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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. and freezing damage to concrete. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.2. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. is small and insignificant in most problems. like surface tension. . a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. formation of spray from water jets. as shown in Fig. pitting. Gage pressure. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus.000 ft is shown in Fig. Its temperature variation. however. All rights reserved. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. at sea level. 21. Its value Fig. psi. When the liquid is in a closed container. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. are significant in others. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. interpretation of the results obtained on small models.7 psi.1. In equation form. psia. 21. Thus. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. (21. face and rises in a small tube. Absolute pressure. ft σ = surface tension. portions of the liquid vaporize. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Surface tension and capillarity.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Inc. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. is pressure above or below atmospheric. 21. although negligible in many water engineering problems. ft Capillarity. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig.7 psia.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid.3. Click here to view.1) where h = capillary rise. as shown in Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. is concave upward. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. or liquid surface. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. respectively. 21. Meniscus.21. decreases with increasing temperature. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller.

5 Fig. of length and time. the pressure acts equally in all directions. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. as shown in Fig. 21.8) to determine whether laminar. also called the coefficient of viscosity. ft2. ft2/s. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. . and pitting appears. or completely turbulent flow exists. the force due to pressure p1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. It is so named because its units. Viscosity. In hydraulics. 21. 21. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. (Pressures as high as 350. psf.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the force due to pressure p2. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. absolute viscosity. or implode. lb/ft2 21. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. to collapse. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. which extend into the pores of the metal. on the bottom surface. At any depth. µ of a fluid. or dynamic viscosity. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. ft/s y = depth.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. psf. All rights reserved. on the top surface. is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.4. lb/ft3.00001059 ft2/s. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Click here to view. and cross-sectional area A. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. ft. Then.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. transitional. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity.2) where τ = shearing stress. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Since the prism is at rest. Inc. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art.

For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. then p2 is p. 21. the depth of the centroid.3b) then becomes (21. psf.4) Equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. the pressure.3. and y sin θ = h . the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.5) 21. All rights reserved.3a) by A yields (21.21. (21. ft2. Figure 21. (21. (21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. dams. and other water control structures. The resultant pressure force P.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. ft. (21.3a) Division of Eq. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. p1 is atmospheric pressure. ft. 21.4). tanks. (21. Thus.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. For horizontal surfaces. the depth below the water surface. Equation (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. at depth h.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb. however. lb/ft3. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Taking ∆h to be h. Inc. Therefore.4. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.6) – ∫ydA = y A. Click here to view. where w is the specific weight of water.

7 Fig.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. 6. The denominator of Eq. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.8) equals –A. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. Example 21.8).7). – From Eq. (21.29). with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) that is below the c.g. All rights reserved. the total force P = whA.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. of the surface about its centroidal axis. The location of the center of pressure. represented by the length yp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.2° to the horizontal (Fig. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. Inc. psf. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . (21. 21. (21. ft.). the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. Pyp = ∫y dP.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. where K is the radius of gyration.) but acts at a point (c. 21.6 (see also Fig. 21. Otherwise. Click here to view.5). .p.7).p. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. (21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.g. Thus. 21. if that locus is a straight line. Hence y . For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.

21.3. however. Therefore. Click here to view.08.08/5 = 5. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. yp = 5.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. 21. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. Note: 1.42 ft.g.0 + 2. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.21.9).8. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. 21.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. From Eq.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.0 + 0. P = 62. Also.5 + 1/ (5.42 = 5. K2 = point G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. All rights reserved. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.0 ft.0) = 5. . and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.) of common shapes.1. (See Example 21. (21. 21.

21.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.9.6w = 19.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface.4 × 2.4°. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6 × 62.5 × 5 = 780 lb. 21. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. (21.7). so the weight of the water is 19. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Inc. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See Example 21. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.14 × 25/4 = 19.2. – From Eq. and for a constant-radius surface.6 ft3. PH = whA = 62. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. . The corresponding angle is 57. Its angle with the horizontal is known. 21. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. Click here to view. Example 21.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.564. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. Fig.9 Fig. When water is below the curved surface. 21. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. All rights reserved. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. 2.9). (b) Free-body diagram.

21. or the difference in head. ft.. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. .10b). The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. Given in feet by Eq. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. (21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. (21.b.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. 21. whether floating or submerged. 21. (21. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.g. is indicated by the metacenter. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig.10a). 21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. Inc. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manometers indicate h. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. the pressure head. The stability of a ship.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. For a body to be in equilibrium. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.10b. p = wh.4).). The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.21. ft3 ys = distance.

3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. All rights reserved. 21. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. The liquid is water with w = 62.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. 21. and differential manometer. The piezometer (Fig. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Inc. . but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. However. 21. (b) U-tube manometer. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.11): piezometer.4 lb/ft3. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.17 psi. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). (a) Piezometers.11a is 2.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. What is hm? Fig. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example 21. U-tube manometer. 21.11 manometer. Click here to view.12c). Basic types of manometers. although the latter is most common.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

A movable scale.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures. Inc. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.12c). as opposed to a fixed scale. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. 21. 21. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. 21. Very low pressures. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. All rights reserved. . It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.11b) is used. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. In this application. Click here to view. the Utube manometer (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.

The differential manometer (Fig. . the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. and the right side. hi is 2. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.5. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.6 × 62.11) where Z1 = elevation.13 indicating liquid.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.4 × 0. psf.0 and 2.40. is magnified by the differential manometer. however. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. All rights reserved. 21.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. psf. that is. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.4 × 2. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. 21. Click here to view.0 ft. when expressed in feet of water. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. Above 5. 21.6). is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. 32. as shown in Fig. ft. hm1 is 9 in. such as might be required in laboratories. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. One factor.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2.25 ft. if the actual difference is 0. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. psf w = specific weight of fluid. Most of them. such as ft of water or psi.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers.75 + 13. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. in the manometer. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. 21. The pressure at B. For example.4 × 2.25 ft of water. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. and z is 1. or sump.12a. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. ft. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. however.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. psf p2 = pressure at 2. the actual pressure difference. the magnification will be 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig. Example 21.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. the total energy per unit weight at 2. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.

through friction.11).21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. It equals WVa2 / 2g. above some arbitrary datum.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or the total head ft: (21. ft. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21.4 ft3/s. V2/2g. Inc. ft/s = Q/A. . Fig. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. and pressure. where Va is the velocity. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. and pressure (Fig. ft. Usually. (21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.13). ft3/s. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. All rights reserved. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. velocity head. where W is the weight. lb. 21. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.5. 21. velocity. Click here to view.14) pa/w is called pressure head. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. 21. across the area of the section A. 21. Example 21. ft2.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. This term hf. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. (See Example 21. velocity. Average velocity. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. when added to the downstream side of Eq. where Q is the quantity of flow.14. however.13.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. varies with velocity. ft/s. As indicated in Fig. The total energy.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. Kinetic energy at the section.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. a Fig. lb/ft3.

A change in momentum. Since the datum plane passes through point 2.4/ 3. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which may result from a change in either velocity. while in pressure flow. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. Also. 21. direction. Click here to view.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.7. ft. is equal to the impulse. p2 = 0. hf = 50 – 1. or magnitude of flow. Hence.15 Fig. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. The energy grade line. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. sometimes called the total head line. Z2 = 0. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. gate valve. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. (21. Inc. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically.15). 21. 21. respectively. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Thus substitution in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9). Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation.55 = 48. and any bends.45 ft. Art. All rights reserved. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. since the pipe has free discharge. respectively. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. In openchannel flow.14 = 10 ft/s. .

It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. Click here to view. Fy = –181.96 cos 53. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. Let R be the force.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.200 + Rx = 1. apply Eq. P2 = ppA2 = 13. lb. (21.500 lb. (See Example 21. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.2° – 0) = 4.15) first in the X direction.700/82. To find F.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.2° – 71.4/ 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. since ∆Vx = –(7.11) or (21.600.000 sin 53. All rights reserved. . then in the Y direction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.21.1 and the density ρ = 62. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.5) = 65. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.332π = 71. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. so θ = 60. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. Example 21.94 × 100 × 4. 21. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. Fx = 181.96 sin 53.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. (21. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.200 lb. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. since ∆Vy = –(–7.94. Inc.12)] but may be used separately.2° + Ry = 1.94 × 100 × 65.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.2= 1. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.78 Ry = 145.16.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.5°.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.2° – 13.5 ft/s.6.78.000 cos 53. Then. which is to be determined). and at 2. Fig. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.000 lb. With p1 known.1 Rx = –82.600 lb In the Y direction.

operate. Inc. 1. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. or proposed works. In this way. and surface tension. or drainage basin. hybrid modeling. gravity. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. alternative management schemes. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Usually. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. droughts. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. aquifer.7. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. All rights reserved. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. It is.17 21. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. 21. the capability of the computing resources. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Popular before the advent of digital computers. In most models. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. such as storm rainfall. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize.7. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. viscosity. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. or prototype. With hybrid models. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. In water resources engineering. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A fourth mode of modeling. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. momentum.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. however. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. See also Art. For instance. Physical models are expensive to build. In the preceding example. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. such as a river. . employs both physical and mathematical models. Click here to view. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. and through execution of the computer program. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. to a given set of stimuli. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. erosional scour. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype.

Ratios of the forces of gravity. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. the formation of drops and air bubbles. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Once the length ratio has been set. the length ratio is the only variable. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Squaring both sides of Eq. Therefore. All rights reserved. The inertial force. 32. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Similarly.22) where ρ = density of fluid.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.20) R is dimensionless. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. the model is termed a true model. and Weber number. (21. The Froude number is (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Click here to view. Inc. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. The Weber number is (21. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion.21a) (21. The Reynolds number is (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2/s. . If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. (21. such as depth or diameter). such as spillways and weirs. Reynolds number.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. viscosity. Froude number. and one other force are made proportional.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Then (21. entrainment of air in flowing water.21. respectively. which is always a predominant force. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.

and infiltration parameters. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. For instance. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. in particular.25) In models of rivers and channels. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. (21. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. called a movable-bed model. in turn. This type of model is called a distorted model. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Sr = 1. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. (21. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. and through execution of the computer program. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. All rights reserved. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. catchment areas. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. viscous. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. model designs are often based on the Manning equation.23a) (21.7. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. ft/s R = hydraulic radius.26) where V = mean velocity. (21. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. Rr = Lr.S.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. One type of model. The U. These expressions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. mathematical models are. . Click here to view. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. For such models. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as flow networks. inertial. such as a morning-glory spillway.24). the logical representation of prototypes. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). In some cases. Hence. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension.

