21

W

M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
*
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

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Thus. Inc. as shown in Fig. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. All rights reserved. like surface tension. formation of spray from water jets. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. 21. are significant in others. 21. although negligible in many water engineering problems. is pressure above or below atmospheric. Click here to view. When the liquid is in a closed container. pitting.3. In equation form. ft Capillarity. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. face and rises in a small tube. Absolute pressure. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller.7 psi. at sea level. Its temperature variation. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.7 psia. Its value Fig. psia. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. 21.21. 21. is small and insignificant in most problems. respectively.2. Meniscus. Gage pressure. Surface tension and capillarity. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. however.1. 21. portions of the liquid vaporize. decreases with increasing temperature. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube.000 ft is shown in Fig. (21. ft σ = surface tension. and freezing damage to concrete. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as shown in Fig. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. psi. is concave upward. .1) where h = capillary rise. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. or liquid surface. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere.

In hydraulics. and pitting appears. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. also called the coefficient of viscosity. .4. 21. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. (Pressures as high as 350. All rights reserved. lb/ft2 21. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. 21. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or dynamic viscosity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and cross-sectional area A. Inc. on the top surface. psf. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. to collapse. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. Then. transitional.2) where τ = shearing stress.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. the pressure acts equally in all directions. or implode. or completely turbulent flow exists. which extend into the pores of the metal.8) to determine whether laminar. 21. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. ft. absolute viscosity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s y = depth. is a measure of its resistance to flow. Since the prism is at rest. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. ft2/s. of length and time. Click here to view. and the force due to pressure p2. psf.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. as shown in Fig.5 Fig. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. At any depth.00001059 ft2/s. on the bottom surface. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. µ of a fluid. the force due to pressure p1. ft2. lb/ft3. It is so named because its units. Viscosity. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h.

lb/ft3. then p2 is p. lb. For horizontal surfaces.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. p1 is atmospheric pressure. and other water control structures. Figure 21. and y sin θ = h .4).6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft2. (21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). The resultant pressure force P. 21.3. where w is the specific weight of water. Taking ∆h to be h. at depth h. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. however. ft. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. (21.6) – ∫ydA = y A. (21. . Click here to view. All rights reserved. Equation (21.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. tanks. (21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq.3b) then becomes (21. (21. (21. psf. the depth of the centroid.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4) Equation (21.3a) by A yields (21. the depth below the water surface.5) 21. Inc. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.3a) Division of Eq. 21. Thus. the pressure. dams. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. ft. Therefore.4.

5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.8) equals –A. (21. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.7 Fig. represented by the length yp.) that is below the c.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. 21.7). 21. . The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.2° to the horizontal (Fig. (21.p.6 (see also Fig.8).5). Thus. All rights reserved. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. where K is the radius of gyration. ft.) but acts at a point (c. Otherwise. of the surface about its centroidal axis. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. the total force P = whA. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Hence y . It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. The denominator of Eq. if that locus is a straight line. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.). (21. Click here to view. (21.g. 21.29). For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. 21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Pyp = ∫y dP.g.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. Inc.7).p. The location of the center of pressure. psf. 6. – From Eq. 21. (21. Example 21.

42 ft. Inc. 21. (See Example 21.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. Note: 1.1.21.08. (21. P = 62. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. All rights reserved.0) = 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 + 2.3. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.0 ft.08/5 = 5. Therefore.8.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Click here to view. 21.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. From Eq.0 + 0. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. however. yp = 5.) of common shapes. 21.42 = 5. K2 = point G. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.9).g. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. Also. 21.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.5 + 1/ (5. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.

The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.564.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. PH = whA = 62.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC.4 = 1220 lb = PV. 21.4 × 2. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. – From Eq. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. 21.4°. (b) Free-body diagram. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.9. Click here to view. .14 × 25/4 = 19. Inc. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. and for a constant-radius surface.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. 21.6 × 62. Fig. (See Example 21. 2. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. When water is below the curved surface. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.5 × 5 = 780 lb.2. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.6w = 19. (21.6 ft3.9 Fig.7). so the weight of the water is 19. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The corresponding angle is 57. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. All rights reserved. Example 21. 21.9). PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. Its angle with the horizontal is known.

Click here to view. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.10b. the pressure head. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. (21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. 21. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. 21. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. 21. 21. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.g. whether floating or submerged.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The stability of a ship. or the difference in head.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.b.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. (21. Given in feet by Eq. ft. ft3 ys = distance. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.10b). its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. .4). p = wh. Manometers indicate h.).21. All rights reserved. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.10a). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Inc. For a body to be in equilibrium.. (21. is indicated by the metacenter.

