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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
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Gage pressure.000 ft is shown in Fig. 21. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. although negligible in many water engineering problems. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. like surface tension. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. 21.2. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. ft σ = surface tension.7 psia.7 psi. as shown in Fig. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14.3. face and rises in a small tube. Surface tension and capillarity. Its value Fig. is concave upward. Meniscus. 21. When the liquid is in a closed container. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. at sea level. Click here to view. Its temperature variation. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. (21. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. psi. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. . as shown in Fig. psia. is pressure above or below atmospheric. In equation form. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. is small and insignificant in most problems.1) where h = capillary rise. pitting.21. decreases with increasing temperature.1. formation of spray from water jets. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. respectively. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. portions of the liquid vaporize. Inc. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. ft Capillarity. or liquid surface. All rights reserved. 21. Absolute pressure. however. are significant in others. Thus. and freezing damage to concrete.
It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. of length and time. Since the prism is at rest. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.00001059 ft2/s. the force due to pressure p1. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or implode. It is so named because its units. µ of a fluid. psf. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. ft/s y = depth.8) to determine whether laminar. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. ft. or completely turbulent flow exists. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. (Pressures as high as 350. the pressure acts equally in all directions. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. and pitting appears. as shown in Fig. 21. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. lb/ft3.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. transitional. on the bottom surface. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Viscosity. All rights reserved. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. to collapse. ft2. Click here to view. is a measure of its resistance to flow. psf. on the top surface. Then.5 Fig. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. 21. In hydraulics. and cross-sectional area A.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. lb/ft2 21. ft2/s. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. . which extend into the pores of the metal. absolute viscosity. or dynamic viscosity. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. also called the coefficient of viscosity.2) where τ = shearing stress. At any depth. and the force due to pressure p2. 21.4. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Therefore. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the depth below the water surface. Taking ∆h to be h. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. All rights reserved. Figure 21.21. dams.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. where w is the specific weight of water.6) – ∫ydA = y A.4).4. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. the pressure.3b) then becomes (21. 21. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. lb. Inc. .3. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.3a) Division of Eq. however. psf. Equation (21. (21. The resultant pressure force P.4) Equation (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (21. then p2 is p. (21.3a) by A yields (21.5) 21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. Thus.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. Click here to view. tanks. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). (21. and other water control structures. lb/ft3. and y sin θ = h .4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. the depth of the centroid.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure. ft. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. For horizontal surfaces. at depth h. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. ft2. ft.
(21.5).) but acts at a point (c. 21. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. 21. 21.2° to the horizontal (Fig. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. .g. if that locus is a straight line. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical.7). (21.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. Inc.) that is below the c. Click here to view.7). (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. where K is the radius of gyration. Pyp = ∫y dP.29). All rights reserved. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. of the surface about its centroidal axis. Example 21. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.6 (see also Fig. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. (21. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.p. – From Eq.p.). The denominator of Eq.7 Fig. The location of the center of pressure.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. 6. represented by the length yp. 21. psf. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. the total force P = whA.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. Otherwise.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.g. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.8) equals –A. Thus. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Hence y .8).
Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. K2 = point G. (See Example 21. Note: 1. Click here to view. yp = 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.08.21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. Therefore. 21.g.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. 21.0 ft.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.42 = 5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.08/5 = 5. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.) of common shapes. From Eq. (21.1.0) = 5.9). and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. All rights reserved. P = 62. Inc. however.0 + 0.42 ft. 21. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0 + 2. Also. . plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.8.5 + 1/ (5. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.3.
2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. Example 21. .) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.4 = 1220 lb = PV. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. The corresponding angle is 57. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.4°.7). 21. 21. (b) Free-body diagram.9). Inc. Click here to view. PH = whA = 62. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. and for a constant-radius surface.9 Fig.14 × 25/4 = 19. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. All rights reserved. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. 2. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.5 × 5 = 780 lb. – From Eq.9. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6w = 19.2. Its angle with the horizontal is known. When water is below the curved surface. (See Example 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. so the weight of the water is 19.6 ft3. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. 21. Fig. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.4 × 2.6 × 62. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. 21.564.
. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.). ft. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. Click here to view.10b. (21. 21.10b). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3 ys = distance. For a body to be in equilibrium. 21. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.4). or the difference in head. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. (21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. 21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.21. Manometers indicate h. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The stability of a ship.g.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig.b. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. 21. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. 21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. Inc. p = wh. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. whether floating or submerged. All rights reserved. is indicated by the metacenter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. the pressure head. (21. Given in feet by Eq.10a).
Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. All rights reserved. (b) U-tube manometer. However. .11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.17 psi. Click here to view.11a is 2. Basic types of manometers. (a) Piezometers. Example 21. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. although the latter is most common.11 manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Inc.11): piezometer. What is hm? Fig. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.12c). 21. The liquid is water with w = 62. 21. U-tube manometer. and differential manometer. The piezometer (Fig.4 lb/ft3. 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.
The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. A movable scale. . the usual indicating liquid is mercury. Very low pressures. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. In this application.11b) is used. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. including negative gage pressures. All rights reserved.21. 21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. Click here to view. 21. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid.12c). (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. as opposed to a fixed scale. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. 21. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. the Utube manometer (Fig.
21. One factor. when expressed in feet of water. Example 21. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. is magnified by the differential manometer. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.75 + 13. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. and the right side. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. ft. Above 5. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. Most of them. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. . such as might be required in laboratories. psf p2 = pressure at 2. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. 32. The pressure at B. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.11) where Z1 = elevation.4: A differential manometer (Fig. or sump.5. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. ft. psf w = specific weight of fluid.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. For example. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. as shown in Fig. Inc. psf.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.0 ft. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. 21.12a. hm1 is 9 in.25 ft. however. the magnification will be 2.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. however. the total energy per unit weight at 2.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.6). 21. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. The differential manometer (Fig. psf. such as ft of water or psi.0 and 2.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. hi is 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the actual pressure difference. Click here to view.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. in the manometer.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. if the actual difference is 0. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.13 indicating liquid. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.4 × 0.6 × 62.25 ft of water. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. and z is 1.4 × 2. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. All rights reserved. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.4 × 2.40. that is.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.
Fig. where Q is the quantity of flow.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. It equals WVa2 / 2g. ft. when added to the downstream side of Eq. (21.5. 21. . lb. where Va is the velocity. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. ft/s. lb/ft3.21.14) pa/w is called pressure head. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. (See Example 21.13. however. This term hf. The total energy. Usually. V2/2g.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. velocity head. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. where W is the weight. ft. across the area of the section A. Average velocity. velocity.14.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.4 ft3/s. ft3/s. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. 21. a Fig.11). velocity. Click here to view. varies with velocity. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. Example 21. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. ft2. or the total head ft: (21. Inc. and pressure (Fig.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. and pressure. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. through friction. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. 21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21.13). The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. above some arbitrary datum. Kinetic energy at the section. ft/s = Q/A. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As indicated in Fig. 21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid.
The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. All rights reserved. 21. (21. since the pipe has free discharge. The energy grade line. is equal to the impulse. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. which may result from a change in either velocity. respectively. Z2 = 0. respectively.14 = 10 ft/s. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.4/ 3. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Thus substitution in Eq. gate valve. Hence. Inc.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. sometimes called the total head line. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. direction.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head.9). while in pressure flow. 21. Also.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. p2 = 0.15). hf = 50 – 1. and any bends. or magnitude of flow. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. In openchannel flow. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. A change in momentum. Art.7. 21. .15 Fig. Click here to view.45 ft.55 = 48.
Click here to view.2° + Ry = 1. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.94 × 100 × 65.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.200 lb. then in the Y direction.78.4/ 32. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. (21. Fig. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.16.600 lb In the Y direction. and at 2. (See Example 21. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.000 cos 53.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.21. which is to be determined). 21. With p1 known.96 sin 53.700/82. (21.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.500 lb. apply Eq. P2 = ppA2 = 13. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.12)] but may be used separately. so θ = 60. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.96 cos 53. since ∆Vy = –(–7.5°. Then.5 ft/s.332π = 71.15) first in the X direction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. . 21.94.200 + Rx = 1.1 and the density ρ = 62.2° – 0) = 4. Example 21.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. All rights reserved. Fx = 181. since ∆Vx = –(7. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. Fy = –181.1 Rx = –82.6. Let R be the force.2= 1.000 lb. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 sin 53.11) or (21.78 Ry = 145.600. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.5) = 65. Inc.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. lb.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.2° – 13.94 × 100 × 4. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.2° – 71. To find F.
Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. and surface tension. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Inc.7. 21. the capability of the computing resources. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. In this way. momentum. or prototype. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. hybrid modeling. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. See also Art. alternative management schemes. however. Click here to view. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. In most models. Usually.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Popular before the advent of digital computers. All rights reserved. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. such as storm rainfall.7. such as a river.17 21. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. In water resources engineering. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. to a given set of stimuli. and through execution of the computer program. erosional scour. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. aquifer. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. . Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. or proposed works. operate. droughts. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. It is. A fourth mode of modeling. In the preceding example.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. or drainage basin. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. For instance. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. gravity. viscosity. With hybrid models. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. employs both physical and mathematical models. 1. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Physical models are expensive to build. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results.
22) where ρ = density of fluid. Click here to view.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. the length ratio is the only variable. The Froude number is (21.20) R is dimensionless. respectively. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. The inertial force. (21. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Inc. 32. viscosity. . Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. and one other force are made proportional.21a) (21. Therefore. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. All rights reserved. Similarly. such as spillways and weirs. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. which is always a predominant force. Then (21. the formation of drops and air bubbles. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. The Reynolds number is (21. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Once the length ratio has been set.21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. ft2/s. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as depth or diameter). The Weber number is (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. entrainment of air in flowing water. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. Reynolds number. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Froude number. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Ratios of the forces of gravity. and Weber number. Squaring both sides of Eq. the model is termed a true model.
