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# 21

W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. portions of the liquid vaporize. although negligible in many water engineering problems. at sea level.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. formation of spray from water jets. 21. is concave upward. as shown in Fig. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. or liquid surface. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. In equation form. ft Capillarity. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Meniscus. and freezing damage to concrete. like surface tension. Absolute pressure. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the liquid is in a closed container. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. psi.21. are significant in others.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. pitting. (21. 21. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. face and rises in a small tube. Inc. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities.000 ft is shown in Fig. respectively. decreases with increasing temperature. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Click here to view. 21. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. Gage pressure. ft σ = surface tension. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid.7 psi. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. Thus. is small and insignificant in most problems. however. as shown in Fig.2.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Its temperature variation. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. 21. All rights reserved.1.3. psia. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.1) where h = capillary rise. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Its value Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Surface tension and capillarity.7 psia.

It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. the force due to pressure p1.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. absolute viscosity. .3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. transitional. and pitting appears. All rights reserved. and the force due to pressure p2. to collapse. psf.8) to determine whether laminar. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. or completely turbulent flow exists.5 Fig. on the top surface. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. psf.2) where τ = shearing stress. or implode.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft2/s. ft2. lb/ft2 21. (Pressures as high as 350. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. also called the coefficient of viscosity. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. of length and time. It is so named because its units. Inc. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. 21.4. µ of a fluid. as shown in Fig. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.00001059 ft2/s. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. or dynamic viscosity. Viscosity.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. ft/s y = depth. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. 21. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. Since the prism is at rest. 21. on the bottom surface. is a measure of its resistance to flow. In hydraulics. lb/ft3. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. which extend into the pores of the metal.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. the pressure acts equally in all directions. At any depth. ft. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. and cross-sectional area A. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Then.

p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).4) Equation (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. (21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.3b) then becomes (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. the depth of the centroid. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. . the pressure. Thus. at depth h. lb.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. ft2. Equation (21. (21. lb/ft3. however. 21. 21. All rights reserved. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.3a) by A yields (21.5) 21. Inc.6) – ∫ydA = y A. (21.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. tanks. ft. and y sin θ = h . where w is the specific weight of water. psf.3. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. Figure 21. (21.4. ft.3a) Division of Eq. (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. Taking ∆h to be h. and other water control structures. then p2 is p. For horizontal surfaces. the depth below the water surface. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. dams. Therefore.4).7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. The resultant pressure force P. p1 is atmospheric pressure.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.

(21.p.7). with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.p.) that is below the c. where K is the radius of gyration. All rights reserved. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. The denominator of Eq.6 (see also Fig. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.).8) equals –A. the total force P = whA. 21.2° to the horizontal (Fig.29). ft.7 Fig. 21. Otherwise.g. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. (21. Inc.g.5).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. 6. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.7). (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if that locus is a straight line. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 .8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. Pyp = ∫y dP. of the surface about its centroidal axis. – From Eq. The location of the center of pressure. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. 21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.8). The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. 21. Example 21. Click here to view.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. .) but acts at a point (c. (21. represented by the length yp. Thus. Hence y .9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. psf. (21.

08/5 = 5.8.0) = 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. 21. 21. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. 21.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. Therefore. P = 62. Note: 1. (See Example 21. yp = 5.0 ft. Also.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. From Eq.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.0 + 0.0 + 2. Inc. (21.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.5 + 1/ (5.42 = 5.21.3.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.) of common shapes. . by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. however.42 ft. 21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.1. K2 = point G. Click here to view. All rights reserved. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.08. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.g.9).

6w = 19.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.9 Fig. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. All rights reserved. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.4 × 2.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. Fig. (21. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.9. The corresponding angle is 57.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. PH = whA = 62.4°. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.14 × 25/4 = 19.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.7).564.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. (See Example 21.2. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. – From Eq.5 × 5 = 780 lb. Example 21.6 × 62.9). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. Its angle with the horizontal is known. When water is below the curved surface. (b) Free-body diagram. . pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. so the weight of the water is 19. 2. Click here to view. 21. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. and for a constant-radius surface. 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.6 ft3. 21.

The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. 21. All rights reserved.g. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. Click here to view. or the difference in head. Inc. 21.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. For a body to be in equilibrium.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. whether floating or submerged. Given in feet by Eq. (21. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. ft3 ys = distance.).10b). the pressure head.10b.10a). between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. . The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. 21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure..4).10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. is indicated by the metacenter.b. p = wh. 21. The stability of a ship.21. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Manometers indicate h. (21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.

Click here to view.11 manometer. Basic types of manometers. 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.4 lb/ft3.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. What is hm? Fig. However. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. 21. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11a is 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. U-tube manometer. although the latter is most common.12c).11): piezometer. Inc. The piezometer (Fig. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. and differential manometer. (a) Piezometers. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.17 psi. Example 21. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. All rights reserved. (b) U-tube manometer.

The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. as opposed to a fixed scale.11b) is used. 21. A movable scale. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Click here to view. .12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. the Utube manometer (Fig. In this application.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. Very low pressures. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.12c).21. All rights reserved. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. 21. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Inc. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. including negative gage pressures.

5.25 ft of water. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. For example. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. Most of them. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. hm1 is 9 in. ft. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. psf. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.25 ft.4: A differential manometer (Fig.4 × 2. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.13 indicating liquid. Inc. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the actual pressure difference.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. such as might be required in laboratories. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the total energy per unit weight at 2. psf p2 = pressure at 2. if the actual difference is 0. Click here to view. The pressure at B. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. as shown in Fig. 21. in the manometer. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. Above 5.4 × 2. All rights reserved. and z is 1. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. that is. such as ft of water or psi.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. One factor. psf. 21. ft. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. . the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. The differential manometer (Fig. 21. however.40. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. 32.6 × 62. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. when expressed in feet of water.4 × 0.0 ft. 21. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. the magnification will be 2. Example 21.75 + 13.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. psf w = specific weight of fluid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.6). is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.11) where Z1 = elevation. hi is 2. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.0 and 2.12a. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. or sump. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. and the right side. is magnified by the differential manometer.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.

across the area of the section A. or the total head ft: (21. V2/2g.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.5.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. All rights reserved. velocity. Average velocity. through friction. (See Example 21.13). It equals WVa2 / 2g.14. where Va is the velocity.14) pa/w is called pressure head. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. above some arbitrary datum.11). The total energy. 21. Inc. 21. Usually. velocity. 21. This term hf.21. 21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. ft/s = Q/A.13. ft3/s. (21. velocity head. lb. however. Click here to view. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. ft. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. and pressure (Fig. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . varies with velocity. lb/ft3. As indicated in Fig. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. when added to the downstream side of Eq. a Fig. 21. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. Example 21.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. where W is the weight. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. Fig. ft.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. where Q is the quantity of flow.4 ft3/s. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. ft2. ft/s. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Kinetic energy at the section. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. and pressure.

gate valve. Art. or magnitude of flow. Click here to view.9). Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. since the pipe has free discharge. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. while in pressure flow. is equal to the impulse. All rights reserved. direction. respectively. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. In openchannel flow. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. The energy grade line. Since the datum plane passes through point 2.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. .4/ 3. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. 21. Z2 = 0.15 Fig. sometimes called the total head line.15). Inc. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.7. p2 = 0. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. which may result from a change in either velocity. Also. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Thus substitution in Eq.14 = 10 ft/s. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. (21. Hence. 21. A change in momentum. and any bends. 21. hf = 50 – 1.45 ft. respectively. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation.55 = 48.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.15) first in the X direction.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.1 Rx = –82. With p1 known. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.16.78 Ry = 145. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. (21.500 lb.2° – 0) = 4.96 cos 53.1 and the density ρ = 62. apply Eq.200 + Rx = 1.5) = 65.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. (See Example 21. To find F.94 × 100 × 4.332π = 71. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. Inc. P2 = ppA2 = 13. which is to be determined).96 sin 53. since ∆Vx = –(7. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.21. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. 21. Fy = –181. since ∆Vy = –(–7.700/82.6. (21.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.2= 1. 21.12)] but may be used separately.000 cos 53.11) or (21. .4/ 32. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. Example 21. Then. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. Fig.2° – 13. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.600. Let R be the force. then in the Y direction. so θ = 60.5 ft/s. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.94 × 100 × 65.2° – 71.200 lb. Fx = 181.600 lb In the Y direction. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.94.2° + Ry = 1.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 lb. lb.5°.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. and at 2.78. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. All rights reserved.000 sin 53.

They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. See also Art. Usually. For instance. In most models. It is. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. and through execution of the computer program. aquifer. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. droughts.Water Resources Engineering s 21. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. In the preceding example. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Physical models are expensive to build. 21. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. . In water resources engineering. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. such as a river. hybrid modeling. or prototype. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Popular before the advent of digital computers. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. momentum. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. With hybrid models. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. or drainage basin.7. alternative management schemes. the capability of the computing resources. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. and surface tension. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. 1. to a given set of stimuli. Click here to view. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. erosional scour.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. A fourth mode of modeling.7. gravity. however. such as storm rainfall. Inc. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. or proposed works.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. viscosity.17 21. In this way. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. employs both physical and mathematical models. All rights reserved. operate. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.

And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. (21. The Reynolds number is (21.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed.21.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. 32. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.21a) (21. Once the length ratio has been set. Inc.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Froude number. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. which is always a predominant force.22) where ρ = density of fluid.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Click here to view. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. the formation of drops and air bubbles. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Therefore. entrainment of air in flowing water. (21. the model is termed a true model. The Froude number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Similarly.20) R is dimensionless. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. such as spillways and weirs. the length ratio is the only variable. All rights reserved. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. and Weber number. such as depth or diameter). Ratios of the forces of gravity. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. viscosity. ft2/s.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. . The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. and one other force are made proportional. The inertial force. respectively.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Reynolds number. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Squaring both sides of Eq. The Weber number is (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Then (21.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.

