21a) (21. . Then (21. and one other force are made proportional. The Weber number is (21. the length ratio is the only variable. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Therefore. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.22) where ρ = density of fluid. (21. The Reynolds number is (21. Similarly. Reynolds number.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. and Weber number. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2/s. the model is termed a true model.
applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. (21. viscous. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. For such models. In some cases. the logical representation of prototypes. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. inertial. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. Rr = Lr. in turn. One type of model.S. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21.7. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale.24). The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. (21. This type of model is called a distorted model. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. For instance. All rights reserved. 21. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Hence. These expressions. The U. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . model designs are often based on the Manning equation.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. and through execution of the computer program. such as a morning-glory spillway.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds.26) where V = mean velocity. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. and infiltration parameters. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Sr = 1. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. called a movable-bed model. catchment areas.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. in particular.25) In models of rivers and channels. (21.23a) (21. such as flow networks. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. mathematical models are. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Click here to view. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites).
2). when fully implemented. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. F. flow routing. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. as in annular passages. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. if comparisons of different plans are required. evaporation and irrigation. H. channel and river hydraulics. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. “Water Resources Planning. S. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. Inc. and groundwater yield.” McGraw-Hill. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. seepage.” V. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. Whan.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. (J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Grigg. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. landfill leachate analyses. G. 3. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. Rothfus.17. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. reservoir regulation. design of hydraulic structures. hydrodynamics. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. density. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. however. and private sectors. “Handbook of Hydrology. As this shearing stress increases. In object-oriented software. and turbulent flow results. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. the model output required for design or evaluation. watershed hydrology. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. quantity and quality of water supply.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. hydrologic forecasting. As a result. 1957. Hasen.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. As a general rule. shown in Fig. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. All rights reserved. New York. J. 21.” N. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. and among water resources modelers in the government. wave or tidal analyses. A. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. academia. ecosystem impacts and restoration. (D.) 21. or pollution. R. flood or drought impacts. This approach. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Maidment. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. vol. and R. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. impacts of dam breaks. Also. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. Hoggan. Walker.” D. Art. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. or both. 21. of all databases and software. R. For closed conduits other than circular. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. Click here to view. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. sediment or pollutant transport. . Zipparo and H. This.21. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters.
(E. a disturbance will probably be magnified. laminar flow is unstable. (21.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. than for laminar flow (Fig. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.21 Fig. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.) 21. handbook of Hydraulics. .28) where hf = head loss due to friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.. flow is laminar in circular pipes. 32. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.29) For laminar flow. the flow is completely turbulent. ft ρ = density of fluid. F.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. Inc. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. ft/s D = pipe diameter.27) where V = fluid velocity.17).17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. it is not practical to treat it analytically. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. Therefore. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.” 6th ed. As the Reynolds number increases.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. 21. New York.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.l9. 21. Click here to view. Fig.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. ft L = length of pipe section considered.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eq. In laminar flow. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. (21. To the right of the dashed line in Fig.18. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. as shown in Fig. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. the velocity distribution is more uniform. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. at completely turbulent flow. As a result. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. All rights reserved. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. Brater. 32. In this region. 21. These disturbances create eddies. causing the flow to become turbulent. 21.19. 21. (21.
Click here to view.0005 0. 21. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.001 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. (21.008 0. 32. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.00003 0. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 21.21. ft D = diameter of pipe. enamels. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. (L. (21. 21. Moody. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. ft V = velocity of fluid.9.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.008 – 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.19) L = length of pipe.0005 – 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.03 – 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.19) to Determine f ε. All rights reserved.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.001 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.0002 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.) Because Eq. The head loss is independent of the pressure.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. .003 0. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.0002 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.0005 – 0. 21.0002 – 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. November 1944. F. Inc.003 – 0.
4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.31) where V = velocity. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.11 (p.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. Tables 21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. .33c) (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.33d) (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. (21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. (21. (21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s C = coefficient.33e) 21. ft L = length of pipe.31) gives (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. 21. ft3/s.33b) (21.4 and 21. where D is the pipe diameter.34c) 21. Inc. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. dependent on surface roughness. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. Click here to view. ft S = head loss due to friction.34d) (21. 21. See also Table 22. which requires experience in its choice.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.) Substitution into Eq. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.34e) where V = velocity.32) where n = coefficient. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3.9. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.34b) (21. (Although based on surface roughness. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.9. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. All rights reserved.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.
Inc.017 From 0.7.010 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.035 0. However.017 Use in designing Q = discharge. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. (21.010 To 0.017 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.) Flow between reservoirs. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 ple 21.013 0. (21.7: Figure 21.012 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.012 0. because (21.010 0. 21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. enlargements. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.011 0. 21.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. bends. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.014 0. . in short pipelines.35c) (21. ft3/s hf = friction loss.013 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.015 0.012 0.21.015 0.014 0.017 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.015 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.015 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.017 0.015 0.35b) (21. All rights reserved. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.012 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. (21. Click here to view.017 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.013 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.016 To 0.36) for a check.4 Values of n for Pipes.013 0. Example 21.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.013 0.
(21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. . 110 4 in. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. so a full velocity head is lost.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 21.10. Ltd.25 Table 21. 21.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. Gibson. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 120 Large sizes. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. 10 years older Average value. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. 115 12 in. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. are presented in Table 21.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.. Click here to view.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. steel forms. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. Inc. good workmanship. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. 135 In good condition. 120 24 in and over.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.21 are approximate.37): (21.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. All rights reserved. regardless of age. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. Table 21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.38) A special application of Eq. minor losses must be considered. (21.. determined experimentally by Brightmore. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 140 Large sizes. H.” Constable & Co. wood forms. London. ft. (21.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 105 30 in and over. the values of K in Fig.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.21). 120 Centrifugally spun.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21.10. ft/s g = 32. (A. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. good workmanship. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. is (21. 21.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. 21. 110 (21. 85 16 in.7.10.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 80 4 in.37) or (21.
76 0.80 K = 0. fully open Gate valve.81 0.25 The values in Table 21. D = pipe diameter. and at bends is given by (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. For these reaTable 21.05 K = 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. Globe valve. Click here to view.64 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.1 0.21.4 21.66 0.21 of the sides.89 1. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.4 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.71 0. such as valves and elbows. fully open Swing check valve. fully open Angle valve.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.9 0.0 Table 21.2 0. All rights reserved.63 0.42) Table 21.62 0.9 0.68 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.5 0.6 0.0 2.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.0 1.8 0. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.8 are only approximate.0 5.5 0.10. .50 K = 0.2 2.
22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. the bend loss essentially remains constant. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (21. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. square. (21. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Inc. Reynolds number.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. H. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends..) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°.” Journal of Research. (H.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. however. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. 21.44) where Q = discharge.42). ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. 1. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Figure 21. (K.23. Orifices may have any shape. this error is corrected by the C values. not including friction loss. . 21. July 1938. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. 21.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. 21. and angle of bend. its effect should be taken into account. Inc. series D. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. National Bureau of Standards.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.45) 21. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. All rights reserved. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.42). bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. (V.22: (21. 82. 1960. Experiments on smooth pipes. no. or rectangular. For low heads. Hasen. Beij. The data are in agreement that the head loss. New York. vol. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. Equation (21. Ito. vol.9 for low velocity of approach. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. Zipparo and H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Fig. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. (21..27 sons. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. If this velocity is significant. not including friction loss in the bend. although they are usually round.11.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21.” 4th ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. there is disagreement. J. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
and Z2 = 0.599 0.611 0.652 0.616 0.1 0.600 0.597 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.619 0.601 0.598 1.601 0.599 0.632 0.595 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.600 0. .644 0.596 0.592 0.607 0.610 0.632 0.623 0.592 0.598 0.600 0.618 0.660 0.621 0.608 0.596 0.598 0.608 0.597 0. and Eq.45) becomes (21.46) The actual velocity.601 0. ft 0.” 1886. to Fig.605 0.617 0.94 to 0. Inc.614 0. Jr.634 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.612 0. “Hydraulics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.605 0.607 0.02 0.631 0.612 0.618 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.626 0.637 0.641 0.1 0.596 0.604 0.602 0.616 0.592 1. ft 0.629 0.594 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.628 0.593 0.593 0.602 0.600 0.0 0.602 0. Z1 = h.596 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.606 0.609 0. With the reference plane through point 2.04 0.605 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.614 0. determined experimentally.602 0.. Typical values of Cν range from 0.595 0.613 0 610 0.604 0.605 0.602 0.591 0.637 0.614 0.602 0.627 0.615 0. the vena contracta.599 0.617 0.5 2 2.601 0.619 0.613 0.608 0.643 0. (21.595 0.611 0.602 0.622 0.607 0. ft 0.21.603 0.0 Head.623 0. V1 = 0.610 0. 21.02 0.4 0.596 0.648 0.636 0.603 0.604 0. Click here to view. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.596 0.630 0.637 0.623 0.593 0.603 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.618 0.590 0.606 0.628 0.655 0.602 0.04 0.6 08 1 1.603 0.594 0.99.648 0.599 0. of circular orifices.