11): piezometer. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. (b) U-tube manometer.17 psi. What is hm? Fig. 21.11a is 2.12c). 21.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. (a) Piezometers.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. The liquid is water with w = 62. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Inc. . However. 21. although the latter is most common. Click here to view. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Basic types of manometers. U-tube manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 lb/ft3. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. All rights reserved. and differential manometer. 21. The piezometer (Fig.11 manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). Example 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

21. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. 21. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. Very low pressures. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. the Utube manometer (Fig. 21.21.12c). A movable scale. In this application. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid.11b) is used. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. . All rights reserved. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. including negative gage pressures. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale.

may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. and z is 1.5.4: A differential manometer (Fig. Click here to view.25 ft of water. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. such as ft of water or psi. the total energy per unit weight at 2. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.11) where Z1 = elevation. 21. hm1 is 9 in. One factor. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. 32.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2.13 indicating liquid. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.0 ft. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. Most of them. All rights reserved.75 + 13.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.40.4 × 2. .50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. For example. ft. psf w = specific weight of fluid.4 × 0.12a. the actual pressure difference. hi is 2.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.25 ft. such as might be required in laboratories. however. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. is magnified by the differential manometer.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.0 and 2. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section.6). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 × 2. the magnification will be 2. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. in the manometer. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence.6 × 62. psf. 21. Example 21. The differential manometer (Fig. The pressure at B.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. 21. Inc. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. or sump. ft. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. when expressed in feet of water. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. psf. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the right side. psf p2 = pressure at 2. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. that is.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. Above 5.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. if the actual difference is 0. as shown in Fig. 21. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.

Fig. 21.13). It equals WVa2 / 2g. Average velocity. lb/ft3. 21. 21. where Q is the quantity of flow. ft. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.14.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. when added to the downstream side of Eq. velocity head. ft. (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. and pressure. 21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. lb. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Click here to view.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. 21. Inc.11). through friction. All rights reserved.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. a Fig. or the total head ft: (21. As indicated in Fig.14) pa/w is called pressure head. ft/s. Example 21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. Kinetic energy at the section.5. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.13. . and pressure (Fig. above some arbitrary datum. ft2.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. ft/s = Q/A. velocity. The total energy.4 ft3/s. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. This term hf.21. across the area of the section A.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. V2/2g. (See Example 21. varies with velocity. ft3/s. Usually. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. velocity. where Va is the velocity. where W is the weight. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation.

Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. is equal to the impulse. Also. p2 = 0. sometimes called the total head line. and any bends. 21. while in pressure flow. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow.15).14 = 10 ft/s.9). in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Z2 = 0. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. or magnitude of flow. direction. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. which may result from a change in either velocity. hf = 50 – 1. Inc. 21. gate valve. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. ft. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. .15 Fig.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. 21.45 ft. A change in momentum. In openchannel flow. respectively. Thus substitution in Eq. respectively. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Art. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. Hence. since the pipe has free discharge. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.55 = 48. All rights reserved. Click here to view.4/ 3. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. The energy grade line. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.7. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.

21. which is to be determined).96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.12)] but may be used separately.332π = 71. so θ = 60. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. P2 = ppA2 = 13. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.000 sin 53. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. lb. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.700/82. To find F. Inc.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.200 lb. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. Example 21.4/ 32. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.1 and the density ρ = 62.000 lb.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. Fig. since ∆Vx = –(7. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.15) first in the X direction. since ∆Vy = –(–7. (21.94 × 100 × 4. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. 21.5 ft/s. Let R be the force.2° – 13. (See Example 21. apply Eq. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.2= 1. and at 2.2° + Ry = 1.94 × 100 × 65. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.2° – 71.500 lb.96 cos 53.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. All rights reserved. With p1 known.96 sin 53.11) or (21.200 + Rx = 1.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.16. .6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.78 Ry = 145.5) = 65. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.94.600.21.1 Rx = –82. Then. then in the Y direction. Fy = –181. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. (21. Click here to view.5°.000 cos 53.6.2° – 0) = 4. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.600 lb In the Y direction. Fx = 181. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.78.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. hybrid modeling. however. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. the capability of the computing resources.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. gravity. or prototype. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. With hybrid models. employs both physical and mathematical models. momentum. . and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. For instance. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. In this way. It is. and through execution of the computer program. A fourth mode of modeling. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. alternative management schemes.17 21. Inc. In water resources engineering. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. such as a river. In most models. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. operate. erosional scour. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. All rights reserved. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. and surface tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.7. See also Art. to a given set of stimuli. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. or drainage basin. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Physical models are expensive to build. Click here to view. Popular before the advent of digital computers. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. 21. aquifer. droughts. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. In the preceding example. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. viscosity. 1.7. Usually. such as storm rainfall. or proposed works.