All rights reserved. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.S. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. For instance. Click here to view. and through execution of the computer program. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. (21. (21. For such models. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results.24). called a movable-bed model. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. . Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. Rr = Lr. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. The U. Hence. inertial. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. Inc. the logical representation of prototypes. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. in particular.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. This type of model is called a distorted model. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. In some cases.7.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code.23a) (21. such as flow networks. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch.25) In models of rivers and channels. mathematical models are. viscous. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). These expressions.26) where V = mean velocity.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. catchment areas. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. (21. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. such as a morning-glory spillway. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. and infiltration parameters. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. in turn. Sr = 1. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. One type of model.

especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. Hasen. “Handbook of Hydrology. and R. and groundwater yield. academia. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. As a general rule. hydrodynamics. quantity and quality of water supply. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. or both. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. as in annular passages. of all databases and software. or pollution. reservoir regulation. Maidment.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. Zipparo and H. G.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. seepage. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. when fully implemented.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (J. Also. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 3.17.” D. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. (D. Hoggan.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. . and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. 21. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. density. however. Walker.2). Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. A. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius.” McGraw-Hill. Art.) 21. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. 21. watershed hydrology. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. impacts of dam breaks. As this shearing stress increases. All rights reserved. Whan. For closed conduits other than circular. R. Click here to view. wave or tidal analyses. S. evaporation and irrigation. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts.” N. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. flow routing. F. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. flood or drought impacts. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. In object-oriented software. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. design of hydraulic structures. shown in Fig. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. and private sectors. J. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. As a result. This. R. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected.” V. Grigg. This approach. channel and river hydraulics.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. hydrologic forecasting. and turbulent flow results. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. ecosystem impacts and restoration. the model output required for design or evaluation. sediment or pollutant transport. Rothfus. Inc. New York. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. if comparisons of different plans are required. and among water resources modelers in the government. “Water Resources Planning. landfill leachate analyses. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. H. 1957. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. vol.

27) where V = fluid velocity. the flow is completely turbulent.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. Brater. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. 21. Click here to view. (E. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss.19.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. than for laminar flow (Fig. laminar flow is unstable. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. ft L = length of pipe section considered. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. 32. the velocity distribution is more uniform.” 6th ed.21 Fig. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. (21. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. Inc. As a result. causing the flow to become turbulent. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. 32. flow is laminar in circular pipes. (21.. All rights reserved. Fig. . As the Reynolds number increases. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. ft/s D = pipe diameter. 21. These disturbances create eddies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. In this region.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. it is not practical to treat it analytically. Therefore. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. McGraw-Hill Book Company.18. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. at completely turbulent flow.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.17). This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. Eq.l9. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. handbook of Hydraulics. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. a disturbance will probably be magnified. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. 21. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. New York. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. 21.29) For laminar flow. F.) 21. 21. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. 21. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. In laminar flow.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. as shown in Fig. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. ft ρ = density of fluid.

The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.008 0. enamels.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. 32. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.9.19) to Determine f ε. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.) Because Eq. (21. ft V = velocity of fluid. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. 21. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.0002 0. 21.001 0.0002 0. F.0002 – 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. 21. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. 21.0005 – 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. All rights reserved. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.21.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. November 1944. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.00003 0.003 0. (L. (21.03 – 0.003 – 0.0005 – 0.0005 0. . The head loss is independent of the pressure.008 – 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.19) L = length of pipe.001 – 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. ft D = diameter of pipe.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. Inc. Moody. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view.

See also Table 22.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.11 (p. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.33e) 21. (Although based on surface roughness. 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.4 and 21.34d) (21. which requires experience in its choice.9. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. All rights reserved.9. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.31) gives (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. .34c) 21.33b) (21.32) where n = coefficient.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft L = length of pipe.33d) (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. Tables 21. (21.34b) (21. (21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.3. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s C = coefficient. ft3/s. dependent on surface roughness. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.31) where V = velocity. 21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. Click here to view. where D is the pipe diameter.34e) where V = velocity.9.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.) Substitution into Eq. ft S = head loss due to friction.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation.33c) (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.

017 0.35b) (21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.010 0. (21.017 0.014 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.010 To 0. bends. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.017 0.) Flow between reservoirs.013 0.21.012 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. 21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.015 0. However. (21.7.012 0.011 0. because (21.012 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Example 21.012 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.7: Figure 21.017 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.015 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.35c) (21. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.010 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. .035 0. Inc. ft3/s hf = friction loss.015 0.013 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. All rights reserved.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. enlargements.013 0. 21. and valves and other pipe fittings.017 From 0.014 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.015 0.36) for a check. in short pipelines.016 To 0.013 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.4 Values of n for Pipes. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.013 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.20 ple 21. (21. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.015 0.

120 24 in and over.37) or (21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. regardless of age. .Water Resources Engineering s 21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. 140 Large sizes. 80 4 in. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.37): (21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 85 16 in. (21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. ft. 21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 120 Centrifugally spun. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.21 are approximate. 115 12 in. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 135 In good condition.10. (A.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.21). 105 30 in and over.. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.10. 110 4 in. Table 21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 21. minor losses must be considered.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. the values of K in Fig.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. (21. wood forms. determined experimentally by Brightmore. London. Inc. is (21.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. steel forms. so a full velocity head is lost. are presented in Table 21.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. Click here to view. 21. H.7.” Constable & Co.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.. 120 Large sizes. Ltd. ft/s g = 32. Gibson. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. All rights reserved.38) A special application of Eq.10.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. (21. 21.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. where V is the velocity in the pipe.25 Table 21. good workmanship. 110 (21. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. good workmanship. 10 years older Average value. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig.

fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.89 1.6 0. . Inc.62 0. Click here to view.63 0.2 2. and at bends is given by (21.8 are only approximate.5 0.21.2 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.0 2. Globe valve.10.76 0. 21.50 K = 0. For these reaTable 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 1.42) Table 21. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.21 of the sides. fully open Angle valve.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.3 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.81 0.4 0.0 5.7 0. fully open Gate valve.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. D = pipe diameter.25 The values in Table 21.8 0.0 Table 21.64 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses. such as valves and elbows.80 K = 0. fully open Swing check valve.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved.66 0.68 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.9 0.71 0.9 0.4 21.1 0.2 0.6 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.5 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.05 K = 0.

21. vol. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. All rights reserved. not including friction loss. Equation (21. (21. 1.45) 21. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. Hasen.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. (V. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. this error is corrected by the C values. (K. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. 21. Inc.27 sons. J. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. 21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. National Bureau of Standards. If this velocity is significant. . the bend loss essentially remains constant. no.) Fig. For low heads. Beij. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. 21. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. H. however. Experiments on smooth pipes.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. July 1938. Orifices may have any shape. 1960. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. Reynolds number.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.. (21. The data are in agreement that the head loss.22: (21.11.9 for low velocity of approach. and angle of bend.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. or rectangular. McGraw-Hill.42).23. Zipparo and H. 82. New York. Click here to view. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. although they are usually round.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. (21.” 4th ed. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. there is disagreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (H. vol. series D.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. not including friction loss in the bend.44) where Q = discharge.42). Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 21. square. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Ito. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. 21. its effect should be taken into account. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.” Journal of Research.43) where ∆ = deflection angle.

611 0.595 0.1 0.599 0.618 0. Jr. the vena contracta.603 0.609 0.601 0. of circular orifices.619 0. and Eq.615 0.600 0.614 0.46) The actual velocity.596 0. to Fig.602 0. “Hydraulics.601 0.602 0.637 0. determined experimentally.608 0.621 0.595 0.599 0.614 0.608 0.602 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.623 0.607 0. and Z2 = 0.619 0..643 0.603 0.637 0.603 0.644 0.613 0 610 0.596 0. All rights reserved.595 0.0 Head.652 0.596 0. Click here to view.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.602 0. V1 = 0. Inc.04 0.610 0.598 0.04 0.637 0.6 08 1 1.02 0.601 0.599 0.1 0. ft 0.632 0.641 0.648 0.631 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.616 0.601 0.605 0.600 0.618 0.592 1. ft 0.597 0.604 0.605 0.605 0.616 0.597 0. 21.614 0.596 0.605 0.593 0.604 0.594 0.628 0.606 0.632 0.603 0.45) becomes (21.598 0.604 0.602 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.610 0.596 0.602 0.5 2 2.592 0.591 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.600 0.629 0.607 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.4 0.593 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.618 0.602 0.99.628 0.21.622 0.611 0.634 0.612 0. Z1 = h.613 0.655 0.598 1.630 0.593 0.617 0.0 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.94 to 0.596 0.636 0.02 0.623 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.599 0.602 0.590 0.623 0.606 0.607 0.612 0.592 0.626 0.608 0. With the reference plane through point 2.” 1886.594 0.648 0. . ft 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.660 0.617 0.600 0.627 0. (21.

24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.) 21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21. (21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.25 orifice. Eq. All rights reserved. see E. between 1 and 2. ft.11.24b. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.61 to 0. 21. (21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.48) is obtained. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. Brater. . the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.” 6th ed.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. the area of the orifice. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Handbook of Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. (21. Inc.25.11. Figure 21.29 Fig. With a partly suppressed orifice.47) where hL = losses in head. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.67. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. 21. 21.. F. In Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. Click here to view. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.

32.57) for t and substituting in Eq.58) gives (21. Click here to view. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Inc.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.26): (21. Eq. All rights reserved. (21. (21. when y = h2.55) 21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.57) (21. ft h2 = head at the end. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. (21. (21. Rearranging Eq. ft2 A = area of reservoir.21. 21. For simplicity.51) upon integration becomes (21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.58) Equation (21.50) becomes (21. to time t. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.49) Solving for dt yields (21. obtained by solving Eq. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.59). (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. is that for a parabola: (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.11. s The Y coordinate is (21. .59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.23).26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.50) where a = area of orifice. Eq. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.56).56) Fig. when y = h1. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.58)]. (21.

11. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Fig. (21. ft2 Fig.00 VT / 2g – 0. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. a K value for Eq.67 V2 ) = 0. When this happens.33VT / 2g.75. Click here to view. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.28). ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.27) but the head loss is larger. All rights reserved. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. Inc.82. Therefore. however. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. . The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.29. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. 21. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.42) of 0. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge.80. if one exists).27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.11. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. 21. (21.5 a T T Fig.82 VT)2/2g = 0. Equation (21. 21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.31 ty Cν = 0.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. For a short tube flowing full.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. 21.67 V2T /2g. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21. psf w = unit weight of water. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. 21. In the tube or pipe.27.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.82. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0. 21.