(For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. Inc. All rights reserved.48) is obtained.. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.) 21.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. the area of the orifice.29 Fig. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.Water Resources Engineering s 21.25. “Handbook of Hydraulics. F. the contraction is completely suppressed.11. In Fig.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. New York.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. ft. Brater.67. With a partly suppressed orifice. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. . Figure 21.61 to 0. Click here to view. 21.25 orifice. Eq.11.47) where hL = losses in head. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. see E. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.” 6th ed. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. between 1 and 2. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. (21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21.24b. 21.
ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. For simplicity. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. when y = h1.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) Equation (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. All rights reserved. Eq. (21. Rearranging Eq.59). (21.58)]. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. ft2 A = area of reservoir. 32.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.55) 21.21.57) for t and substituting in Eq. to time t. 21.58) gives (21. Eq. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. Click here to view. (21. s The Y coordinate is (21.56). ft h2 = head at the end. (21. obtained by solving Eq.50) where a = area of orifice. Inc. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.11.51) upon integration becomes (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21.26): (21. 21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.57) (21. when y = h2. (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. is that for a parabola: (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.50) becomes (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.23). . (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.56) Fig.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.
however.11. 21. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.67 V T / 2g = 0.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.42) of 0. 21.28). When this happens.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.82 VT)2/2g = 0. (21. (21. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. a K value for Eq. Fig.31 ty Cν = 0.67 V2 ) = 0. Equation (21.5 a T T Fig. .00 VT / 2g – 0. 21.82. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21. Click here to view.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Therefore. psf w = unit weight of water. All rights reserved. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.11.80. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. Inc.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. if one exists).27) but the head loss is larger. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. ft2 Fig. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.29.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.75. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge.33VT / 2g. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.82. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. 21. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.27.67 V2T /2g.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. In the tube or pipe. 21. For a short tube flowing full. 21.
12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. The change causes a pressure rise. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. the water in the pipe is motionless. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.32). The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For this analysis to be valid. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. 21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. Inc. this momentum drops to zero. 21. but at a pressure much higher than normal. Fig. either above or below the normal pressure.21.29. .31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. 21. it causes water hammer. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As the water flows away from the closed valve. 21. the pressure in the pipe falls. The pipe shown in Fig. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Every time the flow rate is changed.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. 21. the tube must flow full.30).30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. However. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. Fig. All rights reserved. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. either increased or decreased. As the water flows into the reservoir. 21. When a valve is closed. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit.
(21. s A plot of pressure vs.63).32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.63a) In terms of pressure head. (21. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. For instantaneous closure: (21. Equation (21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.13.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.13. Fig. 1. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. ft 21.64) 21. 21. Eq.63a) becomes (21. 43. . The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. (21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Inc.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. approximate solution.
an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. Thus. Zipparo and H. is g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. equals L /aU. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. Once the time interval has been determined. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. Vo the original velocity.2 × 108 psf.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. penstock thickness = 1 in. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing.21. where ∆t.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock.63).” 4th ed.) Velocity of pressure wave. (21. Click here to view. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.. ft L = length of pipeline. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. diameter = 10 ft. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. (21. New York. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. initial velocity = 10 ft/s.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. from Eq. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. (21. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. area = 78. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.63). this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. length = 3000 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. then that obtained from Eq.61).65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. (21.) Example 21.32. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. . head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. such as L/aU. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Inc. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.5 ft2. the increment of time. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.63). (V. (21. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. 32. Inc. to apply Eq. Hasen. With the head known. where a equals any integer. McGraw-Hill. each causing an individual pressure wave. s T = actual closure time of valve.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. J. 21.. All rights reserved. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.
Fig. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.64) gives the following result: 21. When a valve is suddenly opened.90 s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.33) must still be designed for water hammer. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. from Eq. 21. 21. When a valve is suddenly closed.34). in effect.34 tension. is Pipe Stresses 21.13.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.66) where p = internal pressure.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. and the pressure rise.63). 21. The water column. lb Hence. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. approximate equation (21. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. . The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. psi.90 s. Inc. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. floats on the line. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. 21. the closure is instantaneous. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.75 s.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. Click here to view. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Various types of relief Fig. on the pipe material is (21. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. Usually. (21. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. the stress. it is by no means the only one. to prevent water hammer. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. in Assuming T = 4.
21. but it is usually small enough to be neglected.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. The stress. (21. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. Inc. P Timoshenko and J.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. Click here to view. 21. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. For concrete pipes. (S. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. however. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. . psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Theory of .) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.10). M. In this case. Equation (21. (21. (21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. Gere. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. Art.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. 21. if expansion joints are to be used. McGraw-Hill Book Company.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. In all bends. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. Eq.6). The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. For steel pipes. If D/t is less than 10. In Fig. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. However. 6. due to a temperature change is (21. 21.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. New York. All rights reserved. psi.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers.” 2nd ed. However.21. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. Eq.. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. The force diagram in Fig. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. elastic Stability.67) for concrete pipe.67). this analysis is approximate.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. it acts like a beam. (21. is (21. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe.
2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow.70) and (21. canal. exit conditions. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. the joints must also be able to take these forces. an exact theoretical analysis. (21. Eqs. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. 62. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.37 Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. (21. All rights reserved. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. In small pipes. psf w = unit weight of water.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. 32. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.71) where R = resultant force on bend. however.71) give a quick solution. . ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. and slope. However. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. a railroad. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or other embankment. Click here to view.
33d) or (21. 21.21. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Click here to view.36). The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. Inc. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. (21. the following equation is obtained: (21.73) 21. the culvert flows full. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. and the control will still be at the inlet. .37). the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.38). Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. All rights reserved.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. and the discharge is independent of the slope. computer software. 21. charts. Portland Cement Association.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. and the Manning equation for friction loss. 21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. For this reason. that is. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. but they do not cover Fig. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the normal depth (Art.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.23).30)].” EB058W.
74) Fig. 21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. When the slope is less than critical. Click here to view. The discharge. for the open-channel condition (Fig. When slope is less than critical. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 21. Thus. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21. 21. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.20) 21. Discharge is independent of slope.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. and dn > dc . the flow is considered subcritical (Art.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. 21. flow depends on inlet condition. and dn < dc . open-channel flow takes place.39). 21. Fig. Discharge depends on head H. All rights reserved. ft Equation (21.75) Substituting this into Eq. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. . 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. (21. and slope of culvert. depending on the head.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. When slope exceeds critical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. (21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.74) yields (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The fluid flows under pressure. normal pipe flow occurs.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.23). loss at entrance. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 32.39 Fig. Inc.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.76). When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert.41). there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.18). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig.39). (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. If the head on a culvert is high. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. 21. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. ft To solve Eq. Click here to view. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. Inc. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.76). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. 21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. 21. (21. If this condition exists. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.21. Most culverts.76). (21. All rights reserved. 21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. 21. and discharge is given by Eq. When the friction slope is flat. 21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. ft dn = normal depth of flow. (21.72). however.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. If the friction slope approaches critical.40).37). . If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.
Application of Eq. (21.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.72) and (21.15 0.95 × 4 = 39. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. Inc. All rights reserved.41 For entrance control. with Eq. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. . Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. When the entrance is not submerged. slope = 0.40). n = 0. groove or bell.44) for discharge through an orifice.19). the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Since the culvert is under pressure.6.01. and the entrance will not control.10 0. 21. Find: size of culvert. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Example 21.9 0. (21. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.013.72) yields Q =Va = 9.72) applies.73). it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. (21. To calculate the hydraulic radius. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. projecting Concrete pipe. Substitution in Eq. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. square edge Concrete pipe. But H = 5 + 0. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. Table 21. First find dn. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.8 ft3/s Table 21. (21. and free exit. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These values are for culverts flowing full. 21. (21. Click here to view.18 and 21.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. the flow is under pressure. length = 300 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. Eq.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. 21. 21. Fig.5 0. groove or bell. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.
ft3/s. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. 32.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. 21.03 to 1. or the total-head line. Inc. or open-channel flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. Hence. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line.79) The velocity head HV. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Figure 21. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.36 for prismatic channels.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. normally taken as 1. (21.77) where V = average velocity. ft. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. is generally given by (21.21. Thus. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. depth of flow is constant throughout. or slope. . and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. In a uniform channel. plus the velocity head at the point. It has uniform flow if the grade. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Equation (21. It is expressed in feet as (21. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. ft. The wetted perimeter is the length. and is given by (21. within a hydraulic jump. ft. (21.79).42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. minus the free surface width. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. It is. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. ft2 When the discharge is constant. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. roughness. 21.44. 21.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. 21.) (21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. T. As the depth decreases downstream.” 6th ed. (See.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.43). New York.83) Brater. slope. Inc.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. normal depth decreases downstream. or to the diameter of a circular channel. E. ft. for example.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. Chow. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. and discharge are known. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. ft. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius.. For a rectangular channel. F.43. All rights reserved. the specific energy also decreases. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.43 Fig. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.84) reduces to Fig. Click here to view. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.42 is called the normal depth dn. 21.84) where A = area of flow. . (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eq. 21. McGrawHill Book Company. in which T is the top width of the channel. as shown in Fig. (V. New York.