T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch.25) In models of rivers and channels. inertial. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. Inc. such as a morning-glory spillway. This type of model is called a distorted model. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. Hence. mathematical models are. The U. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.23a) (21. All rights reserved. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. viscous. Rr = Lr.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. For such models. in particular.26) where V = mean velocity. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. These expressions. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. and infiltration parameters. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. and through execution of the computer program. One type of model. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design.24). and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. such as flow networks. . 21. Sr = 1. For instance. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. (21. (21. In some cases. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. in turn.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number.7.S. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. catchment areas. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). Click here to view. the logical representation of prototypes. called a movable-bed model.
where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases.” McGraw-Hill.” D. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. This approach. 21. As this shearing stress increases. when fully implemented. evaporation and irrigation.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. sediment or pollutant transport. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. ecosystem impacts and restoration. F. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. vol. Inc. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. “Handbook of Hydrology. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In object-oriented software. Rothfus. Also.” N.” V. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. H. however. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. As a result. reservoir regulation. R. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. density. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components.2).17. quantity and quality of water supply. Walker. Art. seepage. or pollution.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. hydrodynamics. academia. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. the model output required for design or evaluation. Maidment. and R. 1957. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. hydrologic forecasting. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. Whan.) 21. if comparisons of different plans are required. Hasen. . R. impacts of dam breaks. “Water Resources Planning. Click here to view. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. wave or tidal analyses. and groundwater yield. and private sectors. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. All rights reserved. New York. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. S. landfill leachate analyses. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. J. Zipparo and H. (D. flow routing. Grigg. 3. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. This. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. shown in Fig. flood or drought impacts. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. and turbulent flow results. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. For closed conduits other than circular. or both. 21. Hoggan. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. of all databases and software. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems.21. as in annular passages. design of hydraulic structures. and among water resources modelers in the government. watershed hydrology. G. channel and river hydraulics. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. (J. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. As a general rule. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. A.
29) For laminar flow. As a result. the velocity distribution is more uniform. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. In laminar flow.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In this region. the flow is completely turbulent. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. . ft L = length of pipe section considered.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. Eq. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. at completely turbulent flow. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. 21. Therefore. Fig. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. (21. Inc. causing the flow to become turbulent. flow is laminar in circular pipes. as shown in Fig. New York. (E.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. a disturbance will probably be magnified. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity.18. 32.” 6th ed. To the right of the dashed line in Fig.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. F. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow.) 21.l9.17). (21. than for laminar flow (Fig. laminar flow is unstable.21 Fig.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic.27) where V = fluid velocity. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. ft/s D = pipe diameter. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. As the Reynolds number increases. Brater. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. it is not practical to treat it analytically. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. 21.. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. (21. 21. These disturbances create eddies. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. handbook of Hydraulics. All rights reserved. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. 21.19. ft ρ = density of fluid. 21. Click here to view. 32.
00003 0.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 21.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.19) to Determine f ε.0005 0.9. ft D = diameter of pipe. ft V = velocity of fluid. 21. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.0005 – 0.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0005 – 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Moody. 21. 32. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. (L.008 – 0. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.0002 0. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.19) L = length of pipe.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.0002 0.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. 21. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. (21.001 0. .0002 – 0. F. Click here to view.003 – 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. The head loss is independent of the pressure. Inc.001 – 0.) Because Eq. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. November 1944.003 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. 21.03 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.008 0. enamels. (21.21.
ft/s C1 = coefficient.33c) (21. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.9. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. ft L = length of pipe. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.32) where n = coefficient. (Although based on surface roughness. ft S = head loss due to friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.3.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft/s C = coefficient.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.34e) where V = velocity. All rights reserved. . dependent on surface roughness.31) gives (21.34d) (21.9. Inc.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. (21. Click here to view. ft3/s. 21.4 and 21.34c) 21. 21. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.33b) (21. (21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.11 (p.33d) (21. Tables 21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. which requires experience in its choice. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. See also Table 22.33e) 21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. where D is the pipe diameter.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.) Substitution into Eq. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.9. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34b) (21.31) where V = velocity.
ft The C1 terms in Table 21.36) for a check.017 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.010 0. (21. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.017 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.013 0. (21. .017 0. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. All rights reserved.013 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.014 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.012 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. 21.012 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.4 Values of n for Pipes.013 0.015 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. bends. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. Click here to view.012 0.21.017 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.7. in short pipelines.013 0.016 To 0. because (21. and valves and other pipe fittings.010 0.015 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.035 0.35c) (21.015 0. However. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.013 0.014 0.017 From 0.012 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.7: Figure 21. ft3/s hf = friction loss. enlargements.015 0.010 To 0.015 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. Example 21. Inc. 21.011 0. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. (21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.) Flow between reservoirs.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.20 ple 21.35b) (21.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.
so a full velocity head is lost. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 120 Large sizes. H.37) or (21. London.Water Resources Engineering s 21.10. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.25 Table 21.38) A special application of Eq. 21.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. 21. All rights reserved. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 85 16 in. Table 21. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 140 Large sizes. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. 115 12 in.21).2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.” Constable & Co. is (21. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. Ltd.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Inc.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. ft/s g = 32.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. ft. 21.21 are approximate.10.7. where V is the velocity in the pipe.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. good workmanship. (21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. (21. Gibson. wood forms. steel forms. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.37): (21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 110 4 in. 80 4 in. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 110 (21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.10. 120 Centrifugally spun.. good workmanship. . (A. 105 30 in and over. minor losses must be considered. 21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 135 In good condition.. are presented in Table 21. the values of K in Fig.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. 120 24 in and over.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. determined experimentally by Brightmore. (21. 10 years older Average value. regardless of age. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.
fully open Gate valve.7 0.10.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.66 0.64 0.6 0.76 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses. All rights reserved. For these reaTable 21.0 1.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.0 Table 21.68 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.89 1. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.50 K = 0.9 0.21 of the sides.42) Table 21. D = pipe diameter. fully open Swing check valve. and at bends is given by (21.4 21.0 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.80 K = 0.2 0.62 0. Click here to view.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.8 0.5 0.21.4 0.8 are only approximate. Inc.63 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.6 0.3 0. Globe valve.71 0.25 The values in Table 21.2 2.81 0.0 2.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. fully open Angle valve.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. 21.05 K = 0. . such as valves and elbows.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. Experiments on smooth pipes. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig.11. vol. not including friction loss. J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. All rights reserved. series D. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. square. . Click here to view.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. and angle of bend.42). decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5.45) 21. its effect should be taken into account.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. 21.44) where Q = discharge. not including friction loss in the bend. no. National Bureau of Standards. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. McGraw-Hill.9 for low velocity of approach. this error is corrected by the C values. If this velocity is significant. Ito. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq.. Orifices may have any shape. 21.” 4th ed.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. Reynolds number.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.42). ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. (21. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. July 1938.27 sons. the bend loss essentially remains constant.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. Zipparo and H. New York. (K. H. 21. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. there is disagreement. The data are in agreement that the head loss. 82.) Fig. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23. 21. Hasen. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. although they are usually round.. or rectangular. 21. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. vol. For low heads.” Journal of Research. however. Figure 21.22: (21. (V.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. 1. Inc. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 1960. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Beij. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. (21. (H. Equation (21. (21.
598 1.599 0.631 0.660 0.596 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.605 0. and Z2 = 0.04 0.627 0.94 to 0.606 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.599 0.602 0.601 0.602 0.21.618 0.600 0.602 0.02 0.46) The actual velocity.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.1 0.601 0. ft 0.611 0. 21.606 0.99.630 0.618 0.610 0.5 2 2.597 0.602 0.609 0.595 0. Click here to view.603 0.644 0.628 0.602 0. to Fig.619 0. .594 0.590 0.617 0.595 0.643 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.614 0.0 Head. of circular orifices.614 0.592 1.637 0.4 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. All rights reserved.608 0. “Hydraulics.634 0.1 0.605 0. determined experimentally. Z1 = h.592 0.623 0.612 0.600 0.610 0.6 08 1 1.608 0.0 0.596 0.607 0.598 0.596 0.599 0.603 0.623 0.602 0.652 0.607 0.603 0.641 0.618 0.605 0.622 0.619 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.” 1886. Inc.616 0.594 0. ft 0.648 0.595 0.655 0.604 0.596 0.614 0.602 0. With the reference plane through point 2.637 0.604 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.632 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.597 0.636 0.596 0.02 0.603 0.598 0.615 0.605 0. ft 0.611 0.04 0.591 0.601 0.608 0.593 0.637 0.623 0.599 0.600 0.604 0. the vena contracta.612 0.648 0.593 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.613 0 610 0..616 0.593 0.626 0. Jr.613 0.600 0. (21.629 0.632 0.621 0.628 0.601 0.596 0.617 0.592 0.45) becomes (21.607 0.602 0. V1 = 0.
Inc.47) where hL = losses in head.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. 21. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Figure 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the contraction is completely suppressed. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.67.11.25 orifice.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. see E. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.” 6th ed. between 1 and 2.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. (21. 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig.61 to 0. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. Eq. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. F. All rights reserved. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. Click here to view. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. New York. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. ft.11. the area of the orifice. . (21. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. 21. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. Brater.48) is obtained.29 Fig. 21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. (21. 21.25. With a partly suppressed orifice. In Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics.24b.) 21.
58)].52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. 21.58) gives (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Click here to view. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. Rearranging Eq. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. 21.59).21.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. (21. (21.50) where a = area of orifice.55) 21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. 21. Eq.57) (21. ft h2 = head at the end.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. ft2 A = area of reservoir. (21.56). the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. . (21. is that for a parabola: (21. when y = h1. (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. to time t.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.58) Equation (21.23). obtained by solving Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.50) becomes (21. s The Y coordinate is (21. For simplicity. 32.26): (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Eq.56) Fig.11.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. when y = h2. (21.57) for t and substituting in Eq.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.49) Solving for dt yields (21.
67 V2T /2g. 21. 21.67 V T / 2g = 0.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.28). the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.75. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.33VT / 2g.29. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.82.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. When this happens. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. In the tube or pipe. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Click here to view. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.11. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. psf w = unit weight of water. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.31 ty Cν = 0. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. a K value for Eq.5 a T T Fig.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.82. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. (21. . the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.42) of 0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.27) but the head loss is larger. however. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. 21. Equation (21. Therefore.80. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. 21. 21. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. All rights reserved. Inc. 21.67 V2 ) = 0.27. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. if one exists).5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. ft2 Fig.00 VT / 2g – 0.11. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0. For a short tube flowing full.
. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Every time the flow rate is changed. As the water flows away from the closed valve. either increased or decreased. All rights reserved. the tube must flow full.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. When a valve is closed.21. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. 21. the water in the pipe is motionless. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. 21. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. The change causes a pressure rise. The pipe shown in Fig. Click here to view. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. either above or below the normal pressure. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. However. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. 21. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe.32).12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. For this analysis to be valid.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure.30). 21. 21. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig.29. Fig. 21. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. As the water flows into the reservoir. 21. it causes water hammer. this momentum drops to zero.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. but at a pressure much higher than normal. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. the pressure in the pipe falls. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. Fig. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water.
21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. s A plot of pressure vs.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Eq. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.63a) becomes (21. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve. 1. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.63a) In terms of pressure head.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. Inc. ft 21. (21. approximate solution.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. Click here to view. 21. Equation (21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. (21.64) 21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. For instantaneous closure: (21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. Fig. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.13. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. .63).94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. All rights reserved. 43.
63). the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. Zipparo and H. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. to apply Eq.) Velocity of pressure wave. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. is g = acceleration due to gravity. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. equals L /aU. Vo the original velocity. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure.. diameter = 10 ft. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. (21. where a equals any integer. area = 78. With the head known. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir.5 ft2. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.63). Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. the increment of time. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Example 21. (21. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. penstock thickness = 1 in.2 × 108 psf. length = 3000 ft. (21. 21. McGraw-Hill. New York. (21. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. from Eq.” 4th ed. J. Click here to view. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir.32. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. Thus. Hasen.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve.21. (V. Inc. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. Once the time interval has been determined. 32.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h.. ft L = length of pipeline. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. each causing an individual pressure wave. All rights reserved.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. such as L/aU. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. (21. Inc. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. where ∆t. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. .63).61).) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. then that obtained from Eq. (21. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). s T = actual closure time of valve. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.
Click here to view. to prevent water hammer.34). lb Hence. the closure is instantaneous. psi.Water Resources Engineering s 21.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.66) where p = internal pressure.13.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. All rights reserved. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.75 s. When a valve is suddenly opened. Usually. from Eq. on the pipe material is (21. it is by no means the only one. Fig. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. approximate equation (21. Various types of relief Fig. . The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. in Assuming T = 4.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.64) gives the following result: 21. floats on the line. the stress. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in effect.34 tension. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.63). (21.33) must still be designed for water hammer.90 s. When a valve is suddenly closed. and the pressure rise. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig.90 s. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. The water column. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. is Pipe Stresses 21. 21. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. 21. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. 21. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. Inc. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water.
67) for concrete pipe. McGraw-Hill Book Company. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The stress.6).67). 21. Eq. In all bends. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. elastic Stability. 21. (21. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. All rights reserved. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. In Fig. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. (21. however.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. “Theory of . psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psi. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. The internal diameter is used in Eq. Equation (21. if expansion joints are to be used. 21. Eq.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. New York. Art. due to a temperature change is (21.. Click here to view.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. The force diagram in Fig. However. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. (S. For steel pipes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. (21. In this case. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. .) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. P Timoshenko and J.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. Gere. For concrete pipes. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. 21. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. it acts like a beam. is (21. (21.21.10). The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. this analysis is approximate.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Inc. However. 6.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.” 2nd ed. If D/t is less than 10. M.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.
in many cases the pipe material takes this force. 62.Water Resources Engineering s 21.37 Fig. an exact theoretical analysis. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. . An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. a railroad. 21. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. However.71) give a quick solution.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. (21. Click here to view. 32.71) where R = resultant force on bend. Eqs. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. exit conditions. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. All rights reserved. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. Inc. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.70) and (21. the joints must also be able to take these forces. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. canal. In small pipes. psf w = unit weight of water. however. or other embankment. (21. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. and slope. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions.
the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.21. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical.30)]. the culvert flows full. and the control will still be at the inlet. 21. that is. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.37).33d) or (21. computer software. but they do not cover Fig.23). slope is greater than the critical slope. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. (21.73) 21. All rights reserved. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. charts.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21. Portland Cement Association. 21.36). the following equation is obtained: (21.38). 21. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. Click here to view. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.” EB058W. and the Manning equation for friction loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. . the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Inc. For this reason. 21. the normal depth (Art.
The discharge. and slope of culvert. 21. 21. Discharge is independent of slope. Click here to view.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. 21. When the slope is less than critical. ft V = velocity in culvert.39). 32. loss at entrance. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75) Substituting this into Eq.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. open-channel flow takes place.74) yields (21. 21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. When slope is less than critical. flow depends on inlet condition. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. Inc. for the open-channel condition (Fig. 21. and dn > dc . ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. Discharge depends on head H. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. and dn < dc .37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.20) 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. normal pipe flow occurs. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. ft Equation (21. . 21. Thus. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. 21. depending on the head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The fluid flows under pressure. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Fig.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When slope exceeds critical. (21.23).20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.39 Fig.74) Fig.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. All rights reserved.
and discharge is given by Eq.40). (21. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig.18).37). 21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. If this condition exists. Click here to view. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. 21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. . ft To solve Eq. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. 21. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.76).40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. however. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. ft dn = normal depth of flow. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. If the head on a culvert is high. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. (21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. (21. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. All rights reserved.72). it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. 21.39). Inc. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. Most culverts. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. If the friction slope approaches critical.41). (21. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. 21. 21.76). it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. When the friction slope is flat. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.76). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow.
10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. .44) for discharge through an orifice. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. But H = 5 + 0. To calculate the hydraulic radius. groove or bell. All rights reserved.01. slope = 0.72) and (21. (21. First find dn. groove or bell. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. 21. Substitution in Eq. (21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Example 21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Since the culvert is under pressure. When the entrance is not submerged.9 0. with Eq.19).41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. (21. n = 0.5 0. Table 21.41 For entrance control. Eq. Inc. and the entrance will not control. 21. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.15 0.40).10 0.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. and free exit.18 and 21. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge.6. 21. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.72) yields Q =Va = 9. 21. Click here to view. (21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2.72) applies.95 × 4 = 39. (21. Find: size of culvert. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. the flow is under pressure.8 ft3/s Table 21. Fig. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. projecting Concrete pipe. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. These values are for culverts flowing full. Application of Eq.013.73). length = 300 ft. square edge Concrete pipe.
depth of flow is constant throughout.36 for prismatic channels. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. or the total-head line. . and is given by (21. Inc. within a hydraulic jump. however.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. normally taken as 1. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. All rights reserved. (21.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. In a uniform channel.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.79). of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. minus the free surface width. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. Thus.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. 32.21. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. ft. ft2 When the discharge is constant. or slope.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. It is expressed in feet as (21. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.79) The velocity head HV. Hence. or open-channel flow.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow.03 to 1. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. ft. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. The wetted perimeter is the length. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. is generally given by (21.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.77) where V = average velocity. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. plus the velocity head at the point. ft3/s. Equation (21. It is. (21. 21. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. ft. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. Figure 21. It has uniform flow if the grade.
42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.42 is called the normal depth dn. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. slope. 21. Click here to view. (V..) (21. For a rectangular channel. (21. 21. normal depth decreases downstream.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the specific energy also decreases. E. 21.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. for example.84) where A = area of flow. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. T. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius.83) Brater. or to the diameter of a circular channel. (See. McGrawHill Book Company. New York. roughness. F. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. . Chow.84) reduces to Fig.43). All rights reserved.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.43 Fig. as shown in Fig. Eq. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the depth decreases downstream. 21. New York. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.43. 21. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. and discharge are known.44. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. Inc. in which T is the top width of the channel. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. ft. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge.” 6th ed.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.
and flow is supercritical. or it may be found directly from tables (E.21. ft3/s d = depth of flow. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. Click here to view. Brater. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. F. Inc.44).85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.84) may be reduced to (21. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.84). Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. New York). As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. 21.44). for a given discharge. For a given value of specific energy. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.” 6th ed. 21. (21. (21. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.84) is called the critical depth dc. . indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth. (21. The flow there is called subcritical flow.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved..44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. For rectangular channels.43. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. the depth is below critical. Eq. 21. the depth is greater than critical. or conversely. 21. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.
once calculated.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula.44). The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. For every depth greater than critical depth. as indicated in Fig. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. along with a high loss of energy. . if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. however. 21. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump.57).Water Resources Engineering s 21.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. flow is supercritical. 21. All rights reserved. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. 21. Such a change occurs gradually.45. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.45 where dc = critical depth. It can be seen from Fig.87) Fig. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. ft3/s b = width of channel. Click here to view. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.85).] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. (21. [As indicated by Eq.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.52b. flow is subcritical. a hydraulic jump will occur. regardless of slope. indicating an irreversible occurrence. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. 21. without turbulence. p. 21. Critical depth. Inc. 21. (21. 21.
(See also Art.L.23).90) where A = area of flow. (21.89) may be written (21. The M2 curve forms between the normal. at an arbitrary elevation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. 21. are in Table 21. horizontal.D. Inc.21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).D. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. E. and the N. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. and C.L. T. Department of Agriculture. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.L. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. 21. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. . When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. are identical for a channel of critical slope. is replaced by a horizontal line.46c and d.) 21. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. The N. Click here to view. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. ft V = mean velocity of flow.and critical-depth lines.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. Chow.9 and Table 21.S. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. 21. and the critical-depth line C. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. 21. therefore. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. 21. Dr.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. All rights reserved.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. and two types for channels of critical. (Although based on surface roughness. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.46. S for steep (supercritical).L. These curves are divided into five groups.89) Since the discharge Q = VA.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig.D. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. 21.4. H for horizontal. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.D. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. as shown in Fig. there must be a continuing maintenance program.46a and b. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. C for critical. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. the average n values given in Table 21. and A for adverse. Eq.D.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).L.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. New York. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. and adverse slope.25). n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.11.
21.032 0.023 0.016 0.035 0.014 0.025 0. Wood a.035 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.014 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.022 0. Dredged earth a. Cemented rubble b.080 0.040 0.025 0. 21.120 0.030 0. Light brush on banks 3.030 0. Dense brush.013 0. No vegetation b. Inc.050 0.100 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Asphalt a. few weeds c. respectively).021 0. Planed. Rough C. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Smooth and uniform b. Concrete (unfinished) a.050 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. With short grass.011 0. Gunite. Unlined channels 1. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.012 0. Lined channels 1.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.013 0. after weathering b.025 0.040 0.46i and j.011 0.080 0. Smooth b. Clean. high as flow depth d. Metal a.018 0.025 0.022 0.027 0. Steel form b.018 0.012 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. wavy section 4. 21. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Masonry a.017 Max 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.013 0.012 0.033 0. All rights reserved.025 0. Corrugated 2. Jagged and irregular 0.015 0.028 0. good section c. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.46a and b.033 0.023 0.024 0.010 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.015 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. untreated 3. Rough wood form B. Excavated earth.016 0. Float finish b.014 0. Click here to view.013 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Concrete a.035 0. Gunite.013 0.021 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.017 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Dense weeds. Smooth wood form c.035 0.016 0. straight and uniform a.022 0.012 0. high stage 2.014 0. . The S3 curve is of the transitional type. The S2 curve.140 0.015 Avg 0. Rock cuts a.016 0.019 0. Dry rubble 5. 21.016 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.060 0.020 0.025 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.030 0.