21. When a valve is closed. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. Inc. 21.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. However. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. 21. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. but at a pressure much higher than normal. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe.29. For this analysis to be valid. As the water flows into the reservoir. 21. 21. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. Fig. the tube must flow full. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. either increased or decreased. . All rights reserved. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure.21. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.32). caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. it causes water hammer. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. either above or below the normal pressure. 21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. Fig. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. the pressure in the pipe falls. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. the water in the pipe is motionless. The change causes a pressure rise. Every time the flow rate is changed. The pipe shown in Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve.30). this momentum drops to zero. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. 21. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop.

psf t = thickness of pipe wall. (21. s A plot of pressure vs. Eq. All rights reserved. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.64) 21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.63). The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.13.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. ft 21. 1. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. 43. . Inc.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.63a) becomes (21. Fig. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.13. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. 21. Equation (21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. (21. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. Click here to view. (21. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. approximate solution. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. For instantaneous closure: (21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.63a) In terms of pressure head.

21.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.2 × 108 psf. such as L/aU. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. (21. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.” 4th ed. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. 21. area = 78. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.) Example 21.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. the increment of time. Once the time interval has been determined. Vo the original velocity. (21. 32. where a equals any integer. is g = acceleration due to gravity. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.32. (V. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. Zipparo and H. All rights reserved. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. equals L /aU. Click here to view. from Eq.63). to apply Eq. s T = actual closure time of valve. J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Hasen. Inc. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. length = 3000 ft.63). where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. ft L = length of pipeline. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.5 ft2. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. . McGraw-Hill. (21. where ∆t. diameter = 10 ft. With the head known. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). Thus. (21. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. penstock thickness = 1 in. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. (21. then that obtained from Eq.63).) Velocity of pressure wave. New York. (21. each causing an individual pressure wave.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.61). The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.

it is by no means the only one.13.64) gives the following result: 21. approximate equation (21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. 21. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. Click here to view. Fig. Various types of relief Fig. 21. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. Usually. in Assuming T = 4. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.34). the closure is instantaneous.90 s. When a valve is suddenly closed. the stress. floats on the line. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. lb Hence. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in effect.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. . Inc. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. is Pipe Stresses 21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.66) where p = internal pressure. (21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.63). When a valve is suddenly opened. 21. The water column. on the pipe material is (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to prevent water hammer. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. All rights reserved.90 s.33) must still be designed for water hammer. psi.75 s.34 tension. from Eq. and the pressure rise.

Inc.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. In Fig. due to a temperature change is (21. The stress. it acts like a beam.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. All rights reserved. If D/t is less than 10. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. However. P Timoshenko and J. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. 21. The force diagram in Fig. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. is (21.67). the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. Eq.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. (21.” 2nd ed. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. However. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. elastic Stability. New York. Click here to view. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. this analysis is approximate. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. Eq. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.67) for concrete pipe. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. 21. 21. For concrete pipes..67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. (21.6). This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. In all bends.10). it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. M. In this case.21.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. however.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. Art. For steel pipes. 21.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. .15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. Equation (21. (21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. Gere.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. if expansion joints are to be used. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. (S. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. psi. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. “Theory of . 6. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

psf w = unit weight of water. 32. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. or other embankment. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. (21. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. However. and slope. 62. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. a railroad. Inc. exit conditions.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.71) give a quick solution. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. All rights reserved. however. Eqs. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In small pipes. an exact theoretical analysis. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.70) and (21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. canal.71) where R = resultant force on bend. the joints must also be able to take these forces. . The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. 21.37 Fig. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. Click here to view.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30)].21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. but they do not cover Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. Click here to view.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. 21. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. For this reason. slope is greater than the critical slope.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.” EB058W. the following equation is obtained: (21.33d) or (21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. and the control will still be at the inlet. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. 21. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. . the normal depth (Art. and the Manning equation for friction loss. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.73) 21.23). that is. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. (21. the culvert flows full.38). charts. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Portland Cement Association. 21. 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. 21.37). All rights reserved. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. computer software.36).

where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. for the open-channel condition (Fig. Thus. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. ft Equation (21. Discharge is independent of slope. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. Discharge depends on head H. 21.39 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. (21. Fig. The fluid flows under pressure. 21. normal pipe flow occurs. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. 21. 21. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. and dn < dc .75) Substituting this into Eq. flow depends on inlet condition. 21. .74) yields (21.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. open-channel flow takes place.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. (21. Click here to view. and dn > dc .Water Resources Engineering s 21. and slope of culvert.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. loss at entrance.20) 21.74) Fig.23). depending on the head. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. All rights reserved.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.39). When slope exceeds critical. Inc. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. ft V = velocity in culvert. 32. When the slope is less than critical. The discharge. When slope is less than critical.

Click here to view. When the friction slope is flat.37). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. All rights reserved.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. ft To solve Eq. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft dn = normal depth of flow. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert.76). This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. (21. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. (21. (21. and discharge is given by Eq. 21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.40).72). 21. If the friction slope approaches critical. If this condition exists. 21. Inc. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.21.41). it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation.76). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. If the head on a culvert is high.39). .40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.18). Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. 21. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. 21.76). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. however. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Most culverts. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.

with Eq. Substitution in Eq. Table 21. Eq. Inc. All rights reserved. square edge Concrete pipe. (21. Application of Eq. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. But H = 5 + 0. 21. projecting Concrete pipe. and the entrance will not control.44) for discharge through an orifice. slope = 0.01. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. These values are for culverts flowing full. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. (21. Example 21.19).6.18 and 21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. (21. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. When the entrance is not submerged.41 For entrance control. 21.95 × 4 = 39.8 ft3/s Table 21.73).20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. n = 0.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.72) and (21. First find dn. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. and free exit. To calculate the hydraulic radius. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.10 0. Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.013. groove or bell.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. the flow is under pressure. Since the culvert is under pressure.9 0. groove or bell. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. . 21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. Click here to view.15 0.72) yields Q =Va = 9.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. (21.72) applies. (21. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Find: size of culvert.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.40). the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. length = 300 ft.5 0.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.

ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.77) where V = average velocity.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. ft. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge.21. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. within a hydraulic jump. The wetted perimeter is the length. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. It is. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. Hence. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. plus the velocity head at the point. 32. depth of flow is constant throughout. or the total-head line. It has uniform flow if the grade. (21. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.03 to 1. ft3/s. . Equation (21.79) The velocity head HV. Inc. minus the free surface width. It is expressed in feet as (21. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. however.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. All rights reserved. or open-channel flow.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. normally taken as 1. or slope.36 for prismatic channels. In a uniform channel. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. ft2 When the discharge is constant. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. ft.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. Click here to view. (21. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line.79). Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. ft. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. and is given by (21. Figure 21. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. is generally given by (21.

“Handbook of Hydraulics. Eq.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. (V. New York.. the specific energy also decreases.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. 21. normal depth decreases downstream. for example. 21.44. (See. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.43. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.43 Fig.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. Click here to view. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chow. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. ft.43).84) where A = area of flow. 21. (21. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.42 is called the normal depth dn. and discharge are known. roughness. As the depth decreases downstream. 21. McGrawHill Book Company. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. F. New York. 21. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.84) reduces to Fig. E. Inc. For a rectangular channel. T. All rights reserved. ft. or to the diameter of a circular channel. slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. . and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.83) Brater. in which T is the top width of the channel. as shown in Fig. 21.) (21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.

84) may be reduced to (21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. (21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. ft3/s d = depth of flow.44). Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. Inc. 21.” 6th ed. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. For rectangular channels. New York). or conversely.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.84).43.84) is called the critical depth dc. 21. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge..23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. (21. . All rights reserved. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.44). or it may be found directly from tables (E. The flow there is called subcritical flow. 21. for a given discharge.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. F. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. the depth is greater than critical. 21. Eq. For a given value of specific energy. Click here to view. the depth is below critical. and flow is supercritical.21. (21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. Brater.

21. . Inc.87) Fig. 21. without turbulence. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a hydraulic jump will occur. Critical depth. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. (21. 21. 21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. p.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. 21. along with a high loss of energy.85). Click here to view. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.44). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as indicated in Fig. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.45 where dc = critical depth. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. It can be seen from Fig. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. flow is supercritical. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. however. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For every depth greater than critical depth. regardless of slope. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. ft3/s b = width of channel.57).52b. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. once calculated. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. All rights reserved. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. 21. 21. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.45. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. [As indicated by Eq. Such a change occurs gradually. flow is subcritical. (21. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. indicating an irreversible occurrence.

46c and d. 21. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. (See also Art. ft V = mean velocity of flow. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Chow. there must be a continuing maintenance program. The M2 curve forms between the normal. are in Table 21. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. New York. as shown in Fig. H for horizontal. Inc.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. These curves are divided into five groups.D. T. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. The N. (Although based on surface roughness.) 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46.11. All rights reserved.21. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. 21. Department of Agriculture. and C.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.90) where A = area of flow.L.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. the average n values given in Table 21.D.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. and adverse slope. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.23). Click here to view.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels.46a and b.4. 21. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. horizontal. E. is replaced by a horizontal line.9 and Table 21.D. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). C for critical. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.L. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. 21.and critical-depth lines. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.S.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. and A for adverse.L. . for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. S for steep (supercritical). ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.89) may be written (21. and the N. and two types for channels of critical. at an arbitrary elevation.D. and the critical-depth line C. (21.25). An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. Dr. therefore. 21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. Eq. are identical for a channel of critical slope.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.L. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. 21. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.L. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.D. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope.

030 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.025 0.024 0.033 0. Smooth and uniform b.015 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.013 0. Dense weeds.120 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.016 0. No vegetation b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.022 0.010 0. Dredged earth a. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Smooth b. Unlined channels 1. Inc.016 0. untreated 3.46a and b. respectively).014 0.013 0.028 0.011 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Gunite. Jagged and irregular 0.013 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.040 0.012 0.016 0.019 0.014 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.030 0. Click here to view.030 0. 21. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.013 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. 21. Cemented rubble b. .022 0. Rock cuts a.050 0. Concrete a.013 0. Wood a.014 0. Planed. Concrete (unfinished) a.017 Max 0.012 0.100 0.012 0.035 0.035 0. The S2 curve. straight and uniform a.080 0. Lined channels 1. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1. Asphalt a. Excavated earth. high as flow depth d. after weathering b.060 0. Dense brush.018 0.016 0. Corrugated 2.023 0.011 0.035 0.027 0. Rough C.018 0. commonly called a drawdown curve. good section c. Clean.021 0. Masonry a.140 0. With short grass.016 0. Light brush on banks 3.080 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Cement-mortar surface 3. Gunite.050 0. Dry rubble 5. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Rough wood form B.033 0. high stage 2.021 0.025 0.025 0.015 0. 21. Metal a.015 Avg 0. Steel form b. 21. Smooth wood form c.Water Resources Engineering s 21. few weeds c.025 0.040 0. wavy section 4.020 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.017 0.025 0.025 0.012 0.022 0.032 0. Float finish b.014 0.46i and j.035 0.023 0. All rights reserved.