84) is called the critical depth dc. (21. ft3/s d = depth of flow. or conversely. (21.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. F. New York).84) may be reduced to (21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. the depth is greater than critical. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. 21. and flow is supercritical. For rectangular channels. Click here to view. The flow there is called subcritical flow. All rights reserved. .44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21.44). for a given discharge. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.” 6th ed. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. Inc.43. Brater. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.44). Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. Eq.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company. For a given value of specific energy. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.84). or it may be found directly from tables (E. 21. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. (21. the depth is below critical.
The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. 21. as indicated in Fig.45 where dc = critical depth. 21. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Click here to view.52b. (21. 21.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.85). however. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. once calculated. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. 21. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57). The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. indicating an irreversible occurrence. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. 21. regardless of slope. ft3/s b = width of channel. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Such a change occurs gradually. flow is subcritical. Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.87) Fig.45. along with a high loss of energy. p. flow is supercritical. [As indicated by Eq. For every depth greater than critical depth. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. Critical depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. a hydraulic jump will occur.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. without turbulence. 21. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. (21. .44).Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. It can be seen from Fig. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated.
21. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.46c and d.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.D. 21. Inc. and A for adverse. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. is replaced by a horizontal line. Click here to view.and critical-depth lines. there must be a continuing maintenance program.90) where A = area of flow. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. H for horizontal. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. The M2 curve forms between the normal. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. ft V = mean velocity of flow.S. S for steep (supercritical). at an arbitrary elevation. Eq.D. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.89) may be written (21. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. and the critical-depth line C. 21.46a and b. and C. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. E. T. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.L. (See also Art. (Although based on surface roughness.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.23).46. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. 21. The N. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. Chow. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.D. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. therefore. Department of Agriculture. These curves are divided into five groups. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. and adverse slope.11. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. and the N.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.D.L. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.) 21. (21. and two types for channels of critical. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.4. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. are in Table 21.L. the average n values given in Table 21. All rights reserved.D. Dr. 21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).L. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. New York. horizontal.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. .9 and Table 21. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. as shown in Fig.25).L. C for critical.21. are identical for a channel of critical slope.
With short grass.013 0. Dense weeds.030 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.014 0. Inc.025 0. Dense brush. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.014 0. high as flow depth d.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. good section c.050 0. 21. 21. Rough C.014 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.011 0. Unlined channels 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.035 0.012 0. untreated 3.019 0. Gunite. Cement-mortar surface 3.050 0. Clean. Wood a. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. respectively).025 0.015 0. Excavated earth. Masonry a.015 0. straight and uniform a. Light brush on banks 3. Dredged earth a.016 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. commonly called a drawdown curve.018 0.013 0.021 0. Smooth wood form c.46i and j. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Corrugated 2.013 0.015 Avg 0.140 0.025 0. The S2 curve.023 0.016 0.025 0.033 0.016 0.060 0. Rough wood form B.017 Max 0. after weathering b.028 0.080 0. Smooth b. Metal a.035 0. All rights reserved.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.025 0.021 0. Concrete a. Rock cuts a.013 0.013 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Concrete (unfinished) a. No vegetation b. .035 0.017 0. Smooth and uniform b.012 0.011 0.120 0. Click here to view.100 0. Dry rubble 5.010 0.035 0.014 0.018 0. high stage 2.027 0.020 0.030 0.46a and b.033 0. Float finish b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Planed.032 0. Cemented rubble b. Gunite.012 0.016 0. Steel form b.012 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21. few weeds c.040 0.080 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.016 0.040 0.022 0.030 0.025 0. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.023 0. wavy section 4.022 0. 21. Jagged and irregular 0.024 0.022 0. Lined channels 1. Asphalt a. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.
Examples in Fig.21.D. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. . The curves in Fig.. All rights reserved. indicates normal-depth line. Inc.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. critical-depth line. Click here to view. N.46k and l. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.D.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.L.L. 21. C. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. H. and A profiles.
27.. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. Click here to view. and step methods.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. For subcritical flow conditions. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. The wave travels at a speed.47. Chow. 21. each reach is solved in succession. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. free overfall. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. For step-method computations. (21. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. New York. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. or reaches. 32. (R. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. French. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. Inc. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. Explanations of both the graphical.” McGraw-Hill. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. weir. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. H. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. direction-integration. All rights reserved. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. depending on the type of flow. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. See Art.77) if the depth were zero. T. For the section of channel in Fig. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. gate. 21.51). it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. . the channel is divided into short lengths. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.and direct-integration methods are in V. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. with relatively small variation.5. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths.) 21. dam. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. known as its celerity. New York. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages.
as given by Eq.93) where R = hydraulic radius. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. rearranged as follows: Fig.92) (21.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. ft. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. and vice versa.91) for L gives (21. Solving Eq. (21. The smaller the value of n. 21. not the channel bottom. due to friction in the same reach. 21. .82). These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. the longer the backwater curve profile. Therefore.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. the – eddy loss. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. (For uniform.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. Click here to view. the change in elevation. All rights reserved. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.93).) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. (21. and – SL = hf. is negligible and can be ignored. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 21. prismatic channels.21. respectively. ft. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. hi. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. the head loss. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art.
the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. (21. the average friction slope for the reach. (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. (21. All rights reserved. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.95) The coefficient k is 0. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. ft. Since this step method is a converging process. (21. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. becomes (21.96). respectively. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. computations progress toward the initial section.1 for converging reaches. ft. Click here to view. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Eddy loss. grade. . the friction loss. respectively. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Next. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.2 for diverging reaches. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Finally. (21.94). which. in natural channels.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Then. Z2.47. total head H. (21.92). after substitution of H from Eq. or roughness. Then. (21. Next.95).5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. is obtained from Eq. S. referred to a horizontal datum. and about 0.93). ft. from 0 to 0. For lined channels. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. ft/s. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. and it is therefore often accounted for.51 may be some intermediate depth. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. sometimes called impact loss. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. The value of total head computed from Eq. Therefore.93). Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. 21. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.
If the two values of total head do not agree. 1970.. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. velocity.48). depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady.S. Utilizing the above data. Click here to view. However. .23).27.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. bridge piers.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. known as the roller. New York. The upstream surface of the jump. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. 21. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). 21.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Federal Highway Administration. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. Fig. 21.52b. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Bradley. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. French. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. Bureau of Public Roads. or other obstruction. however. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. approach roadways. and J. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. a gate. Department of Transportation. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. is a turbulent mass of water. N.48 Hydraulic jump. Inc.” Hydraulics Design Series no. All rights reserved. H. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. 1. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. U. and determine the discharge. respectively.1 ft in elevation.21. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas.51 and 21. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. as shown in Figs. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. 21. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. known as the length of jump. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The effect of bridges. 2nd ed.
49) is given by (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.104) = discharge.102) Equation (21.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. (21.105) where A = area of flow.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. ft w = unit weight of water.99). The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft/s2. ft d2 = depth after jump. 21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. All rights reserved. 21. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft2 T = width of free surface. For open-channel flow.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. ft/s. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. (21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity.98) and (21.27. d2 must also equal dc. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. (21.82). (21.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where L is a characteristic length. . the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. Click here to view. 32. s (21. For rectangular channels.98) where d1 = depth before jump.16)].100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. this resultant pressure force is (21. or alternate depths.100) Equation (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.100).99) where M = mass of water. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. in Eq. ft3/s = unit of time. (21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. V is the mean velocity. This difference (Fig. ft. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.
the jump will be drowned out. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. This jump may be called a strong jump.5 to 4. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. very commonly in canals. For F1 = 1. 21. which gives discharge vs. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 1 to 1. The jump action is rough but effective.27. were classified by the U. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.21. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. and the performance is at its best. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. can travel for miles.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 9.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. below a spillway.5 to 9.7. The jump is well-balanced. If the tailwater is too high.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. Inc. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. This jump may be called a weak jump. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. For F1 = 1. the flow is critical and there is no jump. depending on local conditions. which. Click here to view. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. 21. 21.7 to 2. In either case. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. If the tailwater is too low. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. there are undulations on the surface.23). chute. This jump may be called a steady jump. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. an oscillating jet is entering the jump.5. . The jump is called an undular jump. depth after the jump.49. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces.0 and larger. For F1 = 4. for example. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. 21. All rights reserved.0. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron.
The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. Chow from data gathered by the U. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. Bureau of Reclamation. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed.27. Inc. T. 21.S.105). These features are expensive to build. . but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Click here to view. changing the apron elevation.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. The curve.51.27.Water Resources Engineering s 21. But it has been determined experimentally. Accessories. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. 21. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. therefore. All rights reserved. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. This length (Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. 21. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. prepared by V. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. 21.55 curve involve changing the crest length. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. (21. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. and sloping the apron.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The resulting curve (Fig. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. 21.
21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. computed from Eq. 21.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. All rights reserved. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. the jump occurs in the steep region. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. 21. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. Conversely. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. 21.52b. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. CB. as shown in Fig.101) with d1 given. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. if the downstream depth is lowered. (21. which occurs near the channel drop-off. A horizontal intercept FG.23) to mild. 21. .26.52a.75h in the absence of better information. as theory would indicate. the jump moves downstream to a new position. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art.21. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. respectively (Fig. between lines CB′and EO. As depth d2 is lowered. but it is normally assumed to be 0. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.102). is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. as shown in Fig. (21. computed from Eq. It is assumed. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge.5% of critical depth. Inc. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. that flow is uniform. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. curves AB and ED in Fig.51.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Click here to view. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21. less than. If d2 is less than d′ . The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. the jump moves to a new location downstream. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.7dc for simplicity. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than.52. for simplicity. using the step methods of Art. the computed length of jump.101). (21. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. 21.46e and c). equal in length to L. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. equal to the computed length of the jump.