In object-oriented software. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread.” V. flood or drought impacts. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. hydrodynamics. A. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Inc. Click here to view. As a general rule. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.17. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. and among water resources modelers in the government.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. F. Hasen. New York. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy.2). The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. 21. reservoir regulation. quantity and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. R.” N. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. Grigg. Art. (D. Walker. if comparisons of different plans are required. and R.21. 3. H. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. or both. academia.” McGraw-Hill. density. Rothfus. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. Also. impacts of dam breaks.) 21. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. however. 21. “Water Resources Planning. and groundwater yield. flow routing. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. landfill leachate analyses. ecosystem impacts and restoration. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. S. As this shearing stress increases. As a result. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. Zipparo and H. R. wave or tidal analyses. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. 1957. . and turbulent flow results. seepage. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. For closed conduits other than circular. sediment or pollutant transport. This. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. Hoggan.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. J. of all databases and software. hydrologic forecasting. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. Whan. Maidment. G. as in annular passages. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. This approach. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. shown in Fig. evaporation and irrigation. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. “Handbook of Hydrology. design of hydraulic structures. vol.” D. channel and river hydraulics. and private sectors. the model output required for design or evaluation. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. watershed hydrology. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. when fully implemented. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. (J. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. or pollution.

the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. 21. Therefore. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. than for laminar flow (Fig. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. as shown in Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. causing the flow to become turbulent. ft ρ = density of fluid. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.29) For laminar flow. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. F.17).21 Fig. 32.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. flow is laminar in circular pipes. 21.l9.18. Inc. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.19. at completely turbulent flow. These disturbances create eddies. handbook of Hydraulics.) 21. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. it is not practical to treat it analytically. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. ft/s D = pipe diameter..” 6th ed. (21. ft L = length of pipe section considered.28) where hf = head loss due to friction.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. laminar flow is unstable. (21. Brater. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. (E. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the velocity distribution is more uniform. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. In this region. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Eq. Fig. As the Reynolds number increases. As a result. 21. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 32. the flow is completely turbulent.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. . 21. a disturbance will probably be magnified. In laminar flow. All rights reserved.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. Click here to view. 21.27) where V = fluid velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. New York.

30) where hf = head loss due to friction. . Inc. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. F. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.008 – 0.0002 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.00003 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.03 – 0.001 – 0. (21. ft D = diameter of pipe.003 0. 21. 21. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. (L.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.19) L = length of pipe. 21. (21.0002 0.001 0. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. Click here to view.0005 0.008 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. 32. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.9. ft V = velocity of fluid. The head loss is independent of the pressure.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. Moody.0005 – 0. enamels.0005 – 0. November 1944. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.0002 – 0.21. All rights reserved.) Because Eq. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.003 – 0.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.19) to Determine f ε. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. 21.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.

3.34b) (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. ft L = length of pipe.34c) 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.34e) where V = velocity. ft/s C = coefficient. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. Click here to view. which requires experience in its choice.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.9. Tables 21. 21.33b) (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. ft3/s. .33d) (21.31) where V = velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.9. See also Table 22.34d) (21.32) where n = coefficient.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.11 (p.) Substitution into Eq. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft/s C1 = coefficient. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. 21. (Although based on surface roughness. ft S = head loss due to friction.4 and 21. All rights reserved.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. dependent on surface roughness. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.31) gives (21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.33e) 21.9.33c) (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. Inc. where D is the pipe diameter. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.

(21. 21.016 To 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.36) for a check.) Flow between reservoirs.20 ple 21.015 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. Inc. because (21.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.35b) (21.017 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.012 0.013 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.017 From 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.015 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.014 0.013 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.7. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.014 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.012 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.010 0.017 0.017 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. (21. Example 21.010 0. However. bends. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.013 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. (21.035 0. in short pipelines.011 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.013 0.35c) (21.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. .21. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.015 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. All rights reserved.4 Values of n for Pipes.015 0.012 0.017 0.013 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.7: Figure 21.010 To 0. Click here to view.012 0. enlargements.015 0.

120 Centrifugally spun.. 120 24 in and over.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 85 16 in. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. 21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. (21. ft.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. minor losses must be considered. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. is (21.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. (A.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. 110 4 in. 120 Large sizes. good workmanship.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. H. determined experimentally by Brightmore. so a full velocity head is lost. Inc. 105 30 in and over.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. regardless of age.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Ltd. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 135 In good condition. 21. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).38) A special application of Eq. London.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.10. (21.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.10.25 Table 21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. the values of K in Fig. where V is the velocity in the pipe. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. Click here to view. .” Constable & Co.7.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. (21. ft/s g = 32.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. steel forms. All rights reserved.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.37): (21. 80 4 in.. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.21). 115 12 in.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. Gibson. 10 years older Average value. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 21.21 are approximate. 140 Large sizes. 21. good workmanship. wood forms. 110 (21. Table 21. are presented in Table 21.37) or (21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.10.

7 0.1 0. Click here to view.0 1.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. 21.0 Table 21.2 0. such as valves and elbows.81 0. Globe valve. fully open Gate valve. All rights reserved.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.66 0. fully open Angle valve. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.9 0. D = pipe diameter.3 0.89 1.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.0 5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. fully open Swing check valve.42) Table 21. Inc.2 2.76 0.80 K = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.21 of the sides.63 0.6 0.8 are only approximate.2 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.4 0.8 0. For these reaTable 21.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.25 The values in Table 21.68 0.9 0.50 K = 0.05 K = 0.0 2. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.64 0.21. and at bends is given by (21.5 0.5 0. .4 21.62 0.71 0.10.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.

series D. McGraw-Hill. no. Equation (21. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. (21. its effect should be taken into account. Reynolds number. 21. Zipparo and H. Click here to view. (21. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.42).44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. (21. The data are in agreement that the head loss. 21. the bend loss essentially remains constant. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. If this velocity is significant. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice.9 for low velocity of approach. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol.44) where Q = discharge. . Ito.) Fig. this error is corrected by the C values. (H. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. (K. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.27 sons.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. Hasen. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. not including friction loss. there is disagreement. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. Figure 21. All rights reserved.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. For low heads. 21. square. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. 21.45) 21. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Orifices may have any shape. Experiments on smooth pipes. Beij.. H. (V. New York. Inc. or rectangular. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. National Bureau of Standards. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.Water Resources Engineering s 21. J.23. 1960.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.42).11. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.43) where ∆ = deflection angle.22: (21.” Journal of Research.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.” 4th ed. July 1938.. however. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. 1. 82. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Inc.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. 21. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. vol. not including friction loss in the bend. and angle of bend. although they are usually round.

599 0.641 0.594 0. of circular orifices.598 0.21. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.1 0.607 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.590 0.617 0.604 0.648 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.604 0.614 0.626 0. the vena contracta.608 0.601 0.632 0. With the reference plane through point 2.598 * Hamilton Smith.611 0.612 0. Jr.602 0.618 0.1 0.593 0.605 0.606 0.644 0.627 0. ft 0.601 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. ft 0.629 0.614 0.604 0.637 0. “Hydraulics.592 0.612 0.648 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.610 0.636 0.602 0.623 0.602 0.608 0.623 0.655 0.” 1886.634 0.628 0.605 0.597 0. Click here to view.623 0.596 0.592 0.596 0.599 0.99.618 0.614 0.619 0.615 0.618 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.606 0.609 0. Inc.602 0. and Eq.607 0.610 0.602 0.617 0.46) The actual velocity.0 Head.596 0.593 0.602 0.593 0. All rights reserved.603 0.599 0.613 0 610 0.605 0.608 0.600 0.594 0.5 2 2..596 0.45) becomes (21.652 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0. and Z2 = 0.601 0.599 0. ft 0.632 0.643 0. 21.598 0.602 0.613 0. Z1 = h.637 0.621 0.04 0.598 1. (21.595 0.607 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.605 0.6 08 1 1.04 0.603 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.660 0.630 0.94 to 0.4 0.0 0. V1 = 0.631 0.595 0.600 0.602 0.601 0.603 0. determined experimentally.619 0.600 0.600 0.616 0.02 0.622 0.596 0.592 1.02 0.597 0.637 0.616 0. .596 0.591 0. to Fig.603 0.595 0.628 0.611 0.

25 orifice. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. (21.24b. ft.. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.61 to 0. the area of the orifice. All rights reserved.25. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. New York. (21.29 Fig. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Brater. between 1 and 2. Inc. Figure 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. .) 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 6th ed. F. “Handbook of Hydraulics.67. McGraw-Hill Book Company.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. 21. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.11. Click here to view. Eq. 21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.48) is obtained. In Fig. the contraction is completely suppressed. 21. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. With a partly suppressed orifice.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. see E. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. 21. 21. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.47) where hL = losses in head. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.11. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. For simplicity.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.57) (21.50) becomes (21. to time t.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.56). (21. ft h2 = head at the end. Click here to view.55) 21. All rights reserved.49) Solving for dt yields (21. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.26): (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.56) Fig.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.58)]. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. is that for a parabola: (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start.51) upon integration becomes (21. . (21.58) gives (21. (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. (21. when y = h1. 21. ft2 A = area of reservoir.11. 32. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Eq. Eq.58) Equation (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. s The Y coordinate is (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. obtained by solving Eq.50) where a = area of orifice. 21. 21.59). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.57) for t and substituting in Eq. Inc.21. (21.23). when y = h2. Rearranging Eq. (21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.75. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.33VT / 2g.82 VT)2/2g = 0. ft2 Fig.31 ty Cν = 0.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. a K value for Eq.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. 21. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. 21.29. 21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. 21. .6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. 21. When this happens. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. 21. Therefore.42) of 0.28).5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.82. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. In the tube or pipe. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67 V T / 2g = 0. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. (21.11.11. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.67 V2T /2g.27) but the head loss is larger.82. if one exists). K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. however. All rights reserved. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.27.5 a T T Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. 21. Equation (21. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. Fig.67 V2 ) = 0. For a short tube flowing full.80. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. Click here to view. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. (21. 21. psf w = unit weight of water. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. Inc.00 VT / 2g – 0.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.