46k and l. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Examples in Fig. The curves in Fig.D. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.L. Click here to view. N. All rights reserved. 21.. H. . C.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. critical-depth line.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. and A profiles. Inc.L.D. 21. indicates normal-depth line.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.21. 21.

and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. each reach is solved in succession. 21. For subcritical flow conditions. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Inc. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. depending on the type of flow. All rights reserved. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. For the section of channel in Fig.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. New York. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Inc.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq.” McGraw-Hill. (R. free overfall. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.77) if the depth were zero. See Art.and direct-integration methods are in V. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. known as its celerity. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.5. Click here to view. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. Explanations of both the graphical. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate.. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve.51).47. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The wave travels at a speed. 21. (21. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. New York. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. T.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. . Chow. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. or reaches. For step-method computations. 32. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. 21. the channel is divided into short lengths. weir. gate. direction-integration. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. dam. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. H. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. French. with relatively small variation. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel.27. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). and step methods.

rearranged as follows: Fig. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art.92) (21. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. the change in elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. The smaller the value of n. Therefore.21. Inc. and – SL = hf.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. respectively. is negligible and can be ignored. (21. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.93) where R = hydraulic radius. hi.93). and vice versa.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. ft. (21. Click here to view. 21. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Solving Eq. . This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. due to friction in the same reach. 21. not the channel bottom. the head loss.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. 21. the longer the backwater curve profile.91) for L gives (21. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. as given by Eq.82).47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. prismatic channels. (For uniform. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. the – eddy loss. ft. (21. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation.

96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. or roughness.95) The coefficient k is 0. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error.93). Next. after substitution of H from Eq. (21.2 for diverging reaches. Since this step method is a converging process. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. in natural channels. ft.94). from 0 to 0. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. (21. at sec– tions 1 and 2. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. (21.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. Therefore. the average friction slope for the reach. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. which. . Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Next. For lined channels. total head H. and it is therefore often accounted for. (21. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. respectively.1 for converging reaches. Click here to view. ft/s. is obtained from Eq. sometimes called impact loss. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. ft. and about 0. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Finally. grade. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. respectively.47. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Eddy loss. computations progress toward the initial section. (21. (21. Then. the friction loss.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. referred to a horizontal datum. 21. The value of total head computed from Eq.95). becomes (21. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Z2. All rights reserved.51 may be some intermediate depth. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Then. (21. Inc.92). Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. S.93).96). Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. ft.

48). 21.” Hydraulics Design Series no. however. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.21. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. The upstream surface of the jump. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). Utilizing the above data. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. or other obstruction.52b. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). Federal Highway Administration. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. 21. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. Bureau of Public Roads. Department of Transportation. and determine the discharge. 1970. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. However.27. U. Inc. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. N. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. Bradley. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. French. is a turbulent mass of water. a gate. velocity.23). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. All rights reserved. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. If the two values of total head do not agree. New York. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. 21. Fig. Click here to view. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. 21. 1. known as the roller. 21. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. known as the length of jump. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.S.48 Hydraulic jump. as shown in Figs. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas.1 ft in elevation. approach roadways. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. respectively. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The effect of bridges. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and J..51 and 21. bridge piers. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. 2nd ed. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. H.

100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. Inc. in Eq. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.98) and (21. (21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. d2 must also equal dc. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. s (21. ft w = unit weight of water. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. (21.102) Equation (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump.105) where A = area of flow.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. V is the mean velocity. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.100). Click here to view. (21. 21.27. For open-channel flow. ft/s. ft d2 = depth after jump. ft3/s = unit of time.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.16)]. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. this resultant pressure force is (21. or alternate depths. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.49) is given by (21.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.104) = discharge. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.99) where M = mass of water. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.99). and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. ft2 T = width of free surface. (21. 21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.100) Equation (21. (21. ft. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and g = acceleration due to gravity. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.82).Water Resources Engineering s 21. . 32. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. For rectangular channels. All rights reserved. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. ft/s2.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. where L is a characteristic length. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. This difference (Fig. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.

the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.0 and larger. depth after the jump. In either case.7 to 2. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. For F1 = 2. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.27. Click here to view.S. This jump may be called a weak jump. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow is critical and there is no jump. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. which gives discharge vs. This jump may be called a steady jump. For F1 = 1.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth.5 to 9. The jump is called an undular jump. very commonly in canals. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. 21. . doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. and the performance is at its best. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. All rights reserved. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. 21. can travel for miles. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. were classified by the U. there are undulations on the surface. This jump may be called a strong jump. for example. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.23). the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. The jump action is rough but effective. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. which. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.5. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. For F1 = 1 to 1. below a spillway. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.7. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.0. the jump will be drowned out.49. but the downstream water surface remains smooth.21. If the tailwater is too high. The jump is well-balanced. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. 21. chute.5. For F1 = 4. For F1 = 9. depending on local conditions.5 to 4. If the tailwater is too low. 21. For F1 = 1.

prepared by V. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. 21. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. 21. The resulting curve (Fig. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. T. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and sloping the apron. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. These features are expensive to build. Bureau of Reclamation. (21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.51. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The curve. . 21.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. All rights reserved.55 curve involve changing the crest length. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21. Inc. changing the apron elevation. Chow from data gathered by the U. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.S.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. Click here to view. This length (Fig. therefore. But it has been determined experimentally. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig.27. 21.27.105). a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Accessories.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.

101) with d1 given. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. for simplicity. the computed length of jump. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.52. which occurs near the channel drop-off.51. but it is normally assumed to be 0. curves AB and ED in Fig.101). the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break.75h in the absence of better information. If d2 is less than d′ . Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. as shown in Fig. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.7dc for simplicity. less than.26. (21. A horizontal intercept FG. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. All rights reserved.52a. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. the jump moves to a new location downstream. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. Click here to view. (21. 21. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The actual depth at the brink is 71.21. Inc. as shown in Fig. if the downstream depth is lowered.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. computed from Eq. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. 21. the jump occurs in the steep region. 21.46e and c). When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. 21. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. 21. 21. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. 21. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. computed from Eq. using the step methods of Art. Conversely. between lines CB′and EO. as theory would indicate. that flow is uniform. the jump moves downstream to a new position. . respectively (Fig. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. equal to the computed length of the jump. (21. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. equal in length to L. It is assumed.52b. As depth d2 is lowered. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.23) to mild. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.102). The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge.5% of critical depth. CB. 21. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.

) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. 21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. 21. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. “Handbook of Hydraulics. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21.3 for one with squared ends. .” 6th ed. and discharge is at a maximum. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. or (b) below it. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. on the channel entrance. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. ft3/s. 21.23).Water Resources Engineering s 21. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. ft. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g).85)].82) and (21. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. Inc. Inc.53).28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.106) where b is the channel width.53a). ft. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. From Q = AV. where He is the specific energy head. Brater. F.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance.” McGraw-Hill. If the entrance loss must be considered. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. Click here to view. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. (21.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. is (21. All rights reserved.. H. French. ft. and the slope of the channel. (R. then the assumed discharge is correct. 21. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. if not. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft.51. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. the entrance loss. or (a) above it. a new discharge is assumed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Then. New York.) 21. ignoring entrance loss. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.

This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. (In Fig. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. ft.53b. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. ft2.21. 21. 21. 21. and g is acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2. ———— charge. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. (b) mild-slope channel. if not. then the discharge is correct. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. producing flow.83).53b). 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft.23).58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. He is the specific energy head.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. ft3/s. 32. Inc. All rights reserved. . is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. where He – d is the actual head.33).22). of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. d is normal depth. 21. Click here to view.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. a new discharge is chosen.

23). where V is its average velocity. of the center line of the channel. 21. 21. Therefore. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. however.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. The error will not be great. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. (21. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. the true value of y would be only a few inches. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. All rights reserved. or mV2 /rc for m. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. ft. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. Inc.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. a unit mass of water. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. (21. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. (21. Click here to view. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.83)]. 21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. and rc the radius of curvature. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. In this range.108). Thus.107) The theoretical difference y. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. 21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. ft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. when a stream enters a curve. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. . When water is forced to flow in a curved path.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. ft /s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. curve (Fig. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration.59 21. If the bend continues long enough.

A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. C. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. Department of Agriculture. The second is a negative wave. 21. a series of standing waves are produced.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. His values have not been evaluated completely.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.110) for θ in Eq. Two waves form at the start of the curve. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. These waves cross at M. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. This angle may be found from (21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. however.111). The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. Technical Bulletin 393.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. by (21. Scobey.21. One is a positive wave. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. (F. with sufficient accuracy. phase. Fig. . (21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. flows around a bend in a channel. recross as shown. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and continue crossing and recrossing.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. an increase in friction loss results. depths along the inside wall. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. and should be used with discretion. The cross slope required for 21. All rights reserved. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. (21.55). This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.S.” U.23). Inc.16)] . (21.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. Click here to view. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. 21.

2 ft/s2.1 for an inlet-type structure. The transition loss. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. All rights reserved. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. and channel shape and slope. respectively. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. 21. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. 21. 21.23). Inc. equals about 0.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. Straight. 21. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. low-head-loss transfer of flow. therefore. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as flow-rate changes.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. Many variables. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. or change from supercritical to subcritical. as shown in Fig. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. 21. To place a transition properly between two open channels. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. wall roughness. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. plus any transition and friction losses. .61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21. and g = 32.56. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. For outlet-type structures.54). Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. In this range. 21. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. where K. When proceeding downstream through a transition.113) angle of about 12. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. p. is given by K(∆V2/2g). the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. the average velocity decreases. ft. the loss factor. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.2 for welldesigned transitions.57).44.8[∆(V2/2g)].44. change from subcritical to supercritical. 21. if friction is ignored. If friction is ignored. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. Click here to view. ∆V is the velocity change.