46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. The curves in Fig. Inc. and A profiles. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.D. 21.L. All rights reserved.21.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. critical-depth line. C. Click here to view.L.46k and l. 21. 21. . H. 21.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Examples in Fig.. N.D. indicates normal-depth line.
All rights reserved. See Art. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. the channel is divided into short lengths. Inc. gate.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. known as its celerity. or reaches. In a series of steps starting from a point of control.27. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. direction-integration. Explanations of both the graphical. H. New York.5. each reach is solved in succession. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.51). Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. 21.) 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Chow. For subcritical flow conditions. Inc. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. free overfall. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. with relatively small variation. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. weir. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical).91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. For the section of channel in Fig.47. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. and step methods.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. (R. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. Click here to view. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. dam. depending on the type of flow. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. T.. . and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. The wave travels at a speed. French. 32.77) if the depth were zero. For step-method computations. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.” McGraw-Hill. 21.and direct-integration methods are in V. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction.
hi. ft. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. All rights reserved. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. 21.93). the longer the backwater curve profile. as given by Eq. The smaller the value of n. respectively.93) where R = hydraulic radius. 21. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.92) (21.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. ft. rearranged as follows: Fig. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. the head loss. (21.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. 21. . The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation.91) for L gives (21. Solving Eq. the – eddy loss. and vice versa. is negligible and can be ignored. Click here to view. Therefore. due to friction in the same reach. (For uniform.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. (21. prismatic channels. not the channel bottom. (21. the change in elevation. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve.82). and – SL = hf.21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
from 0 to 0. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. (21. ft.96). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Next. respectively. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. or roughness. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. becomes (21.95) The coefficient k is 0. grade. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. (21. S. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. which.92). (21. ft. and about 0. computations progress toward the initial section. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. (21. All rights reserved. (21. respectively. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. (21. 21.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. ft/s. Inc.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. For lined channels.95). the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. Finally.Water Resources Engineering s 21.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq.93). Since this step method is a converging process. Eddy loss.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. after substitution of H from Eq. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. (21. the average friction slope for the reach. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. Z2. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. total head H. Then. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. The value of total head computed from Eq.94). Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. is obtained from Eq.93). in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. . and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. (21. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. Then.51 may be some intermediate depth. in natural channels.1 for converging reaches. referred to a horizontal datum. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. the friction loss.47. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Next.2 for diverging reaches. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Therefore. ft. sometimes called impact loss. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Click here to view. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. and it is therefore often accounted for.
a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. U.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.48 Hydraulic jump. The upstream surface of the jump. 21. Fig. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). and determine the discharge. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. bridge piers. a gate. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. Bureau of Public Roads. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. Department of Transportation. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Utilizing the above data. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. velocity. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). known as the length of jump. is a turbulent mass of water. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. If the two values of total head do not agree.1 ft in elevation. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. or other obstruction. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 2nd ed. known as the roller. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. 21. 1.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. However.52b. New York. Bradley. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. French. and J. H. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. Inc.23). The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. The effect of bridges. 1970. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. however. 21. approach roadways. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. 21. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile.51 and 21. . Federal Highway Administration. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. as shown in Figs.S.21.48).” Hydraulics Design Series no. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. respectively. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. N. Click here to view. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. 21.27. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. where L is a characteristic length. 32. 21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity.100) Equation (21. All rights reserved. in Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion.100). This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. Click here to view. ft3/s = unit of time. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. This difference (Fig.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or alternate depths. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.49) is given by (21. ft/s.104) = discharge. ft w = unit weight of water. For open-channel flow.82). The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs.98) and (21.105) where A = area of flow.99) where M = mass of water.99).27.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.16)]. d2 must also equal dc. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. . ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. ft. 21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. (21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. (21. ft d2 = depth after jump. s (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. this resultant pressure force is (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. V is the mean velocity. (21. ft/s2. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.102) Equation (21. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. For rectangular channels.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft2 T = width of free surface. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.
A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. Inc. . This jump may be called an oscillating jump. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. For F1 = 1 to 1. 21. The jump action is rough but effective. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. which. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. For F1 = 4. This jump may be called a weak jump. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow.5 to 4. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.7. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. This jump may be called a steady jump. 21.S.27. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. for example.49. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For F1 = 1. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The jump is called an undular jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump.23). and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. 21.5. depth after the jump. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. For F1 = 9.5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For F1 = 2. The jump is well-balanced.0. depending on local conditions.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. there are undulations on the surface. 21.21. the jump will be drowned out. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. which gives discharge vs.0 and larger.5 to 9. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. were classified by the U. and the performance is at its best.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. can travel for miles. For F1 = 1. If the tailwater is too low. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve.7 to 2. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. below a spillway. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. Various forms of hydraulic jump. This jump may be called a strong jump. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. chute. All rights reserved. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. If the tailwater is too high. Click here to view. very commonly in canals. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. In either case.
21. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. Click here to view. 21. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. changing the apron elevation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq.55 curve involve changing the crest length. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. and sloping the apron. Inc. prepared by V.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. T. Chow from data gathered by the U.51. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. Bureau of Reclamation. But it has been determined experimentally.105).50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. 21.27.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The resulting curve (Fig.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. This length (Fig. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.S. . 21. Accessories. The curve. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. therefore.27. All rights reserved. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. These features are expensive to build.
The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. as shown in Fig.21. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. the jump occurs in the steep region.52b. that flow is uniform. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. 21. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. Click here to view.23) to mild. The actual depth at the brink is 71. computed from Eq. respectively (Fig. less than. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. 21. If d2 is less than d′ . With values of d2 obtained from Eq. 21. which occurs near the channel drop-off. the jump moves downstream to a new position. the computed length of jump. (21. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Conversely. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. 21. for simplicity. between lines CB′and EO.26. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.101). The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. Inc. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.7dc for simplicity. the jump moves to a new location downstream.101) with d1 given. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. 21. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. using the step methods of Art. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc.75h in the absence of better information. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. as shown in Fig. 21. (21. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. As depth d2 is lowered.102). .5% of critical depth. CB. curves AB and ED in Fig. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG.46e and c).52a.51. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. equal to the computed length of the jump. 21. All rights reserved. equal in length to L.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. but instead occurs a short distance upstream.52. It is assumed. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. if the downstream depth is lowered. computed from Eq. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. A horizontal intercept FG. (21. but it is normally assumed to be 0. as theory would indicate. 21.
ignoring entrance loss.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. All rights reserved.53). 21. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. then the assumed discharge is correct. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft3/s. “Handbook of Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21.85)]. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water.” McGraw-Hill. Inc. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance.) 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. From Q = AV. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. New York.51. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. 21.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement..82) and (21. (R. ft. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Then. ft. Brater.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. New York. a new discharge is assumed. 21. where He is the specific energy head.106) where b is the channel width. or (b) below it.23). ft. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. If the entrance loss must be considered. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). Inc. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. and discharge is at a maximum. if not. 21. H. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. 21. on the channel entrance. and the slope of the channel. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. the entrance loss. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. . Click here to view. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. is (21. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. F.. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). French. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.3 for one with squared ends.53a).” 6th ed. (21. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. ft.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. or (a) above it.
Inc. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.83). and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. 21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. .23).22).21. if not.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. 21. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. 21. ———— charge. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. ft. ft3/s.53b.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.53b). All rights reserved. ft2. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).33). a new discharge is chosen. 32. Click here to view. d is normal depth. (In Fig. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. where He – d is the actual head. producing flow. He is the specific energy head. (21. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (b) mild-slope channel. 21.2 ft/s2. and g is acceleration due to gravity. then the discharge is correct.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig.
but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. ft. ft /s. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. 21.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. of the center line of the channel. All rights reserved. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path.107) The theoretical difference y. Inc. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. ft. or mV2 /rc for m. 21. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. .108). In this range. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. 21. and rc the radius of curvature. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. curve (Fig. 21. (21. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Click here to view. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow.83)]. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. (21. If the bend continues long enough.23). Therefore. The error will not be great. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. (21.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. When water is forced to flow in a curved path.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. Thus.59 21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. however. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. the true value of y would be only a few inches. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. when a stream enters a curve. a unit mass of water. where V is its average velocity. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction.
Technical Bulletin 393.110) for θ in Eq. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. with sufficient accuracy. however. These waves cross at M. The cross slope required for 21. recross as shown.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. Fig. Scobey.” U. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.23). 21.55). (21.21. 21. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. The second is a negative wave. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. C. depths along the inside wall. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig.S. Department of Agriculture. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. One is a positive wave. of greater-than-average surface elevation. and should be used with discretion. (F. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. a series of standing waves are produced. (21. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.16)] .55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. phase. an increase in friction loss results. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. flows around a bend in a channel. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. and continue crossing and recrossing. . “The Flow of Water in Flumes. by (21. All rights reserved. (21.111).) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. 21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. Two waves form at the start of the curve. Inc. His values have not been evaluated completely. This angle may be found from (21.
The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. 21. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. equals about 0. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. Many variables. where K. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. Inc. The transition loss. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.1 for an inlet-type structure. 21. low-head-loss transfer of flow. Straight.113) angle of about 12. 21. In this range. change from subcritical to supercritical. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve.2 ft/s2. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. For outlet-type structures. therefore. ft. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. if friction is ignored. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. as shown in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. wall roughness.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. When proceeding downstream through a transition.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.44. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. 21.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57). ∆V is the velocity change. and g = 32. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or change from supercritical to subcritical. . To place a transition properly between two open channels.44. 21.56. p.2 for welldesigned transitions. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. All rights reserved. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface.23). Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. is given by K(∆V2/2g). and channel shape and slope. 21.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. the average velocity decreases.54). the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. such as flow-rate changes. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. Click here to view. 21. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.8[∆(V2/2g)]. 21. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. plus any transition and friction losses. the loss factor. ft/s. If friction is ignored. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. respectively. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.
21. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. 21.59 Weir not sharp-crested.000556(10)2 = 0. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.58 Sharp-crested weir. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. Fig. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.58). and. such as broad-crested weirs. . as shown in Fig. trapezoidal weirs. trapezoidal weirs. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB.57. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola.59. and parabolic weirs. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. y = ax2. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Click here to view. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. Inc. 21. the weir has free discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. 21. 21. triangular weirs. such as rectangular weirs.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. measured from A or B.34. the weir is submerged or drowned. In contrast.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. All rights reserved. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. If the discharge is partly under water. from which a = 0. 21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.5 = a(30)2. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.000556. 21. triangular or Vnotch weirs.000556(20)2 = 0. Fig.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig.222 ft. For Fig. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.
At very low heads. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.115) where Q = discharge. T. All rights reserved. New York).34. 21. thus causing a contraction of the flow.60 V-notch weir. 21.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. 21. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. contraction of the nappe. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. Click here to view. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. Chow.5H upstream from the weir. ft The head should be measured at least 2. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. . Equation (21. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.116) corrects for the effects of friction. below the crest.58) (V. Hence. A V-notch weir (Fig. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. One such equation. 2. Inc. To be fully ventilated. If P is less than Fig. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. 21. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.5H.
The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig.5H upstream from the weir.” 6th ed. Inc.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. 21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom.118) Fig. measured from notch bottom.. New York).61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. ft H = head. (21. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz.118)] 21.2) when low discharges are to be measured.119) where Q = discharge. 21. 21. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. 21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol. 21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. 18.104.22.168) where L′ = measured length of crest. (21. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. there are two end contractions and N = 2. T. The effective length L. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. ft.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. . Lenz. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. Click here to view. Discharge is given by (21.34. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point.61) (E. F. His values were summarized by Brater.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Fig. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. 21. 21.21. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 1943). All rights reserved. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. McGraw-Hill Book Company.
for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. From this total head. 25.122) where H = measured head. . Fig. Dec. Villemonte. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. velocity head of approach. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. Typically. compute the velocity of approach. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. R. using this rate and the required depths. which may be done as follows: First.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. 1947. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.115) is rewritten in the form (21. ft3/s.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. ft V = velocity of approach.59).” Engineering News-Record. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. using this discharge.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. and finally total head. (21. (21. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. heavily constructed devices. neglecting the velocity head.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Then. Thus. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. (J. for such weirs. velocity head.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. ft/s V /2g = Hν.121) where Q = discharge. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. 21. 21.) To use the Villemonte equation. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. and then. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. The discharge Qs. Where great accuracy is essential. 32. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Equation (21. or both. ft3/s.34. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. Click here to view. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.34. 2 21. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. 21.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. p. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. 866. Eq. All rights reserved.
thickness of pier. “Design of Small Dams. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. . Inc. ft L′ = net crest lengths.13. ft (U. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.20 0.21. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Click here to view. All rights reserved. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. Therefore. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.5Hd > r* > 0. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.123) where L = effective crest length. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. F.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0.2 of the head.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. The effect is most critical for low heads. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. where approach velocities are high. DC 20402. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.12. the head in relation to the design head. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. 21. head in relation to design heads. starting with the corrected discharge.” Government Printing Office. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.02 0. For conditions of design head Table 21.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.34. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. Washington. and the approach velocity. and approach velocity. Department of the Interior.10 H.S.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. For each change of nappe shape. But the process should be repeated. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. For conditions of design head Hd.
(Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. however. (U. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow.122). T. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. The shape of this nappe. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. DC 20402. at the point of maximum contraction. 1. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. .” Government Printing Office. According to Chow. Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more.67 Fig. 21.65.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This relationship is shown in Fig. New York). Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.64) has such a shape. This manual and V.S. 21.5H upstream. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Washington. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.Water Resources Engineering s 21. where discharge is given by Eq. depends on the head producing the discharge. “Design of Small Dams.34.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Of the above rules.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Consequently. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. (21. for a sharp-crested weir. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. Inc.66 of the head. Department of the Interior. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. T. 21. and therefore of an ogee crest. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. Chow. called the design head Hd. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Chow. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. 2. Figure 21. 21. For flow at heads lower than the design head.
S.21. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. 21. (From “Design of Small Dams. Figure 21.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. the flow differs from ideal. Fig. . Inc.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.” U. 21.S.” U.) Fig. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. 21. Bureau of Reclamation.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.66. (From “Design of Small Dams.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved. Bureau of Reclamation. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. New York. Click here to view.
69 shows a broad-crested weir that. 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes.S. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. and sharp right-angled edges. if flow is at other than the design head. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (E. are used as spillways and control structures. Values of the discharge coefficient.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. because of its sharp upstream edge.34. where the velocity of approach is not high.69 Broad-crested weir. F. 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. Brater. fairly common in waterworks projects.. the nappe springs free. (21. Inc.34. the coefficient of discharge. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. (From “Design of Small Dams. . there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. “Handbook of Hydraulics.” U.69 Fig.” 6th ed. Brater. is determined from Fig.) Fig. a plane horizontal crest. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.67 and 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.68. New York. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. All rights reserved. therefore.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. New York. compiled by King. Bureau of Reclamation. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.14.) 21. (See. has contraction of the nappe. Weirs of irregular section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Unless otherwise noted. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. Click here to view. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. F.” 6th ed. appear in Table 21. Figure 21. E. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. 21. for example.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. Figure 21.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs.
.70 2.32 3.32 1.54 2.64 2. with its load of suspended silt.64 2.20 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.60 2.32 3.68 2.58 2.63 2.49 2.65 2.63 2. Heavier silt sizes.68 2.4 0.75 2.68 2.72 2.65 2. those carried in suspension.0 3.67 2.00 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.03 3. erosion.66 2.69 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.89 3.8 2.75 2.0 4.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.68 2.92 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.50 2.80 2.07 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. and turbines.28 3.5 3.38 2.65 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.32 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.69 2.32 3.32 3.98 3.32 3. ft 0.08 3.2 0.50 H.70 2. once formed.31 3.65 2.32 3.64 2.48 2.60 2.62 2.60 2.67 2.88 2.63 2.70 2.2 1.65 2.64 2.67 2.32 3.69 2.08 3.00 2.07 3.63 2.64 2. those forming the bed load.20 3.64 2.72 2.68 2.32 3.68 2.66 2.26 3.88 3. Click here to view.32 3.00 2.64 2.68 2.6 1.64 2.68 2.32 2.32 3. A density current.8 1.32 Breadth of crest of weir.32 3.32 3.89 3.6 0.32 3.65 2.0 1.0 5.64 2.79 1.81 2.92 2.32 3.64 2.07 3.54 2.63 2.77 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.64 2.86 2.31 3.32 3.04 3.32 3.29 3.60 2.89 2.68 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.67 2.68 2.88 10.74 2.70 2.20 3.07 3.50 2.32 3.44 2.63 2.32 3. This incoming water.64 2.32 3.56 2.5 4.5 2.05 3. such as gates.64 2.00 2.75 2.63 2.92 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.32 3.32 3.63 21. valves.32 3.76 2. which are often of equal consequence.61 2.32 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.63 2.32 3.07 3.19 3.74 2.50 2.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.32 3.67 2.97 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.00 2.73 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.00 2.63 2.72 2. 21. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.32 3.32 3.32 3.31 3.32 5. ft 0.30 3.79 2.14 3.61 2.32 3.76 2.32 3. Inc.32 3.75 2. or soil. All rights reserved.66 2.75 2.32 3.32 3.64 2.35.34 2.32 4.85 2.32 3.21.80 2.0 2.69 2.70 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32 3.32 3.64 15.66 2.64 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.70 2.85 3.28 3.64 2.68 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 2.68 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.66 2.00 2.64 2. The smaller silt sizes.32 3. such as a reservoir.63 2.5 5.65 2.32 3. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.4 1.30 3.
Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. These currents are stable. All rights reserved. or from year to year. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. formed from the bed load. 21. When neither can be done. on the other hand. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. once formed. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. The most common manner of destruction.39. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Of course. By this method. overtopping. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. or failure of materials. because of variations in rainfall. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Click here to view. however. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. landslide. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. are coarsegrained. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years.35. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. Inc. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. However. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. . Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3.Water Resources Engineering s 21. see Art. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. the rate is not uniform during the year. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir.
if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 ft/mi. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment.21. ft3/s b = width of river. But for the most part. Frequently. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. 21. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. A mean grain size of 0. All rights reserved. Therefore.35. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. and boulders. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. however.1).72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. Therefore. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. Click here to view. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. Therefore. which varies with both slope and discharge. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. which generally occurs only during a storm. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. discharge. gravel. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft qo = critical discharge. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. . The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. According to Witzig. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge.124) where Gb = total bed load. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. Inc. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope.
The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. day.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. including their relation to living things. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. (21-124). The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. discharges into streams. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.73 dation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. and distribution.) culation. Current data. are published daily by the U.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. recharges groundwater. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. such as an hour. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. lakes. and the stream velocity. or digital microchip technology. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and their reaction with their environment.” U. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. Weather Bureau is 24 h.S. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. their occurrence. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. Graf. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. Inc.S. check-dam construction. such as wind. runoff. by ink pen and revolving drum. New York. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. infiltration. evaporation. debris barriers. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. It continually records. planting of burned-over areas. or year. Such screens. groundwater flow. in the form of synoptic weather charts. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and stream flow 21. A. which are of two types. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. For instance. All rights reserved. In this cycle. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. Click here to view. their chemical and physical properties. if the dam is raised at a later date. (See H. infiltrates into the soil.S. rivers. or a combination of the two. (W. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. circulation. Use of vegetation screens. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. water evaporation from oceans. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. Einstein. H.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. temperature. contour plowing. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. on or near the land surface. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Department of Agriculture. Weather Bureau. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. and pressure.