A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. From Q = AV. ft. Inc. 21.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. the entrance loss. if not. (21. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. Inc.23). All rights reserved. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. French.” McGraw-Hill. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.3 for one with squared ends. ft3/s.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.” 6th ed. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. F. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. 21.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. Brater. If the entrance loss must be considered. (R. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. New York. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. on the channel entrance. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. is (21. and discharge is at a maximum. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. a new discharge is assumed. ft. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. where He is the specific energy head.51. ignoring entrance loss.53). and the slope of the channel.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. ft.85)]. .57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.106) where b is the channel width. Then. ft. then the assumed discharge is correct.82) and (21. New York. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). “Open-Channel Hydraulics.) 21. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. or (b) below it.Water Resources Engineering s 21.. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.53a). Click here to view. or (a) above it. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. a new discharge is chosen. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.53b). (In Fig. ft.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. then the discharge is correct. if not. (21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21. d is normal depth. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.33). producing flow. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. 32. ———— charge. Click here to view. (b) mild-slope channel. ft.53b. 21. All rights reserved. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. ft2. 21.22). ft3/s.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.83). If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. . The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. Inc. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21. where He – d is the actual head. He is the specific energy head.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21.23).58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.2 ft/s2.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
All rights reserved.83)]. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. ft.23). When water is forced to flow in a curved path. In this range. The error will not be great. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. If the bend continues long enough. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. curve (Fig. Therefore. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. and rc the radius of curvature. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. ft /s. (21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig.107) The theoretical difference y.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. however. when a stream enters a curve. ft.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. a unit mass of water. ft.59 21. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Inc. . 21. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. where V is its average velocity. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. of the center line of the channel. Click here to view. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. 21. 21. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. (21. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. (21. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. the true value of y would be only a few inches. 21.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water.108). or mV2 /rc for m. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.
” U. flows around a bend in a channel. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. Inc. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. His values have not been evaluated completely. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. a series of standing waves are produced.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.21.23). phase.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. an increase in friction loss results. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. The cross slope required for 21. .55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. with sufficient accuracy. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.111). Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. These waves cross at M.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. recross as shown. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. 21. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. 21. Click here to view. C. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.16)] . Fig. (F.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. (21. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.110) for θ in Eq. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. This angle may be found from (21. 21.S. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depths along the inside wall. however. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. Scobey. The second is a negative wave. Two waves form at the start of the curve. One is a positive wave. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. (21. Technical Bulletin 393. Department of Agriculture. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. of greater-than-average surface elevation. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. and should be used with discretion.55).112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. All rights reserved. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. by (21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. and continue crossing and recrossing.
2 ft/s2. p.57). low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig.8[∆(V2/2g)]. 21. ∆V is the velocity change. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. plus any transition and friction losses. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. If friction is ignored. the average velocity decreases. Straight. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. such as flow-rate changes. 21. For outlet-type structures. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21.44. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. ft. where K. wall roughness. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. Many variables. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. 21. Click here to view. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. 21. To place a transition properly between two open channels. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. therefore.1 [∆(V2/2g)].44.54). a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. All rights reserved. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.2 for welldesigned transitions. Inc.1 for an inlet-type structure.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. 21. or change from supercritical to subcritical. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. is given by K(∆V2/2g). . The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. and g = 32. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. and channel shape and slope. The transition loss. In this range.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. the loss factor. 21. ft/s. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. if friction is ignored.113) angle of about 12.56. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.23).61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. as shown in Fig. When proceeding downstream through a transition. equals about 0. 21. respectively. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. low-head-loss transfer of flow. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. change from subcritical to supercritical. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface.
222 ft.000556(20)2 = 0. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.5 = a(30)2. Fig. 21. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. triangular or Vnotch weirs. Fig. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. All rights reserved. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.58 Sharp-crested weir.34. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. such as broad-crested weirs. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. 21. as shown in Fig.58). Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section.000556. the weir is submerged or drowned. Inc. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. from which a = 0. 21. such as rectangular weirs. y = ax2. 21. and. If the discharge is partly under water.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. 21. trapezoidal weirs.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.000556(10)2 = 0. and parabolic weirs. triangular weirs. the weir has free discharge. measured from A or B. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. For Fig.21. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.59. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.57. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.59 Weir not sharp-crested. trapezoidal weirs. In contrast. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 21. Click here to view.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0.
A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. To be fully ventilated. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. At very low heads.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft The head should be measured at least 2.115) where Q = discharge. Hence. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. Click here to view.5H upstream from the weir. A V-notch weir (Fig.34.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. Inc. thus causing a contraction of the flow. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. contraction of the nappe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.60 V-notch weir. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. 21.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. New York). All rights reserved.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. One such equation.116) corrects for the effects of friction. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. T. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.58) (V. below the crest.5H. If P is less than Fig. 21. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. . Chow. Equation (21. The height of weir P must be at least 2. 21.
ft H = head. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. All rights reserved. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. T. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.118)] 21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.34. measured from notch bottom. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. Discharge is given by (21. (21. Lenz. Click here to view.2) when low discharges are to be measured.. His values were summarized by Brater. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.5H upstream from the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.119) where Q = discharge. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.” 6th ed.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. 21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. 21. F. 21. there is one end contraction and N = 1. . The effective length L. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. 1943).4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. New York). 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.34. 21. 21. Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. 69. ft.34. vol. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. (21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.21.118) Fig.61) (E. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. there are two end contractions and N = 2.
for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. Thus. 21. ft3/s. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. The discharge Qs. 32. (21. 2 21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. All rights reserved. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. ft. or both. Dec. 21. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement.) To use the Villemonte equation.34. velocity head. using this rate and the required depths. 25. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. ft/s V /2g = Hν. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. and then. . compute the velocity of approach. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. Where great accuracy is essential. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.122) where H = measured head. and finally total head.) Equation (21. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Typically. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. using this discharge. Click here to view. Fig. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.115) is rewritten in the form (21. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. which may be done as follows: First.” Engineering News-Record. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. Then. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. (J. heavily constructed devices. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. velocity head of approach.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. 1947. 866. 21. ft V = velocity of approach.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. ft3/s. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. From this total head.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. p.34. Inc. for such weirs. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. neglecting the velocity head. Villemonte.59). Eq.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used.121) where Q = discharge. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. (21. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.
66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. and approach velocity. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.S.21. “Design of Small Dams. All rights reserved. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. F. But the process should be repeated. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. the head in relation to the design head. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. where approach velocities are high. Washington.10 H. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. ft (U. . DC 20402. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Inc. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.13.20 0. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. Click here to view. For conditions of design head Hd. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.34.12. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. For each change of nappe shape. thickness of pier. ft L′ = net crest lengths. starting with the corrected discharge. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The effect is most critical for low heads. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.2 of the head.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. Therefore. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. For conditions of design head Table 21. and the approach velocity.02 0.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. head in relation to design heads.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. Department of the Interior.5Hd > r* > 0.” Government Printing Office. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. 21.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.123) where L = effective crest length.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.
65. 21.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. (U. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.64) has such a shape. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. This relationship is shown in Fig. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. at the point of maximum contraction. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.5H upstream. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. According to Chow. “Design of Small Dams. Click here to view.66 of the head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. New York).) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. 21. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. DC 20402. . 1. however.67 Fig. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Consequently. called the design head Hd. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. Washington. Figure 21. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.” Government Printing Office. 2. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This manual and V. Inc. where discharge is given by Eq. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. Department of the Interior. 21. Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. Chow. For flow at heads lower than the design head. Chow.S. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. depends on the head producing the discharge. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 21.122). T. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. The shape of this nappe. Of the above rules. All rights reserved. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.34. for a sharp-crested weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and therefore of an ogee crest. T. (21. 21. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.
66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. Inc. Figure 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.21.S.) Fig. 21. .68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. All rights reserved. Fig. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. (From “Design of Small Dams. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” U.S. New York. Bureau of Reclamation. (From “Design of Small Dams. Click here to view.66.” U. the flow differs from ideal.
compiled by King. 21.S. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. Figure 21. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. (E. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. therefore.69 Fig. and sharp right-angled edges. where the velocity of approach is not high. .” 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. F.69 Broad-crested weir.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.) 21. are used as spillways and control structures. 21. Click here to view. the nappe springs free.68. has contraction of the nappe.” 6th ed. appear in Table 21.. (From “Design of Small Dams. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. fairly common in waterworks projects. F. All rights reserved. a plane horizontal crest. Inc. “Handbook of Hydraulics.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) Fig. 21. is determined from Fig. if flow is at other than the design head. New York. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.” U.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. the coefficient of discharge. Brater. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. New York. Figure 21.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Values of the discharge coefficient. because of its sharp upstream edge. 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.67 and 21. for example. Brater. Unless otherwise noted. (See. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. (21. Weirs of irregular section.34.Water Resources Engineering s 21.14. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.34.. Bureau of Reclamation.