21. 21. Inc.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. If the discharge is partly under water.000556(20)2 = 0. trapezoidal weirs.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.222 ft. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. and parabolic weirs. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. All rights reserved. Fig. . the weir is submerged or drowned. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.000556(10)2 = 0. measured from A or B. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. such as broad-crested weirs. the weir has free discharge. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. In contrast. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. trapezoidal weirs.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.5 = a(30)2. triangular weirs. Click here to view.34. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. such as rectangular weirs. 21. and.58 Sharp-crested weir.58).000556.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. For Fig.59. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.21. Fig. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.59 Weir not sharp-crested. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. 21. 21. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. 21. as shown in Fig.57. triangular or Vnotch weirs. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. y = ax2. from which a = 0. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.

thus causing a contraction of the flow. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. contraction of the nappe.60 V-notch weir.116) corrects for the effects of friction. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. At very low heads. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. Equation (21. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.5H for a complete crest contraction to form.5H. 21. New York).” McGraw-Hill Book Company. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. . 21. To be fully ventilated. below the crest.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. Inc. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Click here to view.115) where Q = discharge.58) (V.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. 2.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.34. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. Hence. ft The head should be measured at least 2. If P is less than Fig.5H upstream from the weir. T. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Chow. 21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A V-notch weir (Fig. One such equation.

21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. T. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. (21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. there are two end contractions and N = 2. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. ft. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. The effective length L. (21.61) (E.118) Fig. Lenz. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed.2) when low discharges are to be measured. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. 21. Click here to view. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. 21.119) where Q = discharge.34. His values were summarized by Brater. 1943). If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. All rights reserved.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Discharge is given by (21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.34. Inc. 21. 69. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. New York). F. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.118)] 21. Fig.34.21. 21.. there is one end contraction and N = 1. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. measured from notch bottom. vol. 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. ft H = head.” 6th ed.5H upstream from the weir.

and then. 25. ft V = velocity of approach.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. Eq.59). or both. (21. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. neglecting the velocity head. velocity head of approach. 2 21.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. velocity head. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. ft3/s. ft3/s. using this discharge. All rights reserved. (21. 21. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. 21. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. 866.” Engineering News-Record. 32. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.122) where H = measured head. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. using this rate and the required depths. Where great accuracy is essential. 21. Typically. From this total head. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. (J. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. for such weirs. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. 21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. . 1947.121) where Q = discharge.34. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. heavily constructed devices. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. ft/s V /2g = Hν. ft. Then. Fig.) Equation (21. compute the velocity of approach.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. Inc. which may be done as follows: First. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. The discharge Qs. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.34. p. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Dec.) To use the Villemonte equation. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.115) is rewritten in the form (21. Villemonte.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. R. and finally total head. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.

01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. F.13. . But the process should be repeated. ft L′ = net crest lengths.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Department of the Interior.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. Therefore. All rights reserved. Inc. head in relation to design heads.10 H. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. and the approach velocity.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. The effect is most critical for low heads. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. and approach velocity. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. ft (U. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.123) where L = effective crest length. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. DC 20402. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. 21.34. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. Washington. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.02 0. where approach velocities are high. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.2 of the head. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.20 0.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Click here to view.5Hd > r* > 0. starting with the corrected discharge. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. For each change of nappe shape. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.21. For conditions of design head Hd. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.12. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. “Design of Small Dams.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.S. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. thickness of pier. For conditions of design head Table 21. the head in relation to the design head.” Government Printing Office.

Click here to view. This manual and V. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. 21.5H upstream.66 of the head. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. at the point of maximum contraction. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.64) has such a shape. “Design of Small Dams. however. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. Chow. For flow at heads lower than the design head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. (21. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.122). New York). Inc. The shape of this nappe. T. DC 20402. The ogee-crested weir (Fig.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. Figure 21.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. (U. Chow. 21.67 Fig. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. 2. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. Fig. 1. 21. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. called the design head Hd. Washington. and therefore of an ogee crest. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.S. This relationship is shown in Fig. T. Of the above rules.65. Department of the Interior. depends on the head producing the discharge. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. where discharge is given by Eq. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. Consequently. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. All rights reserved. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 21. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. for a sharp-crested weir. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. According to Chow. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested.34.” Government Printing Office.

Figure 21. Fig. Bureau of Reclamation.) Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.S. Inc. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. All rights reserved. the flow differs from ideal.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bureau of Reclamation. Click here to view. 21.S. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. New York.” U.” U.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. 21.21. (From “Design of Small Dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.66.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. . present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.

” U. F. (E.67 and 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Click here to view. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.68. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Figure 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes.69 Broad-crested weir. if flow is at other than the design head. E. because of its sharp upstream edge. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. Weirs of irregular section. and sharp right-angled edges. therefore. Bureau of Reclamation. (21. New York. fairly common in waterworks projects. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (From “Design of Small Dams. Figure 21.” 6th ed.34. Brater.14. F. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.) Fig. a plane horizontal crest.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Unless otherwise noted. Brater. the coefficient of discharge. 21. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.) 21. are used as spillways and control structures.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.69 Fig. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. where the velocity of approach is not high. (See. “Handbook of Hydraulics. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. 21. is determined from Fig. . New York. 21.34. for example.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. appear in Table 21. the nappe springs free.” 6th ed.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. 21. All rights reserved.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Values of the discharge coefficient. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.S. has contraction of the nappe. compiled by King.

64 2. ft 0.32 3.89 3.32 2.66 2.32 3.64 2.32 3.85 3.66 2.04 3.32 3.81 2.80 2.69 2.2 0.92 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.64 2.32 3.63 2.67 2.32 3.50 2.75 2.63 2. those carried in suspension.21.97 3.64 2.88 10.0 1.64 2.32 3.68 2.70 2.69 2.32 3.4 0.35.69 2.54 2.58 2.8 1.64 2.67 2.72 2.88 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.5 3.54 2.32 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.65 2.63 2.65 2.64 2. All rights reserved.32 3.19 3.68 2.66 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.88 3.74 2. Click here to view.64 15.00 2.32 3.00 2.85 2.66 2.00 2. or soil.34 2.69 2.32 3. ft 0.32 3.5 4.00 2.0 3.4 1.65 2.64 2.70 2.63 2.50 H.48 2.68 2.32 3.05 3.67 2.0 5.32 3. such as a reservoir.26 3.30 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.68 2.68 2.32 3.68 2.32 3.6 0.31 3.20 3.75 2.60 2.68 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition. Inc.75 2.44 2.79 1.00 2.32 3.72 2.38 2.32 1.68 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63 21.64 2.32 3.32 4.0 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.65 2.60 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.70 2.92 2.73 2.64 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.08 3.32 3.50 2.60 2.65 2.65 2.07 3.61 2.32 3.28 3.63 2.31 3.32 3.70 2.63 2.32 3.65 2.32 3.64 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.14 3.07 3. .80 2. those forming the bed load.20 3.92 3. A density current.63 2.98 3.49 2.32 3.07 3.32 3.32 3.07 3.03 3. This incoming water.61 2.28 3.30 3.0 4.63 2. once formed.32 3.32 3.70 2.68 2. valves.64 2.89 2.32 3. such as gates.31 3.6 1.00 2. and turbines.89 3. erosion.75 2.68 2.64 2.32 3.5 2.77 2.63 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. 21. The smaller silt sizes.64 2.32 3.20 3.67 2.32 3.79 2.07 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.60 2.32 3.63 2.64 2.86 2.64 2. with its load of suspended silt.75 2.32 3.68 2.62 2.32 3. which are often of equal consequence.32 3.76 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.2 1.32 5.67 2.66 2.5 5.56 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.8 2.64 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.50 2.68 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 1.70 2.32 3.74 2.76 2.00 2.72 2.08 3.29 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins.35. Of course. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. because of variations in rainfall. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. 21. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. are coarsegrained. All rights reserved. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. By this method. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. However. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. The most common manner of destruction. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. or from year to year. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. however. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. landslide. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. . Inc. the rate is not uniform during the year. or failure of materials. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. Click here to view. When neither can be done. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. on the other hand. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. once formed.39. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. formed from the bed load. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. overtopping. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. see Art.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. These currents are stable. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area.

Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. (21. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Inc. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. Frequently. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. According to Witzig. 21. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Click here to view. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21.124) where Gb = total bed load. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.1). however. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. Therefore. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A mean grain size of 0.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. ft qo = critical discharge. Therefore. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. which generally occurs only during a storm. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0.21. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. But for the most part. ft3/s b = width of river. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment.35.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. gravel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .0 ft/mi. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. Therefore. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. discharge. All rights reserved. which varies with both slope and discharge. and boulders. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy.

the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. Graf. All rights reserved. (21-124). which are of two types. by ink pen and revolving drum. such as an hour. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. if the dam is raised at a later date. rivers. their chemical and physical properties. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U.73 dation. debris barriers. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. Current data. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. recharges groundwater. and pressure. groundwater flow. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. check-dam construction. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. and their reaction with their environment. A. and the stream velocity.” U. For instance.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. water evaporation from oceans. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. on or near the land surface. infiltration. Inc. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. including their relation to living things. Such screens. Weather Bureau. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Click here to view. infiltrates into the soil. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. . One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens.S. planting of burned-over areas. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. In this cycle. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. (W.S. and stream flow 21. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Use of vegetation screens. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. H. runoff. are published daily by the U. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. their occurrence. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Department of Agriculture. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Einstein. (See H. day. discharges into streams. The second type is a nonrecording gage.) culation.S. or year. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. or digital microchip technology. New York. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. lakes. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. temperature. It continually records. Weather Bureau is 24 h. circulation. such as wind. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or a combination of the two. contour plowing. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. and distribution. evaporation. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data.

or ground surfaces. and other vegetation surfaces.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. equal to 15 for small. plant. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. (21. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. R. developed from Dalton’s law. ground. The Meyer equation [Eq. called interception. in of mercury. while another portion may be caught on leaves. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. shallow pools and 11 for large. New York. Inc. Maidment. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In evaporation. Evapotranspiration is important because.” McGraw-Hill. branches. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. On an annual basis. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. A portion may evaporate as it falls. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.125)]. Not all rain reaches the ground. tropical and subtropical regions. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. In transpiration. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. “Handbook of Hydrology. All rights reserved. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. has a relatively large surface area. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. commonly termed consumptive use. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. Inc.. (21. Click here to view. Evaporation may occur from free-water. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. see D. especially if the reservoir is shallow. on a long-term basis. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.125) (21. This phenomenon. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. in of mercury. Of the three. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. . For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. and it increases as wind velocity increases. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Evapotranspiration.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small.126) where E = evaporation rate.21. and plantleaf surfaces.