respectively. Froude number. the length ratio is the only variable.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. viscosity. . Click here to view. such as depth or diameter). The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. The Reynolds number is (21. which is always a predominant force. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. The inertial force.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Ratios of the forces of gravity. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Reynolds number.21. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. the formation of drops and air bubbles.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.20) R is dimensionless. Squaring both sides of Eq.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. and Weber number. the model is termed a true model.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. The Froude number is (21. (21. Similarly. ft2/s. entrainment of air in flowing water.22) where ρ = density of fluid. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. (21.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. such as spillways and weirs. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. and one other force are made proportional. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Then (21.21a) (21.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. Once the length ratio has been set. Therefore. The Weber number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. All rights reserved. 32. Inc.

model designs are often based on the Manning equation. mathematical models are. and through execution of the computer program. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code.S.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.7. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. For such models. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. in turn. such as a morning-glory spillway. This type of model is called a distorted model. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. in particular. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. Hence. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. and infiltration parameters.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. such as flow networks. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. (21. These expressions. 21. the logical representation of prototypes. One type of model. For instance. viscous. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes.23a) (21. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. The U. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. Inc. Sr = 1. . simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Click here to view.24). (21. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. called a movable-bed model.25) In models of rivers and channels. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. In some cases. Rr = Lr. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. inertial. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model.26) where V = mean velocity. (21. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. All rights reserved. catchment areas.

however. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. In object-oriented software. and turbulent flow results. flow routing. 21. “Handbook of Hydrology. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. As this shearing stress increases. This. R. G. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. hydrodynamics. watershed hydrology. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. shown in Fig.” McGraw-Hill. . and groundwater yield. This approach. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. Walker. as in annular passages. of all databases and software. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. or both. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. R. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study.21. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. 3.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. (D.17. H. J. and R. or pollution. when fully implemented. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. the model output required for design or evaluation. academia. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. Hoggan. Hasen. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Art. 21. landfill leachate analyses. A. Zipparo and H. reservoir regulation. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. evaporation and irrigation. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall.” V. seepage. design of hydraulic structures. hydrologic forecasting. As a result. Click here to view. channel and river hydraulics.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” D. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. sediment or pollutant transport. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction.2). A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. and private sectors. (J. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Whan. F. density. Inc.) 21. flood or drought impacts. ecosystem impacts and restoration. Rothfus. Maidment. if comparisons of different plans are required.” N. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. New York. Grigg. quantity and quality of water supply. “Water Resources Planning. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. impacts of dam breaks. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. and among water resources modelers in the government. All rights reserved. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. Also. As a general rule. 1957. vol. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. S. For closed conduits other than circular. wave or tidal analyses.

the flow is completely turbulent. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. F. 21.29) For laminar flow. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. In this region.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. a disturbance will probably be magnified. ft ρ = density of fluid. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. Brater. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid.l9. as shown in Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. 21. All rights reserved. laminar flow is unstable. .19. Fig. As the Reynolds number increases. (21. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. causing the flow to become turbulent. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. (E. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. ft L = length of pipe section considered. (21. Click here to view. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21 Fig. handbook of Hydraulics. than for laminar flow (Fig. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. 21. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. Eq. These disturbances create eddies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections.” 6th ed. 21.17). For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. it is not practical to treat it analytically. at completely turbulent flow.) 21. In laminar flow. the velocity distribution is more uniform. Therefore.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.27) where V = fluid velocity. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity.. which have both a rotational and translational velocity.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.18. 32. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. 21. New York. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. ft/s D = pipe diameter. flow is laminar in circular pipes. 32. As a result. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

