M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
formation of spray from water jets.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. 21. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. ft Capillarity. When the liquid is in a closed container.7 psia. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. 21. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. at sea level. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. ft σ = surface tension. 21. however.
face and rises in a small tube. as shown in Fig. 21. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere.2. decreases with increasing temperature. Surface tension and capillarity. is concave upward. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Click here to view. psia. portions of the liquid vaporize. Meniscus.000 ft is shown in Fig. is small and insignificant in most problems. Thus.1) where h = capillary rise. like surface tension. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. are significant in others. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. Its value
Fig. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. or liquid surface. abrupt pressure increases force them
Fig.4 s Section Twenty-One
at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. In equation form. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric.21. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3. 21.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. (21. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Inc. and freezing damage to concrete. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. respectively. psi.7 psi. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. pitting. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. All rights reserved.1. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Its temperature variation. Absolute pressure. although negligible in many water engineering problems.
. as shown in Fig. Gage pressure. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.
Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0.
. on the top surface. or dynamic viscosity. psf.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. ft/s y = depth. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.2) where τ = shearing stress. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. and the force due to pressure p2. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields
V = velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. absolute viscosity. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. as shown in Fig. Viscosity. Click here to view. Then. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. the force due to pressure p1. ft. are a combination of the kinematic units
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.00001059 ft2/s.3
Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Since the prism is at rest.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. All rights reserved. or implode. also called the coefficient of viscosity.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.4. is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is so named because its units. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.3 Fluid Pressures
Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.Water Resources Engineering s 21.8) to determine whether laminar. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. and cross-sectional area A. or completely turbulent flow exists. which extend into the pores of the metal. of length and time. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. lb/ft3. on the bottom surface. lb/ft2
21. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. ft2/s.
to collapse. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. 21.5
Fig. In hydraulics. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. At any depth. psf. (Pressures as high as 350. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. 21. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. ft2. µ of a fluid. 21. transitional. Inc. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. the pressure acts equally in all directions. and pitting appears.
the depth below the water surface. Thus.
(21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.3a) by A yields (21. and other water control structures. lb/ft3. ft2.4). All rights reserved. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.3.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.4. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. Figure 21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. (21. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.3a) Division of Eq. 21. Equation (21. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA.21. then p2 is p. ft. tanks. (21. psf. Inc. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. the pressure. The resultant pressure force P. (21. Click here to view.4) Equation (21.6 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. Therefore. the depth of the centroid.1
Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces
This is important in the design of weirs. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). dams.5)
21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces.6) can be simplified by setting
– – surface. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.4
Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. where w is the specific weight of water.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. (21. ft. 21.7)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Taking ∆h to be h.
. at depth h. and y sin θ = h . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. p1 is atmospheric pressure. For horizontal surfaces. lb.6) – ∫ydA = y A.3b) then becomes (21. however.
Example 21.6 (see also Fig. (21. The location of the center of pressure.7). 21. (21. (21. Otherwise. 21.
Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.29). is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.g. (21.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . represented by the length yp. 6. Thus. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.p.p. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. of the surface about its centroidal axis. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.) but acts at a point (c.2° to the horizontal (Fig.) that is below the c. 21. All rights reserved. The denominator of Eq.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. Click here to view.
. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. psf.
where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. Inc. if that locus is a straight line.7
Fig. ft. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.8). Hence y .).g.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. with
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8) equals –A.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. Pyp = ∫y dP. where K is the radius of gyration.7). – From Eq. 21. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. the total force P = whA.5).
yp = 5.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. P = 62. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.7
Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.9).2
Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces
The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged
Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.08/5 = 5. 21.08. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the
Thus.42 ft. (See Example 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. (21.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.5 + 1/ (5. Inc.8 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.0 ft.21. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.1. K2 = point G.
21. Therefore. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. 21.
. From Eq. Also.0) = 5. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Note: 1.g. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.0 + 2. 21.3.42 = 5. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0 + 0. Click here to view.8. however.) of common shapes.
9).564. All rights reserved.6w = 19.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.5 × 5 = 780 lb. PH = whA = 62.4 = 1220 lb = PV. Inc. When water is below the curved surface.
. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. 21.4°. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.2.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Example 21.4 × 2. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.9
Fig. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.6 × 62. so the weight of the water is 19. 21. 2. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. 21. (b) Free-body diagram. and for a constant-radius surface. Click here to view.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals
The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. (21. (See Example 21. Its angle with the horizontal is known.7).14 × 25/4 = 19. The corresponding angle is 57. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.
Fig. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. – From Eq.6 ft3. 21.
for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently
Fig.4). The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Inc.10b.
21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.). 21. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column.b. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. is indicated by the metacenter. ft3 ys = distance. Given in feet by Eq. Click here to view.10a). The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. 21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies
The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.10 s Section Twenty-One
21. the pressure head. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10
Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.. p = wh. The stability of a ship.5 Manometers
A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. ft. (21. (21.21. Manometers indicate h.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of
moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. All rights reserved. or the difference in head. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. ft4
V = volume of displaced liquid.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. For a body to be in equilibrium. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. 21. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.10b).g. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. (21. whether floating or submerged.
Inc. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.
Basic types of manometers. The piezometer (Fig. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. What is hm?
Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). (a) Piezometers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.12c). Click here to view. The liquid is water with w = 62.11): piezometer.17 psi. (b) U-tube manometer.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig.4 lb/ft3.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21. However.11 manometer. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. although the latter is most common. U-tube manometer. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. All rights reserved. (c) differential
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. and differential manometer. 21.
. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. Example 21. 21.11
accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11a is 2.
(b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. 21. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the
Fig.12 s Section Twenty-One
For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. Inc. All rights reserved.21. 21. A movable scale. as opposed to a fixed scale. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.12c). Very low pressures. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid.11b) is used. In this application. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.
. including negative gage pressures. Click here to view. 21. the Utube manometer (Fig. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.
hi is 2.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. the actual pressure difference. if the actual difference is 0. All rights reserved. Inc. however.25 ft. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.25 ft of water. 21. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. however.75 + 13.4 × 2. and the right side. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.6 × 62. and z is 1. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. Example 21. when expressed in feet of water. 32.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. Equation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. The differential manometer (Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. One factor. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. psf w = specific weight of fluid.4 × 2. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.4: A differential manometer (Fig. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in the manometer. For example. is magnified by the differential manometer.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. the total energy per unit weight at 2. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow
For fluid energy. psf. ft. 21. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. hm1 is 9 in. Click here to view.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. as shown in Fig. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A.6).4 × 0.
The pressure at B. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.11) where Z1 = elevation. psf p2 = pressure at 2.
.12a. Above 5. psf. Most of them. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.0 ft. ft.5. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. such as ft of water or psi.40.13
indicating liquid. the magnification will be 2.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.0 and 2. or sump. such as might be required in laboratories. 21. that is.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid
21. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. 21. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62.
Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. As indicated in Fig. Example 21.11). Inc.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. ft3/s. Click here to view. This term hf. when added to the downstream side of Eq. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. 21. and pressure.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.14) pa/w is called pressure head. 21. where Va is the velocity. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. 21. where W is the weight.
Fig. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.4 ft3/s.
.13.5. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.13). Usually. velocity. (See Example 21. Kinetic energy at the section. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Average velocity. and pressure (Fig. All rights reserved. velocity. across the area of the section A. lb.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. where Q is the quantity of flow. It equals WVa2 / 2g. ft/s = Q/A. through friction. above some arbitrary datum. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. or the total head ft: (21. a
Fig. V2/2g. lb/ft3. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. ft.21. ft/s. however.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. velocity head. The total energy. varies with velocity. 21. ft2. ft.14 s Section Twenty-One
(21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
since the pipe has free discharge. 21. which may result from a change in either velocity.9).15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Also. Inc. or impulse-momentum equation:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. All rights reserved. respectively. respectively. In openchannel flow. ft.55 = 48. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. Click here to view. gate valve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or magnitude of flow. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. direction. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. A change in momentum. hf = 50 – 1. while in pressure flow.15
Fig. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow.14 = 10 ft/s. 21. and any bends.12) yields
where hf is the friction loss. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. Z2 = 0. is equal to the impulse. sometimes called the total head line. p2 = 0. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. Thus substitution in Eq. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. Hence. 21.
Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow.4/ 3. Art.45 ft.
.15). it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. (21. The slope
of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. The energy grade line.7.
Fig.94 × 100 × 65.78. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. Fy = –181.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.96 cos 53. With p1 known. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.94.000 sin 53.15) first in the X direction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.600. Fx = 181. Inc.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.16.94 × 100 × 4. (21.5°. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2° – 13. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. and at 2.
. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. so θ = 60.21. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. All rights reserved. (21. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.200 + Rx = 1.2° – 0) = 4. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. Let R be the force.16 s Section Twenty-One
(21. since ∆Vx = –(7.11) or (21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. 21.500 lb. Example 21.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. apply Eq.12)] but may be used separately. To find F.78 Ry = 145. P2 = ppA2 = 13.000 lb. 21. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.200 lb. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.6. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.332π = 71. Click here to view.700/82.96 sin 53.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. Then. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. then in the Y direction.1 Rx = –82. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. (See Example 21. which is to be determined). since ∆Vy = –(–7.600 lb In the Y direction. lb. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.5) = 65.5 ft/s.1 and the density ρ = 62.4/ 32.2° + Ry = 1.000 cos 53.2° – 71.
See also Art. or drainage basin.
21. or proposed works. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. to a given set of stimuli. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. In most models. In water resources engineering. In the preceding example. It is. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. and through execution of the computer program. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. employs both physical and mathematical models. Usually. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. or prototype. For instance. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. however. such as storm rainfall. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. aquifer. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. With hybrid models. hybrid modeling. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Physical models are expensive to build. gravity.17
21. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure.7 Water Resources Modeling
A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. Inc. Click here to view. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Popular before the advent of digital computers. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. the capability of the computing resources. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. A fourth mode of modeling. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. alternative management schemes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations.7.1
Similitude for Physical Models
A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. momentum. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis
requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses.7. droughts. and surface tension. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. All rights reserved. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. such as a river. operate. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. In this way.
. 1. erosional scour. viscosity.
. ft2/s. Reynolds number. The Reynolds number is (21.21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. entrainment of air in flowing water.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. viscosity. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. which is always a predominant force. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as spillways and weirs. such as depth or diameter). ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Froude number. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The inertial force. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Ratios of the forces of gravity. (21.21a)
(21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. respectively. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. the formation of drops and air bubbles. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. Inc. Then (21. Squaring both sides of Eq.20) R is dimensionless. Click here to view. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. All rights reserved. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.18 s Section Twenty-One
the prototype does not introduce serious error. and one other force are made proportional. the model is termed a true model. Once the length ratio has been set.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. 32. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. The Froude number is (21. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r.22) where ρ = density of fluid. (21. the length ratio is the only variable. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Therefore. The Weber number is (21. Similarly.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. and Weber number.
Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.
(21. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. and through execution of the computer program. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.19
Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. (21.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. This type of model is called a distorted model.
. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Sr = 1. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. called a movable-bed model. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately.S. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. (21.26) where V = mean velocity.23a)
(21. such as a morning-glory spillway. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. in turn. In some cases. Hence. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The U. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. For such models. These expressions.7.25) In models of rivers and channels. the logical representation of prototypes. inertial. mathematical models are. catchment areas.24). such as flow networks. All rights reserved.