Inc.. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. plant.” McGraw-Hill. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. Inc. and plantleaf surfaces. while another portion may be caught on leaves.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content.126) where E = evaporation rate. on a long-term basis. see D. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. or ground surfaces.21. equal to 15 for small. . (21. commonly termed consumptive use. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. water changes from liquid to gaseous form.125)]. called interception. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. A portion may evaporate as it falls. especially if the reservoir is shallow. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. and other vegetation surfaces. In evaporation. Evapotranspiration. Maidment. has a relatively large surface area. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. This phenomenon. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. R. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. Of the three. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. On an annual basis. Evapotranspiration is important because. shallow pools and 11 for large. Click here to view. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. in of mercury. All rights reserved. The Meyer equation [Eq. branches. in of mercury. developed from Dalton’s law. “Handbook of Hydrology. In transpiration. tropical and subtropical regions. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. New York. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. ground. and it increases as wind velocity increases. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Not all rain reaches the ground.125) (21. Evaporation may occur from free-water. (21. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure.
subsurface runoff. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. All rights reserved. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. On large reservoirs. Precipitation—form (rain. . Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Inc. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. except in arid. wind tends to push the film to the shore. also known as interflow. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. frost. to reach a channel. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. intensity.80. and biologic attrition. Click here to view. time distribution. Maidment. “Handbook of Hydrology. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Commonly. although it may vary between 0. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. called a Class A Level Pan. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Climatic characteristics a. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. is in widespread use. birds. Groundwater flow. and storm seepage. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan.60 and 0. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. or cetyl alcohol. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. subsurface storm flow. runoff may be surface. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. duration.70. Classified by the path taken to a channel. hail.Water Resources Engineering s 21. aquatic life. (D. Subsurface flow. or groundwater runoff. Inc.” McGraw-Hill. effective rain includes subsurface flow. tropical. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. dew). and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. or groundwater flow.. natural or manmade.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. subsurface. insects. New York. where it continues as channel or stream flow. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. or excess rain. Thus. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Hexadeconal. R. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. It appears in surface channels. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Moving laterally. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. perhaps several years. In practice. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. After joining stream flow. depending on the geographical region. snow.
areal distribution. yearly flow volume. Wind—velocity. Inc.S. TVA. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. Agricultural Research Service.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. slope. extremes during precipitation c. stratification Fig. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. Geological Survey.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. and various state and local agencies. duration d. and the accuracy desired. 21.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. extremes of flow. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length.” U. snow storage. lakes and other bodies of water. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. the detail required in the final answer. special-interest items. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. drainage net. Geological Survey. and completeness of the hydrologic records. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Geological Survey. elevation.S. These papers contain records of daily flow. orientation. Temperature—variation. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts.21. Solar radiation 2. frozen ground during storms. groundwater formations. slope. All rights reserved. channels (size. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. soil moisture. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. direction. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. Humidity e. mean flow. the quantity and type of data available.S. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. both published and unpublished. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred.S. antecedent precipitation. 21. Geologic—soil type. shape.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. and Weather Bureau. the U. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. land use and cover. 21. recurrence interval. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. as shown in Fig. direction of storm movement b. Click here to view. permeability. Weather Bureau. detail. artificial drainage. 21. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. . roughness.70.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. shape of cross section. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.S. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. International Boundary Commission. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. Drainage-basin characteristics a. Atmospheric pressure f. Topographic—size. general location. length) b.
After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.128) 21. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. and large downstream damage potential. . Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable.127) where Q = peak discharge. great importance. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. in/h A = drainage area.41. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. others give the complete hydrograph. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. The values of C in Table 21. Inc. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. 4. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. the second to major hydraulic structures. a 50. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. 1962). Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. 2. 3.or 100-year-frequency storm. for example.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. All rights reserved. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. 5. Chow. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. T. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Click here to view. As an example. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas.
the flow time in streets.17 0.129) Table 21. avg. avg.127). n.10 0.95 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.71 and Table 21.60 – 0. or ditches.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. factor.50 0. Click here to view.85 0.30 0.75 – 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.21. (21. gutters. min time of concentration Fig. Inc. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. New York.70 – 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.75 – 0. 2% Heavy soil. R.05 – 0.41. 21.95 0..60 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.35 0.70 0.40 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. Equation (21.40 0. ditches. K. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.10 – 0.30 – 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.70 – 0.25 – 0.20 – 0.50 – 0.90 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. After determining the time of concentration. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. b. 21.22 0. or any equivalent method.) The flow time in gutters.85 0.18 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80 – 0. .60 0. in/h respectively. steep.75 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.10 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. 7% Heavy soil. detached Multiunits. and the flow time in conduits.128) or Eq.16).20 0.95 0.15 0.40 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.20 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.15 – 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. streets.95 0. years duration of storm. 2% Sandy soil.70 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. steep.50 – 0. flat. Sherman. 21. is a convenient. flat. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. (21.129).50 – 0. Inc. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.89)] . coefficient. (21.13 – 0. (See D.70 – 0.80 0.10 – 0. (21. All rights reserved.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 0.25 – 0.” McGraw-Hill. Maidment.
Water Resources Engineering s 21. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.79 Table 21. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. This requires that a storm of short duration. 3. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. that is. Thus. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. 2. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. All rights reserved. pp. (Leroy K. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. vol. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. If the watershed is very large. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. 108. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The method is summarized by the formula (21. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. usually 1 acre). is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Inc. 4. subdivision may be required. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. termed a unit period. JanuaryJune 1932. . the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Click here to view. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. the time of storm runoff.” Engineering News-Record. 501-505. easier.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Sherman. termed a unit storm.
Inc. 21. because of storm variations. . 21. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms.72. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. For ease of manipulation. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs.21. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Then. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Click here to view. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Illustrated in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). 5. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.73). Usually.
those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. Inc. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand.) where Q = flow rate. pp. R. This loss. 21. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration.. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. . “Handbook of Hydrology. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See D.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram.. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21.131) period. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. “Hydrology for Engineers. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.) Fig. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. All rights reserved. Linsley et al.81 21. (R. pt. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. vol.. Fig. Also. Inc.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. I.. K. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. 21. Maidment. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. This method was developed by Franklin F. Inc. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. perpendicular to direction of flow.” McGraw-Hill. during heavy storms. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. 447–454). Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Click here to view.74). 19. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.” 3rd ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. McGraw-Hill. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. 21.
21. quantity. These costs include increased soap costs. and methods of wastewater disposal. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. and overdraft. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. among others. usually a number of years. . Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. present and future water demands should be determined. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. Click here to view.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. All rights reserved.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. and indirect water-quality use costs. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. safe yield. recycling. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. and location of artificial replenishment. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. groundwater levels. Inc. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. quality. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. is a confined or artesian aquifer. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Frequently. wastewaters. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. because of impermeable layers above and below it.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). water softening costs. or other causes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Deteriorating water quality. Regardless of how it is defined. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. poor-quality replenishment waters. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. need for excessive pumping lifts. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. and quality of water supply. (A base period is a period of time. alternative management plans should be formulated. Following the preceding preliminary work. cost of replenishment water. rather than a change in volume. source. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. quantity.
sanitary. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. fire-fighting. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” R. legal. surface-water delivery facilities.. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. motels. S. Grigg. Kashef. such as industrial development. institutional. graphical comparison with other cities. no. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. K. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. water used. I. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. commercial. Bear. wastewater disposed. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. is a very difficult task. however.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. industrial. irrigation. storage. may drastically alter mathematical estimates.” A. fire. apartments. (“Ground Water Management. Linsley et al.Water Resources Engineering s 21. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. 1987. The smaller the system. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Estimation of future population. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. Inc. Therefore. percentage increase. J. land speculation. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. and public. culinary. industrial. Click here to view. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. American Society of Civil Engineers.” N. All rights reserved. distribution. flood. and age of the city.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. decreasing percentage increase.. 40. “Groundwater Engineering. and sanitary purposes. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. and hotels for drinking. bathing. 21. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. “Water Resources Planning. washing. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. New York. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. Hydrology for Engineers. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. financially feasible. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and environmental factors. or other unforeseen emergency. and natural and artificial replenishment. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. transmission. pumping.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. amount and location of groundwater extractions. and treatment works. geographical boundaries. .” 3rd ed. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme.
size of the city. the demand for it decreases. valves. . Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. but because of the high rate at which it is required. presents Table 21. mainly because of the lack of large industries. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. Demand rates vary with time of day. degree of industrialization. standard of living. cost. influence the demand rate for water. and year. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Mo. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Calif. public buildings. and faucets. Table 21. and cleaning. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. month. such as the climate. cooling.S. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. All rights reserved. Public use of water for parks. if the cost of water increases. it may control the design of the facilities. and unauthorized uses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. The “California Water Atlas. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large.” 1979. and quality of the water. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. janitorial. as presented in Table 21. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lawn sprinkling. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. cost. and air conditioning purposes. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. State of California Office of Planning and Research. meter malfunctions. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Public Health Service Report. Inc. and pressure. type of service (metered or unmetered).17. pressure. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. and time of day. quality. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. are the average of a range of values. Normally. degree of industrialization. air conditioning. reservoir evaporation. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation.21. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. The national demand-rate data.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Click here to view.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality.
valley cities.000 8. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. MG† 0.0 1. gal/min P = population. however.6 1.000 55.000 85. climate.000 12.000 3.000 80. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 90.8 6. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.18. Moreover.000 40.4 2.000 40.000 10.000 80.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 40. such as lakes. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 2. quality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 125.000 6.000 2.000 4.3 0.2 2.000 10.000 28. interdependent.000 17. MG = million gallons. In the past. In the atlas.000 70. Hydrant Spacing.8 7.000 100.000 200.000 * American Insurance Association.18 Required Fire Flow. inland. cost.000 5.000 1.2 8.3 Duration. Inc. industrialization.4 3. The source must Table 21. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. to a large extent. .000 1.500 2.000 85.6 4. but the demand rate is high.3 5. and streams. and in some cases.000 40. legality. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. In selection of a source of supply.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 60. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.0 3. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 40. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 40.000 90. the effect of warm. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.0 7.000 110. rivers. In some local areas. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. is frequently undesirable.000 48. Total dependence on a single source. Cost. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 120. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. 21. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.6 11. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. diversification is essential for reliability.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.9 4. however. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 4. All rights reserved. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.5 14.4 17.000 40. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. and politics.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. American Water Works Association. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.21.22. calcium hardness. Click here to view.5 – 8.S. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. such as sulfates and chlorides. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. and calculation of the Langelier index. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.” U. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. and Water Pollution Control Federation.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In addition.) At the discretion of the state. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. total dissolved solids. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Inc. dependent on local conditions.” American Public Health Association. temperature. (See also Art. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.5 mg / L 0. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.3 mg / L 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.) Source Protection s The U. The measurements should include pH. . alkalinity. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100.21. All rights reserved.S. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. 21.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.
” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. 21. (Usually. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. particulate and colored matter.134).91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. coagulation-sedimentation. temperature and viscosity of the water. disinfection.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. All rights reserved.51).76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. and size and shape of the settling basin.. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. unpleasant tastes and odors. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. is equal to or less than 1. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. calculated with ν = νs. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Pojasek. (See R. however. (21. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. slow and rapid sand filtration. to be used in Eq. Ann Arbor. Newton’s law applies: (21. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. (21.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid.46. shape. 21. such as those mentioned above. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. 21. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. Mich. depth ho . Figure 21. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. For this ideal basin. mm If R > 2000. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source.001 and 5. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. In the region where 1. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. velocity is constant. Figure 21. . g/mm3 d = particle diameter. B.0 < R < 2000. V the flowthrough velocity. and width B. Click here to view. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. and softening (see also Art. Reynolds numbers. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Inc.0. Inc. 21. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.
p.21. vol. 1946.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (Observed curves. Inc. 21. . at 10 °C. 21. 103. Click here to view. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Fig.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 897. after Camp.
5 ft/min (most common velocity. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. Geyer. short circuiting. finely Fig. G.) 21.78b). 21. Multistory tanks. The tubular settler (Fig. for example. 21. 1.78a) or circular (Fig. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. rectangular (Fig. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. and D. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. Okun. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. and eddy currents. 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . All rights reserved. M. 21. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. or other indicator to pass through the basin.. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. are removed in this basin. C. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.” McGraw-Hill. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. 27. Without coagulants. . 21. coagulants are added to the water. Inc. Click here to view.8c. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. New York.46. Fair.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas..2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .” John Wiley & Sons. salt. Inc. J. A.
78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (d) Tubular settler. All rights reserved. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin.21. (b) Circular clarifier.
New York. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. such as pH.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Inc. chemical and biological reactions. American Water Works Association. highmolecular-weight. Culp and R. such as paper fiber. J. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. or neutral in charge. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. and hardness. color. “New Concepts in Water Purification. in some instances. L. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. or positively charged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. Click here to view. New York. 18H2O]. and air jets.to 60min range. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. All rights reserved.. however. T. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Anionic polymers. Thereby. to get the small floc to agglomerate. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. plankton. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants.Water Resources Engineering s 21. consequently. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins.” 4th ed. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. such as physical straining. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. or negatively charged. Culp.” McGraw-Hill.) 21. (G. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. Inc. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). polymers have a minor effect on pH. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. such as mechanical stirrers. coliform organisms. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Also. Corbitt. considering both cost and performance. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. however. turbidity.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria.. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. settling.” R. centrifugal pumps. and suspended solids. color. Polymers are long-chain. temperature. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. however. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. production of a smaller volume of sludge. L. and easier dewatering. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). A. anionic. organic polyelectrolytes. . They are available in three types: cationic.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. McGhee. The filtering process has many components. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. “Water Quality and Treatment. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. and nonionic.
The wash- Fig. 21.to 12-in layer of gravel. All rights reserved. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. depending on the turbidity.to 0. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.or mixed-media filtration.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Click here to view. by weight. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. of the sand. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Usually. The process requires rapid mixing. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.79. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. 21. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0.25. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses.21. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.35-mm range. in millimeters. that will pass 10%. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. and dual. through the sand and gravel layers.
and air jets. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. diatomaceous earth. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20 to 1. or deep coarse-media filters. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. water sprays.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. All rights reserved. Inc. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. such as rakes. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand.25 to 1.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. may be more advantageous. bed cracking. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.35 to 0. . mixed-media.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. The filtering medium may be sand. or anthracite coal. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Immediately after washing. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which produces an undertreated effluent. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. which is drained to waste. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. however. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. filters pass water at a high rate.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. Dual-media.005:1 range. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. creating a high head loss across the filter.002:1 to 0. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Click here to view. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. gal/min b = width of trough. or sand incrustation will be encountered. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.
A.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. New York. respectively. In the lime-soda process. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. All rights reserved. and American Society of Civil Engineers. These materials remove cations. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. such as calcium and magnesium. “Water Quality and Treatment.139) 21.. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Some. “Water Supply and Sewerage. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. L. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.1 mg/L. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. however. carbonates.” John Wiley & Sons. McGhee. and R is the zeolite material. New York. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. G. Click here to view. J.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. where 1 gpg = 17. Fair. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. McGraw-Hill Book Company. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. “Water Quality and Treatment.21. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. L. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. and (3) total hardness. Culp. American Water Works Association.) (21. (American Water Works Association. .” and T.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. “Water Treatment Plant Design. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit.. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Inc. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.” 4th ed. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value.138) (21. Inc. Regeneration requires between 0.) 21. in clear wells. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. sulfates. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. C. lime (CaO).” 6th ed. M.. Okun. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. New York. “New Concepts in Water Purification.” 4th ed. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.3 and 0. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. Geyer. perforated.. and D.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. or open-joint pipes. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.136) (21. Culp and R. J. (G. gas.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal.
“Water and Wastewater Engineering.” and T. 21. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. manganese. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices.. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. Inc. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.) respect to carbonates. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. excessive fluorides. odor. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. anion exchange. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. and electrodialysis. Click here to view. Inc. J. Filter both solutions. “Water Treatment Plant Design. chlorine dioxide. flood control. then. activated carbon. Fair.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. Inc. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.” McGraw-Hill.1 or 0. lime softening. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.” John Wiley & Sons. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. and lime. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. 21. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. water supply. McGhee. and D. bromine. reverse osmosis. despite its low solubility.99 water supplies..51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. ozone. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal.45). the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (G. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. ultraviolet light. C.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. J. Chlorine residuals of 0. irrigation. Other disinfectants are iodine. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Okun. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. detergents. cation exchange.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. New York. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. M. Geyer. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.) 21. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. All rights reserved. New York.) 21.” McGraw-Hill. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. . iron. New York. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21.. A. taste.
the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. The plot of volume vs. The mass diagram (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .80. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria.21. minimum flows will be critical. 21. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. as is the case for many water-supply projects.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Also. 21. Aeri- Fig.52. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. When the demand rate is known. areavolume curves (Fig. 21. maximum flows will govern. 21.1). A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. Click here to view. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Once a reservoir site has been selected. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Inc. All rights reserved. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig.
81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. In deep reservoirs. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. are large distances from the city. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.101 Fig. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. When the tem- 21. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts.52. Click here to view. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. give special attention to water quality. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. such as New York. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.35 and 21. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. During hours of maximum demand. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. . 21. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. perature drops in the fall. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. and Los Angeles. San Francisco. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. If possible. Major sources of supply for some cities. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. but there is no circulation across this zone.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. which may be only a few feet thick. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. the flow refills the reservoir. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. pumping plants. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods.2). odor.52. Inc. is called the thermocline. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the demand drops off. All rights reserved.
who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. M.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.52. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. All rights reserved. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Brune. M.82) (G.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. 21. 21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.35. Brune. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. A flowing artesian Fig.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. For the correct hydraulic grade. no. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. . 21.84). Click here to view. 21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For any given storage reservoir. 3. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Inc. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. vol. 34. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. June 1953). 21. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. 21. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.21. 21.83). It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Fig. Inc. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Click here to view.103 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. 21.
motor.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. Okun. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. The pump. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. 629. hollow-core.83). from an artesian well is given by (21. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. ft (Fig.53. McGhee.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (G. Inc. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. vol. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. V. screen. Fair. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.” John Wiley & Sons. 21. Jacob. 5. vol. ft The steady flow.53. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. (C. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter).143) 21. . 21. Geyer. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. or driven.142) where Q = flow. 21. 72.” 6th ed.. McGraw-Hill. ft d = diameter of well. New York. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. or hydraulic rotary methods. T. Inc. 21.84).53. J. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. eductor or riser pipe. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. 33. New York. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. 21. ditch. and D. C...3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. J. 21.” Economic Geology. and motor. A. bored.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.57). E. ft D = diameter of circle of influence.21.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. pump (Art. Inc.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. Hence.53. 889. waterjet. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. C. Click here to view. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. M.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. All rights reserved. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. no. p. gal/day. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. Theis. 1940. ft h = H minus drawdown. December 1938. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. p.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. bronze. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. (21. and sulfur compounds. steel. 21. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. contact between acids and metals. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Copper.21. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. and plastics. concrete. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. bacteria in water. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. are present. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. valves. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. In unlined pipes. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Since steel is stronger than iron. If it is cement-lined. sealed flanges. tanks. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. and meters destroyed by corrosion. and other appurtenances. rubber. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. and ability to withstand external loads. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. pumps. plastic. sand. lead. stray electric currents. Click here to view. ft 21. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. but wood is rarely used in new installations. or Dresser-type couplings.54. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. such as polyvinyl chloride. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. an anode and a cathode. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. hydrants. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. zinc. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. valves. however.146) where D = pipe diameter.) At the anode. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. polyethylene.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. Under favorable conditions. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. Inc. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. A machine that produces a monolithic. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. brass. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. . polybutylene. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. impurities and strains in metals. riveting.
cracks. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. such as soda ash. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. the corrosion process continues (Fig. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. to prevent corrosion. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Click here to view. Also. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. for example. Strains. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. use of protective coatings.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. zinc. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When selecting materials. water may be treated with bases. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. All rights reserved. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. 21. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. caustic soda.86).86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. and treatment of the water. and Fig. Inc. where e is an electron. the faster electrons can move through the water. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Aluminum. At the cathode. . and the more ions.
called a volute (Fig. Inc. efficiency. by (21. or impeller. . Corrosion.. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. 21.) w = unit weight of liquid. McGraw-Hill. To prevent cavitation. between pump center line and water surface Fig. oxides.21. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. and so on on the walls of the pipes.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump.147) where pa = pressure. (American Water Works Association. accomplishes that in two steps. To have practical meaning. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. or eye. the most common waterworks pump. Water enters at the center. Zinc. and the head-discharge relationship. ft of water z = elevation difference. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates.88).56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. hydroxides. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. graphite. The centrifugal pump. “Water Quality and Treatment. 21.” 4th ed. Click here to view.. 21. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. however. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. magnesium. psia. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. horsepower. All rights reserved. psia. z is negative. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Inc. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. ft. New York.87). lime. 21. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. in feet. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. (I. and air lift.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. 21. 21. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. jet. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. helical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Karassik et al.89. 21. See also Art. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Fig.. J. New York.. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. 21. rotary. 21. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. All rights reserved. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. however.Water Resources Engineering s 21.57 and check valves in Art.58.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps.111 than the required NPSH. below 200 gal/min. head. For that reason. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 2nd ed. pump discharge. Click here to view. 21. In a typical water-system analysis. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. (Also included in Fig. Inc. “Pump Handbook. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.) 21. reciprocating. McGraw-Hill Book Company. . depending on the number of stages. propeller. as shown in Fig.