30) is dimensionally homogeneous.21.001 0. (21.03 – 0.003 – 0. . centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.00003 0.19) L = length of pipe. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (L. Click here to view. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. 21. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.008 – 0.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.9. 32. Moody.0005 – 0.0002 0.) Because Eq.001 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. F. 21.0005 0. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity. ft D = diameter of pipe.0002 – 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.003 0. The head loss is independent of the pressure. ft V = velocity of fluid. 21.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. November 1944. Inc. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. All rights reserved. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.19) to Determine f ε.008 0.0005 – 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.0002 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. enamels. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.

ft/s C = coefficient.) Substitution into Eq.4 and 21. 21. Click here to view. ft S = head loss due to friction.9. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. All rights reserved.33c) (21. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.3.32) where n = coefficient.34b) (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.34c) 21.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.31) gives (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.33b) (21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. 21. which requires experience in its choice.9.Water Resources Engineering s 21. See also Table 22. (21.34d) (21. .47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. ft L = length of pipe.33d) (21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. Inc. ft3/s.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. Tables 21. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.33e) 21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.11 (p. dependent on surface roughness. (21. (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.31) where V = velocity. where D is the pipe diameter.9.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. (Although based on surface roughness.34e) where V = velocity.

011 0.015 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. and valves and other pipe fittings. 21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.36) for a check.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.015 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.015 0. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.017 0. (21.014 0.016 To 0. 21. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.010 0.21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.012 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. Inc.015 0.014 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.013 0.35c) (21.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.017 0. (21. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. However. Example 21.017 0.012 0.012 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.013 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.017 From 0. (21.035 0. enlargements. bends. Click here to view. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.013 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.013 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.7: Figure 21.013 0.012 0. because (21.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.015 0.20 ple 21.010 0.7. .010 To 0. in short pipelines.017 0.) Flow between reservoirs.35b) (21. ft3/s hf = friction loss.4 Values of n for Pipes. All rights reserved.

(21. (21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. where V is the velocity in the pipe.10.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. ft. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Table 21. 135 In good condition. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.21 are approximate. Gibson. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. 21. (21. are presented in Table 21.21)..37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. 85 16 in. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. is (21.10. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. regardless of age. 110 (21.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. 10 years older Average value.25 Table 21. wood forms. the values of K in Fig. 21.” Constable & Co. 140 Large sizes. minor losses must be considered. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. 80 4 in.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 21.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.37) or (21. All rights reserved. 110 4 in.7.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. H. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. ft/s g = 32. 105 30 in and over.10.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. so a full velocity head is lost. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.38) A special application of Eq.37): (21.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. Ltd. 115 12 in. Inc. London. 120 24 in and over. 120 Centrifugally spun. . good workmanship. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 120 Large sizes. good workmanship. determined experimentally by Brightmore.. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). (A. steel forms.

5 0.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.89 1.66 0.10. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.64 0.0 2.42) Table 21.71 0. .4 21.21.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.0 5.80 K = 0.6 0.50 K = 0.05 K = 0. All rights reserved.0 Table 21.2 0.7 0.3 0. D = pipe diameter.9 0. and at bends is given by (21. such as valves and elbows.8 are only approximate. fully open Gate valve.6 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.9 0. For these reaTable 21.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.2 2. Inc. Click here to view. fully open Swing check valve. fully open Angle valve.62 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.68 0.2 0.1 0.0 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76 0.25 The values in Table 21.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. 21. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.8 0.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.4 0.5 0.21 of the sides. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers. Globe valve.81 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.63 0.

(H.9 for low velocity of approach. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. Beij. vol. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Ito. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill. Orifices may have any shape. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows.. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients.23. square. The data are in agreement that the head loss. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. and angle of bend.27 sons. H.11. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. (V. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. Click here to view.” Journal of Research.) Fig.. . there is disagreement. July 1938.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 21. (21.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. not including friction loss. Experiments on smooth pipes. however. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. vol. J. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.42). Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Inc. not including friction loss in the bend.42). decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Zipparo and H.44) where Q = discharge. 1. For low heads. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. (21. its effect should be taken into account.Water Resources Engineering s 21. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. 1960.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. Figure 21. 21. If this velocity is significant. National Bureau of Standards. the bend loss essentially remains constant.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.45) 21. 21. no.22: (21. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Reynolds number. (K. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. series D. although they are usually round. 21. Inc.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Hasen. New York. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. 82. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. or rectangular.” 4th ed. this error is corrected by the C values. 21. Equation (21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