21. Click here to view. in particular. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. One type of model. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. and infiltration parameters. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. For instance. viscous. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Rr = Lr. Inc. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds.2
Types and Applications of Mathematical Models
Used in many applications of water resources engineering. are linked together to represent the system as a whole.
reservoir regulation. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.)
The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. hydrodynamics. G. In object-oriented software. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. All rights reserved. 21. This. channel and river hydraulics. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. R. Maidment.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. impacts of dam breaks. ecosystem impacts and restoration. New York. A. and is given by
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. Inc. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. the model output required for design or evaluation. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.)
21.” V. landfill leachate analyses. and R. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. or pollution. Grigg. vol. quantity and quality of water supply. wave or tidal analyses. however. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. H.” D. and among water resources modelers in the government.8 Laminar Flow
In laminar flow.21. For closed conduits other than circular. watershed hydrology. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. design of hydraulic structures. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Art.” McGraw-Hill. (D. 3. sediment or pollutant transport. when fully implemented. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow.2). But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. academia. and groundwater yield. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. Rothfus. J. Whan. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. Zipparo and H. This approach. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. F.17. hydrologic forecasting. evaporation and irrigation. if comparisons of different plans are required. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. (J. 21. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. density. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. seepage. As a result. of all databases and software. Also.20 s Section Twenty-One
into one entity. “Water Resources Planning. shown in Fig. 1957. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. flow routing. or both. Click here to view. as in annular passages. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. Walker. R. and turbulent flow results.
. and private sectors.” N. Hasen. As this shearing stress increases. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. S. “Handbook of Hydrology. Hoggan. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. As a general rule. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. flood or drought impacts. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study.
it is not practical to treat it analytically. 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. (21.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. than for laminar flow (Fig. 21. These disturbances create eddies. (21. New York. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.27) where V = fluid velocity. All rights reserved. 21. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. 21.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. Therefore. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. the velocity distribution is more uniform.
. ft ρ = density of fluid.” 6th ed. causing the flow to become turbulent. at completely turbulent flow. ft L = length of pipe section considered.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. 32.
(E. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. 21.17).Water Resources Engineering s 21. a disturbance will probably be magnified. In this region. the flow is completely turbulent. Click here to view. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. Brater.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. laminar flow is unstable. F. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. flow is laminar in circular pipes. Inc.9 Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow. Eq. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. handbook of Hydraulics.29) For laminar flow. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. as shown in Fig. 21.)
21. In laminar flow.19. ft/s D = pipe diameter. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.
Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.18. As a result. As the Reynolds number increases. 32.
All rights reserved. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. (21.22 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.00003 0.
21. ft D = diameter of pipe.0005 – 0. (21.
It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.0002 – 0.0002 0.1
.19) to Determine f
ε. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. 21.
The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.0005 0. 21. enamels. ft V = velocity of fluid. (L.003 – 0. 32. The head loss is independent of the pressure. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.0005 – 0. November 1944.19) L = length of pipe. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.9.2 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Moody. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. F. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.003 0.03 – 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.0002 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. Inc.001 – 0.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. 21. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.19
Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.008 0.) Because Eq.00085
One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. Click here to view.001 0.008 – 0. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.
(Although based on surface roughness.4 and 21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. Click here to view. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.9. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.3
Through experimentation.34b) (21.34d)
(21. Inc. (21. Tables 21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.33c)
This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. (21. (21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.9.2
where Q = flow.32) where n = coefficient.33d)
(21.) Substitution into Eq.
21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.31) where V = velocity. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. ft3/s. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.
. where D is the pipe diameter.11 (p. All rights reserved. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.34c)
21. ft L = length of pipe. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. which requires experience in its choice.3. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.33e)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33b)
(21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23
Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:
(21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.9. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. dependent on surface roughness. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. ft/s C = coefficient. 21.31) gives (21.
This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.34e) where V = velocity. See also Table 22. ft S = head loss due to friction.
21.017 From 0.017 0.017 Use in designing
Q = discharge. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.4 Values of n for Pipes.7. enlargements. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.10 Minor Losses in Pipes
Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.013 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.010 To 0. because
(21. Example 21.035 0.013 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.35a)
With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.24 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.017 0.013 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.015 0. bends. and valves and other pipe fittings.012 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.014 0. (See Exam-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.013 0.011 0.20 ple 21. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.010 0. (21. (21.014 0. in short pipelines. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.35c)
(21. However.012 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.015 0.013 0.015 0. (21.015 0.36) for a check. All rights reserved. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.016 To 0.) Flow between reservoirs.
.7: Figure 21.017 0. 21.010 0. Inc.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.015 0.012 0.012 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.017 0.
.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. The water in the reservoir has no velocity.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. 110 4 in. minor losses must be considered. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. Gibson.25
Table 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 120 24 in and over.21 are approximate.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula
Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. London.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.2 ft/s
It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.21). 85 16 in. All rights reserved. Click here to view. are presented in Table 21. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).)
40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined
21. 120 Centrifugally spun.10. 80 4 in. ft.37): (21. is (21. 21.” Constable & Co. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. regardless of age.37):
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where V is the velocity in the pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. so a full velocity head is lost. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21.
21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. wood forms. (21.38) A special application of Eq.
21.3 Sudden Contraction
The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. Table 21. (21. 105 30 in and over. 10 years older Average value. H.7. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.37) or (21.10.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. Inc.1 Sudden Enlargements
The following equation for the head loss.10. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. good workmanship. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. good workmanship. 140 Large sizes. ft/s g = 32. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. (21. (A..6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. 120 Large sizes..2 Gradual Enlargements
The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft.
these losses may exceed the friction losses. Ltd. 135 In good condition. steel forms. 115 12 in. 110
(21. the values of K in Fig. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.
D = pipe diameter.2 0.
Globe valve.80 K = 0. such as valves and elbows.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.05 K = 0.63 0.42) Table 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.0 1.4
21.6 0.21.10.9 0.71 0.7 0.26 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. For these reaTable 21.89 1.68 0.81 0.50 K = 0.0 2.2 0.2 2.3 0. 21.1 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses
The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.8 are only approximate.66 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.0 5.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.0
Table 21.9 0.76 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. Inc.64 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. Click here to view. All rights reserved.21 of the sides. and at bends is given by (21.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. fully open Angle valve.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.
The values in Table 21.4 0.
Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence
Table 21. fully open Gate valve. fully open Swing check valve.8 0.
(H. 1960. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. however.44) where Q = discharge. 21. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. July 1938. vol. Beij. National Bureau of Standards. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. Click here to view. its effect should be taken into account. series D. Equation (21. 1. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. Reynolds number. New York. If this velocity is significant. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.42). 21. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. this error is corrected by the C values.9 for low velocity of approach.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. 21. although they are usually round. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. H.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Hasen. and angle of bend. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 82.Water Resources Engineering s 21.22: (21. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc..23. the bend loss essentially remains constant. Inc. Figure 21. not including friction loss in the bend. (21. Ito. square. (21. (21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.11 Orifices
An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.11.
21. 21.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. there is disagreement. For low heads. Orifices may have any shape. or rectangular.27
sons.. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. no.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air
Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Experiments on smooth pipes. not including friction loss. All rights reserved. vol. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.45)
21. (K. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. The data are in agreement that the head loss. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Zipparo and H.)
Fig.42). Inc.” 4th ed.” Journal of Research. (V. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. J. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. McGraw-Hill.
606 0.615 0. and Eq.596 0.607 0.605 0.652 0.601 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.614 0.598 0. Inc.632 0.600 0.610 0.622 0.637 0.601 0.612 0.” 1886.593 0. to
Fig.637 0.614 0.607 0.0 Head. “Hydraulics.614 0.99.608 0.595 0.46) The actual velocity. ft 0.590 0.608 0.21.631 0.02 0.598 1.592 0.613 0.596 0.618 0.597 0.607 0.6 08 1 1.04 0.617 0. Z1 = h.618 0.4 0.596 0.597 0.604 0.596 0.648 0. of circular orifices.623 0.599 0.591 0.601 0.637 0.632 0.611 0. the vena contracta.602 0. 21.598
* Hamilton Smith.619 0.660 0.596 0.605 0.629 0.623 0. Click here to view.603 0.611 0.
.618 0.602 0. With the reference plane through point 2.623 0. ft 0.604 0.602 0.616 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.628 0.23
Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.613 0 610 0.603 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.601 0.45) becomes (21.599 0.593 0.602 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.616 0.600 0.599 0.617 0.641 0.603 0. Jr.612 0.630 0.598 0.602 0.28 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.600 0.636 0.619 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.603 0.610 0.609 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.648 0. and Z2 = 0. ft 0.0
0.596 0.621 0.04 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.605 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.634 0.604 0.600 0. (21.602 0.602 0. All rights reserved.605 0.595 0.94 to 0.5 2 2.593 0.608 0.1 0.643 0.602 0.627 0.655 0.595 0. determined experimentally.644 0.599 0.594 0.628 0.592 1.626 0.592
0.594 0. V1 = 0.02 0.606 0..1 0.
11. F. 21. Inc.29
Fig. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. (21. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because
more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.24b.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction.47) where hL = losses in head. see E. 21. All rights reserved. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.
Discharge through a submerged
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.25 orifice.2 Submerged Orifices
Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. between 1 and 2. 21.48) is obtained.61 to 0.67. In Fig. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. Click here to view. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. Brater.3 Discharge under Falling Head
The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.)
21. the contraction is completely suppressed.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. With a partly suppressed orifice. 21.25. Eq. ft. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the
Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. (21.” 6th ed. New York.
the area of the orifice. Figure 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. “Handbook of Hydraulics.
The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.55)
21.56). All rights reserved. Inc. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.
.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Eq. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. when y = h1. (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21. s The Y coordinate is (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30 s Section Twenty-One
volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.21. Eq.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. obtained by solving Eq.59).53) where h = head on center line of orifice.4 Fluid Jets
Where the effect of air resistance is small. (21.57) (21. is that for a parabola: (21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.56) Fig. 21. 21.11.
(21. Click here to view.51) upon integration becomes (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.58) Equation (21. 32. to time t. 21.49) Solving for dt yields (21.58) gives (21. when y = h2. (21. (21.50) becomes (21.50) where a = area of orifice. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.23). (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.57) for t and substituting in Eq.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.26): (21. ft2
A = area of reservoir. For simplicity. ft h2 = head at the end.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. Rearranging Eq.58)].
a K value for Eq.82 VT)2/2g = 0. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. When this happens.
Fig.29.42) of 0. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. Therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.28).33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. 21.
21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes
When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. 21. Equation (21. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.75. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. 21.33VT / 2g. if one exists).80.82. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. Inc. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.27) but the head loss is larger.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. Click here to view.5 a T T Fig. In the tube or pipe.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.11. however. 21. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.00 and the coefficient of veloci-
21.11. 21. (21. ft2
Fig.27. (21. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.67 V2T /2g.82. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.
. and the loss coefficient K equals 0.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes
This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a short tube flowing full.67 V T / 2g = 0. psf w = unit weight of water.00 VT / 2g – 0.31
ty Cν = 0. All rights reserved.67 V2 ) = 0. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.
The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe.
Fig. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. Every time the flow rate is
changed. Click here to view. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.32 s Section Twenty-One
Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.
21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. The change causes a pressure rise. 21. the pressure in the pipe falls.