70 2.64 2.80 2.74 2.32 3.31 3.66 2.38 2.0 5.32 Breadth of crest of weir.68 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.32 3.68 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment. and turbines.67 2.79 2.69 2.63 2.69 2.63 2.75 2.89 3.00 2.60 2.64 2.64 2.64 2.14 3.32 2.20 3.26 3. Click here to view.88 2.6 0.29 3.70 2.32 3. .92 2.20 3.68 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.58 2.32 3.72 2.74 2.07 3.92 3.32 3.70 2.68 2.50 2.62 2.54 2.32 3.73 2.32 3.32 5.00 2.72 2.32 3.32 3.32 3.00 2.85 3.5 5.64 2.63 2.70 2.60 2.56 2.65 2.0 3.63 2.32 3.64 2.66 2.63 2. those forming the bed load.68 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents. once formed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.34 2.65 2.77 2.79 1.86 2.0 4.32 3.97 3.66 2.44 2.75 2.32 4.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water. ft 0.67 2.69 2.00 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.64 2.65 2.08 3.75 2. which are often of equal consequence.63 21.32 3.32 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 3.89 3.64 2. erosion.65 2. All rights reserved.80 2.31 3. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. The smaller silt sizes.64 2. or soil.54 2.69 2.64 2.00 2.32 3.32 1.28 3.63 2.32 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.30 3.63 2.68 2.31 3.32 3.30 3.32 3. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.49 2.2 1.64 2.50 H.64 2.32 3.63 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.2 0.4 1.65 2. such as gates. those carried in suspension.32 3.04 3.5 3.32 3.07 3. This incoming water.65 2. A density current.07 3.05 3.76 2.64 2.68 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.88 3.67 2.8 2.32 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.64 2.67 2.32 1.08 3. 21.35.00 2.32 3.07 3.64 2.03 3.32 3.50 2.68 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.48 2.75 2.5 4.64 2.4 0.63 2.89 2. valves. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.0 1.68 2.32 3.32 3.00 2.32 3.28 3.68 2.70 2.8 1. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment. Inc. ft 0. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.81 2.64 15.0 2.32 3.66 2.32 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.88 10.65 2.32 3.98 3.70 2.32 3.68 2.85 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0. with its load of suspended silt.19 3.67 2.61 2.32 3.61 2.32 3.32 3.75 2.21.20 3.32 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.76 2.32 3.60 2.50 2.5 2.07 3. such as a reservoir.66 2.68 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.60 2.92 3.64 2.72 2.6 1.32 3.63 2.
The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. see Art. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. Click here to view. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. All rights reserved. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. The most common manner of destruction. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or from year to year. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. . By this method. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. formed from the bed load. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. on the other hand. When neither can be done. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. However. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. because of variations in rainfall. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. 21. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime.35. overtopping.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. the rate is not uniform during the year. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. Inc. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. 21. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. or failure of materials. once formed. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. however. These currents are stable. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Of course.39. are coarsegrained. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. landslide. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year.
0 ft/mi. which varies with both slope and discharge. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. Therefore. however. Therefore. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. 21. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. Frequently. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.1).124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. this silt comes from land-surface erosion.21. discharge. (21. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. According to Witzig. gravel. Therefore. Inc. and boulders. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. Click here to view. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.35. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. ft3/s b = width of river. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. All rights reserved. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. ft qo = critical discharge. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. which generally occurs only during a storm. But for the most part. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.124) where Gb = total bed load. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. . lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. A mean grain size of 0.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.
Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. rivers. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. on or near the land surface. which are of two types. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. day. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. by ink pen and revolving drum. and their reaction with their environment. if the dam is raised at a later date.) culation. their chemical and physical properties. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. temperature. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. including their relation to living things. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. For instance. Department of Agriculture.S. runoff. recharges groundwater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” U. New York. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.S.S. are published daily by the U. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Current data. or digital microchip technology. such as wind. All rights reserved. Einstein. . The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. lakes. or year. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. Click here to view. (W. evaporation. debris barriers.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. A. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. in the form of synoptic weather charts.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. their occurrence. and the stream velocity. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. such as an hour. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. (See H. Use of vegetation screens. contour plowing. or a combination of the two. infiltrates into the soil. Weather Bureau is 24 h. water evaporation from oceans. In this cycle. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. circulation. check-dam construction. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. (21-124). The second type is a nonrecording gage. Graf. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. and distribution.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. discharges into streams. Such screens. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. H. Inc. planting of burned-over areas. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It continually records. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. groundwater flow. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. infiltration. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. Weather Bureau.73 dation. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. and stream flow 21. and pressure.
ground.125) (21. On an annual basis. commonly termed consumptive use. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. has a relatively large surface area. Not all rain reaches the ground.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. branches. Maidment. Evapotranspiration is important because. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and other vegetation surfaces. Evaporation may occur from free-water. plant. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. equal to 15 for small. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. This phenomenon. on a long-term basis. Inc. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. in of mercury. in of mercury.. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. “Handbook of Hydrology. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A portion may evaporate as it falls. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Inc. tropical and subtropical regions. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. shallow pools and 11 for large.” McGraw-Hill. Of the three. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. The Meyer equation [Eq.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. and it increases as wind velocity increases. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water.126) where E = evaporation rate.125)]. (21. or ground surfaces. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. developed from Dalton’s law. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. In transpiration. All rights reserved. called interception. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. (21. see D. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. . R. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient.21. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. In evaporation. while another portion may be caught on leaves. New York. and plantleaf surfaces. Evapotranspiration. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Click here to view.
The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. subsurface storm flow. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. All rights reserved. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. subsurface runoff. New York. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Commonly. hail. dew). tropical. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. is in widespread use. to reach a channel. Click here to view. although it may vary between 0. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. and biologic attrition. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. perhaps several years. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. also known as interflow. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. or excess rain. wind tends to push the film to the shore. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. It appears in surface channels. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. and storm seepage.60 and 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. except in arid. frost. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration.” McGraw-Hill. snow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. Inc. subsurface.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or cetyl alcohol. After joining stream flow. time distribution. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Inc. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. or groundwater runoff. Hexadeconal. Precipitation—form (rain. Climatic characteristics a.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. R. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Subsurface flow. Moving laterally. Maidment.70. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area.. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. or groundwater flow. aquatic life. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. In practice. duration. 21. natural or manmade. insects. Thus. runoff may be surface. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. On large reservoirs. birds. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. intensity. . effective rain includes subsurface flow. Groundwater flow. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain.80. Classified by the path taken to a channel.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. (D. depending on the geographical region. called a Class A Level Pan.
International Boundary Commission. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. the detail required in the final answer.S. roughness. extremes during precipitation c. Click here to view. the quantity and type of data available. Geological Survey. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. groundwater formations. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Topographic—size.” U. 21. as shown in Fig. shape. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data.S. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. TVA.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. stratification Fig. orientation. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Atmospheric pressure f. 21. snow storage. duration d. All rights reserved. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. antecedent precipitation. yearly flow volume. Wind—velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. both published and unpublished. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits.S.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. Humidity e. direction.21. and various state and local agencies. detail. general location. elevation. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. extremes of flow. and the accuracy desired. Drainage-basin characteristics a. slope. Geologic—soil type. the U. frozen ground during storms. permeability. shape of cross section. lakes and other bodies of water. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.S. recurrence interval. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. soil moisture. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. Inc. mean flow. Weather Bureau.70. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. 21. These papers contain records of daily flow. special-interest items. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. and completeness of the hydrologic records. Geological Survey. . Solar radiation 2. Temperature—variation. channels (size.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. areal distribution. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. 21. slope. artificial drainage. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U.S. Agricultural Research Service. Geological Survey. direction of storm movement b. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. drainage net.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. and Weather Bureau. land use and cover. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. length) b.
The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. others give the complete hydrograph. As an example. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs.or 100-year-frequency storm. 4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1962). and large downstream damage potential. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available.41.128) 21. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. All rights reserved. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. a 50. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. the second to major hydraulic structures. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Click here to view. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. in/h A = drainage area. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. great importance. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Inc. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. 2. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. . 3. 5. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. for example. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. T.127) where Q = peak discharge. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. The values of C in Table 21. Chow.
70 0. 2% Heavy soil.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.60 – 0. (21. Maidment.20 0.16).95 0.13 – 0.10 0.25 0.70 – 0. (21. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.129) Table 21. R. steep. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. years duration of storm.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.71 and Table 21.127). Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.75 0. coefficient.35 0.40 – 0.70 – 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. Sherman. b. (See D. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.75 – 0. 7% Heavy soil.) The flow time in gutters.15 0. Inc. factor. streets. “Handbook of Hydrology. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.25 – 0. All rights reserved. 21.10 – 0.85 0.40 0.21. (21. Click here to view. flat. avg.25 – 0.60 – 0.18 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.50 0. gutters. New York.. n. avg.30 – 0. Inc. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. 2–7% Heavy soil. or any equivalent method.85 0. in/h respectively.10 – 0. flat. (21. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.90 0.” McGraw-Hill.80 0. min time of concentration Fig.70 0.128) or Eq.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.10 – 0. 21.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. 2% Sandy soil.50 – 0.80 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. is a convenient.17 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. detached Multiunits.40 0. the flow time in streets.95 0.22 0. K.75 – 0. 21.05 – 0.20 – 0.89)] .95 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. steep.15 – 0.30 0.70 – 0.50 – 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. and the flow time in conduits. or ditches. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50 – 0.60 0.129). After determining the time of concentration. ditches. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.41. Equation (21.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. .20 – 0.95 0.