616 0.611 0. Jr.622 0.598 0.610 0. ft 0.596 0.623 0.601 0.611 0.1 0.641 0.598 0.603 0.603 0. “Hydraulics.592 0.602 0. and Z2 = 0.644 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.652 0.595 0.609 0.603 0.608 0.594 0.606 0.04 0.599 0.593 0.614 0.602 0.596 0.617 0.593 0.629 0.596 0.617 0.592 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 0.601 0.605 0.632 0.02 0.21.630 0.600 0.599 0. ft 0.637 0.619 0.606 0.648 0.596 0.608 0.626 0.612 0. Inc.0 Head.636 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.614 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.607 0. and Eq.04 0. All rights reserved.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.619 0.607 0.605 0.599 0. to Fig.99.634 0.601 0..23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.594 0.45) becomes (21.604 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.46) The actual velocity.602 0. Click here to view. (21.648 0.621 0.597 0.637 0.02 0.631 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.618 0.601 0.” 1886.593 0. Z1 = h.604 0.595 0.592 1.599 0.627 0.608 0.600 0.602 0. determined experimentally.605 0.632 0.618 0.590 0.623 0. .614 0. V1 = 0.94 to 0. of circular orifices.1 0.602 0.4 0.603 0. ft 0.600 0. With the reference plane through point 2.643 0.597 0.600 0.602 0.610 0.628 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.613 0 610 0.612 0.596 0.596 0.615 0.618 0.605 0.613 0.6 08 1 1.602 0.595 0. 21.604 0. the vena contracta.623 0.598 1.637 0.607 0.591 0.616 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 2 2.660 0.628 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.602 0.655 0.

11. F. (21. In Fig. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet.11. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. 21. between 1 and 2. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. the contraction is completely suppressed. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25. McGraw-Hill Book Company.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. New York.) 21. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.29 Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. Figure 21. . With a partly suppressed orifice. ft.67.” 6th ed.47) where hL = losses in head. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. the area of the orifice. Brater. see E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.61 to 0.48) is obtained.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. Click here to view. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. 21. 21. Inc. Eq. (21. (21. All rights reserved.25 orifice..24b. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. 21.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.21. (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. Inc. to time t.58) Equation (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. For simplicity.56).53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58)]. ft2 A = area of reservoir.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.57) for t and substituting in Eq.58) gives (21. s The Y coordinate is (21. . the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.57) (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.56) Fig. 21. Click here to view. when y = h1.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.26): (21. (21.50) becomes (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21. obtained by solving Eq.11.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. (21.59). (21. (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. when y = h2.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. Eq. 21. 21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.50) where a = area of orifice. (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. ft h2 = head at the end.23). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eq. is that for a parabola: (21.55) 21. Rearranging Eq. All rights reserved. (21. 32.

67 V T / 2g = 0. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.11.33VT / 2g. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For a short tube flowing full. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.29.82 VT)2/2g = 0. ft2 Fig. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. 21. . if one exists).00 VT / 2g – 0. Inc.27) but the head loss is larger.82. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. When this happens. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.11. 21.67 V2 ) = 0.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g. (21.42) of 0. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.27.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. however. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.80. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.67 V2T /2g. a K value for Eq. Click here to view. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. 21. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.5 a T T Fig. (21. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Therefore. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.82.28). K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. 21.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. Equation (21.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.75. All rights reserved. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. In the tube or pipe. 21. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. Fig. psf w = unit weight of water.31 ty Cν = 0. 21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but at a pressure much higher than normal. Fig.29. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. either increased or decreased. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. As the water flows away from the closed valve. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. . the pressure in the pipe falls. 21.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. this momentum drops to zero. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. the water in the pipe is motionless. 21. Fig. However. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. Click here to view.21. 21.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. The change causes a pressure rise. 21. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. it causes water hammer. For this analysis to be valid. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit.30). All rights reserved. 21. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. Inc. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. the tube must flow full. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. Every time the flow rate is changed. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. When a valve is closed. The pipe shown in Fig.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. 21. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. As the water flows into the reservoir. either above or below the normal pressure. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them.32).

Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. Inc. (21.13. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. Eq.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. Click here to view. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. (21.63a) In terms of pressure head.63). time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. All rights reserved. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. 21. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. 1. 43. Fig. s A plot of pressure vs.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. (21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.63a) becomes (21.13.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. 21. ft 21.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. . approximate solution. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water.64) 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. For instantaneous closure: (21. Equation (21.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.