After joining stream flow. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. birds. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. 21. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. insects. duration. Hexadeconal. intensity. or cetyl alcohol. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. and biologic attrition. or groundwater runoff. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. runoff may be surface. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Runoff is supplied by precipitation.60 and 0. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. New York. although it may vary between 0.” McGraw-Hill. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. also known as interflow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. subsurface runoff.70. Maidment.Water Resources Engineering s 21. wind tends to push the film to the shore. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Click here to view. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Groundwater flow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. In practice. effective rain includes subsurface flow. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. natural or manmade. perhaps several years. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . aquatic life. called a Class A Level Pan. subsurface storm flow. tropical. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. or excess rain. depending on the geographical region. Inc. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. hail. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Climatic characteristics a. Thus. R. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. snow.80. Classified by the path taken to a channel. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path.. “Handbook of Hydrology.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Moving laterally. or groundwater flow. Inc. It appears in surface channels. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. is in widespread use. dew). or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Commonly.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. All rights reserved. and storm seepage. except in arid. to reach a channel. On large reservoirs.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. (D. subsurface. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. time distribution. frost. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Precipitation—form (rain. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Subsurface flow.

extremes during precipitation c. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the U.S. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. permeability. Inc. yearly flow volume. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. stratification Fig. duration d. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. direction. Topographic—size. Wind—velocity.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. length) b. roughness. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. orientation. general location. both published and unpublished.S. Geological Survey. special-interest items. the detail required in the final answer. Humidity e.” U. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. shape. 21. slope. Solar radiation 2. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. as shown in Fig. and Weather Bureau. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. soil moisture. Weather Bureau. direction of storm movement b.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. elevation. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. groundwater formations. and completeness of the hydrologic records. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. snow storage. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.S. Click here to view. the quantity and type of data available. drainage net. recurrence interval. antecedent precipitation. artificial drainage. These papers contain records of daily flow. Atmospheric pressure f. All rights reserved. detail. Agricultural Research Service.S.70. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. land use and cover. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. 21. Temperature—variation. 21. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U.21. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. . An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shape of cross section. extremes of flow. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. slope. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. TVA. channels (size. frozen ground during storms. Geologic—soil type. lakes and other bodies of water. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Geological Survey. and various state and local agencies. Geological Survey. and the accuracy desired. 21. International Boundary Commission.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers.S. areal distribution. Drainage-basin characteristics a. mean flow.

.or 100-year-frequency storm. The values of C in Table 21. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. for example. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. and large downstream damage potential. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. great importance. Several methods yield only peak discharge. 3. Click here to view. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. T. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins.127) where Q = peak discharge. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. in/h A = drainage area. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. 2. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. a 50. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.41. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. 1962). 4. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. others give the complete hydrograph. the second to major hydraulic structures.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. As an example. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. 5.128) 21. Inc. Chow.

10 – 0. the flow time in streets.20 0.90 0. K.05 – 0. flat. ditches. is a convenient. R. 2% Heavy soil.41. years duration of storm.40 0. steep.80 – 0.16). and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.127). . (21.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. factor. 21. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.85 0.22 0.75 – 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. b.13 – 0. (See D. steep. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. flat.30 0.10 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. “Handbook of Hydrology. detached Multiunits.15 0. After determining the time of concentration. (21.50 – 0.50 – 0.60 – 0.75 – 0.70 – 0.71 and Table 21. streets. (21. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.17 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.25 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.50 0.95 0. coefficient.” McGraw-Hill.20 – 0.) The flow time in gutters. Click here to view.15 – 0.25 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.70 0.60 0.30 – 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.20 – 0.35 0. gutters. (21.95 0.10 – 0.10 – 0. 7% Heavy soil.40 – 0.80 0.25 – 0. avg.70 – 0.18 – 0.60 – 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. Equation (21. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.89)] . The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.128) or Eq.85 0. 2% Sandy soil. min time of concentration Fig. avg.21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. n. Sherman. Maidment. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. or ditches. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. 21.75 0. and the flow time in conduits. or any equivalent method. 21.70 – 0.95 0. New York.40 0.129).129) Table 21. in/h respectively.70 0.50 – 0.95 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. 2–7% Sandy soil. Inc. Inc.

(Leroy K. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. pp. This requires that a storm of short duration. the time of storm runoff. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. Sherman.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. easier. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. termed a unit storm. that is. 4. 2. The method is summarized by the formula (21. termed a unit period. vol.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Thus. If the watershed is very large. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. 108. . a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. Click here to view. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. 501-505. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. All rights reserved. Inc. JanuaryJune 1932. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in.” Engineering News-Record. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1.79 Table 21. subdivision may be required. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. usually 1 acre). The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm.

A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. All rights reserved. 21. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality.73). The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Usually. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. Illustrated in Fig. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 5. Then. For ease of manipulation. which is of fixed intensity and duration. 21. Inc. Click here to view. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.72. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. because of storm variations. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. .

” 3rd ed. during heavy storms. perpendicular to direction of flow. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. K. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. New York. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. R. This loss. Inc. vol. Also.74). McGraw-Hill. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. This method was developed by Franklin F. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.131) period.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. . 21.. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. New York. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Hydrology for Engineers.” McGraw-Hill. Inc. Click here to view. Inc. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. 21. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Linsley et al. I. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pp.) Fig. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. (R. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. pt. (See D. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 19. 447–454).81 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig.. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall..) where Q = flow rate. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. 21. “Handbook of Hydrology. Maidment. All rights reserved.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.

and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). safe yield.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. quantity. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. . source. Frequently. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. alternative management plans should be formulated. poor-quality replenishment waters. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. among others. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. recycling. need for excessive pumping lifts. or other causes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. and quality of water supply. and indirect water-quality use costs. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. quality. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. Click here to view. usually a number of years. All rights reserved. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. quantity. Regardless of how it is defined. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. and methods of wastewater disposal. water softening costs. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Inc. Deteriorating water quality. and overdraft. (A base period is a period of time. groundwater levels. Following the preceding preliminary work. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. present and future water demands should be determined. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. is a confined or artesian aquifer. wastewaters. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. cost of replenishment water. because of impermeable layers above and below it. and location of artificial replenishment.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. rather than a change in volume. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. This is in contrast to a free aquifer.21. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere.

This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. . and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. “Groundwater Engineering. sanitary. fire. storage. washing. and age of the city. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 3rd ed. and sanitary purposes.. K. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. and hotels for drinking. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. industrial. Kashef. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers. 40. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. such as industrial development. and natural and artificial replenishment. Bear. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. is a very difficult task. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. The smaller the system. motels. bathing. I.” A. graphical comparison with other cities.” R. amount and location of groundwater extractions. distribution. S.Water Resources Engineering s 21. culinary.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. percentage increase. J. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. water used. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and treatment works. wastewater disposed. Inc. irrigation. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. Estimation of future population. Grigg. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. however. decreasing percentage increase. (“Ground Water Management. surface-water delivery facilities. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pumping. New York.. “Water Resources Planning. and environmental factors. legal. or other unforeseen emergency. transmission. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic.” N. flood. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Hydrology for Engineers. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. financially feasible. land speculation. institutional. industrial. no. geographical boundaries. commercial. fire-fighting. apartments. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. Click here to view. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. Therefore. and public. Linsley et al. All rights reserved.

A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. mainly because of the lack of large industries. if the cost of water increases. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. and faucets. but because of the high rate at which it is required. degree of industrialization. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. and pressure. Public use of water for parks. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and quality of the water. reservoir evaporation. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. it may control the design of the facilities. degree of industrialization. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. cost.17. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. the demand for it decreases. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. . and cleaning. Public Health Service Report. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. lawn sprinkling. cost. and unauthorized uses. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. public buildings. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. cooling. All rights reserved. size of the city. and air conditioning purposes.S.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary.” 1979. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. presents Table 21. janitorial. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. are the average of a range of values. type of service (metered or unmetered). Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Calif. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Mo. State of California Office of Planning and Research. air conditioning. influence the demand rate for water. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pressure. valves. and time of day. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. quality. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as presented in Table 21. such as the climate. Demand rates vary with time of day. and year. meter malfunctions. The “California Water Atlas. Inc. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. standard of living. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Click here to view. Table 21. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. month. Normally.21. The national demand-rate data.

000 10.000 90. 21.6 1.000 1. Inc.0 1.000 48.000 80.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 17. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. gal/min P = population. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 80. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. is frequently undesirable.4 17. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 12. MG = million gallons.9 4. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 100.000 1.6 4. Click here to view. and politics.000 120.000 5. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 3. the effect of warm.000 70.4 2.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. Hydrant Spacing.000 60. In selection of a source of supply. In the atlas. quality. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. interdependent. Cost.000 85.000 8. to a large extent. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.3 Duration. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 40. climate. and streams.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 55. and in some cases. rivers. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 125. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.3 5. MG† 0. but the demand rate is high.0 3.000 90.8 7. In some local areas.000 10. The source must Table 21.8 6. diversification is essential for reliability.4 3.18.5 14.000 40.6 11.000 40.000 85. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 40.000 4. such as lakes. In the past.000 4. All rights reserved.500 2. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.2 2. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. industrialization. inland.0 7. cost.8 2.000 * American Insurance Association. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.3 0. † MGD = million gallons per day.2 8. Total dependence on a single source.18 Required Fire Flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 2. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.000 40. Moreover. however. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 28.000 200. valley cities.000 40.000 6. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. however. legality. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 110.000 40.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

22. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. American Water Works Association. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.) At the discretion of the state. Inc. . and calculation of the Langelier index.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. alkalinity. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. (See also Art.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. Click here to view. In addition.” American Public Health Association. such as sulfates and chlorides. and Water Pollution Control Federation. The measurements should include pH.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. total dissolved solids. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.) Source Protection s The U. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. 21. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.5 – 8. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.21. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. calcium hardness. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. dependent on local conditions. All rights reserved.3 mg / L 0. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.” U. temperature. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.5 mg / L 0. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.S.21.S. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.