(21. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. either hand. All rights reserved. 21. gal/min H = head. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. utilize piston action to move water. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Inc. 21. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Reciprocating pumps. which are located at the well bottom.21. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. At sea level. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Click here to view. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. which is a function of specific speed.or motordriven. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. cams. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Jet pumps (Fig.148) where n = impeller speed. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. r/min Q = discharge. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications.90 fied). These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Because of the close tolerances. vanes. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. . They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. and for Ns above 7500. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. so that the entire lift is suction.
fast operation. Check. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. plug. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. respectively. pressure-relief. and easy. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.. large pressure differences. curb. Hand or motor power. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. needle. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and butterfly. Corrosion.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. cone. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings.) drives to permit manual operation.113 tion. Also. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Usually. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. The major types of isolating valves are gate. applied through a gear-reduction device. pumps. sluice gate. in-service lubrication features. Inc. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. All rights reserved. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. pressure-regulating. rubber. solids deposition. tubercle formation. J. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. New York. globe. Plug. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. or Neoprene. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). and butterfly valves. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. and low head loss when fully open. air-relief. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. Simplicity of construction and quick. “Pump Handbook. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. one at the service connection. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. availability.or oil-lubricated. Low head loss. . It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. globe. primarily because of their low cost. which are water. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. three valves must be used. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. or corporation cocks. If sand is carried out with the water.. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. Karassik et al. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling.” 2nd ed. one just upstream of the meter. But these valves cost more than gate. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. rotates the disk. (I.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. check. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Because of high head losses. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. such as pressure regulators and altitude.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. For example. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. All rights reserved. Interior-differential. which connects the barrel to the main. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Usually. such as trunk lines 21. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Often. Many automatic control valves. rivers. and relief valves. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Click here to view. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Inc. and large pipes.21. Furthermore. The most common check valve is the swing type. The wetbarrel. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. 21. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. tube. or California type. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. When the valve is in a closed position. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location.
Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The standard venturi meter (Fig. are the most common velocity-type devices.115 of distribution systems. durability. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. A clicking noise. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. respectively. Inc.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied.150) where Q = flow rate. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. The cup-type meter. ft d2 = diameter of throat. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. for metering domestic-service connections.5% within the normal test-flow limits. nozzle. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. 21. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The nutating disk is used.” 6th ed. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. such as meters for individual customer connections. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. 21. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. simplicity and ease of repairs. rotary. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. see E. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. . Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. amount of head loss through the meter. Click here to view. F. All rights reserved. New York. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. or nutating-disk types. called a Price meter. vertical velocity components. However. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion.149) Hydraulics. which do not affect propeller meters.91. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.) As in venturi meters. but they are used primarily in laboratories. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. (21.. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. and cost. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. or modifications thereof.
. load factors. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.91 plate meter. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. and development of the system. or to some other recognized system. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flat rate is falling into disuse. step rate. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. fire use. and block rate.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. fixed charges on capital investment. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. if any. and similar items. (b) Nozzle meter. (c) Orifice- 21. Inc. seasonal use. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. 21. Click here to view. utility-type enterprises.21. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. peak rates of use.
where the majority of small users are. where applicable. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. canals. treatment chemicals. pumping energy. Inc. and. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. tunnels. buying water from a wholesale supplier. of serving an individual customer. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. draft tube.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. including metering and billing. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. For most distribution systems. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. Cost component 2. It is generally recognized that residential areas. and (3) cost. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. This charge is usually small. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. When fixing a system of rates. All rights reserved. S. called the demand component. Cost component 3. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. called the customer component. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas.117 With step rate. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. 21. tunnel. . generators and exciters. depends on the peak usage of a customer. and transformers. penstocks. Click here to view. called the commodity component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. turbines and governors.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. switching equipment. a building to house the machinery and equipment.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water.746 kW 1 kW = 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cost component 1. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases.
The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. On a seasonal cycle.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Therefore. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. weekly.92). It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. or yearly basis.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. On a weekly cycle. Storage can be provided for a daily. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. and peak-load plants. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. weekly. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. All rights reserved. or seasonal cycle. Then. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. Inc. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation.21. Click here to view. If the minimum flow is very low. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. It can be computed on a daily. run-of-river plants with storage. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. On a daily cycle. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. 21. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. to be used at some future time. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. base-load plants. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. such as navigation. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. power production being only incidental.
and rock-fill. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. When needed. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. buttress.. Inc. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.119 Fig. Its distribution is triangular. . Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. arch. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. 21. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. earth.” 4th ed.) 21. 21. (V. New York. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Click here to view. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Los Angeles. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. J. (Department of Water and Power. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. it usually is not as economical.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Zipparo and H.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Calif.92). The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Figure 21. Force F2 represents silt pressure. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Hasen. The main classifications are gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the energy loss may make it uneconomical.
Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. given by Eq. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. was developed by von Karman. In the past. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. p.” discussion by von Karman. May 1946. 434. 21. All rights reserved. 1933. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.153). A close approximation of the force. ice pressures as high as 50.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. (21. Inc.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. presented by Edwin Rose.000 psf. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.153) where w = unit weight of water.425h above the base.) (21. 98. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. today it is realized these values are much too high. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 g.93 by forces F4 and F5. In cold climates. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. These accelerations occur in every direction. Click here to view.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. however. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. Rose. which forms on the reservoir surface. (E.21. which create forces on any object resting on it. A method of calculating these forces. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. ice. 21.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. vol.
The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Hence. but the structural design is much more critical. however. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. and clay. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. Click here to view. In the multiple-arch. On arch dams. because of bearing contact. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. silt. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Inc. First. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. If the deflections are not equal. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. All rights reserved. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. their relative importance is much different. The modes of failure are also the same. uplift is not so important. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. overturning by rotating about the toe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. engineers assumed that. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. However. and uplift forces are smaller. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. When the base is not drained. however. or failure of the foundation material. such as sand and gravel. Although there are many types of buttress dams. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. is available and clayey materials must be imported. Recent belief. sand. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. but its formwork is more expensive. rock flour. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. If a large quantity of pervious material. They are not suited to most sites. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. In the past. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. . It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action.
it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. however..” 4th ed. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Zipparo and H.94). For dams over 200 ft high. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Hasen. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. bonding into the dumped rock. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face.3 on 1. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Bureau of Relamation. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. although steel has been used occasionally. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. (V. The facing is usually concrete. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. . therefore. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. U. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. providing power. Army Corps of Engineers. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. bearing on the rubble cushion. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. 21. Temporary facings are usually of wood. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. the natural angle of repose of rock. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. onto the fill.3 on 1. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult.” EM 1110-2-2300. If pervious material is not available. J. or wood over concrete. All rights reserved. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.” U. For some types of soil. The downstream face is usually 1. Today. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Leakage should be expected. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. S. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. S. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement.) 21. New York.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. Inc. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. Click here to view. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. and an upstream impervious facing. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams.
runner. 21. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. 21. As the water flows through the tur- 21.95c). They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. wicket gates. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. Zipparo and H. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. 21. if the load drops below 50%. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.94 turbine.” 4th ed. it changes direction. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. and draft tube. All rights reserved. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. When the power demand on the turbine changes. and draft tube. However. At heads above 1000 ft. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. Hasen. The propeller turbine (Fig. At heads below 100 ft. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.123 bine. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. Inc. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. and the fixed-blade type. This creates a force on the runner. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. their efficiency decreases rapidly. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig.95a). The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. The wicket gates. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. wicket gates. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. however. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. In such installations.) Fig. New York. runner. however. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. In these. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. the propeller-type (Fig. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. Click here to view. such as the Kaplan turbine. 21. (V.Water Resources Engineering s 21.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.
if designed correctly. 21.65. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. This type of spillway is Fig. the dam will not be damaged by the water. . 21.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. All rights reserved. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. widely used for concrete dams because. Inc. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. (b) Kaplan. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. (c) axial flow.
lined. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. model tests are usually employed. Inc. In a shaft spillway. A siphon spillway (Fig. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. The air vent shown in Fig. Thus. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. called an ogee spillway. 21. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. both depending on the head on the weir. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the head increases. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. the siphon’s intake is sealed. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. or ogee in cross section. When the head is relatively low. The weir can be sharp-crested. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section.34). “Design of Small Dams. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow.96 Siphon spillway. In a side-channel spillway. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins.Water Resources Engineering s 21. DC 20402). sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice.” Government Printing Office. Washington. All rights reserved. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. flared. 21. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. This type of spillway.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Click here to view. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. Once this second condition is reached. 21. open channel. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.S. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. In a chute spillway. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. . The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Bureau of Reclamation. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. 21. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom.
allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. the intake towers at Hoover Dam.98 Bear-trap gate. Fig. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack.65. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. the pipes fail. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. In a taintor gate (Fig.97 Taintor gate. 21. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. controlling flow. causing damage and hampering operation. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.97). During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required.5 ft/s. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. level of a reservoir within close limits. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. 21. making removal difficult. On large stop-log installations. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. Inc. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter.21. In contrast. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. and providing support for the conduit. 21. All rights reserved. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. 21. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir.65. To do this. Fig. 21. Click here to view. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.
The drum gate (Fig. New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Because of the large recess required in the dam. E. Click here to view. 21. To raise a bear-trap gate. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. drum gates are not suited to small dams. 21.) Fig. as shown in Fig. .” 4th ed.99 Drum gate. L. Hasen. J. Inc.98. J. (V. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and J.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. All rights reserved.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Water Supply Engineering. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. J. Zipparo and H. 21. Cleasby.. and H. Babbitt. Doland.
Click here to view.blank page 21.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . All rights reserved.
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