12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.29. 21. The pipe shown in Fig. the pressure in the pipe falls.21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. However. 21.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. All rights reserved. it causes water hammer. For this analysis to be valid. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. either increased or decreased.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. the water in the pipe is motionless. 21. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. When a valve is closed.32). the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve. the tube must flow full. Every time the flow rate is changed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. but at a pressure much higher than normal. Click here to view. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise.30). . 21. this momentum drops to zero. either above or below the normal pressure. As the water flows into the reservoir. Inc. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. The change causes a pressure rise. Fig. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig.

32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. (21.13.63a) becomes (21. Equation (21. Click here to view.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. psf t = thickness of pipe wall.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. For instantaneous closure: (21. .13. Fig. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. (21. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. 21. 1. Inc.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.63). (21. All rights reserved. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. 43.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. 21. Eq. approximate solution. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. s A plot of pressure vs. ft 21.63a) In terms of pressure head.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.64) 21. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.

Once the time interval has been determined. (21. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. ft L = length of pipeline. is g = acceleration due to gravity. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. (21. With the head known. Inc.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement.) Example 21. where ∆t. All rights reserved..32. then that obtained from Eq.” 4th ed.21. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. McGraw-Hill. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer.) Velocity of pressure wave. diameter = 10 ft. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).5 ft2.63). Hasen. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. equals L /aU.2 × 108 psf.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. J. penstock thickness = 1 in. (21. (V. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.63).63). head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. s T = actual closure time of valve. New York. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. Click here to view.. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. 32. such as L/aU.61). (21. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. the increment of time. where a equals any integer. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. to apply Eq. (21. each causing an individual pressure wave. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. length = 3000 ft. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. Thus. from Eq. area = 78. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. Vo the original velocity. Zipparo and H. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. . (21. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure.

35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. Fig. approximate equation (21. The water column. from Eq.66) where p = internal pressure. Inc. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. the stress. it is by no means the only one.13. 21. to prevent water hammer. floats on the line. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. (21.64) gives the following result: 21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. and the pressure rise.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in Assuming T = 4. in effect.75 s.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. 21. When a valve is suddenly opened. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. Various types of relief Fig.63). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Click here to view. psi. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. All rights reserved. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Usually. 21.33) must still be designed for water hammer. lb Hence. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. 21.90 s. the closure is instantaneous. . but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.34). is Pipe Stresses 21. When a valve is suddenly closed.90 s.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.34 tension. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. on the pipe material is (21.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.

it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. For concrete pipes.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. is (21.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. 6.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.” 2nd ed. due to a temperature change is (21. Gere.21. For steel pipes. (21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.6).36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.. The force diagram in Fig. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. P Timoshenko and J. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. 21.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. However. The stress. McGraw-Hill Book Company. it acts like a beam.67) for concrete pipe.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. (21. Inc. However. (S. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. elastic Stability. “Theory of . the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. 21. if expansion joints are to be used. If D/t is less than 10. Eq.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. Art. (21. In this case. Eq.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. New York. Equation (21.67). (21. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. 21. M. however. this analysis is approximate. In Fig. . psi. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. In all bends.10). ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.

35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.71) where R = resultant force on bend. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. psf w = unit weight of water. All rights reserved. Eqs. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. . an exact theoretical analysis.71) give a quick solution. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. 62. (21. canal. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. or other embankment. 32. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. the joints must also be able to take these forces.70) and (21. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. In small pipes. Click here to view. However. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. exit conditions. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. a railroad.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.37 Fig. and slope.

(21. and the Manning equation for friction loss. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.” EB058W. slope is greater than the critical slope. the normal depth (Art. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. For this reason. 21. computer software. that is.33d) or (21. Portland Cement Association. but they do not cover Fig. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.37).73) 21. Click here to view. 21. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.23).30)]. All rights reserved.21. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.36). the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. 21. and the control will still be at the inlet. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. 21.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the culvert flows full. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Inc. charts.38).36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. the following equation is obtained: (21. . 21. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.

depending on the head. 21. ft Equation (21. (21.75) Substituting this into Eq. and dn > dc . Fig. When slope is less than critical.39). 32.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The fluid flows under pressure.39 Fig. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. When the slope is less than critical.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. 21.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and dn < dc . All rights reserved. . 21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. Discharge is independent of slope. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. and slope of culvert. Inc. Thus. 21. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. When slope exceeds critical.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. loss at entrance.20) 21. flow depends on inlet condition.74) yields (21.74) Fig. ft V = velocity in culvert. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. open-channel flow takes place. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. Click here to view. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. for the open-channel condition (Fig. The discharge. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. (21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. Discharge depends on head H. normal pipe flow occurs. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.23). 21. 21.

21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. ft To solve Eq. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.72). 21. Most culverts. ft dn = normal depth of flow.21. (21. Inc.76). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.18). When the friction slope is flat. If this condition exists. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.39). Click here to view. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream.76). the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.37). (21. 21. 21. If the head on a culvert is high. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. however. If the friction slope approaches critical. (21.76). the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. 21.40). Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. 21. and discharge is given by Eq. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. . The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig.41). All rights reserved. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.

21.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.19). it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.72) and (21. with Eq. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2.72) yields Q =Va = 9.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.8 ft3/s Table 21. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Substitution in Eq. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Fig. (21.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. square edge Concrete pipe.10 0. (21. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Eq. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. groove or bell. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. Find: size of culvert. and the entrance will not control.013. the flow is under pressure. 21.9 0. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.40).95 × 4 = 39. Example 21. . slope = 0.41 For entrance control. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.6. (21. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section.01.Water Resources Engineering s 21. n = 0. length = 300 ft. These values are for culverts flowing full. Table 21. All rights reserved. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.44) for discharge through an orifice. Inc.18 and 21. But H = 5 + 0.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. groove or bell. 21. projecting Concrete pipe. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Application of Eq. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Click here to view.5 0. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. First find dn.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. (21. When the entrance is not submerged.72) applies.15 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Since the culvert is under pressure.73). and free exit.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. To calculate the hydraulic radius. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. 21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. (21.

or slope.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. It is expressed in feet as (21. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. All rights reserved. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77) where V = average velocity. 32. or the total-head line. ft3/s. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. is generally given by (21. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It has uniform flow if the grade. (21. ft. and is given by (21. In a uniform channel. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. within a hydraulic jump.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. Hence.03 to 1.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. ft2 When the discharge is constant. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves.79). The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow.36 for prismatic channels. (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. The wetted perimeter is the length. or open-channel flow.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. however.79) The velocity head HV. ft. Figure 21. normally taken as 1. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. . Click here to view. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. minus the free surface width. Equation (21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. plus the velocity head at the point. Inc. It is. Thus. ft. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. depth of flow is constant throughout. as the discharge divided by the area of flow.

21. ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . “Open-Channel Hydraulics. For a rectangular channel.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. McGrawHill Book Company. as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. 21. Chow. As the depth decreases downstream. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.83) Brater.43). Click here to view. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. ft. and discharge are known. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. (21.42 is called the normal depth dn.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.44.) (21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. New York.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.84) reduces to Fig. Eq. in which T is the top width of the channel. Inc. the specific energy also decreases. 21. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. normal depth decreases downstream.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. (See. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. roughness. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. F. for example.84) where A = area of flow. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.43 Fig. 21. E. slope. New York.43. T. (V. 21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation..

44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. (21.84). ft3/s d = depth of flow. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. 21.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. Click here to view. All rights reserved.44). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. for a given discharge. and flow is supercritical.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. Inc. the depth is below critical. (21. New York). Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. 21. Eq. the depth is greater than critical. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.44). In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.84) is called the critical depth dc. F. For a given value of specific energy.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. For rectangular channels.43. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. or conversely. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. 21.84) may be reduced to (21. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. The flow there is called subcritical flow. Brater. .” 6th ed. (21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.

It can be seen from Fig. All rights reserved. For every depth greater than critical depth. 21. 21. flow is subcritical. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. (21. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. p. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.44). as indicated in Fig. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Such a change occurs gradually. . 21. [As indicated by Eq.45. (21. 21.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. 21. along with a high loss of energy.45 where dc = critical depth.87) Fig. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. once calculated. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. 21. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. without turbulence. a hydraulic jump will occur. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. indicating an irreversible occurrence.85).52b. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s b = width of channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. Critical depth.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.57). Click here to view. flow is supercritical. regardless of slope. Inc. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.Water Resources Engineering s 21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.

46. (21. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. as shown in Fig.) 21. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.D.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. therefore. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. are identical for a channel of critical slope. C for critical. E. and A for adverse. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.L. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Dr.23). is replaced by a horizontal line. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.D. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at an arbitrary elevation. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.25). 21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. H for horizontal.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. The M2 curve forms between the normal. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. The N.9 and Table 21. and two types for channels of critical.L.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. and C. 21.D. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). Inc. ft V = mean velocity of flow. and the critical-depth line C. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. 21. and adverse slope.L. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.4. 21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.and critical-depth lines. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. horizontal. .S.L. Click here to view. and the N.11.46a and b. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.21.D.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. (See also Art. New York. Chow. are in Table 21. All rights reserved. there must be a continuing maintenance program.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. These curves are divided into five groups.89) may be written (21. 21.D. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. T. S for steep (supercritical). Eq. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. (Although based on surface roughness. the average n values given in Table 21.90) where A = area of flow.46c and d. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. Department of Agriculture.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig.L.

Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.040 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Smooth wood form c. The S2 curve.016 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.018 0. untreated 3. good section c.140 0. Smooth b. No vegetation b. Gunite.035 0.080 0.015 Avg 0.022 0.012 0. Masonry a. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.030 0. Rough wood form B. few weeds c. after weathering b. All rights reserved.013 0. high stage 2. Smooth and uniform b.018 0.035 0.012 0. Concrete a.016 0. Metal a.021 0. Clean.040 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.013 0.035 0. Click here to view.032 0.033 0.025 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. respectively).025 0.014 0. Excavated earth.013 0. Unlined channels 1. Float finish b. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. 21.030 0. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.46a and b.120 0.030 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.028 0.017 0.017 Max 0.019 0. . Lined channels 1.010 0. Wood a.011 0.027 0. Dredged earth a.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.024 0. Dense weeds. Steel form b.023 0. Rough C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.023 0.050 0. wavy section 4.014 0.035 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.033 0.050 0.080 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.025 0.060 0.100 0.020 0.014 0.012 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. straight and uniform a.021 0. 21.013 0.016 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Cemented rubble b. high as flow depth d.013 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.022 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.015 0. Asphalt a. Planed. Jagged and irregular 0.016 0. Corrugated 2. Light brush on banks 3. With short grass. Rock cuts a.016 0. Dense brush.025 0. 21.022 0.012 0.46i and j. Dry rubble 5.011 0. Inc.025 0.015 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.014 0.025 0. Gunite.