46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. (21. (Usually. and softening (see also Art. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.001 and 5. coagulation-sedimentation. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. shape. Inc.0 < R < 2000. For this ideal basin. velocity is constant.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Newton’s law applies: (21. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. V the flowthrough velocity. Inc.134). and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. (See R. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. mm If R > 2000. calculated with ν = νs.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. . Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. and specific gravity of the suspended particles.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. disinfection. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . 21. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. is equal to or less than 1. Click here to view. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. slow and rapid sand filtration.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Reynolds numbers. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as those mentioned above. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. however. Ann Arbor. and width B.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Figure 21. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.46. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. Figure 21. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.134) where CD is the drag coefficient.. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. 21. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. 21. depth ho .133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. unpleasant tastes and odors. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. and size and shape of the settling basin.0. particulate and colored matter. Mich. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. (21. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. B.51). In the region where 1. Pojasek. 21. temperature and viscosity of the water. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. to be used in Eq. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig.

21. (Observed curves. 1946. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. . at 10 °C.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 103. Click here to view.) Fig. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Inc. p. 897. after Camp. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. finely Fig. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. The tubular settler (Fig. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. “Water Treatment Plant Design. salt.8c. Click here to view.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. Multistory tanks. 21. Okun. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Without coagulants. or other indicator to pass through the basin. Fair.. . G. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. 21.) 21. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. and D. 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . 1.. 21.78a) or circular (Fig. M. Inc. short circuiting.” McGraw-Hill.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.78b).2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Inc. All rights reserved.” John Wiley & Sons. C.46. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. A. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. are removed in this basin. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. 27.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . coagulants are added to the water. J. Inc. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. rectangular (Fig. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. for example. New York. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Geyer. and eddy currents.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. 21.

All rights reserved.21.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler. . (b) Circular clarifier.

. Click here to view. to get the small floc to agglomerate.) 21. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. coliform organisms.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. temperature. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. and easier dewatering. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. “New Concepts in Water Purification.. Corbitt. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. The filtering process has many components. and air jets. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. Culp and R. consequently. Inc. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. ferric chloride (FeCl3). There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. 18H2O]. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. Polymers are long-chain.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. and suspended solids. They are available in three types: cationic. however. New York.” R. such as pH.” 4th ed. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. “Water Supply and Sewerage. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. anionic. centrifugal pumps.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. American Water Works Association. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. or negatively charged. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. turbidity. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. in some instances. L. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h.” McGraw-Hill. plankton. chemical and biological reactions. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. “Water Quality and Treatment. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. such as physical straining. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. settling. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. Thereby. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. Also. however. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. T. and nonionic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. or neutral in charge. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. A. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. such as mechanical stirrers. Culp. New York. L. color. and hardness. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. considering both cost and performance. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. highmolecular-weight. color. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. or positively charged. J. Inc. McGhee. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. . polymers have a minor effect on pH.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as paper fiber. organic polyelectrolytes. (G.to 60min range. Anionic polymers. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). All rights reserved. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. production of a smaller volume of sludge. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up.

Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.25.35-mm range. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.to 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. through the sand and gravel layers. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Usually. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU.79. that will pass 10%. of the sand. The process requires rapid mixing.21. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Inc. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. and dual. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. The wash- Fig. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.or mixed-media filtration. by weight. 21. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.to 12-in layer of gravel. 21. All rights reserved. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. in millimeters. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Click here to view. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. depending on the turbidity. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.Water Resources Engineering s 21.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Click here to view. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Immediately after washing.35 to 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. creating a high head loss across the filter. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. however. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Inc. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. which is drained to waste. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. gal/min b = width of trough. bed cracking. mixed-media. Dual-media. water sprays. filters pass water at a high rate. which produces an undertreated effluent. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. All rights reserved. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. or deep coarse-media filters. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs.25 to 1.002:1 to 0. and air jets. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. The filtering medium may be sand. may be more advantageous. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices.005:1 range. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.20 to 1. or anthracite coal. diatomaceous earth. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. . such as rakes. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.

as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.136) (21. where 1 gpg = 17. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. Regeneration requires between 0. C. however. . These materials remove cations. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Culp and R.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. M.” 4th ed. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. American Water Works Association. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.3 and 0. A. carbonates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Some. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. Fair. “Water Supply and Sewerage.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. and American Society of Civil Engineers.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. “New Concepts in Water Purification. lime (CaO). New York. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. L.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. Culp. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. such as calcium and magnesium. “Water Treatment Plant Design. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. or open-joint pipes..” 6th ed. Click here to view. Okun. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. and American Society of Civil Engineers.” and T. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. All rights reserved. New York. “Water Quality and Treatment. (American Water Works Association. J. New York. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. J. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. sulfates. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Geyer. and (3) total hardness. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment.. perforated.139) 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 21. gas. “Water Treatment Plant Design.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed.21. G. and D. L. Inc. Inc. respectively. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.” 4th ed.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). (G. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. “Water Quality and Treatment. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. and R is the zeolite material.1 mg/L. McGhee. in clear wells.. In the lime-soda process.) (21. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..” John Wiley & Sons.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates.138) (21.

If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. chlorine dioxide. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. J.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. Geyer. All rights reserved. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.” John Wiley & Sons. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric.” and T. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. “Water Supply and Sewerage.) respect to carbonates. M. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. “Water Treatment Plant Design.) 21.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. C. lime softening. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. and D. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. Inc. manganese. .. Click here to view.99 water supplies. irrigation. taste. flood control. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Filter both solutions. 21. and lime.1 or 0. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. activated carbon. Chlorine residuals of 0. Fair. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. New York. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. 21. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. detergents. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. anion exchange.45). Inc. New York. cation exchange. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. odor. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. Okun. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. then. (G. excessive fluorides. reverse osmosis. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. bromine.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. and electrodialysis. ultraviolet light. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art.) 21. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. ozone. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. McGhee.. water supply. A. despite its low solubility. J.. iron. Other disinfectants are iodine. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.

Click here to view. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time.52.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. 21. maximum flows will govern. minimum flows will be critical.21. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. 21. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Aeri- Fig. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. The mass diagram (Fig. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. All rights reserved. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. 21.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.1). Once a reservoir site has been selected. areavolume curves (Fig. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. The plot of volume vs. Also. . as is the case for many water-supply projects. When the demand rate is known.80. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. 21. Inc. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.

perature drops in the fall. and Los Angeles. When the tem- 21. odor. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct.Water Resources Engineering s 21. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. are large distances from the city. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. During hours of maximum demand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. pumping plants.52. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. 21. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. If possible. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. and turbidity than deep reservoirs.2). while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. which may be only a few feet thick.101 Fig. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. such as New York. Major sources of supply for some cities. San Francisco. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. give special attention to water quality.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. but there is no circulation across this zone. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. Inc.52. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. the flow refills the reservoir. . the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. 21. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. All rights reserved. In deep reservoirs. When the demand drops off. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. Click here to view.35 and 21. is called the thermocline. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir.

no.83). a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art.21.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. . 21.84). vol.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Click here to view. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. A flowing artesian Fig. 21.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. June 1953). 3.35. 21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.82) (G. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 21. Brune. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. For the correct hydraulic grade. For any given storage reservoir. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. 34. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. 21.52.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. 21. M. Inc. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. M. All rights reserved. Brune. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.

Click here to view.103 Fig. .84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21. Fig. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Inc. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

V. bored. The pump. Okun. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. 629.143) 21. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping.84). C. p.53.53..” 6th ed. McGhee. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. pump (Art. 72. eductor or riser pipe.” John Wiley & Sons.” Economic Geology. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig.. Inc. T. screen. 33. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. E. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. ft h = H minus drawdown. J. 21. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. All rights reserved.53. ditch.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. from an artesian well is given by (21. no.142) where Q = flow. hollow-core.57). 21. Fair. vol. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. p. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Theis. and D. (G. motor. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. Click here to view. C.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. New York.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. J. Geyer. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Inc. and motor. Jacob. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. A.21. gal/day.83). December 1938.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. 889.53. M. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. “Water Supply and Sewerage. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. ft (Fig. vol. 21. Inc. or driven. ft d = diameter of well. McGraw-Hill.. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. . waterjet. 21. 5. (C. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. New York. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. or hydraulic rotary methods. 1940. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. 21. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Hence. ft The steady flow.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

In unlined pipes. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. If it is cement-lined. polybutylene. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. and sulfur compounds. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets.146) where D = pipe diameter. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. lead. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Since steel is stronger than iron.21. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. hydrants. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. bacteria in water. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. pumps.54. and meters destroyed by corrosion. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. and ability to withstand external loads. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Wood pipelines are still in existence. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Copper. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. are present. (21. but wood is rarely used in new installations. polyethylene.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. riveting. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls.) At the anode. brass. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. and plastics. rubber. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. Inc. sand. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. valves. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. an anode and a cathode. zinc. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. Under favorable conditions. A machine that produces a monolithic. steel. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. plastic. . Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. such as polyvinyl chloride. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. contact between acids and metals. or Dresser-type couplings. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Click here to view. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. tanks. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. sealed flanges. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. impurities and strains in metals. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. 21. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. and other appurtenances. ft 21. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. valves. All rights reserved. stray electric currents. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. bronze. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. however. concrete.

86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Click here to view. Strains.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where e is an electron. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. 21. When selecting materials. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. caustic soda. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. to prevent corrosion. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). . Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. and Fig. Aluminum. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. cracks. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased.86). and treatment of the water. and the more ions. use of protective coatings. 21. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. the corrosion process continues (Fig. zinc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Inc. All rights reserved. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Also. the faster electrons can move through the water. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. At the cathode. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. water may be treated with bases. such as soda ash. for example.

All rights reserved. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. Zinc.147) where pa = pressure. McGraw-Hill. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. z is negative.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.21.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. however. New York. 21. . (American Water Works Association.. efficiency. between pump center line and water surface Fig. To prevent cavitation. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. ft. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. 21. horsepower. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psia.88).. accomplishes that in two steps.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. Water enters at the center. hydroxides. Inc. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. by (21. 21. or impeller. To have practical meaning. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 4th ed. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. and so on on the walls of the pipes. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. oxides. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Inc. ft of water z = elevation difference.) w = unit weight of liquid. called a volute (Fig. Corrosion. or eye. The centrifugal pump.87). It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. “Water Quality and Treatment. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. graphite. in feet. the most common waterworks pump. 21. psia. magnesium. lime. and the head-discharge relationship. Click here to view.