Fig. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. but at a pressure much higher than normal. either increased or decreased.29. The pipe shown in Fig. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit.31
Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. All rights reserved. this momentum drops to zero. Inc. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. it causes water hammer. 21. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. However. As the water flows away from the closed valve. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir.
21. the water in the pipe is motionless. For this analysis to be valid.21. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.12 Siphons
A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. As the water flows into the reservoir. When a valve is closed. either above or below the normal pressure.30).13 Water Hammer
Water hammer is a change in pressure.32). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the tube must flow full.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them.
21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Inc. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.64)
21. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second.33
of flow and the length of the pipeline. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.13. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.13.63).63a) becomes (21. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. approximate solution. (21. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. All rights reserved.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity)
D = diameter of pipe.
. (21. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. 21.63a) In terms of pressure head.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.Water Resources Engineering s 21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. 1. 43.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.
21. For instantaneous closure: (21. Eq. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. (21.1 Instantaneous Closure
The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. Click here to view. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.2 Gradual Closure
The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. s A plot of pressure vs. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. Equation (21.
ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. Inc. (V.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. (21. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure.21. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. Once the time interval has been determined. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. (21. the increment of time. diameter = 10 ft. (21. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.63). where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. to apply Eq. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. With the head known. then that obtained from Eq. 32.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. penstock thickness = 1 in. Thus. All rights reserved. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. s T = actual closure time of valve. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.” 4th ed.32.) Example 21. Hasen. each causing an individual pressure wave. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. (21.63).8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. Inc.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.) Velocity of pressure wave. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.2 × 108 psf.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing.5 ft2. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. where ∆t. New York. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. J. is
g = acceleration due to gravity. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. (21. length = 3000 ft. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. where a equals any integer. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. McGraw-Hill.34 s Section Twenty-One
where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. area = 78. the esti-
= 3180 ft/s
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Vo the original velocity. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. Zipparo and H.61). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. ft L = length of pipeline. Click here to view.63).. (21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.. equals L /aU. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements.
. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. from Eq. such as L/aU. 21.
on the pipe material is (21. Usually. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.
Internal pipe pressure produces hoop
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. in
Assuming T = 4. The water column.3 Surge Tanks
It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. the closure is instantaneous. it is by no means the only one. in effect. from Eq.64) gives the following result:
21. (21. All rights reserved. floats on the line. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.63). the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. Fig. Various types of relief
Fig. to prevent water hammer.13. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig.34). A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.Water Resources Engineering s 21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis
The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.75 s.33) must still be designed for water hammer. 21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.
. 21. psi. is
Pipe Stresses 21. 21.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.34 tension.66) where p = internal pressure. approximate equation (21. When a valve is suddenly closed. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. 21. lb Hence. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.90 s. When a valve is suddenly opened.90 s. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. Click here to view. the stress. and the pressure rise.35
valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Inc. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.
. due to a temperature change is (21. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g
21. (S. The internal diameter is used in Eq. Inc.
21. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. For concrete pipes. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. The force diagram in Fig. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. 21. Gere. Equation (21. if expansion joints are to be used. For steel pipes. 21. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. New York.6). thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. “Theory of . In all bends. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided.10).21.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.” 2nd ed. it acts like a beam. psi. 6. However.36 s Section Twenty-One
From the derivation of Eq.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints
21. Eq. In this case. Eq. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. (21. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends
It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. (21.
.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis
If a pipe is supported on piers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. P Timoshenko and J.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. is (21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. (21. (21. All rights reserved. psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If D/t is less than 10. elastic Stability. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. this analysis is approximate. McGraw-Hill Book Company.67) for concrete pipe. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. Art. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. however. The stress.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. M. 21. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. However.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.67).16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe
If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. Click here to view. In Fig.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for.
and slope. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. Click here to view. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or other embankment. 62. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. exit conditions.35
Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. canal.
. the joints must also be able to take these forces.70)
Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. however. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.71) give a quick solution.70) and (21.
A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway.71) where R = resultant force on bend. a railroad.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.37
Fig. is usually unwarranted because of the rela-
(21. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.
P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. All rights reserved. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. (21. an exact theoretical analysis. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. In small pipes. 32. psf w = unit weight of water. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. Eqs. Inc. However.
But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. and the control will still be at the inlet.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper
In a culvert with a critical slope.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.73)
21.30)]. slope is greater than the critical slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. 21. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.38). the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.
. Inc. For this reason. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.23). 21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. and the Manning equation for friction loss. 21. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. Click here to view. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results.” EB058W.36). and the discharge is independent of the slope. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. the culvert flows full. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. the normal depth (Art.37). Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.33d) or (21. but they do not cover
Fig. 21. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.38 s Section Twenty-One
tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.21. 21. Portland Cement Association. (21. All rights reserved. that is. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . charts.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the following equation is obtained: (21. 21. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. computer software. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.
for the open-channel condition (Fig.20)
21. Discharge is independent of slope.75) Substituting this into Eq. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. When slope exceeds critical. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 32.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes
Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. When slope is less than critical. normal pipe flow occurs.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.
The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. The fluid flows under pressure. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Discharge depends on head H.39
Fig.74) yields (21. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. The discharge. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. open-channel flow takes place. loss at entrance. Inc. When the slope is less than critical. flow depends on inlet condition.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. and dn > dc . ft V = velocity in culvert. Click here to view. 21. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Thus. All rights reserved. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. and dn < dc . and slope of culvert.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. 21. depending on the head.39). (21. ft Equation (21.
where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. 21. (21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.74)
Fig.23).38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.
Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. If this condition exists. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.18). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. (21.72). (21. ft dn = normal depth of flow. 21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.76). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft To solve Eq. 21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. When the friction slope is flat. 21.
. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.40). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.39). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and
Fig. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.37).76). Inc. If the friction slope approaches critical. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge.76). The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.40 s Section Twenty-One
S = slope of energy grade line. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. (21. 21. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. however. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. If the head on a culvert is high. 21.21. 21. Most culverts. All rights reserved.41). When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. and discharge is given by Eq. (21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. Click here to view.
Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. projecting Concrete pipe.72) applies.01. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. (21. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.
Application of Eq. with Eq. n = 0.8 ft3/s Table 21. Example 21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. (21. groove or bell. Find: size of culvert. square edge Concrete pipe.
For entrance control.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Eq.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.95 × 4 = 39. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow.013. Inc.08
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow is under pressure. When the entrance is not submerged.6. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.10 0. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. (21.
21. Click here to view. Table 21. Since the culvert is under pressure.18 and 21. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. slope = 0. 21. These values are for culverts flowing full. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0.72) and (21. (21. Substitution in Eq. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.9 0.33a) gives
a pipe flow condition will result. length = 300 ft.72) yields
Q =Va = 9.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. All rights reserved. and free exit.Water Resources Engineering s 21. But H = 5 + 0.40). groove or bell. 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.15 0. First find dn. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. 21. and the entrance will not control. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. (21.44) for discharge through an orifice.
.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts
Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.
Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.19).
Inc. 32. All rights reserved.
21. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. Click here to view. (21.
Free surface flow. The wetted perimeter is the length. is generally given by (21. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Hence.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. It has uniform flow if the grade. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Equation (21. ft2 When the discharge is constant. It is expressed in feet as (21. however.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.03 to 1. or the total-head line.
. plus the velocity head at the point. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. or open-channel flow. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory.36 for prismatic channels. ft. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections.79). The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Figure 21. ft. The average velocity of flow V is defined
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. depth of flow is constant throughout.42 s Section Twenty-One
Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.77) where V = average velocity.21. normally taken as 1. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. In a uniform channel.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels
A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. and is given by (21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. It is. Thus. within a hydraulic jump. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. ft. ft3/s. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. minus the free surface width. or slope. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head.79) The velocity head HV. (21. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full.
All rights reserved.
21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. Click here to view. T. 21. normal depth decreases downstream. as shown in Fig.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. or to the diameter of a circular channel. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. (See. the specific energy also decreases.83)
Brater. For a rectangular channel.
.22 Normal Depth of Flow
The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. slope. Eq. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.
in which T is the top width of the channel. ft
R = hydraulic radius.43
Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. ft. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. (21. New York.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. roughness. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. (V.84)
where A = area of flow.) (21.43.84) reduces to
Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft. 21. and discharge are known.. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As the depth decreases downstream. Chow. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. McGrawHill Book Company. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. 21. E. for example. F.42 is called the normal depth dn. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.44.” 6th ed.43).” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. Inc.
F. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. The flow there is called subcritical flow. for a given discharge.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.
In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.21. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. Brater. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. ft3/s d = depth of flow. (21. Click here to view.44). As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.
21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. 21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.
.” 6th ed. the depth is greater than critical. 21.86)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.44 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. Inc. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company.84).43..44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.
(21. Eq. the depth is below critical. 21. or it may be found directly from tables (E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. For a given value of specific energy. “Handbook of Hydraulics.84) may be reduced to (21. (21. For rectangular channels.84) is called the critical depth dc. (21.44).23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow
The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. or conversely. and flow is supercritical. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. All rights reserved. New York).
These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. 21. 21. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.85). (21. as indicated in Fig.
21. a hydraulic jump will occur. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. Critical depth. ft3/s b = width of channel. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. once calculated.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels
One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. Click here to view. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. flow is subcritical.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. indicating an irreversible occurrence. 21. 21. [As indicated by Eq. 21. p.44). It can be seen from Fig. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. Such a change occurs gradually. along with a high loss of energy. (21. All rights reserved. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. regardless of slope. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.45. however. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57).52b. without turbulence.45
where dc = critical depth.45
Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth.87)
Fig. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. flow is supercritical.
. For every depth greater than critical depth. Inc.
When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.and critical-depth lines. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. Chow. and the critical-depth line C.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. 21. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). Dr.46c and d.D.89) may be written (21.4.S. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. The M2 curve forms between the normal. and the N.89) Since the discharge Q = VA.23).11. Inc. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.D.46. The N. at an arbitrary elevation. (21. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. 21. are identical for a channel of critical slope. Eq. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. Click here to view. H for horizontal. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.L.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow
Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9 and Table 21. 21. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. 21. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. and A for adverse.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. there must be a continuing maintenance program. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. as shown in Fig. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).25). Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. (Although based on surface roughness. S for steep (supercritical).L.46 s Section Twenty-One
where R = hydraulic radius. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. therefore. 21. Department of Agriculture. New York. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. the average n values given in Table 21.46a and b.L. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. and two types for channels of critical.L.
.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.L.D.21. are in Table 21. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.D. is replaced by a horizontal line.90) where A = area of flow.D. These curves are divided into five groups. (See also Art. 21. and adverse slope. ft V = mean velocity of flow. C for critical.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. T. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. horizontal. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.)
21. and C. E.
high as flow depth d.017 Max 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Gunite. Rough wood form B.019 0.035
0.013 0.016 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.022 0. 21. good section c.032 0.012 0.014 0.025 0.030 0. after weathering b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.040
0. Light brush on banks 3.050 0. Wood a. Clean.028 0.040 0.080 0.46i and j. commonly called a drawdown curve. untreated 3.025 0.015 0. Excavated earth.023 0.016 0.021 0.035 0. Inc. high stage 2.018 0.035
0. Cemented rubble b. Smooth wood form c.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Dry rubble 5.025 0. Dense weeds. No vegetation b. wavy section 4. respectively).015 0.013 0. Concrete a. Concrete (unfinished) a.100 0. Rock cuts a.025 0.023 0. Planed.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.018 0.010 0. few weeds c. Gunite. Corrugated 2.024 0. With short grass.