21. The curves in Fig. 21. indicates normal-depth line. C.. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. H.21. and A profiles. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. All rights reserved.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. Inc. 21. 21. critical-depth line.D. Examples in Fig.46k and l.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.L.D. N.L.

32. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. New York. the channel is divided into short lengths. The wave travels at a speed. For subcritical flow conditions. or reaches. All rights reserved. Inc. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. and step methods. each reach is solved in succession. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. known as its celerity. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. . Click here to view. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. (21. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. (R. Chow.27.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. 21. For step-method computations. Explanations of both the graphical. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.5. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. with relatively small variation. H.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. weir. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined.” McGraw-Hill.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow.. In a series of steps starting from a point of control.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.51). ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. free overfall. gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. French.47. direction-integration. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method.77) if the depth were zero. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. 21. 21.) 21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Inc. For the section of channel in Fig. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. See Art. dam. T. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. New York. depending on the type of flow.and direct-integration methods are in V.

rearranged as follows: Fig. (21. 21. the longer the backwater curve profile. 21. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. ft. hi. the head loss.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. not the channel bottom. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The smaller the value of n. (21. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. and vice versa. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. prismatic channels. the – eddy loss. (21. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.91) for L gives (21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation.93) where R = hydraulic radius.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. and – SL = hf.92) (21. ft. Therefore. (For uniform. the change in elevation.93). Click here to view. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. due to friction in the same reach. Solving Eq.82). as given by Eq. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Inc. All rights reserved. is negligible and can be ignored.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. respectively. .21.

The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. (21. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. and about 0. total head H. or roughness. 21. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.93). by a slight increase in Manning’s n.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. ft. The value of total head computed from Eq. the average friction slope for the reach.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. ft/s. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. (21. Then. is obtained from Eq. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Next. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. grade. after substitution of H from Eq.92). the friction loss. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. which. Finally. becomes (21. Since this step method is a converging process.51 may be some intermediate depth. sometimes called impact loss.96).95). (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. . Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. from 0 to 0.93). in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq.95) The coefficient k is 0. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. respectively.1 for converging reaches. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Therefore. Inc. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. (21. Eddy loss. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft.94).Water Resources Engineering s 21. Next. referred to a horizontal datum. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. S. and it is therefore often accounted for. ft. ft. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump.2 for diverging reaches. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. (21. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. (21. at sec– tions 1 and 2. in natural channels. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Then. Click here to view. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. For lined channels. computations progress toward the initial section. All rights reserved. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.47. respectively. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. Z2. (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel.

21. and determine the discharge. 2nd ed. velocity. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. 21. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. H. however.” Hydraulics Design Series no. If the two values of total head do not agree.51 and 21. known as the length of jump. Bureau of Public Roads. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. or other obstruction. respectively. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile.52b.21. Utilizing the above data. Department of Transportation. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.. Inc.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. All rights reserved. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. . 21. and J. The upstream surface of the jump. 21.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. bridge piers.S.48). The effect of bridges. as shown in Figs. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. approach roadways. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. 21. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. 21. 1. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.1 ft in elevation. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope.23). Click here to view. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. Fig.48 Hydraulic jump.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. French. Bradley. 1970. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. known as the roller. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. However. is a turbulent mass of water. New York. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. Federal Highway Administration. a gate. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. N. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).” McGraw-Hill Book Company. U. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.27.

For rectangular channels. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. 32.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity. ft w = unit weight of water. ft/s2. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.100). and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. Inc. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. where L is a characteristic length.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.27.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. (21. 21.99) where M = mass of water.49) is given by (21. ft3/s = unit of time. V is the mean velocity. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.105) where A = area of flow. ft d2 = depth after jump. or alternate depths. s (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. 21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. in Eq. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. ft. ft/s.102) Equation (21. This difference (Fig. All rights reserved.16)]. ft2 T = width of free surface. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. (21. Click here to view. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.104) = discharge. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. d2 must also equal dc.100) Equation (21.82). lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. . For open-channel flow.99).98) and (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump.98) where d1 = depth before jump. this resultant pressure force is (21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

7. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve.5. below a spillway.5 to 4. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.0 and larger. All rights reserved. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. 21. 21.0. depending on local conditions. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. for example.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. the jump will be drowned out. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. For F1 = 9. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Click here to view. there are undulations on the surface. . and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. The jump is well-balanced.5. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. For F1 = 1. This jump may be called a strong jump. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. can travel for miles. For F1 = 2. very commonly in canals. the flow is critical and there is no jump.21. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. Various forms of hydraulic jump. This jump may be called a weak jump.S.5 to 9.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. 21.7 to 2. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. For F1 = 4. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. which gives discharge vs. The jump is called an undular jump. depth after the jump. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. and the performance is at its best. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 1 to 1. The jump action is rough but effective.49. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. 21. This jump may be called a steady jump. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. For F1 = 1. If the tailwater is too low.27. In either case. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23). If the tailwater is too high. chute. which. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. were classified by the U. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%.

therefore. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig.105).4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. and sloping the apron. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. 21.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. But it has been determined experimentally. Bureau of Reclamation. All rights reserved. 21.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. changing the apron elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.55 curve involve changing the crest length. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. prepared by V. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. . 21. (21.27.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.51.27. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. Click here to view. This length (Fig. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. Inc. These features are expensive to build. T. The resulting curve (Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.S. The curve. Accessories. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U.Water Resources Engineering s 21. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21.

21. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1.101) with d1 given. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG.21. the jump moves downstream to a new position. (21. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. 21. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. if the downstream depth is lowered. the computed length of jump. computed from Eq. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. the jump occurs in the steep region.23) to mild.26. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap.101). computed from Eq. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. As depth d2 is lowered. 21.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. less than. the jump moves to a new location downstream. 21. which occurs near the channel drop-off. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig. 21. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. as theory would indicate.7dc for simplicity. The actual depth at the brink is 71.5% of critical depth. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. curves AB and ED in Fig. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than.51. CB. using the step methods of Art. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. Click here to view.46e and c).52a. but it is normally assumed to be 0. that flow is uniform. It is assumed. between lines CB′and EO. (21. Conversely. 21. .56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. as shown in Fig. equal in length to L. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. 21. for simplicity. If d2 is less than d′ . A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. Inc. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. A horizontal intercept FG. equal to the computed length of the jump. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta.52. respectively (Fig.75h in the absence of better information. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.102). Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. 21. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. 21. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. (21.52b.

the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. (R. Then. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. From Q = AV.23). A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). ft. where He is the specific energy head. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.3 for one with squared ends. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. If the entrance loss must be considered. French. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.. Click here to view. Brater. All rights reserved.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. New York. 21. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. and the slope of the channel. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.82) and (21. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. on the channel entrance.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0.) 21. ft. is (21.53). McGraw-Hill Book Company. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). or (b) below it. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. if not. 21. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. the entrance loss. a new discharge is assumed. ft3/s. then the assumed discharge is correct. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.51. “Handbook of Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill.53a).Water Resources Engineering s 21. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.106) where b is the channel width. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. ignoring entrance loss. Inc. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance.85)]. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. ft. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. (21. 21. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen.. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. Inc. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. 21. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. .” 6th ed. H. 21. and discharge is at a maximum. F. ft. or (a) above it.

The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. All rights reserved. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. 21. a new discharge is chosen. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. d is normal depth. (In Fig. if not. He is the specific energy head. 21. Inc. where He – d is the actual head. ft.23). Click here to view. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).53b). 32. 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art.53b.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.33).53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. .2 ft/s2. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. producing flow. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. ft3/s. 21. (21. 21. (b) mild-slope channel. then the discharge is correct. 21. ft2.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21.83).22).) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. ———— charge. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. ft.

in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. Thus. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. curve (Fig. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. Inc. and rc the radius of curvature.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq.107) The theoretical difference y.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. where V is its average velocity. ft. (21. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. ft. a unit mass of water. 21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches.83)]. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. Therefore.59 21. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. of the center line of the channel. 21. If the bend continues long enough.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. In this range. 21. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. (21.108). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. when a stream enters a curve. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. 21. however. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. or mV2 /rc for m. ft /s. (21. .23). The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. Click here to view. The error will not be great. the true value of y would be only a few inches. All rights reserved. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve.

A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. This angle may be found from (21. Inc. 21. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Two waves form at the start of the curve. and continue crossing and recrossing. . The second is a negative wave. by (21. 21. (21. however. These waves cross at M. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. depths along the inside wall. C. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. (F.23). The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. with sufficient accuracy. Fig.110) for θ in Eq. recross as shown.S. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. (21.111). flows around a bend in a channel. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. The cross slope required for 21.” U. phase.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Technical Bulletin 393. of greater-than-average surface elevation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Scobey. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. His values have not been evaluated completely. One is a positive wave. All rights reserved. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.55). Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. Department of Agriculture. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.16)] .112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. and should be used with discretion. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. a series of standing waves are produced. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.21.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Click here to view. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. an increase in friction loss results.

Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. 21. and g = 32. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. or change from supercritical to subcritical. if friction is ignored. The transition loss. Inc. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.2 ft/s2. If friction is ignored.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. In this range. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section.44. ft.44. is given by K(∆V2/2g). angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. wall roughness. 21. plus any transition and friction losses. For outlet-type structures. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. Straight. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. To place a transition properly between two open channels. 21.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. therefore.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. When proceeding downstream through a transition. 21. Many variables. 21. Click here to view. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. 21. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.54). p. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.56. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. ∆V is the velocity change. 21. 21. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. change from subcritical to supercritical.113) angle of about 12. where K. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. respectively. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. the average velocity decreases. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. ft/s. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.1 for an inlet-type structure. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. and channel shape and slope.23). Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. the loss factor.8[∆(V2/2g)]. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. . In design of an inlet-type transition structure.57).Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as flow-rate changes. as shown in Fig. low-head-loss transfer of flow.2 for welldesigned transitions. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. equals about 0.