) 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For that reason. pump discharge. depending on the number of stages.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. and air lift. Fig. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.58.” 2nd ed. head..89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. In a typical water-system analysis. (Also included in Fig.57 and check valves in Art. rotary. J. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. jet. “Pump Handbook. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. See also Art. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. below 200 gal/min. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. 21. 21.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.111 than the required NPSH. . reciprocating. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. New York. Karassik et al. as shown in Fig. however.. helical.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. propeller. (I. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. 21.89. 21.

90 fied). or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. At sea level. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Inc. gal/min H = head. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. which is a function of specific speed. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. . The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Click here to view. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Reciprocating pumps. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. they can be used only for sediment-free water. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. either hand. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. which are located at the well bottom. so that the entire lift is suction. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. and for Ns above 7500. Jet pumps (Fig. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Because of the close tolerances. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. vanes. 21. utilize piston action to move water. (21. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. 21.or motordriven.148) where n = impeller speed. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. r/min Q = discharge. cams. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%.21. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well.

globe. (I. one at the service connection. air-relief. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Low head loss. Simplicity of construction and quick. Hand or motor power. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Click here to view. Also. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. curb. cone.113 tion.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. which are water. fast operation. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. and butterfly. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. availability. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. If sand is carried out with the water. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. pumps. plug. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. or Neoprene. and easy. rotates the disk. Karassik et al. one just upstream of the meter. solids deposition.) drives to permit manual operation. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. and low head loss when fully open. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. pressure-relief. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. sluice gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. three valves must be used. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. primarily because of their low cost. in-service lubrication features. tubercle formation. . because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe.. Check. respectively. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage.or oil-lubricated. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. McGraw-Hill Book Company. But these valves cost more than gate. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves.” 2nd ed. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. needle. Corrosion. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. or it may be at the bottom of the well.. “Pump Handbook. or corporation cocks. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). The major types of isolating valves are gate. Inc. applied through a gear-reduction device. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. globe. and butterfly valves. large pressure differences. New York. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Plug. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. pressure-regulating. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Usually. rubber. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.

a large pumper outlet must be furnished. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. such as pressure regulators and altitude. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Click here to view. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. and relief valves. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. . Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. All rights reserved. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Because of high head losses. Usually. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. Often. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Interior-differential. For example. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. rivers. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Many automatic control valves. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. and large pipes. or California type. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Furthermore. 21. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. which connects the barrel to the main. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. The most common check valve is the swing type. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. tube. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. The wetbarrel. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. check.21. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. When the valve is in a closed position. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. such as trunk lines 21. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve.

Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. or modifications thereof. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices.) As in venturi meters.” 6th ed. for metering domestic-service connections. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. simplicity and ease of repairs. are the most common velocity-type devices.. which do not affect propeller meters. nozzle. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.150) where Q = flow rate. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. rotary. called a Price meter. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. amount of head loss through the meter. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. respectively. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. such as meters for individual customer connections. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. All rights reserved.115 of distribution systems. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. 21. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and cost. Inc. 21. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. . Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. (21. durability. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired.Water Resources Engineering s 21. F. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft h1 = pressure in main section. ft d2 = diameter of throat. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. New York. The nutating disk is used. but they are used primarily in laboratories.149) Hydraulics. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. or nutating-disk types. A clicking noise. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. The standard venturi meter (Fig. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater.91. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. The cup-type meter. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. Click here to view. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. see E. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. vertical velocity components. However.

This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Inc. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. fixed charges on capital investment. Click here to view. (b) Nozzle meter. if any. and development of the system. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.91 plate meter. step rate. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. (c) Orifice- 21. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. and similar items.21.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. seasonal use.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved. utility-type enterprises. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. peak rates of use. load factors. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. fire use. or to some other recognized system. flat rate is falling into disuse. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and block rate. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand.

of serving an individual customer. switching equipment. and. generators and exciters. depends on the peak usage of a customer. and (3) cost. Inc. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a building to house the machinery and equipment. 21. canals. penstocks. tunnel. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. treatment chemicals. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. When fixing a system of rates.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. It is generally recognized that residential areas.117 With step rate. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines.746 kW 1 kW = 1. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. . have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. draft tube. where applicable.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. called the customer component. Cost component 3. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. For most distribution systems. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. including metering and billing. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. turbines and governors. Cost component 1. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. S. pumping energy. and transformers. where the majority of small users are. called the demand component. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. All rights reserved. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. tunnels. Cost component 2. called the commodity component. This charge is usually small. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. buying water from a wholesale supplier.

to be used at some future time. It can be computed on a daily. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. base-load plants. On a weekly cycle. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. or seasonal cycle. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. power production being only incidental. run-of-river plants with storage. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. On a seasonal cycle. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. On a daily cycle. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. weekly. and peak-load plants. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Inc. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. weekly.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. . the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. 21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Then. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. during periods of peak power demand (Fig.21. or yearly basis. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Therefore. If the minimum flow is very low.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served.92). This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Storage can be provided for a daily. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. such as navigation. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river.

it usually is not as economical.” 4th ed.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. 21. Inc. (Department of Water and Power. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. 21. Force F2 represents silt pressure. J. Figure 21. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. . Click here to view.) 21. and rock-fill.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. (V. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. arch. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The main classifications are gravity. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. All rights reserved. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.92). New York. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom.. Zipparo and H. Los Angeles. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. buttress.119 Fig. When needed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hasen. Its distribution is triangular.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. earth. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. Calif. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir.

) (21. presented by Edwin Rose. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. (21.21.1 g. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam.” discussion by von Karman. . The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. however. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig.000 psf. Click here to view. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. A close approximation of the force. 21. p. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. which forms on the reservoir surface. which create forces on any object resting on it. given by Eq. Rose.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.425h above the base. In the past.93 by forces F4 and F5. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. vol. All rights reserved.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. A method of calculating these forces. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. (E.153). Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.153) where w = unit weight of water. These accelerations occur in every direction. today it is realized these values are much too high. ice. In cold climates. was developed by von Karman. 1933. May 1946. ice pressures as high as 50. 21. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. 434. 98. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.

They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. Although there are many types of buttress dams. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but its formwork is more expensive. however. and clay. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. however. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. however. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. such as sand and gravel. silt.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If the deflections are not equal. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. All rights reserved. However. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. or failure of the foundation material. Hence. They are not suited to most sites. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. Recent belief. . and uplift forces are smaller. rock flour. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. When the base is not drained. engineers assumed that. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. First. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. On arch dams. their relative importance is much different. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. uplift is not so important. Click here to view. If a large quantity of pervious material. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. is available and clayey materials must be imported. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. The modes of failure are also the same. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. In the multiple-arch. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. because of bearing contact. but the structural design is much more critical. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. overturning by rotating about the toe. sand. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. In the past. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure.

a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. S. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Bureau of Relamation. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.94). but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. Hasen. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. For some types of soil. onto the fill. (V.. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.” 4th ed. however. although steel has been used occasionally.” EM 1110-2-2300. bonding into the dumped rock.3 on 1. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage.” U. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig.21. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Zipparo and H. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Inc. The facing is usually concrete. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. J. bearing on the rubble cushion.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. . both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. U. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. New York. Today. Temporary facings are usually of wood. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. providing power. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. The downstream face is usually 1. Army Corps of Engineers. and an upstream impervious facing. Leakage should be expected. S. Click here to view. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.3 on 1. 21. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. All rights reserved.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. the natural angle of repose of rock. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. or wood over concrete. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate.) 21. If pervious material is not available. therefore. For dams over 200 ft high.

Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. such as the Kaplan turbine. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their efficiency decreases rapidly. and draft tube. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. In such installations. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. and draft tube. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig.” 4th ed.) Fig. New York. At heads below 100 ft. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. control the amount of water that enters the turbine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. 21. and the fixed-blade type. however. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads.95c). Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. As the water flows through the tur- 21. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. the propeller-type (Fig. wicket gates. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. however. At heads above 1000 ft.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. wicket gates. (V. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Hasen. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. runner. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. 21. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. J.123 bine. 21. if the load drops below 50%. Click here to view. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. .65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. All rights reserved. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. runner. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. The propeller turbine (Fig. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines.94 turbine. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. 21.95a). It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. McGraw-Hill Book Company. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. 21. In these. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. However. This creates a force on the runner. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. Zipparo and H. it changes direction. The wicket gates. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. widely used for concrete dams because. . (c) axial flow. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. the dam will not be damaged by the water. 21. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.21. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. if designed correctly. This type of spillway is Fig.65. All rights reserved.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. (b) Kaplan. Inc.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Click here to view.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level.

The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. or ogee in cross section. As the head increases. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining.96 Siphon spillway.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. open channel. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. All rights reserved. 21. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. model tests are usually employed. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Click here to view. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. A siphon spillway (Fig. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Once this second condition is reached. Bureau of Reclamation. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.S. lined. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. 21. the siphon’s intake is sealed.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. called an ogee spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Government Printing Office. In a shaft spillway. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. . The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. DC 20402). In a side-channel spillway. Washington.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway.34). the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The weir can be sharp-crested. In a chute spillway. This type of spillway. 21. When the head is relatively low. both depending on the head on the weir. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. Thus. Inc.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. “Design of Small Dams. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. The air vent shown in Fig. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. flared.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom.

3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. 21. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. level of a reservoir within close limits. the pipes fail. To do this. All rights reserved.65. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. Fig.98 Bear-trap gate. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. 21.97 Taintor gate. In a taintor gate (Fig. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. 21. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation.65. Inc.5 ft/s. 21. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. causing damage and hampering operation. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. On large stop-log installations.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. 21. controlling flow.21.97). . the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. In contrast. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. and providing support for the conduit. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. making removal difficult. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Click here to view. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.

and J.98. and H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Cleasby. E. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Babbitt. J. Click here to view. Because of the large recess required in the dam.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use..127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. Inc. (V. Hasen. All rights reserved. 21. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. J. “Water Supply Engineering. drum gates are not suited to small dams. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. Zipparo and H. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.99 Drum gate.) Fig. J. The drum gate (Fig. Doland. L. New York. as shown in Fig.” 4th ed. To raise a bear-trap gate.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Click here to view. All rights reserved.blank page 21.