.021 0.017 0.011 0. 21.030 0.013 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Asphalt a. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.012 0.025 0.016
0. Cement-mortar surface 3. straight and uniform a. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Rough C.022 0.025 0.035 0. Dredged earth a.016 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical
Table 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.080 0.120 0.027 0. Lined channels 1.012 0. 21. Metal a. Smooth and uniform b.013 0.033 0.011 0.030 0. Smooth b. Jagged and irregular 0. Float finish b.012 0.47
The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.050
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The S2 curve. Masonry a.060 0. Steel form b. Unlined channels 1. Dense brush.014 0.014 0.020
0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.033 0. Click here to view.022 0.016
0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. All rights reserved.140 0.050 0. 21.015 Avg 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.46a and b.013 0.014 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.
D..48 s Section Twenty-One
depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. C. Inc.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.L. 21. The curves in Fig.L. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. N. Examples in Fig. indicates normal-depth line. 21.46k and l.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.D.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. critical-depth line. 21.21. H. 21. Click here to view. and A profiles. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at
Chow. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. weir. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. dam. Click here to view.
. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. with relatively small variation. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.)
21. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. and step methods. direction-integration. each reach is solved in succession. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate.27. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity.26 Backwater-Curve Computations
The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.. or reaches. 21. gate. See Art. H. Inc.47. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. known as its celerity. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. free overfall. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change.” McGraw-Hill.77) if the depth were zero.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. depending on the type of flow. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.and direct-integration methods are in V. French. (21. 21. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. New York. 32. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. Explanations of both the graphical. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical).91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. (R.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5. For step-method computations. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. Inc. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs.49
a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. T. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. New York. the channel is divided into short lengths. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. The wave travels at a speed. All rights reserved. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. For subcritical flow conditions. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. ft/ft of channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For the section of channel in Fig.51). This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.
prismatic channels. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. (21. (21. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. as given by Eq.47
Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. 21. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the head loss. Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.92) (21. not the channel bottom. (For uniform.91) for L gives (21. 21. The smaller the value of n.82). ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. respectively. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. the – eddy loss. the change in elevation. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. ft. and vice versa. 21. hi.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line.
. ft. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art.21. due to friction in the same reach. is negligible and can be ignored. rearranged as follows:
Fig. and – SL = hf.93) where R = hydraulic radius.50 s Section Twenty-One
So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. All rights reserved.93). The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. Therefore. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. the longer the backwater curve profile.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. (21. Click here to view.22) but
where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. Solving Eq.
such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. ft. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. becomes (21. ft/s. (21.95). For lined channels. The value of total head computed from Eq. Finally. (21. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. the friction loss.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21.47. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. ft. (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq.93). sometimes called impact loss. (21.1 for converging reaches.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Z2.51
may be some intermediate depth. 21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. from 0 to 0. which. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. All rights reserved. Inc. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Then. and it is therefore often accounted for. Next. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L.2 for diverging reaches. referred to a horizontal datum. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach.93).92). Since this step method is a converging process. or roughness. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. the average friction slope for the reach.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. (21.94). and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.97) must agree with the value of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eddy loss.
. Then. respectively. (21. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. (21. grade. Next. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig.95) The coefficient k is 0. (21. respectively. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. total head H. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. at sec– tions 1 and 2. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Click here to view. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. after substitution of H from Eq. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Therefore. and about 0. computations progress toward the initial section. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. S. is obtained from Eq. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. in natural channels.96).
27. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. known as the length of jump.23). All rights reserved.
. 1970.” Hydraulics Design Series no. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation.1 ft in elevation. N. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel.S. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. 21. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. French. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.52 s Section Twenty-One
total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. 2nd ed. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. Department of Transportation. Bureau of Public Roads. a gate.
21. approach roadways. Click here to view. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. known as the roller. bridge piers.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump
Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.27 Hydraulic Jump
This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig.21. however. The upstream surface of the jump.. Inc. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. as shown in Figs. New York. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. 21.48). Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. 1. H. is a turbulent mass of water. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. However. 21. The effect of bridges. and J. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).
21. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. and determine the discharge. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. or other obstruction. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). Bradley. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.52b. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady.48
Hydraulic jump. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. velocity. 21. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. If the two values of total head do not agree.51 and 21. Utilizing the above data. respectively.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. Federal Highway Administration. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.
Fig. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. U. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.
82).2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. this resultant pressure force is (21. (21. ft2 T = width of free surface. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq.100) Equation (21. d2 must also equal dc. For rectangular channels. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.98) and (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. For open-channel flow. in Eq. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.53
which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. 21.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels
The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.49) is given by (21. (21. ft w = unit weight of water. ft/s2. where L is a characteristic length.105) where A = area of flow. All rights reserved.
21. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity.104) = discharge. ft d2 = depth after jump. ft/s. V is the mean velocity. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump.99) where M = mass of water. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation
dc = critical depth for the channel. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. (21. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft
g = acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. or alternate depths.101)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21.102) Equation (21. 32. This difference (Fig. (21.27. Inc. ft3/s = unit of time.100).16)]. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft. s (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.
.98) where d1 = depth before jump.99).
or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve.5. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head.
. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator
A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. The jump is called an undular jump. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. 21. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.7 to 2. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. All rights reserved. depending on local conditions. The jump action is rough but effective.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.27. there are undulations on the surface. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 1. If the tailwater is too low. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. depth after the jump. For F1 = 1 to 1. The jump is well-balanced.5 to 4. below a spillway. the jump will be drowned out. For F1 = 1. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. very commonly in canals. This jump may be called a steady jump. For F1 = 4. Various forms of hydraulic jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.7.5 to 9. can travel for miles. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. This jump may be called a strong jump.5. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.23).0. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge.49. If the tailwater is too high. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. and the performance is at its best.S. For F1 = 9. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. were classified by the U. 21. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. which.0 and larger.
21. the flow is critical and there is no jump.54 s Section Twenty-One
For rectangular channels. chute. for example. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. Click here to view. Inc. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. In either case. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating
Fig. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. which gives discharge vs. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. This jump may be called a weak jump.21. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. 21.
partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. These features are expensive to build. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. Bureau of Reclamation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.
21. and sloping the apron.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump
It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel.105).51. All rights reserved. Click here to view. The resulting curve (Fig. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.S. T. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. 21. 21. 21. prepared by V. (21. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. 21. The curve.27.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump
The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. This length (Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.27.55
curve involve changing the crest length. But it has been determined experimentally. changing the apron elevation. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. Accessories.
. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. therefore. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21. Chow from data gathered by the U.
are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. 21. equal in length to L.101). If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. The jump may be expected to form between the
points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. the 1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.51. using the step methods of Art. 21. Click here to view. less than.7dc for simplicity. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.52. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. The actual depth at the brink is 71. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. 21. curves AB and ED in Fig. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB.52b. the jump occurs in the steep region. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc.102). the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. 21. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. 21. It is assumed.75h in the absence of better information.
. 21.26. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. computed from Eq. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. as theory would indicate. If d2 is less than d′ . a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. Conversely. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. (21. (21. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig.
The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump.101) with d1 given. A horizontal intercept FG.5% of critical depth.51
Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. the jump moves to a new location downstream. as shown in Fig. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. for simplicity. if the downstream depth is lowered.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. the computed length of jump.52a. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. the jump moves downstream to a new position. computed from Eq. equal to the computed length of the jump. as shown in Fig.23) to mild.46e and c). 21. but it is normally assumed to be 0. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. that flow is uniform.21. As depth d2 is lowered. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. between lines CB′and EO. which occurs near the channel drop-off. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. Inc. 21. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21.56 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. All rights reserved. respectively (Fig. CB. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta.
ft. and the slope of the channel.” McGraw-Hill. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. if not.82) and (21.106) where b is the channel width. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity
the discharge for rectangular channels. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. ignoring entrance loss.. the entrance loss. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel
The discharge Q. where He is the specific energy head.3 for one with squared ends.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. French. New York.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. All rights reserved. Then. 21. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. 21. New York.
. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. (21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. Inc. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d).53a). The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. Click here to view. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21.)
21. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. ft. ft. If the entrance loss must be considered. ft. 21. then the assumed discharge is correct. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.85)]. From Q = AV. a new discharge is assumed. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). on the channel entrance.57
jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. and discharge is at a maximum. (R. H. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. Brater. is (21. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. ft3/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.51. or (b) below it. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.53). 21. F. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.23).” 6th ed.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the
Fig. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. Inc. or (a) above it. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.
21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. 32.
21.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope
When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. ft3/s.53
Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. (21. where He – d is the actual head. ft. All rights reserved. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. ———— charge. producing flow.23).) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if not.53b). ft. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. (b) mild-slope channel. 21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). He is the specific energy head.33). 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. and g is acceleration due to gravity. 21. 21. then the discharge is correct. d is normal depth.83). Inc. Click here to view.53b. a new discharge is chosen.2 ft/s2.22).
. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. 21. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. ft2.21.58 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. (In Fig.
The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. Click here to view.108). where V is its average velocity. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a
Fig. and rc the radius of curvature. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. ft. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. (21. ft. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. When water is forced to flow in a curved path.
curve (Fig. 21. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel.23). All rights reserved. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. Thus. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. If the bend continues long enough. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. the true value of y would be only a few inches. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. ft /s. of the center line of the channel. (21. The error will not be great.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels
Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.83)]. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. Therefore. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. a unit mass of water. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. 21. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. ft. however. or mV2 /rc for m.107) The theoretical difference y. Inc.
21. 21. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency
If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency.59
21. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. when a stream enters a curve. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. In this range. (21.
(21. (F. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. (21. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. depths along the inside wall. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. and continue crossing and recrossing. One is a positive wave.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.S. C. These waves cross at M. The cross slope required for
21. Inc. Click here to view. by (21. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Department of Agriculture. and should be used with discretion.111).) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.110) for θ in Eq. The second is a negative wave. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. with sufficient accuracy. phase. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.55). It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. All rights reserved. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. however. His values have not been evaluated completely. an increase in friction loss results. This angle may be found from (21. Technical Bulletin 393.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. recross as shown.60 s Section Twenty-One
Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.
Fig. of greater-than-average surface elevation. a series of standing waves are produced. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Two waves form at the start of the curve.” U. 21. flows around a bend in a channel. Scobey. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. “The Flow of Water in Flumes.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels
When water.16)] .21.23). (21.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom.
23).Water Resources Engineering s 21. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. low-head-loss transfer of flow. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. When proceeding downstream through a transition. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. 21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.8[∆(V2/2g)].56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths.2 ft/s2. or change from supercritical to subcritical. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. ft.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. respectively. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour.1 for an inlet-type structure. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. and channel shape and slope. For outlet-type structures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. In this range. equals about 0.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. The transition loss. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. change from subcritical to supercritical.54). 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. wall roughness.33 Transitions in Open Channels
A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. if friction is ignored.44.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. ft/s. such as flow-rate changes. ∆V is the velocity change.
21.2 for welldesigned transitions. the loss factor.44. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Straight. plus any transition and friction losses. 21. All rights reserved. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. as shown in Fig. p. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an
Fig. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. Many variables. 21. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. and g = 32. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. Click here to view. the average velocity decreases. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). Inc. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. 21. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1.57). and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth.113) angle of about 12. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. If friction is ignored. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. To place a transition properly between two open channels. therefore. where K.61
equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. 21. 21. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21.56. After such a water-surface profile is chosen.