34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. and.000556(10)2 = 0. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. If the discharge is partly under water. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. as shown in Fig. 21. from which a = 0. Click here to view.34. trapezoidal weirs. 21. 21. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. y = ax2.57. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.59 Weir not sharp-crested. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air.5 = a(30)2. .000556(20)2 = 0. and parabolic weirs.21.000556.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. such as broad-crested weirs. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. Fig. 21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. the weir has free discharge. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. triangular or Vnotch weirs. Inc. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. the weir is submerged or drowned. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. 21.58). trapezoidal weirs. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. measured from A or B. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. For Fig. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. In contrast. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. 21.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0.58 Sharp-crested weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as rectangular weirs.222 ft. triangular weirs. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Fig.59.

” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Chow. One such equation. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided.60 V-notch weir. A V-notch weir (Fig. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. If P is less than Fig.34. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. below the crest. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. .5H.Water Resources Engineering s 21.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. 21.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. At very low heads. 21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. contraction of the nappe. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. Equation (21.115) where Q = discharge. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. thus causing a contraction of the flow. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. 21. 2. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. To be fully ventilated.116) corrects for the effects of friction.5H upstream from the weir. Hence.58) (V. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Click here to view. ft The head should be measured at least 2. T. New York). to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. Inc. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. All rights reserved. 21. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir.

. T. (21.61) (E. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. New York). This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.118) Fig.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. (21. . ft.34. The effective length L. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. 21. vol.34. 21. 69. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. His values were summarized by Brater.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Lenz. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. Inc. ft H = head. Discharge is given by (21. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. measured from notch bottom. Click here to view. 21. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. All rights reserved. 1943). Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.2) when low discharges are to be measured.34. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. there are two end contractions and N = 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. 21. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21.118)] 21. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Fig. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.5H upstream from the weir.” 6th ed. 21.119) where Q = discharge.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.21. 21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. F.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.

Thus. Typically.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 32. (J. Where great accuracy is essential. 21. velocity head. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.34. R.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.34. Then. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. velocity head of approach. or both. and then. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.59). ft3/s. compute the velocity of approach. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. ft. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. Inc.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom.) To use the Villemonte equation. neglecting the velocity head.” Engineering News-Record. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Dec. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. 2 21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. and finally total head. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. 866.122) where H = measured head. (21. 21.) Equation (21. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. for such weirs. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. From this total head. 1947. The discharge Qs. Click here to view. heavily constructed devices. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.121) where Q = discharge.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.Water Resources Engineering s 21.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. using this rate and the required depths. 21. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. using this discharge.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. All rights reserved. Eq. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.115) is rewritten in the form (21. p. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. . ft3/s. Fig. Villemonte. 25. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. 21. which may be done as follows: First. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. ft V = velocity of approach.

123) where L = effective crest length. Click here to view. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.12. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.S. and approach velocity. and the approach velocity.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration.2 of the head. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. For each change of nappe shape. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. where approach velocities are high. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. The effect is most critical for low heads.” Government Printing Office. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.20 0. 21. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. ft (U. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. “Design of Small Dams. the head in relation to the design head. starting with the corrected discharge. But the process should be repeated. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Department of the Interior. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. DC 20402. Washington. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Inc. F. For conditions of design head Hd. ft L′ = net crest lengths.34. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. thickness of pier.21. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. All rights reserved. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. .10 H.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.02 0. head in relation to design heads. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.13.5Hd > r* > 0. Therefore. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. For conditions of design head Table 21.

Consequently. This manual and V. (21. however. For flow at heads lower than the design head. . Washington. at the point of maximum contraction. The shape of this nappe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 2. Of the above rules.67 Fig. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. Inc. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity.65. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.S. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. This relationship is shown in Fig. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. All rights reserved. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. called the design head Hd.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. 21.5H upstream. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. According to Chow. “Design of Small Dams. Chow. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. T. 1. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. 21. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. Department of the Interior. Chow. and therefore of an ogee crest. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. DC 20402.” Government Printing Office. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. Click here to view.34. Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York).122). “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21.64) has such a shape. T. depends on the head producing the discharge. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. 21.66 of the head.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Fig. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. where discharge is given by Eq. (U. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. for a sharp-crested weir.

All rights reserved. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. Bureau of Reclamation. .S. (From “Design of Small Dams. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S.” U. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. Fig.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. New York.” U.) Fig. Figure 21.66.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. Inc. 21.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. 21. the flow differs from ideal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (From “Design of Small Dams.

therefore.) Fig. Inc. 21.. Bureau of Reclamation.) 21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. if flow is at other than the design head. Values of the discharge coefficient. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. “Handbook of Hydraulics.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.34. (See.68. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.69 Fig.” 6th ed.” U.. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.14. the coefficient of discharge. . a plane horizontal crest. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (E. 21. Figure 21. for example.67 and 21. E.S. and sharp right-angled edges. New York.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. because of its sharp upstream edge.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.69 Broad-crested weir. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. the nappe springs free. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. F. appear in Table 21.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. (21. Unless otherwise noted. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. All rights reserved.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. are used as spillways and control structures. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Handbook of Hydraulics. has contraction of the nappe.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” 6th ed. Brater. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. F. where the velocity of approach is not high. is determined from Fig. compiled by King. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. 21. Weirs of irregular section. fairly common in waterworks projects. Figure 21.34. Brater. 21. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. (From “Design of Small Dams. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Click here to view.

64 2. which are often of equal consequence.66 2.5 4.92 3.50 H.69 2.00 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.64 2.32 3.70 2.67 2.32 3.00 2.08 3.85 2.32 3.5 5.68 2.32 3.74 2.88 3.32 3.31 3.26 3. This incoming water.32 3.32 2.56 2.32 3.14 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.88 10. valves.5 3.6 1.68 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.64 2.8 1.32 3.68 2.64 2.50 2.66 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.69 2.86 2.07 3.54 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.69 2.32 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67 2.20 3. such as gates.69 2.85 3.73 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 2. or soil.0 5.32 3.64 2.61 2.32 3.88 2.00 2.20 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.77 2.64 2.32 4.0 2.70 2.68 2.64 2.20 3. 21.68 2.79 1.34 2.00 2. All rights reserved.08 3.89 3.32 3.70 2.64 2.66 2.66 2. ft 0.75 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.32 1.63 2.2 1.19 3.4 0.63 21. .64 2.0 4.64 15.75 2.65 2.72 2.65 2.04 3.63 2.63 2.32 2.64 2.29 3.32 3.64 2.67 2. ft 0.72 2.31 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.67 2.0 1.65 2.32 3.74 2.89 2.64 2.60 2.60 2.32 3.68 2.32 3.28 3.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0. with its load of suspended silt.32 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.07 3.32 5. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.32 3.63 2.32 3. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.76 2.4 1.5 2.68 2.32 3.81 2.92 3.65 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. erosion.80 2.32 3.28 3.32 3.76 2.32 3.0 3.32 3.68 2. and turbines.03 3.70 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.32 3.00 2.32 3.63 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.50 2. A density current.32 3.32 3.35.60 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging. once formed.68 2.98 3.64 2.60 2.48 2.63 2.07 3. Inc.44 2.64 2.50 2.58 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.65 2.38 2.32 3.32 3.62 2.32 3.00 2.64 2.2 0.32 1.63 2. such as a reservoir.66 2. those forming the bed load. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.72 2.92 2.63 2.79 2.65 2.32 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 Breadth of crest of weir.64 2.64 2.32 3.97 3.54 2.49 2. The smaller silt sizes.32 3.80 2.30 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface. those carried in suspension.8 2.6 0.31 3.32 3.05 3.68 2.21.67 2.07 3.07 3.75 2.68 2. Click here to view.61 2.32 3.63 2.32 3.30 3.68 2.00 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.89 3.70 2.63 2.

overtopping. 21. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. When neither can be done. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. landslide. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. All rights reserved. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. . These currents are stable. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. However. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Click here to view. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur.35. By this method. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. however. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. on the other hand. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. once formed. 21. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. the rate is not uniform during the year. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. or failure of materials. are coarsegrained. Of course. see Art. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. formed from the bed load. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm.39. or from year to year. because of variations in rainfall. The most common manner of destruction. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. 21.124) where Gb = total bed load. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. But for the most part. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. ft qo = critical discharge. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Therefore. Frequently. All rights reserved. A mean grain size of 0. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. discharge. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. Therefore. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time.35. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Inc. . These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles.21. Therefore.1). however. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. (21. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. which varies with both slope and discharge. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. and boulders.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. which generally occurs only during a storm. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. gravel. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. ft3/s b = width of river. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. According to Witzig. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. Click here to view.0 ft/mi.

and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Such screens. including their relation to living things. It continually records.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. infiltration. such as wind. H. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Inc. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. evaporation. Einstein. . Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. Weather Bureau is 24 h. day. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. (21-124). reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. groundwater flow. All rights reserved. by ink pen and revolving drum. temperature. recharges groundwater.” U. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. such as an hour. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. Click here to view. check-dam construction. (See H.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. A. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Department of Agriculture. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. In this cycle. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. infiltrates into the soil. which are of two types. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Use of vegetation screens. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Weather Bureau. For instance. are published daily by the U. or digital microchip technology. circulation. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. or year. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. New York. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Current data. runoff. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (W.S. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Graf. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. The second type is a nonrecording gage. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. and distribution. debris barriers. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. and their reaction with their environment. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. or a combination of the two. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. discharges into streams. water evaporation from oceans. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. their chemical and physical properties. if the dam is raised at a later date. rivers. contour plowing. and pressure. and the stream velocity. on or near the land surface.73 dation. their occurrence. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. planting of burned-over areas.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. and stream flow 21.) culation. lakes.S.