79 Table 21. that is. easier. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. termed a unit storm. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity.” Engineering News-Record. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. subdivision may be required. . Sherman.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. usually 1 acre). 3. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. (Leroy K. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph.Water Resources Engineering s 21. pp. The method is summarized by the formula (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. termed a unit period. This requires that a storm of short duration. Thus. All rights reserved. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. vol. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. and more accurate than any such set of factors. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. If the watershed is very large. 501-505. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. JanuaryJune 1932. the time of storm runoff. 2. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. 108. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Inc. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. 4. Click here to view. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration.
5. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Illustrated in Fig. Click here to view. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Inc. All rights reserved. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. because of storm variations.72. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. 21.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm.73). 21.21. For ease of manipulation. Then. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Usually. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. . A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. which is of fixed intensity and duration. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived.
81 21. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity.) where Q = flow rate. All rights reserved. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.74)..74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. New York. This method was developed by Franklin F. Also. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.” McGraw-Hill. I. . gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. 21. Inc. 19. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This loss. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. pt. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.) Fig. 447–454). K. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. vol. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Maidment. New York. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. “Hydrology for Engineers. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. 21. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. perpendicular to direction of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. (R.131) period.. pp. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. 21. “Handbook of Hydrology. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. during heavy storms. R. Linsley et al. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.” 3rd ed. Click here to view.. McGraw-Hill. Inc. (See D. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude..
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. cost of replenishment water. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. source. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. usually a number of years. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities.21. . Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. among others. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. safe yield. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. (A base period is a period of time. poor-quality replenishment waters. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. alternative management plans should be formulated. rather than a change in volume. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and location of artificial replenishment. because of impermeable layers above and below it. present and future water demands should be determined. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Regardless of how it is defined. All rights reserved. quantity. Frequently. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. and indirect water-quality use costs. recycling. Deteriorating water quality. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. water softening costs. or other causes. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. These costs include increased soap costs. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. and quality of water supply. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. quantity. wastewaters. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. quality. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Click here to view. and overdraft. Following the preceding preliminary work. and methods of wastewater disposal. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. is a confined or artesian aquifer. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Inc. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. groundwater levels. need for excessive pumping lifts.
Inc. legal. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. 40. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. washing. is a very difficult task. S.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. I. or other unforeseen emergency. wastewater disposed. transmission. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and hotels for drinking. All rights reserved. storage. Linsley et al. however. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities.” 3rd ed. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. irrigation. apartments. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Grigg. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. amount and location of groundwater extractions. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. decreasing percentage increase. fire-fighting. and environmental factors. K.. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. 21. fire. Hydrology for Engineers.” A.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. (“Ground Water Management. water used. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. Estimation of future population. 1987. graphical comparison with other cities. J. no. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. commercial. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and age of the city. culinary. financially feasible. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” N. land speculation. surface-water delivery facilities. American Society of Civil Engineers. Bear. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. “Water Resources Planning. and sanitary purposes. geographical boundaries. and public. industrial. New York. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. The smaller the system. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. institutional. Kashef.” R. and natural and artificial replenishment. flood. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. Click here to view. sanitary. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. “Groundwater Engineering. such as industrial development. distribution.. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. motels. bathing. percentage increase. and treatment works. industrial. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Therefore.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. . pumping.
type of service (metered or unmetered). it may control the design of the facilities. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. quality. Water Demand Rate s Many factors.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Click here to view. Inc. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. as presented in Table 21. mainly because of the lack of large industries. degree of industrialization. cost. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. . but because of the high rate at which it is required. influence the demand rate for water. degree of industrialization. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. valves. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. and time of day. lawn sprinkling. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. month. reservoir evaporation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. presents Table 21. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. air conditioning. State of California Office of Planning and Research. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. size of the city. Public Health Service Report. janitorial. All rights reserved. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. meter malfunctions. and unauthorized uses. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary.21. Table 21.” 1979. are the average of a range of values. The “California Water Atlas. and quality of the water. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. public buildings. such as the climate. the demand for it decreases. Demand rates vary with time of day. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. and air conditioning purposes. The national demand-rate data. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. and cleaning. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. cooling. if the cost of water increases. cost. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Calif.S. and year. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Public use of water for parks. Mo. Normally. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City.17. pressure. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. and faucets. standard of living. and pressure.
Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. In selection of a source of supply. The source must Table 21.000 3. however. and in some cases.5 14.000 40.0 1.000 28.000 90.000 40. Inc.000 48.000 40.3 0.8 6.2 8. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. † MGD = million gallons per day. All rights reserved.000 125.000 70.000 1.000 40.000 110. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. climate.18.000 2. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.4 2.000 12. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 40. interdependent. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. MG† 0. inland. Moreover. industrialization. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.9 4. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. rivers. In the atlas.6 4.000 10. and streams. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. Click here to view. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 17.0 7. quality.0 3. but the demand rate is high. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 120.000 4.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Total dependence on a single source.000 5. is frequently undesirable. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.6 11.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 40. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 80.8 7. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 10.000 85. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 1.4 3.000 6. valley cities.3 Duration.000 100.000 40.000 55. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. . diversification is essential for reliability. In the past.500 2. the effect of warm.8 2.000 85.000 200.4 17. In some local areas. however. and politics. to a large extent. gal/min P = population.132) where G = fire-demand rate. legality.18 Required Fire Flow. such as lakes. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 * American Insurance Association. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. cost. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.3 5.000 90.000 80.000 8.000 4.2 2.000 60. MG = million gallons. Cost.6 1. Hydrant Spacing. 21. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
calcium hardness. (See also Art. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. such as sulfates and chlorides. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. dependent on local conditions. and calculation of the Langelier index. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. alkalinity.21.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. All rights reserved. In addition. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.S.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.) At the discretion of the state. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. 21.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 mg / L 0. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.5 – 8. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. temperature. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.21.) Source Protection s The U. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.” U.5 mg / L 0. Inc. The measurements should include pH. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.22. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. American Water Works Association.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. and Water Pollution Control Federation.S. . Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. total dissolved solids. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Click here to view. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.” American Public Health Association.
(21. Figure 21. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. slow and rapid sand filtration.0 < R < 2000. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. All rights reserved. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.51). The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. Newton’s law applies: (21.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. however. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. and size and shape of the settling basin. (Usually.134) where CD is the drag coefficient.. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. and width B.0.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. and softening (see also Art. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. In the region where 1. Reynolds numbers. unpleasant tastes and odors. (See R. B. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. to be used in Eq. velocity is constant. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. For this ideal basin. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. 21. mm If R > 2000. disinfection.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal.46. 21. (21. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. temperature and viscosity of the water. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.134). and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Mich.001 and 5. . 21. 21.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Ann Arbor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Pojasek. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. particulate and colored matter. such as those mentioned above. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. is equal to or less than 1. calculated with ν = νs. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Click here to view. coagulation-sedimentation. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. Inc. Inc. V the flowthrough velocity. shape. depth ho . to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. Figure 21.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. at 10 °C. 21. 1946.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. 21. 103. (Observed curves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p. 897. vol.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.) Fig. . All rights reserved. after Camp. Click here to view.21. Inc.
78b). “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 21. 21. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. and D. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. Inc. for example. G. 21.” John Wiley & Sons. and eddy currents.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . M. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.46. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Click here to view. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Without coagulants.. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. All rights reserved. 1. short circuiting. Okun.. 21. Fair. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. New York. Multistory tanks. 21. are removed in this basin. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.) 21. A. The tubular settler (Fig.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . C.8c. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. finely Fig. coagulants are added to the water. Geyer. 27. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or other indicator to pass through the basin.5 ft/min (most common velocity. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. J. New York. .” McGraw-Hill. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. rectangular (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. salt.78a) or circular (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.
All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Inc. (d) Tubular settler.21. 21. (b) Circular clarifier. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.
they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. Polymers are long-chain. Inc. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. or negatively charged. color. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. American Water Works Association. Culp. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. “New Concepts in Water Purification. . centrifugal pumps. in some instances. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. New York. color. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. plankton. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. New York. and nonionic. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. such as pH.Water Resources Engineering s 21. considering both cost and performance. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Corbitt. such as physical straining. They are available in three types: cationic. 18H2O]. Click here to view. Thereby.. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. or neutral in charge. The filtering process has many components. A. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. chemical and biological reactions. or positively charged. such as paper fiber.. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and suspended solids. J.to 60min range. and air jets. such as mechanical stirrers. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. and easier dewatering. Inc. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. “Water Supply and Sewerage. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. temperature. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages.” R. ferric chloride (FeCl3). consequently. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. L. production of a smaller volume of sludge. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. T. turbidity. organic polyelectrolytes.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. Also. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. coliform organisms. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. however. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). “Water Quality and Treatment. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge.” McGraw-Hill. highmolecular-weight. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. Anionic polymers. Culp and R. however.” 4th ed. polymers have a minor effect on pH. L. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. All rights reserved. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. settling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. (G. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. and hardness. anionic. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. McGhee. however. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form.) 21.
Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. (The effective size is the size of a sieve.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.21. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. and dual. through the sand and gravel layers. 21. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. The process requires rapid mixing. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. by weight. . Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.or mixed-media filtration. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. of the sand. Inc. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Usually. 21. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. depending on the turbidity. in millimeters.35-mm range. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The wash- Fig.to 0.to 12-in layer of gravel. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. All rights reserved. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Click here to view. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. that will pass 10%.79. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.
The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. bed cracking.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. mixed-media. diatomaceous earth. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. or sand incrustation will be encountered. creating a high head loss across the filter. The filtering medium may be sand. which produces an undertreated effluent. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. Inc. Dual-media.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices.25 to 1. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.002:1 to 0. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. which is drained to waste.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. may be more advantageous.005:1 range. or deep coarse-media filters. Immediately after washing. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. . from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand.20 to 1. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. gal/min b = width of trough. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. such as rakes. or anthracite coal. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. however. and air jets. water sprays. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand.35 to 0. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. filters pass water at a high rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter.
and D.” John Wiley & Sons. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. in clear wells. Geyer. These materials remove cations.1 mg/L..21. however. (American Water Works Association. Inc. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Some. All rights reserved.3 and 0. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.. L. C.) (21. New York. gas.. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. Fair.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. New York. McGhee. American Water Works Association. respectively.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Regeneration requires between 0. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. “Water Treatment Plant Design. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.) 21. M.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal.138) (21.” and T. carbonates. “Water Quality and Treatment. New York. and (3) total hardness. perforated. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. sulfates. (G. In the lime-soda process. “Water Treatment Plant Design.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. and R is the zeolite material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lime (CaO). Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.. A. G. “New Concepts in Water Purification. J. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.136) (21. Culp. Culp and R.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. L. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. where 1 gpg = 17. McGraw-Hill Book Company. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. such as calcium and magnesium. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” 6th ed. . taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. Click here to view. New York.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. Okun.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. “Water Quality and Treatment.” 4th ed.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). or open-joint pipes. J.139) 21. Inc. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. and American Society of Civil Engineers.” 4th ed. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. and American Society of Civil Engineers. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals.” McGraw-Hill. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. 21. cation exchange. . taste. Inc. flood control. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc.) 21. and electrodialysis. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. M.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. despite its low solubility.) respect to carbonates. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. reverse osmosis. then. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. Inc. ultraviolet light.” and T. manganese. excessive fluorides. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer.99 water supplies. Inc. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide.” McGraw-Hill. McGhee. A. C. All rights reserved. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.45). The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.1 or 0. Chlorine residuals of 0. activated carbon. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. chlorine dioxide. and D.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.) 21. odor.. (G.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. Geyer. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. 21.” John Wiley & Sons. Other disinfectants are iodine. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. J. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. and lime. iron. Fair. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. J. bromine. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Filter both solutions. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. Click here to view. Okun. New York.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells.. New York. “Water Treatment Plant Design. water supply. anion exchange. New York. ozone. irrigation. detergents. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lime softening.
For a water-supply or hydroelectric development.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. areavolume curves (Fig. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.80. 21. Aeri- Fig. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. . the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The plot of volume vs. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. The mass diagram (Fig. 21. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Inc. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Click here to view. minimum flows will be critical. 21. as is the case for many water-supply projects. When the demand rate is known.80 Mass diagram of stream flow.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. All rights reserved. maximum flows will govern. Once a reservoir site has been selected. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria.1). as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Also.52.
is called the thermocline. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. When the demand drops off. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.52. and turbidity than deep reservoirs.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. pumping plants. During hours of maximum demand. Inc. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. odor. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand.2). 21. . Major sources of supply for some cities. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow refills the reservoir. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. give special attention to water quality. All rights reserved. Click here to view. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate.35 and 21. such as New York. perature drops in the fall. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. When the tem- 21. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. but there is no circulation across this zone. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. and Los Angeles. In deep reservoirs. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. San Francisco. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. which may be only a few feet thick.101 Fig. If possible. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. are large distances from the city. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.52.
21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. Brune. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. no. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. 21. 21. All rights reserved. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG.82) (G. For the correct hydraulic grade.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Click here to view. 34. 21.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art.83). 21.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. 21. 21. M.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. M. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. For any given storage reservoir.84). A flowing artesian Fig. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.52. Inc. June 1953). so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. 3. vol.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. . It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Brune.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.35.
.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Fig. 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Inc.103 Fig.
New York. 21. and D. New York. vol. 889. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. waterjet. 1940.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. 21. 21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. J.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. J. or driven.” 6th ed. 21. V. bored. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. 21. 629. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). “Water and Wastewater Engineering. E. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. Jacob. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. Inc. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. The pump.53. McGraw-Hill.53.83). p. ft (Fig.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. .. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug..84). 72. ft The steady flow. Geyer. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. December 1938.142) where Q = flow. no. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. C.57). pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. 5. pump (Art. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. Inc.53. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. (C. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. C. A. from an artesian well is given by (21.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. vol.” John Wiley & Sons. hollow-core. Fair. M. ft h = H minus drawdown. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. p. and motor. (G. Click here to view. Inc. Okun. Hence. 33. motor. ditch.143) 21. ft d = diameter of well.21. Theis. T. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. gal/day. eductor or riser pipe. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer.53. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. screen. McGhee. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. 21.. or hydraulic rotary methods. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.” Economic Geology. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
21. Under favorable conditions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. (21. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. steel. and plastics. Wood pipelines are still in existence. valves. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. sand. riveting. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. tanks. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. polyethylene. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and meters destroyed by corrosion. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. but wood is rarely used in new installations. zinc. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Click here to view. In unlined pipes.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete.146) where D = pipe diameter. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. pumps.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. . and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. valves. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. and sulfur compounds. All rights reserved. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. concrete. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. bacteria in water. contact between acids and metals. lead. are present. however. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. ft 21. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. A machine that produces a monolithic. hydrants. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Since steel is stronger than iron. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. sealed flanges. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket.54. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes.) At the anode. or Dresser-type couplings. brass. Copper. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. impurities and strains in metals. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. If it is cement-lined. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. an anode and a cathode. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. 21. Inc. such as polyvinyl chloride. rubber. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. plastic. stray electric currents. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. bronze. and other appurtenances. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. and ability to withstand external loads. polybutylene.
and the more ions. use of protective coatings. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. such as soda ash. and Fig. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe.86). Aluminum. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Click here to view. cracks. 21. At the cathode. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. where e is an electron. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. zinc. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. All rights reserved. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. When selecting materials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the corrosion process continues (Fig. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. 21. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Strains.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. for example.Water Resources Engineering s 21. caustic soda. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Also. to prevent corrosion. the faster electrons can move through the water. water may be treated with bases. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). . and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. and treatment of the water.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Inc.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity.
it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. psia. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. All rights reserved. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. magnesium. however. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. called a volute (Fig. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. To prevent cavitation. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically.87).. Water enters at the center. ft. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. or eye. and so on on the walls of the pipes. efficiency. in feet. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft of water z = elevation difference.21.” 4th ed. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. the most common waterworks pump.88). Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Click here to view. between pump center line and water surface Fig. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. 21. To have practical meaning. hydroxides. horsepower. New York. psia.) w = unit weight of liquid. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. The centrifugal pump. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. by (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill. “Water Quality and Treatment. graphite.. or impeller. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. Inc.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. z is negative. Inc. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. . Zinc. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. 21.147) where pa = pressure. 21.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. accomplishes that in two steps. and the head-discharge relationship. Corrosion. (American Water Works Association. 21. lime. oxides.
57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. 21.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump.) 21. For that reason. 21. and air lift. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. propeller. as shown in Fig. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. 21.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.111 than the required NPSH. jet. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. See also Art..Water Resources Engineering s 21. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.57 and check valves in Art. rotary.58. 21. (Also included in Fig. .. 21.89. (I. reciprocating. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.” 2nd ed. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. “Pump Handbook. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. head. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. depending on the number of stages. New York.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. J. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Inc. Karassik et al. helical. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. below 200 gal/min. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Fig. pump discharge. In a typical water-system analysis. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. however.