222 ft.34 Weirs
A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows.34. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. and.58). such as broad-crested weirs. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. 21.
The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.000556(20)2 = 0. from which a = 0.58
Sharp-crested weir.62 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. trapezoidal weirs.000556(10)2 = 0. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.59
Weir not sharp-crested.000556. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. 21. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into
21.1 Types of Weirs
A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig.59. Inc.
If the nappe discharges into the air.
Fig. such as rectangular weirs. All rights reserved. 21. Click here to view.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. For Fig.57
Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. trapezoidal weirs. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. and parabolic weirs. measured from A or B. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. triangular or Vnotch weirs. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.
. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. 21. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. triangular weirs. the weir has free discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. Then y1 = ax21 = 0.21. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. as shown in Fig. If the discharge is partly under water. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. 21.57. In contrast. y = ax2.
21. the weir is submerged or drowned.5 = a(30)2.
Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. All rights reserved. To be fully ventilated. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. ft The head should be measured at least 2.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.
. Inc. Click here to view.
21. Chow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. thus causing a contraction of the flow. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. One such equation.63
hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. contraction of the nappe. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. below the crest.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.5H. A V-notch weir (Fig. 21. If P is less than
Fig. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.5H upstream from the weir. 21.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs
Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.116) corrects for the effects of friction. At very low heads.60
V-notch weir. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.34. New York). T. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.115) where Q = discharge. 2. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. Hence. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. Equation (21.58) (V.
This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Discharge is given by (21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs
The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.5H upstream from the weir.
. 1943).34. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. there are two end contractions and N = 2. there is one end contraction and N = 1.
The effective length L. T.61) (E. All rights reserved. F. 21.
Fig.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft H = head.34.118)
Fig. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. 21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs
The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. His values were summarized by Brater.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.119) where Q = discharge. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.64 s Section Twenty-One
where θ = notch angle H = measured head. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. Click here to view. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. Lenz. vol.
21. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.21. 69. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21.62
Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. 21. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. ft. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. Inc.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.” 6th ed. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig.. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. New York).118)]
21.34. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. (21.2) when low discharges are to be measured. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. measured from notch bottom.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Click here to view.) To use the Villemonte equation. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. using this rate and the required depths. (J. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. The discharge Qs.
21. ft/s V /2g = Hν. 1947. 32.63
Submerged sharp-crested weir.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. 25. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. (21. Thus. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. neglecting the velocity head. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. and then. 21. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. ft.
.121) where Q = discharge.
its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. and finally total head. Typically. Inc.) Equation (21.
Fig.115) is rewritten in the form (21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. Eq. using this discharge. From this total head.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs
The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. or both.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. for such weirs.
21.34. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
These are sturdy. 866. ft3/s.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. (21. which may be done as follows: First. All rights reserved. p.59). They must be determined experimentally for each installation. R. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. Where great accuracy is essential.122) where H = measured head. ft3/s. heavily constructed devices. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. Villemonte. Then. 21. velocity head.Water Resources Engineering s 21.34.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. velocity head of approach. compute the velocity of approach.65
b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. ft V = velocity of approach. 21. Dec. ft
No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.” Engineering News-Record. but
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
66 s Section Twenty-One
compute the first corrected discharge. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. Click here to view. (3) Broad-crested
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and approach velocity.123) where L = effective crest length.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0.2 of the head. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. Washington. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.34. F. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. and the approach velocity.21. ft (U. For conditions of design head Table 21. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. Inc.” Government Printing Office. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. But the process should be repeated. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.
21. For each change of nappe shape. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.S.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. where approach velocities are high. “Design of Small Dams. thickness of pier. For conditions of design head Hd.12. Department of the Interior. Therefore. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.01 0
* r = radius of abutment rounding. the head in relation to the design head.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients
Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment.20 0.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp
0.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. All rights reserved. DC 20402. The effect is most critical for low heads. head in relation to design heads. ft L′ = net crest lengths. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.
.02 0. starting with the corrected discharge.5Hd > r* > 0.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested
Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs.10
the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir
The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. Chow. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. Figure 21. Inc. This crest pressure reduces
the discharge below that for ideal flow. According to Chow. T. Of the above rules. This manual and V. however. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. 21. “Design of Small Dams. The shape of this nappe. depends on the head producing the discharge.
Fig.122).5H upstream. Chow.34. Consequently.67
Fig.65. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. (U.Water Resources Engineering s 21. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. 2.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. at the point of maximum contraction. 21. 21. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow.64) has such a shape. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. “Open-Channel
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. (21. Click here to view. and therefore of an ogee crest.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. 1. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.
21. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. called the design head Hd. This relationship is shown in Fig. Washington. for a sharp-crested weir. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.
weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. For flow at heads lower than the design head. Department of the Interior. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. DC 20402. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. where discharge is given by Eq.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.66 of the head. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. New York).64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. T. 21. All rights reserved.” Government Printing Office.S.
21.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.” U.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. 21.21.68 s Section Twenty-One
Hydraulics.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. All rights reserved. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams. Figure 21.)
Fig.66. the flow differs from ideal.” U. Bureau of Reclamation. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.S. New York. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. Click here to view.S. Inc.
69 shows a broad-crested weir that.” 6th ed.” 6th ed. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.)
Fig. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. All rights reserved. (E. has contraction of the nappe. Bureau of Reclamation.68.” U. the nappe springs free.34. where the velocity of approach is not high. (See. McGraw-Hill Book Company. F. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.69
Broad-crested weir. and sharp right-angled edges. Brater. (21. Figure 21. Figure 21. Brater.
the coefficient of discharge. compiled by King.)
If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. F. Values of the discharge coefficient.9 Broad-Crested Weir
This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.67 and 21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. New York. for example. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.34. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view..10
Weirs of Irregular Section
Fig.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine
This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.S. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. 21. if flow is at other than the design head.14. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. because of its sharp upstream edge.. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. are used as spillways and control structures. 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. is determined from Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. (From “Design of Small Dams. therefore.
. Weirs of irregular section. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. a plane horizontal crest. 21. appear in Table 21. E.)
21. Unless otherwise noted. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. New York. fairly common in waterworks projects.
97 3. once formed.68 2. The smaller silt sizes.00 2.64 2.68 2.92 2.64 2.14 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water. A density current.19 3.8 2.74 2.63 2.68 2.32 3.64 2.00 2.32 3.32 3.67 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.32 3.67 2.98 3.68 2.32 3.32 3.5 2.66 2.63
21.00 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.64 2.32 3.88 3.5 3.69 2.31 3.68 2.50 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.32 3.64 2.32 3.32 3.65 2.07 3.32 1.69 2.60 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 2.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.77 2.0 3.32 4. those forming the bed load. Heavier silt sizes.49 2.32 1.2 0.68 2.56 2.79 1.00 2.88 10.64 2.65 2.32 3.
. Click here to view.70 2.81 2.68 2.21.64 2.32 3.75 2.68 2.32 3.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and turbines.69 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.76 2.50 2.32 3.34 2.
21.70 2. ft 0.29 3. or soil.32 3.30 3.05 3.32 3.32 3.67 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.44 2.76 2.0 1.75 2.2 1. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.70 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.63 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment. such as gates.64 2.85 3.32 3.00 2. which are often of equal consequence.32 3.8 1. Inc. those carried in suspension.63 2.03 3.66 2.50 H.64 2.32 3.32 3.32 2.6 1.74 2.32 3.07 3. erosion.4 1. This incoming water.30 3.4 0.67 2.65 2.66 2.32 3.32 3.70 2. All rights reserved.54 2.0 5.08 3.86 2.65 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.68 2.32 3.61 2.32 3.64 15.31 3.72 2. with its load of suspended silt.62 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels
Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.61 2.80 2.0 2.67 2.60 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.60 2.32 3.64 2.89 3.63 2.04 3.20 3.07 3.63 2.63 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.89 2.72 2.32 3. valves.32 3.5 4.28 3.0 4.38 2.32 5.31 3.63 2.32 3.72 2.26 3.07 3.64 2. such as a reservoir. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.32 3.75 2.70 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.35.66 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.00 2.79 2.64 2.00 2.66 2.50 2.70 2.64 2.92 3.85 2.68 2.32 3.32 3.5 5.73 2.69 2.28 3.64 2.89 3.64 2.60 2.63 2.63 2.68 2.20 3.68 2.75 2.88 2.48 2. ft 0.6 0.75 2.64 2.92 3.07 3.32 3.32 3.64 2.08 3.70 2.32 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs
Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a
body of still water.65 2.80 2.54 2.65 2.58 2.32 3.65 2.20 3.63 2.
on the other hand.35. because of variations in rainfall.71
Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm.
. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. formed from the bed load. or from year to year. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. However. are coarsegrained. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. Inc. These currents are stable.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate
Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. All rights reserved.
21. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. however. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. landslide. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. overtopping. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. or failure of materials. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. Click here to view.39. By this method. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. 21. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. see Art. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. When neither can be done. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. once formed. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. the rate is not uniform during the year. The most common manner of destruction. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Of course. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions.)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. But for the most part.35. Therefore. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. (21. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Therefore. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. which generally occurs only during a storm. which varies with both slope and discharge. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream.21.124) where Gb = total bed load. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. A mean grain size of 0. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. ft qo = critical discharge. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. ft3/s b = width of river. discharge. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load.
. however. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. gravel. Therefore. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. All rights reserved. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. Inc. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well.1). the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. and boulders.72 s Section Twenty-One
Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. Click here to view.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.0 ft/mi. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. According to Witzig. Frequently. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. 21. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment.
Einstein. Inc. and the stream velocity. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. planting of burned-over areas. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. and pressure. such as wind.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A major concern is the cir-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. such as an hour. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. their chemical and physical properties. and their reaction with their environment. check-dam construction. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. in the form of synoptic weather charts. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. lakes. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. if the dam is raised at a later date.S.73
dation. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes
21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Graf. Such screens.
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. infiltrates into the soil. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. In this cycle. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.S. day.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. or year. groundwater flow. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. or a combination of the two. Current data. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Use of vegetation screens. For instance. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin.” U. debris barriers. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. evaporation. water evaporation from oceans. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. Department of Agriculture. The second type is a nonrecording gage. are published daily by the U.37 Precipitation
The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. on or near the land surface. recharges groundwater. New York. circulation. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. and stream flow
21. (21-124). Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.36 Erosion Control
The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. (W. H. (See H. by ink pen and revolving drum. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. A. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. rivers. temperature.) culation.S. contour plowing.
. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. and distribution. runoff. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. or digital microchip technology. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. infiltration. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. Weather Bureau is 24 h. their occurrence. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. Weather Bureau. including their relation to living things. which are of two types. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. discharges into streams. It continually records.
Maidment. R. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. In evaporation. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. developed from Dalton’s law. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. and other vegetation surfaces. New York. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it.74 s Section Twenty-One
that are too small. equal to 15 for small. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions.125)
(21. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. see D. Of the three.125)]. A portion may evaporate as it falls. In transpiration. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. (21. Click here to view. especially if the reservoir is shallow. and plantleaf surfaces. tropical and subtropical regions.126) where E = evaporation rate. This phenomenon. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. while another portion may be caught on leaves. (21. shallow pools and 11 for large. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. Evaporation may occur from free-water. “Handbook of Hydrology. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor
21. On an annual basis. or ground surfaces. in of mercury. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and it increases as wind velocity increases. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. The Meyer equation [Eq. called interception. on a long-term basis. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water.” McGraw-Hill. in of mercury. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. branches. ground. Evapotranspiration is important because. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. plant. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Evapotranspiration. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth.