A portion may evaporate as it falls. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. and plantleaf surfaces. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir.. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. on a long-term basis. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. equal to 15 for small.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. tropical and subtropical regions. called interception. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth.126) where E = evaporation rate. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. In evaporation. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. On an annual basis. Maidment. developed from Dalton’s law. ground. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. Evapotranspiration.125) (21. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. This phenomenon. and it increases as wind velocity increases. New York. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. has a relatively large surface area. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. In transpiration. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. or ground surfaces.21.125)]. see D. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. R. and other vegetation surfaces. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. Inc. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue.” McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. plant. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. commonly termed consumptive use. Evaporation may occur from free-water. Not all rain reaches the ground. branches. Click here to view. while another portion may be caught on leaves.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. Evapotranspiration is important because. Inc. (21. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. shallow pools and 11 for large. Of the three. especially if the reservoir is shallow. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. (21. . in of mercury. The Meyer equation [Eq. in of mercury.

called a Class A Level Pan. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. 21. frost. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff.” McGraw-Hill. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Hexadeconal.70. Groundwater flow.60 and 0. runoff may be surface. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. tropical. Thus. New York. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Classified by the path taken to a channel. It appears in surface channels. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. subsurface storm flow. birds. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. subsurface runoff. insects. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. “Handbook of Hydrology. Subsurface flow.. . Inc. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. Click here to view. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. After joining stream flow. duration. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. time distribution. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. and storm seepage. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Climatic characteristics a. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. subsurface. natural or manmade. or cetyl alcohol. or groundwater runoff. also known as interflow. Moving laterally. aquatic life. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface.80. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. effective rain includes subsurface flow. intensity. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. or excess rain. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. or groundwater flow. is in widespread use. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. hail. wind tends to push the film to the shore. snow. On large reservoirs. Precipitation—form (rain. In practice.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. except in arid. depending on the geographical region. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. R. perhaps several years. dew). whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Commonly. All rights reserved. and biologic attrition. although it may vary between 0. to reach a channel. Maidment. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. (D. is that flow supplied by deep percolation.

21. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. orientation. and completeness of the hydrologic records.S. 21. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. mean flow. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S. frozen ground during storms. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. snow storage. areal distribution. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. Temperature—variation. the U. shape. groundwater formations. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. artificial drainage. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. shape of cross section. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. and the accuracy desired. 21.S. general location. yearly flow volume. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. extremes of flow. Atmospheric pressure f.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. direction of storm movement b. . recurrence interval. These papers contain records of daily flow. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. permeability. and Weather Bureau. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. 21. soil moisture. Geological Survey. detail. Solar radiation 2. and various state and local agencies. International Boundary Commission. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Geological Survey. duration d. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. Drainage-basin characteristics a. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. TVA. Weather Bureau. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. Wind—velocity. land use and cover. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. antecedent precipitation. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. the detail required in the final answer.S. both published and unpublished. slope.” U. Inc. stratification Fig. elevation.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers.S. Agricultural Research Service. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Topographic—size.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. drainage net. Click here to view. lakes and other bodies of water. Geologic—soil type. roughness. channels (size.70.21. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. length) b. slope. extremes during precipitation c. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. Humidity e. All rights reserved. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. direction. the quantity and type of data available. special-interest items. Geological Survey.

the second to major hydraulic structures. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering.127) where Q = peak discharge. great importance. The values of C in Table 21.41.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. As an example. Inc. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. Several methods yield only peak discharge.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. 3. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. others give the complete hydrograph. 1962). The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. and large downstream damage potential. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels.128) 21. . 4. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins.or 100-year-frequency storm.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for example. Click here to view. Chow. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. 5. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. All rights reserved.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. T. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. in/h A = drainage area. a 50.

25 0.21. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. b.95 0. ditches.70 – 0.85 0..15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.71 and Table 21. 21. Sherman.40 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.20 – 0.41.22 0. K.) The flow time in gutters.70 – 0.40 0. the flow time in streets. years duration of storm. New York.17 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.35 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.75 0. n. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.127). detached Multiunits. After determining the time of concentration. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. and the flow time in conduits.13 – 0.95 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.50 – 0.15 – 0.70 0.80 – 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.10 – 0.30 – 0. is a convenient. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.75 – 0. 21. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.16). in/h respectively. “Handbook of Hydrology. streets. (21. 2–7% Heavy soil.05 – 0. gutters. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.129).75 – 0. (21.60 – 0. avg.” McGraw-Hill.95 0. factor. Maidment.20 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.50 – 0. coefficient.40 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. Inc. flat. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.80 0. 2% Heavy soil.89)] .95 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. or ditches.10 – 0. (21. All rights reserved. steep.50 – 0. avg.10 – 0.25 – 0.70 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.30 0.15 0.128) or Eq. steep.10 0.90 0.70 0. (21. (See D. Click here to view. 7% Heavy soil. R.18 – 0.129) Table 21.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. or any equivalent method. min time of concentration Fig.85 0. 2% Sandy soil.25 – 0.60 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.20 0. .50 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. flat.60 – 0. Equation (21.

Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. 4.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff.” Engineering News-Record. JanuaryJune 1932. The method is summarized by the formula (21. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (Leroy K. termed a unit storm. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Click here to view. and more accurate than any such set of factors.79 Table 21. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. 501-505. All rights reserved. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. subdivision may be required. the time of storm runoff. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. 108. 2. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. If the watershed is very large. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. termed a unit period. 3. . be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. pp. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. usually 1 acre). vol. This requires that a storm of short duration. that is.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Inc. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Thus. easier. Sherman. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures.

The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). because of storm variations. Illustrated in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.72. 21. All rights reserved.73).80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Usually. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. For ease of manipulation. . Inc. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown.21. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Then.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Click here to view. 21. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. 5. which is of fixed intensity and duration. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig.

the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Inc. 21. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. New York. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient.. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Inc. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. during heavy storms.) Fig.. Linsley et al.) where Q = flow rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See D. pp. vol. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. McGraw-Hill. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. All rights reserved. Inc. perpendicular to direction of flow. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. I. R.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Fig..74). The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. This method was developed by Franklin F. This loss. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. K. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. “Handbook of Hydrology. Maidment. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. New York.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. (R. Click here to view. 19. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. 21. Also. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. “Hydrology for Engineers.131) period.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 447–454). 21.” McGraw-Hill. . In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union..81 21.” 3rd ed. pt.

rather than a change in volume. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. water softening costs. Deteriorating water quality. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is a confined or artesian aquifer. quantity. source. recycling. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. Frequently. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. These costs include increased soap costs. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. cost of replenishment water. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. among others. present and future water demands should be determined. usually a number of years. Click here to view. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Inc.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. poor-quality replenishment waters. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. safe yield. (A base period is a period of time. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. alternative management plans should be formulated. quality. quantity. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Following the preceding preliminary work. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Regardless of how it is defined.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. and indirect water-quality use costs. groundwater levels. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. or other causes. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. . Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. wastewaters. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. and quality of water supply. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. because of impermeable layers above and below it. and overdraft. need for excessive pumping lifts. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. and location of artificial replenishment. and methods of wastewater disposal. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use).21.

and age of the city. New York. decreasing percentage increase. land speculation. sanitary. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. Kashef. Therefore. Click here to view. S. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. 40. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. and sanitary purposes. washing.” 3rd ed. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. fire-fighting. irrigation.” N. industrial. apartments. “Groundwater Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. and treatment works. fire. Bear. All rights reserved. or other unforeseen emergency.” A.. geographical boundaries. wastewater disposed. bathing. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. K. flood. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. and environmental factors. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. pumping. and public. 1987. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented.” R. and hotels for drinking. and natural and artificial replenishment. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. commercial.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. . percentage increase. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. I. amount and location of groundwater extractions. legal. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Water-supply facilities consist of collection.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. storage. 21. Inc. water used. motels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. transmission. culinary. however. is a very difficult task. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. Linsley et al. industrial. graphical comparison with other cities. distribution. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. “Water Resources Planning. Grigg.. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. institutional.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hydrology for Engineers. (“Ground Water Management. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. financially feasible. such as industrial development. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. The smaller the system. Estimation of future population.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. no. surface-water delivery facilities.

but because of the high rate at which it is required. meter malfunctions. lawn sprinkling. Demand rates vary with time of day. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. month. degree of industrialization. and air conditioning purposes. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. pressure. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. if the cost of water increases. Public use of water for parks. . Mo. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. and year. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Calif. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and faucets. janitorial. reservoir evaporation. cost. public buildings.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. presents Table 21. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use.S. size of the city. Inc. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. are the average of a range of values.17. Click here to view. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Table 21. and cleaning. Normally.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. and pressure. air conditioning. All rights reserved. as presented in Table 21.21. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Public Health Service Report. standard of living. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. State of California Office of Planning and Research. influence the demand rate for water. cooling. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. the demand for it decreases. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. and unauthorized uses. The national demand-rate data. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. cost. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. The “California Water Atlas. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. quality. it may control the design of the facilities. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. such as the climate. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. degree of industrialization. and quality of the water.” 1979. valves. type of service (metered or unmetered). and time of day.

Hydrant Spacing.4 17.000 80.000 85. interdependent.000 110.2 2.000 5. is frequently undesirable.6 1.000 48. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. such as lakes. and streams. but the demand rate is high. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. † MGD = million gallons per day.4 2. and in some cases.000 200.000 55.000 40.5 14. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 * American Insurance Association. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 90.000 4.18.6 4. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. inland. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 90.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 40.18 Required Fire Flow. climate. Total dependence on a single source. diversification is essential for reliability.000 28. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 2. valley cities.8 6.4 3.8 2.000 8. Inc.500 2. MG† 0.0 7.000 40. the effect of warm. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. MG = million gallons.000 10.3 0.000 40. The source must Table 21.000 6.000 85.000 40.000 1.000 40. Cost. rivers. In the atlas. legality. cost. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. industrialization.000 12. to a large extent.9 4. All rights reserved.3 Duration. 21.000 80.000 17. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.000 10.000 100.0 1.000 125.Water Resources Engineering s 21.0 3.000 4.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 1.2 8. and politics. gal/min P = population. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. however. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 120. In some local areas.000 40. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. Click here to view.8 7.000 3.000 70.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. .2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.132) where G = fire-demand rate. In selection of a source of supply. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.6 11.000 60. In the past. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.3 5. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. quality. Moreover.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.S. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. calcium hardness. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. All rights reserved. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.21. Inc.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. temperature. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.21.22. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.5 – 8. such as sulfates and chlorides.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.3 mg / L 0.) Source Protection s The U. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. American Water Works Association. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations.” American Public Health Association. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. dependent on local conditions. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. total dissolved solids. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. Click here to view. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. . In addition. alkalinity. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. 21. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.” U.5 mg / L 0.S. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. The measurements should include pH. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. and Water Pollution Control Federation. and calculation of the Langelier index. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.) At the discretion of the state. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. (See also Art.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.

νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. 21. Click here to view. Pojasek.134).46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Ann Arbor.0. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. Inc. velocity is constant. B.001 and 5. 21. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. slow and rapid sand filtration.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Inc. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Reynolds numbers. depth ho . and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. V the flowthrough velocity. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Newton’s law applies: (21. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. unpleasant tastes and odors. temperature and viscosity of the water. All rights reserved. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. Mich. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. .0 < R < 2000. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. (Usually. disinfection. (21. (21.46. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. is equal to or less than 1. particulate and colored matter.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. such as those mentioned above. Figure 21. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. In the region where 1. (See R. 21. and width B. and size and shape of the settling basin. For this ideal basin. coagulation-sedimentation. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. calculated with ν = νs. and softening (see also Art. mm If R > 2000. to be used in Eq. Figure 21. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist..1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.51). and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. shape. however. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. after Camp. 21. . Click here to view.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. p. 1946. 897. at 10 °C. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 21. Inc. vol.) Fig. All rights reserved. 103. (Observed curves.

77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo .” McGraw-Hill.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or other indicator to pass through the basin. Fair. Without coagulants. finely Fig. All rights reserved. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. The tubular settler (Fig.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. M. . and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Inc.” John Wiley & Sons. 21. C. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. A. salt.78b). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents.8c. Okun. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.. Geyer. 21. for example. Multistory tanks. and D. rectangular (Fig. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. G. 21.46. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.Water Resources Engineering s 21. J. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. 21. 1.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. Inc.78a) or circular (Fig. and eddy currents. 21. are removed in this basin. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc..) 21.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. short circuiting. New York.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 27. coagulants are added to the water.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.

21.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (d) Tubular settler. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. All rights reserved. (b) Circular clarifier. Inc.

American Water Works Association. L. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. “Water Supply and Sewerage.to 60min range. color. “New Concepts in Water Purification. however.. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also. or positively charged. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. highmolecular-weight. The filtering process has many components. They are available in three types: cationic. organic polyelectrolytes. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). plankton. Anionic polymers. J. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. production of a smaller volume of sludge.” McGraw-Hill. turbidity. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. chemical and biological reactions. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. and air jets. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. such as physical straining. however. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. L. T. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and easier dewatering. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. settling. “Water Quality and Treatment. considering both cost and performance. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. . Culp and R. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Click here to view.. anionic. polymers have a minor effect on pH. centrifugal pumps. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20.) 21. Polymers are long-chain. Corbitt. and nonionic. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. in some instances. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. consequently. such as pH.” 4th ed. (G. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. Inc. and suspended solids. such as mechanical stirrers. Inc. New York. or negatively charged. Thereby. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. to get the small floc to agglomerate. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. such as paper fiber. New York. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. 18H2O]. coliform organisms. however. temperature. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. McGhee.Water Resources Engineering s 21. color. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. and hardness. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. or neutral in charge. Culp. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. All rights reserved. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. A.” R. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc.

and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. Click here to view. that will pass 10%. of the sand.79. The wash- Fig. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Usually. All rights reserved. depending on the turbidity. through the sand and gravel layers. Inc.21. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.or mixed-media filtration. 21. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. 21. by weight. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. in millimeters. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. . The effective size of the sand should be in the 0.to 0.to 12-in layer of gravel. The process requires rapid mixing. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35-mm range. and dual.25. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.

Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. Immediately after washing. The filtering medium may be sand. and air jets. Click here to view.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. Inc. creating a high head loss across the filter. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. All rights reserved. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. or sand incrustation will be encountered. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. or deep coarse-media filters. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. such as rakes. diatomaceous earth.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.002:1 to 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. may be more advantageous. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. bed cracking. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. gal/min b = width of trough.35 to 0. Dual-media. water sprays. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. filters pass water at a high rate. or anthracite coal. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs.20 to 1. . A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.005:1 range. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. which is drained to waste. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. mixed-media. which produces an undertreated effluent.25 to 1. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.

perforated.) 21. Culp and R. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity.3 and 0.. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. and (3) total hardness. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. McGhee.” 4th ed. C. lime (CaO).98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. and D. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. and American Society of Civil Engineers. and R is the zeolite material. “New Concepts in Water Purification. New York. (American Water Works Association. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. New York. in clear wells.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. such as calcium and magnesium. J. gas. . hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment.. Geyer.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates.. Some. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. respectively. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 mg/L. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. J. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.139) 21. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. (G. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.136) (21. Inc. and American Society of Civil Engineers.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Culp. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. or open-joint pipes. “Water Quality and Treatment. Fair. Okun. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Click here to view. however. G. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.138) (21. All rights reserved. where 1 gpg = 17.21. L. In the lime-soda process. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.” 4th ed. sulfates.” 6th ed. These materials remove cations. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. American Water Works Association.. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.” John Wiley & Sons.) (21. “Water Quality and Treatment. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York. carbonates.” and T. M. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). A. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. L. Regeneration requires between 0.

odor. Okun. Other disinfectants are iodine. J. and electrodialysis. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ultraviolet light.. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Inc.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. cation exchange. Geyer. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. ozone. taste. and D.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 21. M.99 water supplies. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. C. irrigation. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. iron. excessive fluorides. anion exchange. Chlorine residuals of 0. A.) 21.” John Wiley & Sons.. New York. Inc. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. then. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation.) respect to carbonates. Click here to view. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. .62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. reverse osmosis. detergents.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.45). and lime. Fair.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. water supply. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water.” and T. McGhee. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. flood control. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. lime softening. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Inc. New York. manganese. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. chlorine dioxide.” McGraw-Hill. activated carbon. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.1 or 0. J. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.” McGraw-Hill. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. All rights reserved.) 21. “Water Treatment Plant Design.. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. Filter both solutions. despite its low solubility. New York. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. (G.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. bromine. 21. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. When the demand rate is known. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. 21. The plot of volume vs. 21.80. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. whereas for flood-control reservoirs.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Click here to view.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. Also. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Aeri- Fig. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.1). All rights reserved. as is the case for many water-supply projects. minimum flows will be critical. maximum flows will govern. areavolume curves (Fig. The mass diagram (Fig. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. . 21. 21. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Inc. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria.21.52.

52. Click here to view. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. When the demand drops off. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. odor. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. which may be only a few feet thick. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. give special attention to water quality. During hours of maximum demand. 21.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler.35 and 21. When the tem- 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. All rights reserved. . Inc. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. In deep reservoirs. San Francisco. are large distances from the city. 21. such as New York. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand.52. pumping plants. If possible. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. and turbidity than deep reservoirs.2). Major sources of supply for some cities. perature drops in the fall. is called the thermocline. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. but there is no circulation across this zone.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and Los Angeles. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.101 Fig. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. the flow refills the reservoir. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.

53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. no. A flowing artesian Fig.82) (G. M.35.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. vol.83). 21.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. For the correct hydraulic grade.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. 21. Brune. .2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. June 1953). 21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For any given storage reservoir.84). The higher the capacity-inflow ratio.52. Brune. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Inc. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. 34. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 21. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.21. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. Click here to view. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 3. 21. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. 21. M.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. All rights reserved. Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.103 Fig. .83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Click here to view. 21. 21.

McGhee. ft h = H minus drawdown. E. 21.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.. 21. ft d = diameter of well. eductor or riser pipe. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.” John Wiley & Sons. The pump. New York. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. (C.” 6th ed. vol. Inc. Okun. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. bored. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. Jacob. or hydraulic rotary methods. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. p. C. V. pump (Art. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous.. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface.53. or driven. 33. from an artesian well is given by (21. J.143) 21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. screen.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. December 1938.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. All rights reserved. 629. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. Hence.53. 889. “Water Supply and Sewerage.53. New York. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Theis. vol.” Economic Geology. no.142) where Q = flow. C. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.84). 5.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. T.83). hollow-core.57).. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. ft (Fig.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. 21. ditch.53. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). gal/day. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Geyer. ft The steady flow. 21. A.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. (G. Click here to view. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. J. McGraw-Hill. waterjet. M. 72. Inc. Fair.21. Inc. 21. p. 21. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. and motor. motor. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. 1940. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. and D.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. and ability to withstand external loads. Since steel is stronger than iron. bacteria in water. valves. Click here to view. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. steel. but wood is rarely used in new installations. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. or Dresser-type couplings. and plastics. bronze.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. . low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. tanks. Wood pipelines are still in existence. lead. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Copper. If it is cement-lined.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. Under favorable conditions. sealed flanges. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. riveting. impurities and strains in metals. A machine that produces a monolithic. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. stray electric currents. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. and sulfur compounds. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. (21. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe.54. Inc. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. polyethylene. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. plastic. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. polybutylene. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. such as polyvinyl chloride. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. rubber. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. are present. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. valves. hydrants.21. All rights reserved. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. however. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. concrete. contact between acids and metals. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. In unlined pipes.146) where D = pipe diameter.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. an anode and a cathode. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. and meters destroyed by corrosion. brass. and other appurtenances. pumps. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel.) At the anode. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. 21. ft 21. sand. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. zinc.

the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. the faster electrons can move through the water. and Fig.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. for example. water may be treated with bases. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Strains. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. where e is an electron. and treatment of the water. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Inc. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. and the more ions. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. 21. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. caustic soda. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas).86). and chromium are examples of this type of metal. use of protective coatings. Click here to view. All rights reserved. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Also. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. . 21. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. At the cathode. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When selecting materials. such as soda ash. cracks. to prevent corrosion. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Aluminum. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). zinc.

Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. 21. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Water enters at the center. horsepower. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 4th ed. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. by (21. To prevent cavitation.. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. McGraw-Hill. The centrifugal pump. efficiency. psia.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. Click here to view. 21. however. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. or eye. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21.87). The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation.21. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. To have practical meaning. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. between pump center line and water surface Fig. z is negative. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. accomplishes that in two steps. ft of water z = elevation difference. (American Water Works Association. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or impeller. lime. 21. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. New York.88). Inc. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. psia.. graphite. Zinc.) w = unit weight of liquid. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. the most common waterworks pump. hydroxides.147) where pa = pressure. All rights reserved.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. . and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. and so on on the walls of the pipes. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Corrosion. magnesium. 21. and the head-discharge relationship. in feet. ft. called a volute (Fig. “Water Quality and Treatment. Inc. oxides.

however. helical. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.111 than the required NPSH.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.57 and check valves in Art. pump discharge. rotary. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. reciprocating. Karassik et al. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. J. New York. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Inc. depending on the number of stages. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.Water Resources Engineering s 21. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%.” 2nd ed. 21. . Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. 21. jet. Fig. 21. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. propeller. 21. For that reason. (I.58. as shown in Fig. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and air lift. “Pump Handbook. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.89. below 200 gal/min.) 21. See also Art. (Also included in Fig. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. All rights reserved. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. 21. In a typical water-system analysis. head..