These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. gal/min H = head. which is a function of specific speed. 21. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. and for Ns above 7500. Because of the close tolerances. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. either hand. which are located at the well bottom. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. 21. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. All rights reserved. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Jet pumps (Fig. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. . At sea level. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances.148) where n = impeller speed. (21. r/min Q = discharge.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. vanes. Inc. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter.21. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube.or motordriven. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. cams. Reciprocating pumps. they can be used only for sediment-free water. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. utilize piston action to move water.90 fied). so that the entire lift is suction. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used.
availability.) drives to permit manual operation.” 2nd ed. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Usually. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. or it may be at the bottom of the well.Water Resources Engineering s 21. needle. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. plug. sluice gate. “Pump Handbook. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. one just upstream of the meter. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. applied through a gear-reduction device. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Corrosion. cone. McGraw-Hill Book Company. tubercle formation. three valves must be used. fast operation. air-relief. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. rubber. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Plug. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Check. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Low head loss. All rights reserved. Inc. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. pressure-relief. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. in-service lubrication features. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. pumps. pressure-regulating. respectively. Click here to view. or Neoprene. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Also. curb. and butterfly. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. J.113 tion. globe. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. rotates the disk. solids deposition. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. primarily because of their low cost. one at the service connection. (I. But these valves cost more than gate. and butterfly valves. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes.or oil-lubricated. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. and low head loss when fully open. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. If sand is carried out with the water. Hand or motor power. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. .. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. globe. large pressure differences. New York. or corporation cocks. The major types of isolating valves are gate.. Simplicity of construction and quick. Karassik et al. which are water. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. and easy. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings.
59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. check. and large pipes. rivers.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. such as pressure regulators and altitude. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. which connects the barrel to the main. Because of high head losses.21. Furthermore. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. and relief valves. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Usually. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. 21. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. The wetbarrel. such as trunk lines 21. Inc. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. All rights reserved. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. or California type. When the valve is in a closed position. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. The most common check valve is the swing type. Often. tube. Click here to view. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. For example. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Interior-differential. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Many automatic control valves. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. .
Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. 21. Brater. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. 21.150) where Q = flow rate. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. ft d2 = diameter of throat.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss.149) Hydraulics. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. The cup-type meter. for metering domestic-service connections. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. durability. rotary. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. but they are used primarily in laboratories. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. ft h1 = pressure in main section. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. are the most common velocity-type devices. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. The nutating disk is used.) As in venturi meters. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. see E.” 6th ed. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and cost. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. or nutating-disk types.. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. All rights reserved. called a Price meter. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. However. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. vertical velocity components. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. respectively. . nozzle. such as meters for individual customer connections. (21. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. or modifications thereof.91. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.5% within the normal test-flow limits. The standard venturi meter (Fig. A clicking noise. amount of head loss through the meter. which do not affect propeller meters. simplicity and ease of repairs.115 of distribution systems. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. New York. Click here to view. Inc. F. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.
(b) Nozzle meter. fire use. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. step rate.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. peak rates of use. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. flat rate is falling into disuse. Inc. (c) Orifice- 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. fixed charges on capital investment. 21. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. and similar items.91 plate meter.21. seasonal use. load factors. All rights reserved. . Click here to view. and block rate. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and development of the system. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. if any. utility-type enterprises. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. or to some other recognized system. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. called the commodity component. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. 21. and (3) cost. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. a building to house the machinery and equipment. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. depends on the peak usage of a customer. buying water from a wholesale supplier. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. Cost component 1. Click here to view. It is generally recognized that residential areas. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Cost component 3. where applicable.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. tunnels. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. This charge is usually small.746 kW 1 kW = 1. Cost component 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Inc. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. When fixing a system of rates. penstocks. All rights reserved.117 With step rate. including metering and billing. switching equipment. called the customer component.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. . tunnel. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. For most distribution systems. and. and transformers. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. of serving an individual customer. draft tube. generators and exciters. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. called the demand component. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. turbines and governors.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. pumping energy. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. canals. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. S. where the majority of small users are.Water Resources Engineering s 21. treatment chemicals. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.
152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. and peak-load plants. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. Therefore. or seasonal cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. It can be computed on a daily. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. weekly. weekly. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. 21. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. or yearly basis. base-load plants. to be used at some future time. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. If the minimum flow is very low. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. power production being only incidental. Click here to view. Inc. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. . Then. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. On a daily cycle. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. On a seasonal cycle. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available.21. such as navigation. On a weekly cycle. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects.92). Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. run-of-river plants with storage. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Storage can be provided for a daily. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served.
varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. 21. Its distribution is triangular. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. arch. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Los Angeles.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. J. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and rock-fill.) 21. . or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.92). When needed. New York. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. (Department of Water and Power. Click here to view.” 4th ed. Force F2 represents silt pressure. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. All rights reserved. Calif. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. The main classifications are gravity. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Zipparo and H. earth. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. buttress. Hasen. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. it usually is not as economical. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (V. Figure 21.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure.. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.119 Fig. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.
153).1 g. 98. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. (E. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. A method of calculating these forces.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity.425h above the base. May 1946. which forms on the reservoir surface. was developed by von Karman. .21. p. Rose. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. Inc. ice pressures as high as 50. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. (21. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 1933. In the past. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. A close approximation of the force.93 by forces F4 and F5.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. today it is realized these values are much too high. 21. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. however. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. vol. In cold climates. presented by Edwin Rose. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. 21. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.” discussion by von Karman.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. These accelerations occur in every direction. given by Eq. ice. 434. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. Click here to view. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.000 psf. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. All rights reserved.153) where w = unit weight of water.) (21. which create forces on any object resting on it.
but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. uplift is not so important. On arch dams. In the multiple-arch. Recent belief.Water Resources Engineering s 21. because of bearing contact. and clay. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. However. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the base is not drained. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. however. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. Click here to view. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Although there are many types of buttress dams. If the deflections are not equal. but the structural design is much more critical. They are not suited to most sites. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. and uplift forces are smaller. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. Inc. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. however. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. engineers assumed that. but its formwork is more expensive. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. If a large quantity of pervious material. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. All rights reserved. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. . The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. overturning by rotating about the toe. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. The modes of failure are also the same. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. their relative importance is much different. First. sand. such as sand and gravel. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. silt. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. however. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. Hence. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. In the past. or failure of the foundation material. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. is available and clayey materials must be imported. rock flour.
Leakage should be expected. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical.3 on 1. All rights reserved. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. however. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage.21. (V. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. J. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. providing power. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. and an upstream impervious facing. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Bureau of Relamation. If the dam is on a pervious foundation.. The downstream face is usually 1.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials.” U. although steel has been used occasionally. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams.” EM 1110-2-2300. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Army Corps of Engineers. U.3 on 1. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. the natural angle of repose of rock. 21. S. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. Click here to view.) 21. . hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Temporary facings are usually of wood. bearing on the rubble cushion. New York. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. For dams over 200 ft high.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past.94). Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. The facing is usually concrete. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Today. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Zipparo and H. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. If pervious material is not available. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. onto the fill. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation.” 4th ed. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. therefore. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. or wood over concrete. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. S. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. bonding into the dumped rock. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. For some types of soil. Hasen. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill.
The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.95a). The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. In these. runner. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. however. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. 21. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. However.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. 21. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.” 4th ed. their efficiency decreases rapidly.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. .123 bine. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. As the water flows through the tur- 21. The propeller turbine (Fig. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. 21. wicket gates. All rights reserved. At heads below 100 ft. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. it changes direction. the propeller-type (Fig. New York. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.) Fig. if the load drops below 50%.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. (V. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. In such installations. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. such as the Kaplan turbine.. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. Inc.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. and draft tube. wicket gates. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. however. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. When the power demand on the turbine changes. and draft tube. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. Zipparo and H. and the fixed-blade type. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. Hasen. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. This creates a force on the runner. Click here to view. 21. The wicket gates.95c). At heads above 1000 ft. runner. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. J. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft.94 turbine.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. if designed correctly. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. . (c) axial flow. 21. All rights reserved. (b) Kaplan.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. This type of spillway is Fig.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. 21. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. Click here to view. Inc. widely used for concrete dams because. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65. the dam will not be damaged by the water.21.
water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. the siphon’s intake is sealed. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. “Design of Small Dams. both depending on the head on the weir. All rights reserved. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. called an ogee spillway. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. Bureau of Reclamation. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. or ogee in cross section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. The weir can be sharp-crested. In a side-channel spillway.96 Siphon spillway. Inc. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. model tests are usually employed. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. 21.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. Washington. 21.34). Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. This type of spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. flared. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. When the head is relatively low. A siphon spillway (Fig. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. 21. lined. DC 20402). The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. Once this second condition is reached.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section.” Government Printing Office. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. In a shaft spillway. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. The air vent shown in Fig. In a chute spillway. open channel.S. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. Thus. . Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. 21. As the head increases.
the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. To do this.5 ft/s. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the intake towers at Hoover Dam.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.65.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Fig. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. and providing support for the conduit.98 Bear-trap gate. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. are 395-fthigh concrete towers.97). the pipes fail. 21. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. controlling flow. On large stop-log installations.21. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. 21.65. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. 21. 21. Click here to view. In a taintor gate (Fig. Fig. In contrast. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. 21. . All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.97 Taintor gate. causing damage and hampering operation. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. making removal difficult. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Inc. level of a reservoir within close limits.
J.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.) Fig. (V. . The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. J.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Hasen. J. L.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. 21. E. and H. Cleasby.98. as shown in Fig.. Babbitt. 21. New York. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. Zipparo and H. Doland. Because of the large recess required in the dam.99 Drum gate. The drum gate (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Water Supply Engineering.” 4th ed. 21. Click here to view. To raise a bear-trap gate. All rights reserved. and J. drum gates are not suited to small dams.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Inc. . Click here to view.blank page 21.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
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