.38 Evaporation and Transpiration
These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. has a relatively large surface area. Not all rain reaches the ground. Inc.. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. commonly termed consumptive use. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation.21. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. All rights reserved.
Inc. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. On large reservoirs. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. It appears in surface channels. aquatic life. time distribution.70. Climatic characteristics a. depending on the geographical region.60 and 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. perhaps several years. or cetyl alcohol. hail. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. or groundwater flow. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. duration. Groundwater flow. and biologic attrition. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. except in arid. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Thus. natural or manmade. Classified by the path taken to a channel. where it continues as channel or stream flow.” McGraw-Hill. or excess rain. subsurface runoff. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. (D. R.Water Resources Engineering s 21. also known as interflow. although it may vary between 0. intensity. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Inc. subsurface storm flow. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. In practice. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. effective rain includes subsurface flow. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. insects. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. snow. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. tropical. subsurface. Precipitation—form (rain. called a Class A Level Pan.39 Runoff
This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. Maidment. wind tends to push the film to the shore. or groundwater runoff. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. is in widespread use. runoff may be surface. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. dew). and storm seepage. Moving laterally. Commonly. All rights reserved. to reach a channel. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Subsurface flow. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. birds.
21. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. After joining stream flow.
. frost. Click here to view. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Hexadeconal.80.75
As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir.
recurrence interval. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. 21. and completeness of the hydrologic records. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. permeability. TVA. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. direction of storm movement b.S. the detail required in the final answer. Drainage-basin characteristics a. direction. Atmospheric pressure f. shape. and statisti-
cal data pertaining to the entire record. and various state and local agencies. extremes during precipitation c.S. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. Agricultural Research Service.S. the U. groundwater formations. slope.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data
The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. artificial drainage. Temperature—variation.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. shape of cross section. channels (size. Inc. Solar radiation 2. International Boundary Commission.S. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. areal distribution. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. elevation. Click here to view. the quantity and type of data available.S. and Weather Bureau. Geological Survey. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. roughness. detail. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission.70. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Humidity e. length) b. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. duration d. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. mean flow.
21. frozen ground during storms.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations
The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. land use and cover. antecedent precipitation. drainage net. Topographic—size. yearly flow volume. orientation.21. All rights reserved.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. snow storage.76 s Section Twenty-One
seasonal distribution. general location.
. special-interest items. Wind—velocity. 21. extremes of flow. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. stratification Fig. both published and unpublished. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.
21. slope. Weather Bureau. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. Geologic—soil type. lakes and other bodies of water. Geological Survey. and the accuracy desired.” U. as shown in Fig. Geological Survey. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. soil moisture. These papers contain records of daily flow.
Click here to view. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. great importance. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. 5. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. in/h A = drainage area. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. As an example.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures
The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. 3. 1962). 2. a 50. The values of C in Table 21. Inc. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement.127) where Q = peak discharge. the second to major hydraulic structures. 4. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.41.77
found in the determination of flood runoff.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21.128)
21. and large downstream damage potential. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. All rights reserved. others give the complete hydrograph. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures.or 100-year-frequency storm. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Several methods yield only peak discharge. for example. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. T. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.
85 0.70 – 0. New York. flat. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. 2–7% Sandy soil.50 – 0.70 – 0. 2% Sandy soil. (21. is a convenient. streets.
K.18 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. or ditches.40 0. coefficient. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.20 – 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. and the flow time in conduits.80 0..75 – 0.) The flow time in gutters. widely accept-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 – 0. n. gutters.25 0.10 – 0. Maidment. avg. and n1
= = =
Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. detached Multiunits.129). b.35
where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.95 0.50 0. 21.95 0. All rights reserved. Inc. Click here to view.50 – 0. Equation (21.127).30 0. (21.60 – 0.30 – 0.35 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. R.89)] . The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.15 – 0. ditches.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. steep. factor.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. in/h respectively. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.75 – 0. the flow time in streets.41.05 – 0.
. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures
The unit-hydrograph method.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.15 0.80 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. 7% Heavy soil. After determining the time of concentration.40 0.25 – 0.40 – 0.90 0. avg. flat.95 0.95 0. (See D.70 0.10 – 0.71 and Table 21. (21.10 – 0.20 – 0.60 0. Sherman.13 – 0.10 0.17 0.78 s Section Twenty-One
where I = = rainfall intensity. 21.70 0. or any equivalent method. years duration of storm. steep. (21.22 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 2–7% Heavy soil. 2% Heavy soil. Inc.50 – 0.75 0.70 – 0. “Handbook of Hydrology.60 – 0.
Table 21.128) or Eq.85 0.” McGraw-Hill.20 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. min time of concentration Fig.
(Leroy K. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10
ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures.
. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern.79
Table 21. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. JanuaryJune 1932. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. pp. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. vol. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. and more accurate than any such set of factors.Water Resources Engineering s 21. termed a unit storm. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. Click here to view. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. Inc. The method is summarized by the formula (21. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. All rights reserved. If the watershed is very large. This requires that a storm of short duration. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. 4. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. easier. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. 501-505. 2. 3. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. subdivision may be required.130)
The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. the time of storm runoff. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. termed a unit period. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. that is. Thus. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Sherman. usually 1 acre). the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. 108.” Engineering News-Record.
80 s Section Twenty-One
by each hydrograph. 21. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. For ease of manipulation.72. Click here to view. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. Inc. 5. 21.21. because of storm variations. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. All rights reserved. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.73). Then. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. 21. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit
Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Illustrated in Fig. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Usually.
Inc. (See D. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand..
. during heavy storms. New York. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. 21.)
Fig. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. (R. This method was developed by Franklin F. pp. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Inc. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. 19. Maidment. vol. pt. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. K. This loss. 447–454).74). The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. New York. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water.81
21.. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Fig. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. All rights reserved. Linsley et al.” McGraw-Hill.Water Resources Engineering s 21.42 Groundwater
Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Click here to view.. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. 21. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors.) where Q = flow rate. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. “Hydrology for Engineers. Also. perpendicular to direction of flow. I. R. McGraw-Hill.” 3rd ed. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain..131) period. Inc. “Handbook of Hydrology. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.
need for excessive pumping lifts. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. poor-quality replenishment waters. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Regardless of how it is defined.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. quality. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. or other causes. quantity. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. recycling. usually a number of years. All rights reserved. among others. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. groundwater levels. rather than a change in volume. These costs include increased soap costs. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity.21. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. Following the preceding preliminary work. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. safe yield. Deteriorating water quality. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. present and future water demands should be determined.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. cost of replenishment water. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program.82 s Section Twenty-One
Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. Inc. because of impermeable layers above and below it. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. (A base period is a period of time. and location of artificial replenishment. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. and indirect water-quality use costs. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. and overdraft. alternative management plans should be formulated. water softening costs. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Frequently. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Click here to view. source. and quality of water supply. wastewaters. quantity.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is a confined or artesian aquifer. and methods of wastewater disposal.
the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (“Ground Water Management.” 3rd ed. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. fire-fighting. irrigation. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Bear. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city.. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. Grigg.83
Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. transmission. surface-water delivery facilities. legal. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. decreasing percentage increase. storage. The smaller the system. apartments. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. “Water Resources Planning. 40. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. land speculation. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. or other unforeseen emergency. is a very difficult task. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. K. and treatment works.43 Water Consumption
The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. fire. Estimation of future population. percentage increase. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. distribution. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. culinary. amount and location of groundwater extractions. wastewater disposed. S. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” N. All rights reserved.
A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Click here to view.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system.” R. water used.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. such as industrial development. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. 1987. institutional. graphical comparison with other cities. flood. industrial. I.
21. Kashef.” A. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions.
. Hydrology for Engineers. and sanitary purposes. commercial. New York. and age of the city. and hotels for drinking. and public. McGraw-Hill Book Company. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. geographical boundaries. “Groundwater Engineering. and environmental factors. pumping. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. and natural and artificial replenishment. industrial.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. financially feasible. motels.. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Linsley et al. American Society of Civil Engineers. sanitary. bathing. Therefore. J. washing. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. Inc. no. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size.
standard of living. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. valves.17. Mo. and time of day. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. reservoir evaporation. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. pressure. Calif. meter malfunctions. the demand for it decreases. Table 21. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. degree of industrialization. Public use of water for parks. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. All rights reserved. and cleaning. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. Public Health Service Report. cost. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. month. but because of the high rate at which it is required. and unauthorized uses. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. and year. janitorial. air conditioning. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. cost. lawn sprinkling.21. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Click here to view. cooling. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. quality. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. size of the city. degree of industrialization. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and air conditioning purposes. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Demand rates vary with time of day. influence the demand rate for water. and quality of the water.
. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. such as the climate. The national demand-rate data. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange.S. Inc.84 s Section Twenty-One
Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. and faucets. are the average of a range of values. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. public buildings. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. as presented in Table 21. and pressure. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. The “California Water Atlas. if the cost of water increases.” 1979.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. presents
Table 21. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. Normally. it may control the design of the facilities. type of service (metered or unmetered). 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. mainly because of the lack of large industries.
4 3. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 6. diversification is essential for reliability.000 90. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
1. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 10.000
Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.4 17.000 1. and streams.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 48.000 17. Total dependence on a single source. cost. In the atlas. and in some cases.000 40. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.0 7.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9 4.000
1. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.4 2. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 4.000 55.3
Duration. Inc. In the past. the effect of warm.6 4. but the demand rate is high.000 10.2 2.132) where G = fire-demand rate. Cost. to a large extent.000 120. In selection of a source of supply.18.000 200. interdependent. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage. legality. valley cities.000 2. climate.000 100.8 6.000
* American Insurance Association.18 Required Fire Flow.000 40. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 8. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.6 1.8 7.000 40.6 11.0 3.000 85. MG† 0. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 125. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.000 40.000 28. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. gal/min P = population. and politics.85
average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 110.
. however. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 40.000 60. Click here to view. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.500 2. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 80.44 Water-Supply Sources
The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. is frequently undesirable.8 2.000 85.0 1.000 5.000 4. however.3 0. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. The source must
Table 21. quality. Moreover.000 80.000 70. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. MG = million gallons. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.
21.000 90.000 40. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.2 8.000 40. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 3. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.3 5.5 14. inland. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. In some local areas. industrialization. such as lakes. Hydrant Spacing. rivers.000 12.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. (See also Art.
. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.) At the discretion of the state. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21.5 – 8.) Source Protection s The U.90 s Section Twenty-One
When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards
Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. 21. calcium hardness. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. American Water Works Association. In addition. Click here to view.21. Inc. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. The measurements should include pH. dependent on local conditions. such as sulfates and chlorides.22. and calculation of the Langelier index.S.S. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations.21. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.3 mg / L 0. All rights reserved.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.5 mg / L 0.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” U. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. alkalinity. total dissolved solids. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. temperature. as indicated by the following extract:
Table 21.” American Public Health Association. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.
0. however. Pojasek.001 and 5. (Usually. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. disinfection. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. calculated with ν = νs. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. depth ho . is equal to or less than 1. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. particulate and colored matter. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.46. Mich. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. temperature and viscosity of the water. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. 21. In the region where 1. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Figure 21. B.Water Resources Engineering s 21. shape. and width B.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Click here to view. All rights reserved. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. V the flowthrough velocity. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.1 Plain Sedimentation
The ideal settling basin (Fig. slow and rapid sand filtration. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid.134).133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. coagulation-sedimentation.
. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. unpleasant tastes and odors. Inc.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. (See R. and size and shape of the settling basin. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.
Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.91
The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.46 Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Figure 21. (21. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . mm If R > 2000.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. Ann Arbor. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. Newton’s law applies: (21. such as those mentioned above. and softening (see also Art.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Inc. Reynolds numbers. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. velocity is constant.
21.. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.0 < R < 2000. For this ideal basin. (21.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to be used in Eq. 21.
Fig. 21.92 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. (Observed curves. Click here to view.21. All rights reserved.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 21. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76
Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Inc. p. vol. 1946. after Camp. 103. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. at 10 °C.
Without coagulants. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. 1.” John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. G. salt. A. 21. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. M. J.78b). Okun.8c. Click here to view. Geyer.” McGraw-Hill.5 ft/min (most common velocity. All rights reserved.93
Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . rectangular (Fig. 21. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. or other indicator to pass through the basin. C. New York. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. Fair. 21. The tubular settler (Fig. New York. finely
Fig. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation
To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. coagulants are added to the water. and eddy currents. short circuiting. are removed in this basin.. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.78a) or circular (Fig. Inc. 27. Multistory tanks.77
Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.
. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.46. and D.)
21. 21.. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. for example.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas.
(c) Twostory sedimentation basin.21. All rights reserved. Inc.94 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. 21. (b) Circular clarifier.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (d) Tubular settler.
and neutralization of electrostatic charges. and easier dewatering. organic polyelectrolytes. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. “Water Supply and Sewerage. McGhee. Anionic polymers. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as mechanical stirrers. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants.” R. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.” McGraw-Hill. turbidity. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. centrifugal pumps. however. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. 18H2O]. Inc. plankton. Click here to view. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. or neutral in charge. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. however. Corbitt. considering both cost and performance. such as pH. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages.
. Also. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. All rights reserved. Culp and R. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. T. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. or positively charged. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. settling. production of a smaller volume of sludge. color.to 60min range. such as physical straining. or negatively charged. coliform organisms. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. “New Concepts in Water Purification.47 Filtration Processes
Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria.. They are available in three types: cationic. and suspended solids.)
21. however. ferric chloride (FeCl3). J. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. highmolecular-weight. in some instances. New York. and air jets. polymers have a minor effect on pH. A.95
divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. American Water Works Association. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. consequently. and nonionic. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and hardness. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. color. Inc. temperature. (G. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. Thereby.. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. L. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. anionic. such as paper fiber. Polymers are long-chain. chemical and biological reactions.” 4th ed. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. The filtering process has many components. New York. Culp. “Water Quality and Treatment. L.
) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. in millimeters.79. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.21. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. by weight.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.or mixed-media filtration. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.
Gravity-type rapid sand filter.to 0. of the sand. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. 21. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. that will pass 10%.96 s Section Twenty-One
a polymer as a flocculant aid. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU.35-mm range. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. 21.to 12-in layer of gravel. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Usually. depending on the turbidity. The wash-
Fig. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. All rights reserved. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. Inc. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. and dual. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. through the sand and gravel layers. The process requires rapid mixing. Click here to view.25.
however. or deep coarse-media filters. or sand incrustation will be encountered. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. filters pass water at a high rate. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.20 to 1. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter.005:1 range.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. Inc. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. mixed-media. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. bed cracking. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.25 to 1. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Click here to view. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. The filtering medium may be sand. All rights reserved.35 to 0. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. such as rakes. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2.
. which produces an undertreated effluent.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. may be more advantageous. diatomaceous earth. which is drained to waste. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. water sprays. creating a high head loss across the filter. and air jets. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. Immediately after washing.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. gal/min b = width of trough. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.002:1 to 0. or anthracite coal. Dual-media.97
water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.
000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Click here to view. Inc. or open-joint pipes.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. In the lime-soda process.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment.” 6th ed. New York. Culp and R. Geyer.” John Wiley & Sons. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. J. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. (American Water Works Association.139)
21. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in clear wells.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. A. M. sulfates. Some. New York.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. (G. lime (CaO). Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material.. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level.98 s Section Twenty-One
Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. New York. C. McGraw-Hill Book Company. such as calcium and magnesium. carbonates. “Water Quality and Treatment. however. L. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.136) (21. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. J. and (3) total hardness. “Water Supply and Sewerage. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “New Concepts in Water Purification.. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Regeneration requires between 0. Okun. G. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.” 4th ed. gas. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.48 Water Softening
Presence of the bicarbonates. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. New York. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.3 and 0. and D. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. perforated.)
(21. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates.. McGhee.” and T.” 4th ed. All rights reserved. respectively. and R is the zeolite material.49 Disinfection with Chlorine
Chlorine in either the liquid. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.21.137)
Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. American Water Works Association. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.138)
(21. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. “Water Treatment Plant Design. where 1 gpg = 17. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water Quality and Treatment. Inc.1 mg/L. L. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Fair. These materials remove cations. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value..
Inc. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with
Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. McGhee. Filter both solutions.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. water supply. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. (G. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. excessive fluorides. 21.” John Wiley & Sons. then. manganese.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. 21. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Okun. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. C. despite its low solubility. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.” and T. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.45). Click here to view. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. New York. chlorine dioxide. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.1 or 0. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. and recreation
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and lime. anion exchange. and D. Fair. iron. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.Water Resources Engineering s 21.
. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. odor. New York. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer.51 Miscellaneous Treatments
Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color.99
water supplies. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. All rights reserved.)
21. and electrodialysis. “Water Supply and Sewerage. taste. Inc.50 Carbonate Stability
Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.” McGraw-Hill. M. cation exchange. Chlorine residuals of 0. A. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. bromine. Inc. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.) respect to carbonates...)
The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. New York. irrigation.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. flood control. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. Other disinfectants are iodine. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. detergents. ozone. activated carbon. lime softening. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill. J. ultraviolet light. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. J. Geyer. reverse osmosis.
The mass diagram (Fig. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. Aeri-
Fig. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. All rights reserved.21.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.52. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Also. 21. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The plot of volume vs. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. maximum flows will govern. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.80
Mass diagram of stream flow.1). as is the case for many water-supply projects.80.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Click here to view. 21. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Once a reservoir site has been selected. When the demand rate is known. Inc. 21. minimum flows will be critical.100 s Section Twenty-One
(see also Art. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.
Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. the flow refills the reservoir.2). The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. is called the thermocline. If possible. During hours of maximum demand. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.35 and 21. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When the demand drops off. odor.81
Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. In deep reservoirs. All rights reserved. which may be only a few feet thick. give special attention to water quality. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.52. A mass dia-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.52. such as New York.1 Distribution Reservoirs
The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. Click here to view. but there is no circulation across this zone. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. and Los Angeles. are large distances from the city. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. perature drops in the fall. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. 21. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. When the tem-
21. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts.101
Fig. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. San Francisco.
. 21. pumping plants.
al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. Major sources of supply for some cities.
It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. 21. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. June 1953). For the correct hydraulic grade. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-
21. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. 21.102 s Section Twenty-One
gram (Fig.35. 3.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.82) (G.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency
The methods of Art. Brune. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. A flowing artesian
A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.21. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. M. Brune. 21.52.84). A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. vol. Click here to view. All rights reserved. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. M. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. no. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.83). Inc. 21. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. 21. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. For any given storage reservoir.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.82
Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Click here to view. All rights reserved. 21.83
Gravity well in a free aquifer.84
Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21.
. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.103
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
“The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug.
.57). “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. New York. J. Theis.” 6th ed. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. Inc. Click here to view.104 s Section Twenty-One
well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence.. no. 21. McGraw-Hill. M. or driven.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models.53. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (G. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well.53.53. vol.
21.4 Well Equipment
Essential well equipment consists of casing. (C. Geyer. December 1938.84). ft h = H minus drawdown. McGhee. bored. screen. 1940. vol. p. T. E. J. C. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference.
21. New York.2 Flow From Wells
The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. C.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 72. gal/day. p. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. motor. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). A. pump (Art. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established.
21. Fair. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. Jacob. Inc. 5. and D. 21.. eductor or riser pipe.142) where Q = flow.” John Wiley & Sons. The pump. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.3 Excavation of Wells
Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” Economic Geology. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K.83). ft (Fig..)
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. or hydraulic rotary methods.143)
21. 889. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. 33.53. 629. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. ft d = diameter of well. Hence. ft The steady flow. and motor. All rights reserved.1 Drawdown
When water is pumped from a well. hollow-core. Okun. waterjet. ditch. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. from an artesian well is given by (21. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. V.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. All rights reserved. and sulfur compounds. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. or Dresser-type couplings. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics.
21. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. hydrants. brass. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. and meters destroyed by corrosion. stray electric currents. valves.146) where D = pipe diameter. and ability to withstand external loads. steel. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. pumps. bacteria in water. are present.) At the anode. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. If it is cement-lined. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Since steel is stronger than iron.54. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. zinc. an anode and a cathode. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Inc. Copper. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. concrete. polybutylene. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Under favorable conditions. impurities and strains in metals. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems
Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. A machine that produces a monolithic. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. rubber. Metals can
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. and other appurtenances. polyethylene. contact between acids and metals.
. valves. Click here to view. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Wood pipelines are still in existence. riveting. sealed flanges.21. tanks. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. such as polyvinyl chloride. bronze. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure.108 s Section Twenty-One
Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. however. sand. lead. In unlined pipes. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets.6 Pipe Materials
Cast iron. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. plastic. but wood is rarely used in new installations. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete.
(21. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)
Ha = average head on pipe. dollars/hp per year
Qa = average discharge. ft
21. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. and plastics. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement.
the faster electrons can move through the water. use of protective coatings. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. caustic soda. All rights reserved. to prevent corrosion. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. and
Fig.86). Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle.
. When selecting materials. Also. zinc.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. 21. and the more ions.109
be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Aluminum. for example.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Inc. Strains. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films.86
Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. cracks. and treatment of the water. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). At the cathode. Click here to view. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. water may be treated with bases. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. such as soda ash. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. 21. where e is an electron. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles.
New York. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. oxides. 21. or eye.56 Centrifugal Pumps
The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
lime.87). 21. Zinc. by (21. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.)
w = unit weight of liquid. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing
Fig. z is negative. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.88).” 4th ed. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure.21. The centrifugal pump. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. Inc. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. McGraw-Hill. Water enters at the center. (American Water Works Association. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube.87
Cathodic protection of a metal.. and the head-discharge relationship. ft of water z = elevation difference. and so on on the walls of the pipes. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Click here to view. between pump center line and water surface
Fig. efficiency. hydroxides. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given.147) where pa = pressure. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. the most common waterworks pump. graphite. To have practical meaning. psia. in feet. All rights reserved. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. accomplishes that in two steps. or impeller. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. 21.88
Volute-type centrifugal pump. To prevent cavitation. Inc. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. horsepower. magnesium. called a volute (Fig.110 s Section Twenty-One
by centrifugal force. Corrosion.
. 21. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater
21. ft. “Water Quality and Treatment. psia.. however.
Inc. below 200 gal/min. 21. pump discharge.)
21. jet. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities.89
Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. rotary. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as shown in Fig. J. See also Art... 21.57 Well Pumps
These are classified as centrifugal. and air lift. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. 21.
. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. (Also included in Fig. New York. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Karassik et al. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage.89. “Pump Handbook. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. reciprocating.
Fig.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Click here to view. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. 21. propeller.” 2nd ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. 21.58. helical.111
than the required NPSH. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. head. For that reason.57 and check valves in Art. (I. 21. depending on the number of stages. All rights reserved. In a typical water-system analysis. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. however.
utilize piston action to move water. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. either hand.112 s Section Twenty-One
Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. which are located at the well bottom. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft.90 fied). they can be used only for sediment-free water. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. which is a function of specific speed. gal/min H = head. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-
Fig. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. 21. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. and for Ns above 7500. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100.148) where n = impeller speed. cams. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller.or motordriven. At sea level. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. (21. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube.
Section through a jet pump (simpli-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Because of the close tolerances. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps.21. Reciprocating pumps. vanes. 21. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter.
. so that the entire lift is suction. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Click here to view. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Jet pumps (Fig. r/min Q = discharge.
or it may be at the bottom of the well. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. pressure-relief. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. J. fast operation. and easy. respectively. or corporation cocks. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes..or oil-lubricated.
. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. The major types of isolating valves are gate. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Click here to view. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Hand or motor power. globe. one at the service connection. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. New York. Karassik et al. McGraw-Hill Book Company. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Inc. rubber.113
tion. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. and butterfly valves. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Usually.) drives to permit manual operation. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. But these valves cost more than gate. applied through a gear-reduction device. Plug. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. solids deposition. “Pump Handbook. air-relief. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. availability.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. pressure-regulating. Check. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Also. primarily because of their low cost. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. rotates the disk. needle. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. globe. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff.58 Valves
Water facilities use many different types of valves. (I. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. in-service lubrication features. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. If sand is carried out with the water. curb. Low head loss. or Neoprene. All rights reserved. tubercle formation. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. sluice gate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Needle valves are used for accurate
21. Corrosion. one just upstream of the meter. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. plug. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. and low head loss when fully open. pumps. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. large pressure differences. which are water.” 2nd ed. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and butterfly. Simplicity of construction and quick. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs.. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. cone. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. three valves must be used.
these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Interior-differential. For example. Because of high head losses. 5 in for a three-way hydrant.60 Metering Devices
Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. tube. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. check.59 Fire Hydrants
A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. and relief valves. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. such as trunk lines
21. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. such as pressure regulators and altitude. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Furthermore. or California type. All rights reserved.
. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and large pipes. Often. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. rivers. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant.114 s Section Twenty-One
control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Click here to view. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Inc. Usually. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. When the valve is in a closed position. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. The most common check valve is the swing type. The wetbarrel. which connects the barrel to the main. such as for free discharge from reservoirs.21. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Many automatic control valves.
and cost. Click here to view. or nutating-disk types. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities.. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. F. ft h1 = pressure in main section.115
of distribution systems.
. amount of head loss through the meter.91.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Inc. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. A clicking noise. are the most common velocity-type devices. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.) As in venturi meters. but they are used primarily in laboratories. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. or modifications thereof. rotary. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. New York. for metering domestic-service connections. nozzle. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter
d1 = diameter of main section. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. such as meters for individual customer connections.149) Hydraulics.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. which do not affect propeller meters.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. 21. Brater. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. The standard venturi meter (Fig. called a Price meter. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. All rights reserved. The cup-type meter. However. respectively. see E.
(21. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. 21. vertical velocity components. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft d2 = diameter of throat. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. simplicity and ease of repairs. The nutating disk is used. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. durability.150) where Q = flow rate.” 6th ed. “Handbook of
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. peak rates of use. utility-type enterprises. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and development of the system. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. (c) Orifice-
21. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. Inc.
Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Rate structures are typ-
ically based on demand. seasonal use. All rights reserved.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if any.116 s Section Twenty-One
Fig. step rate. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.21. and similar items. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. and block rate. load factors. 21.61 Water Rates
The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility.91 plate meter. fixed charges on capital investment. or to some other recognized system. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. (b) Nozzle meter. Click here to view. fire use. flat rate is falling into disuse.
a building to house the machinery and equipment. where applicable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. switching equipment.
. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. pumping energy. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system.Water Resources Engineering s 21. turbines and governors.117
With step rate. called the customer component. called the commodity component. Click here to view. and transformers. canals. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. treatment chemicals. buying water from a wholesale supplier. tunnels. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. penstocks. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. and. Inc. Cost component 1. When fixing a system of rates. where the majority of small users are.
21. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Cost component 3. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. of serving an individual customer. including metering and billing. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. Cost component 2. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. All rights reserved. tunnel. depends on the peak usage of a customer. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation
Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. For most distribution systems. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized.746 kW 1 kW = 1. S. It is generally recognized that residential areas. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. generators and exciters. This charge is usually small. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. and (3) cost. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases.152a)
Hydroelectric Power and Dams
Hydroelectric plants. called the demand component. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. draft tube.
or seasonal cycle. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from
Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. base-load plants.118 s Section Twenty-One
(21. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. weekly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Storage can be provided for a daily. On a seasonal cycle. to be used at some future time. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. power production being only incidental. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Then. or yearly basis. Click here to view. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. It can be computed on a daily.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. On a weekly cycle. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. such as navigation. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night.92). generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. All rights reserved. and peak-load plants. Therefore. If the minimum flow is very low. Inc. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. On a daily cycle. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. weekly. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage.21. 21. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. run-of-river plants with storage.
steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Inc. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. earth. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Figure 21.63 Dams
Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. New York. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. it usually is not as economical. The main classifications are gravity. J. Its distribution is triangular.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Force F2 represents silt pressure.. arch. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high
power demand. Calif. and rock-fill. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. Hasen. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.
Daily load curves for generating plants. buttress. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. When needed. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom.” 4th ed. 21. Los Angeles.)
21. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. (V. Zipparo and H.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam.119
Fig. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. McGraw-Hill Book Company.92). 21. (Department of Water and Power. All rights reserved. Click here to view. This silt pressure can be cal-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. (E. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. which create forces on any object resting on it.425h above the base. 98. vol. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. given by Eq. A method of calculating these forces. (21. however. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. ice pressures as high as 50. 434.
culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.) (21. May 1946.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. p.120 s Section Twenty-One
Fig.153). Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. 21. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. today it is realized these values are much too high. 1933.1 g. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.000 psf.21. In the past.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. which forms on the reservoir surface. presented by Edwin Rose. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. These accelerations occur in every direction. A close approximation of the force. Click here to view. ice. In cold climates.93 by forces F4 and F5. Rose.93
Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.
. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. was developed by von Karman. Inc.153) where w = unit weight of water. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. Most dams in seismically active regions in
the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0.” discussion by von Karman. 21.
a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The modes of failure are also the same. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. but its formwork is more expensive. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Hence. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. and clay. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. If a large quantity of pervious material. and uplift forces are smaller. their relative importance is much different. however. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. however. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. overturning by rotating about the toe. On arch dams. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. engineers assumed that. because of bearing contact. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage.
. If the deflections are not equal. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. rock flour. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. First. such as sand and gravel. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. silt. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. In the multiple-arch. When the base is not drained. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. however. sand. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. Although there are many types of buttress dams. or failure of the foundation material. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. is available and clayey materials must be imported.Water Resources Engineering s 21. but it does not pro-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. They are not suited to most sites. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. Inc. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. but the structural design is much more critical. Click here to view. However. Recent belief. uplift is not so important. All rights reserved. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. In the past.121
imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry.
Leakage should be expected. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams.” EM 1110-2-2300. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Zipparo and H. 21. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. J. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. New York.94). Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Inc. Temporary facings are usually of wood. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. therefore. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill.
. For some types of soil. The facing is usually concrete. Army Corps of Engineers. For dams over 200 ft high. however. If the dam is on a pervious foundation.64 Hydraulic Turbines
In the past. U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. although steel has been used occasionally. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage.” 4th ed. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. The downstream face is usually 1.21. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. (V.)
21. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. and an upstream impervious facing. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. All rights reserved. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. onto the fill. If pervious material is not available. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. The cutoff wall is usually concrete.122 s Section Twenty-One
vide the flexibility of clay materials.. Click here to view. Today. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. providing power. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. bonding into the dumped rock.3 on 1. the natural angle of repose of rock.3 on 1. Bureau of Relamation.” U. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. or wood over concrete.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. bearing on the rubble cushion. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Hasen. S. S. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available.
The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. Inc.
Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic
In most impulse turbines. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. and draft tube. 21. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. (V.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. At heads above 1000 ft.)
bine. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. New York. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. and the fixed-blade type. 21.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. if the load drops below 50%. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. runner. runner. However. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. their efficiency decreases rapidly. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. however. The wicket gates. This creates a force on the runner. In such installations. Click here to view. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. it changes direction.. the propeller-type (Fig. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. 21. wicket gates. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. J. In these.Water Resources Engineering s 21. wicket gates. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.
. When the power demand on the turbine changes. At heads below 100 ft. Zipparo and H. 21. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. however. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs
Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.94 turbine. Hasen. such as the Kaplan turbine. 21. The propeller turbine (Fig. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load.” 4th ed. and draft tube. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.95c).95a). problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. As the water flows through the tur-
21. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.
To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. the dam will not be damaged by the water. widely used for concrete dams because. This type of spillway is
Fig. if designed correctly. (b) Kaplan.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.
21.124 s Section Twenty-One
out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. Click here to view. (c) axial flow. All rights reserved.1 Spillways
An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.95
Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
.21.65. Inc. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.
sometimes called a morning-glory spillway.S. 21.
. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. DC 20402). When the head is relatively low. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. 21. or ogee in cross section. Bureau of Reclamation.” Government Printing Office. Washington. the siphon’s intake is sealed. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. Click here to view. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. flared. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. The air vent shown in Fig. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Once this second condition is reached. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. The weir can be sharp-crested. siphon spillways hold the water
Fig. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir.125
The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. This type of spillway. both depending on the head on the weir. In a side-channel spillway. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. 21. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. lined. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. As the head increases. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. A siphon spillway (Fig. called an ogee spillway.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. In a shaft spillway. open channel. In a chute spillway. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. Inc. “Design of Small Dams. All rights reserved. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.34). 21. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.96
Siphon spillway. model tests are usually employed.
the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. are 395-fthigh concrete towers.
level of a reservoir within close limits. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. On large stop-log installations.3 Crest Gates
These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.2 Intake Structures
The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir.97
Taintor gate. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. 21. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable.
21. making removal difficult. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. Inc.65.65. In contrast.
. All rights reserved.98
Bear-trap gate. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.
21. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. 21.21.
Fig. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. the pipes fail. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required.5 ft/s. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.
Fig. 21.126 s Section Twenty-One
The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. To do this. In a taintor gate (Fig. causing damage and hampering operation. controlling flow. and providing support for the conduit. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide.97).
21.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. All rights reserved. Click here to view. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21.127
Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99 Drum gate. “Water Supply Engineering. L.98. E. and J. and H. as shown in Fig. New York.” 4th ed. Zipparo and H. To raise a bear-trap gate. J. drum gates are not suited to small dams.) Fig. (V. Inc. Cleasby. Babbitt.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. 21. 21. Hasen. Doland.
.. J. Because of the large recess required in the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The drum gate (Fig.
All rights reserved. Inc.128
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.blank page 21. Click here to view.