112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. 21. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. and for Ns above 7500. which is a function of specific speed. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. r/min Q = discharge. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. At sea level. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.148) where n = impeller speed. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. which are located at the well bottom. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.90 fied). . Reciprocating pumps. so that the entire lift is suction. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vanes. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. Inc.21. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Because of the close tolerances. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. gal/min H = head. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Jet pumps (Fig. either hand. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Click here to view. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. cams. utilize piston action to move water. 21. (21.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube.or motordriven. All rights reserved. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator.

and butterfly. and easy. Hand or motor power.. cone. McGraw-Hill Book Company.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. applied through a gear-reduction device. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. three valves must be used. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. All rights reserved. and butterfly valves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If sand is carried out with the water. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. primarily because of their low cost. pumps. one at the service connection. globe. The major types of isolating valves are gate. needle. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Low head loss. plug. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes.) drives to permit manual operation. pressure-regulating. Usually. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. rubber. Corrosion. air-relief. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). fast operation. globe. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. pressure-relief. “Pump Handbook. sluice gate. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. (I. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. But these valves cost more than gate. one just upstream of the meter. which are water. or corporation cocks. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Click here to view.113 tion.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and low head loss when fully open. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. rotates the disk. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. respectively. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. solids deposition.” 2nd ed. or Neoprene. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. availability. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. tubercle formation. Plug.or oil-lubricated. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Inc.. J. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. New York. large pressure differences. Simplicity of construction and quick. curb. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Also. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. . in-service lubrication features. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Karassik et al. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. Check.

a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. When the valve is in a closed position. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. The wetbarrel. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. which connects the barrel to the main. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Click here to view. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. such as pressure regulators and altitude. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. check. and large pipes. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. 21. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. and relief valves. rivers. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. or California type. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Interior-differential. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. such as trunk lines 21.21. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. The most common check valve is the swing type. . Often. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. All rights reserved. Many automatic control valves. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Inc. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. For example. Because of high head losses. tube.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Furthermore. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Usually.

These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. but they are used primarily in laboratories. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. However. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Click here to view.150) where Q = flow rate. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. such as meters for individual customer connections. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. A clicking noise. and cost. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. are the most common velocity-type devices. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. 21. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. amount of head loss through the meter. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. ft d2 = diameter of throat. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. vertical velocity components. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section.115 of distribution systems. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. or nutating-disk types. New York. Inc. respectively. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. called a Price meter. for metering domestic-service connections. which do not affect propeller meters. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston.91. .149) Hydraulics. 21. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter..91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. simplicity and ease of repairs. nozzle. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. The cup-type meter. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. durability. The standard venturi meter (Fig.5% within the normal test-flow limits.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. see E. All rights reserved. The nutating disk is used. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. (21. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. Brater. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. F. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. rotary. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow.” 6th ed. or modifications thereof.) As in venturi meters.

seasonal use. fire use. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. or to some other recognized system. Inc. utility-type enterprises. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. flat rate is falling into disuse. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. if any.91 plate meter. fixed charges on capital investment. (b) Nozzle meter. and similar items. All rights reserved. step rate. and block rate. load factors. peak rates of use. and development of the system.21. Click here to view. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. 21. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (c) Orifice- 21.

Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. called the customer component. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. When fixing a system of rates. . this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. draft tube. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. This charge is usually small. penstocks. switching equipment. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. treatment chemicals. a building to house the machinery and equipment. 21. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. called the demand component. including metering and billing. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Cost component 3. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. For most distribution systems. depends on the peak usage of a customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. tunnels.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. canals. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.746 kW 1 kW = 1. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. generators and exciters. called the commodity component. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. pumping energy.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. turbines and governors. Inc. It is generally recognized that residential areas. buying water from a wholesale supplier. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. of serving an individual customer. and (3) cost. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. tunnel. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. where the majority of small users are. Cost component 1. and transformers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and. where applicable. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. All rights reserved.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. S.117 With step rate. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. Cost component 2. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.

but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose.21. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. or yearly basis. On a seasonal cycle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and peak-load plants. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. weekly. If the minimum flow is very low. 21. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. On a daily cycle. Then.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Inc. Therefore. On a weekly cycle. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. to be used at some future time. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.92). All rights reserved.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. run-of-river plants with storage. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. It can be computed on a daily. Click here to view. such as navigation. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. power production being only incidental. base-load plants. or seasonal cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. Storage can be provided for a daily. . The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. weekly. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose.

This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity.) 21. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. earth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. Its distribution is triangular. (V.119 Fig.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Zipparo and H. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Figure 21. arch. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (Department of Water and Power. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. and rock-fill.” 4th ed.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load.92). When needed.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Los Angeles. Click here to view. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. All rights reserved. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. it usually is not as economical. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. The main classifications are gravity. buttress. Inc.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Calif. Hasen. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. Force F2 represents silt pressure. . The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1.

Rose. May 1946. These accelerations occur in every direction. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. . A method of calculating these forces. In the past. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.) (21. Click here to view. which forms on the reservoir surface. given by Eq. A close approximation of the force. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. however. which create forces on any object resting on it. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.1 g. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.93 by forces F4 and F5.000 psf.153). Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. presented by Edwin Rose. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. In cold climates. 98. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.21. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. (E. 1933.425h above the base.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. vol. was developed by von Karman. (21. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. All rights reserved. today it is realized these values are much too high. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. Inc. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. 434.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ice pressures as high as 50. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.” discussion by von Karman. 21. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. ice. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. 21.153) where w = unit weight of water.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. p.

The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses.Water Resources Engineering s 21. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. but the structural design is much more critical. In the multiple-arch. sand. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. and clay. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. However. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as sand and gravel. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. however. because of bearing contact. silt. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. Hence. Recent belief. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. uplift is not so important. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. The modes of failure are also the same. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. When the base is not drained. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. Inc. If a large quantity of pervious material. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. the membrane is a series of concrete arches.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. On arch dams. Although there are many types of buttress dams. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. their relative importance is much different. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. however. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. or failure of the foundation material. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. They are not suited to most sites. rock flour. If the deflections are not equal. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. In the past. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. is available and clayey materials must be imported. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. Click here to view. . overturning by rotating about the toe. engineers assumed that. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. but its formwork is more expensive. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. and uplift forces are smaller. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. however. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. First. All rights reserved. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. Concrete has been used for an impervious core.

If pervious material is not available. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Inc. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. Hasen. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. however. bearing on the rubble cushion. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. bonding into the dumped rock. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. . The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. providing power. or wood over concrete. Temporary facings are usually of wood. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. J. Zipparo and H.94). Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. S. although steel has been used occasionally. sometimes from as high as 175 ft.3 on 1.. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement.” U. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. For some types of soil. (V. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. All rights reserved. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. therefore. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. the natural angle of repose of rock. Click here to view. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. New York.) 21. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. For dams over 200 ft high. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past.” EM 1110-2-2300. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake.3 on 1.21. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Army Corps of Engineers. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. The downstream face is usually 1. Bureau of Relamation. and an upstream impervious facing. onto the fill. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. S. Leakage should be expected.” 4th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The facing is usually concrete. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. 21. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. Today. U. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

if the load drops below 50%. 21. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. This creates a force on the runner. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. New York. Click here to view. wicket gates. McGraw-Hill Book Company. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load.” 4th ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. such as the Kaplan turbine. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. At heads below 100 ft. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. and draft tube. 21. All rights reserved.. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. 21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. When the power demand on the turbine changes. Hasen. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. runner. The propeller turbine (Fig. In such installations. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. wicket gates. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. In these. and the fixed-blade type. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. it changes direction. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Zipparo and H. 21. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. runner. . the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The wicket gates. Inc. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. (V. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.94 turbine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. their efficiency decreases rapidly. 21. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. however. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. and draft tube. As the water flows through the tur- 21. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. the propeller-type (Fig. However.123 bine. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. J.95c).95b) and the axial flow (Fig. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.) Fig. At heads above 1000 ft. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. however.95a).

124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. (c) axial flow. 21.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. .21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65. (b) Kaplan. the dam will not be damaged by the water. 21.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. if designed correctly. Inc. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. This type of spillway is Fig. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. Click here to view. widely used for concrete dams because.

at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. This type of spillway.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. In a chute spillway. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. DC 20402). “Design of Small Dams. All rights reserved. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur.96 Siphon spillway. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. Washington. 21. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. The air vent shown in Fig.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. 21. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. Click here to view. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.34). Inc. 21. A siphon spillway (Fig.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. open channel. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. As the head increases. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. 21. In a side-channel spillway.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or ogee in cross section. The weir can be sharp-crested.S. model tests are usually employed.” Government Printing Office. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Thus. Bureau of Reclamation. Once this second condition is reached. flared. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. both depending on the head on the weir. When the head is relatively low. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. lined. called an ogee spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. . Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. the siphon’s intake is sealed. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In a shaft spillway. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir.

Fig. 21.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. 21. making removal difficult. and providing support for the conduit. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. 21. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. To do this. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In contrast. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure.21. the intake towers at Hoover Dam.65. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.97). In a taintor gate (Fig.5 ft/s. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. . During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. level of a reservoir within close limits.97 Taintor gate. On large stop-log installations. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. All rights reserved.65. Click here to view. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. Inc. Fig. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. controlling flow. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. the pipes fail. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.98 Bear-trap gate.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. causing damage and hampering operation.

J. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. drum gates are not suited to small dams. Click here to view. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. as shown in Fig. L. (V. E.” 4th ed. “Water Supply Engineering. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. J. To raise a bear-trap gate. Babbitt. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.99 Drum gate. Zipparo and H. Because of the large recess required in the dam. Doland. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. . 21. 21. J.) Fig.98. Hasen. and J.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. Cleasby. and H.. New York. The drum gate (Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.

.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc.blank page 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

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