(21.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. 32. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. such as L/aU. New York. ft L = length of pipeline. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. where a equals any integer. Once the time interval has been determined. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.. McGraw-Hill. 21. to apply Eq. Inc. (21.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. s T = actual closure time of valve. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.21. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. (21. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). length = 3000 ft. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. from Eq. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Velocity of pressure wave. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. equals L /aU. Vo the original velocity.61). (21. where ∆t.5 ft2. Zipparo and H. area = 78. Thus. (V. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.2 × 108 psf.) Example 21. the increment of time. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. Inc. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.63). is g = acceleration due to gravity. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve.63). initial velocity = 10 ft/s. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. each causing an individual pressure wave. penstock thickness = 1 in.63). (21. (21. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics.” 4th ed. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. J. diameter = 10 ft. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.32. . ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. All rights reserved.. then that obtained from Eq.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. With the head known. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. Hasen.

it is by no means the only one. . where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. the stress.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.34). in effect.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.34 tension. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. When a valve is suddenly opened. (21. lb Hence. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. Click here to view. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. from Eq. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. floats on the line. the closure is instantaneous. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. approximate equation (21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe.90 s.33) must still be designed for water hammer. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. to prevent water hammer. 21.64) gives the following result: 21. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. in Assuming T = 4. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. The water column. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. psi. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.13.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. on the pipe material is (21. 21.75 s. Inc.90 s. All rights reserved. Various types of relief Fig. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. Usually. and the pressure rise.66) where p = internal pressure. is Pipe Stresses 21.63). the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.

McGraw-Hill Book Company. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. Inc. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes.” 2nd ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. M. Eq. it acts like a beam. In this case. 21.6). if expansion joints are to be used. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. New York.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. due to a temperature change is (21. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. is (21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. 21. (21. psi. Equation (21.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. However. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. The stress. For concrete pipes.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. Art. P Timoshenko and J. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. 21. elastic Stability. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.21. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. (S. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. 6. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. However. . (21. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. however. Eq. If D/t is less than 10.67) for concrete pipe. 21. All rights reserved.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50.67).10). (21. (21. The internal diameter is used in Eq. The force diagram in Fig. In all bends.. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. Click here to view. For steel pipes. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. “Theory of . For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. In Fig. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. Gere. this analysis is approximate.

Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. 32.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. a railroad. 62. an exact theoretical analysis.71) give a quick solution. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. Eqs. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. however. psf w = unit weight of water. (21.70) and (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. All rights reserved. and slope. exit conditions. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.37 Fig. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or other embankment. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. canal. (21. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In small pipes. Inc. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. the joints must also be able to take these forces. Click here to view. . The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.71) where R = resultant force on bend. However.

” EB058W. . The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.30)]. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . and the control will still be at the inlet. 21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.73) 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Portland Cement Association. 21. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. Click here to view. 21. All rights reserved. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. For this reason. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. computer software.21.36). Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. 21. 21.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. and the discharge is independent of the slope. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. 21. the culvert flows full. but they do not cover Fig.33d) or (21. and the Manning equation for friction loss. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.37). (21. slope is greater than the critical slope.38). But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.23).72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. the following equation is obtained: (21. charts. Inc. that is. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. the normal depth (Art.

38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged.Water Resources Engineering s 21. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. Click here to view. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Fig.74) yields (21. When slope exceeds critical. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21. When slope is less than critical. ft Equation (21. and slope of culvert. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. The discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20) 21. open-channel flow takes place.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. loss at entrance. 21.74) Fig. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. normal pipe flow occurs.39). Discharge depends on head H. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. . Inc. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. flow depends on inlet condition. 32. 21. 21. The fluid flows under pressure. All rights reserved. When the slope is less than critical. and dn < dc .39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged.75) Substituting this into Eq. (21. 21.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. and dn > dc . for the open-channel condition (Fig. Thus. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.23).39 Fig. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. (21. Discharge is independent of slope. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. 21. 21. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. depending on the head.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.

ft dn = normal depth of flow. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. 21. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. All rights reserved. Most culverts. (21. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. (21. 21. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. (21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. (21. ft To solve Eq. 21. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths.18). If the head on a culvert is high. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.76). however. If this condition exists. 21. When the friction slope is flat. Click here to view. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.76).40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. 21.72). Inc. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert.76).40).41).40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. and discharge is given by Eq.39).37). If the friction slope approaches critical. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.21. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.

Since the culvert is under pressure. . the flow is under pressure.013.9 0. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. Example 21.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. 21.19). since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.72) applies. But H = 5 + 0. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. projecting Concrete pipe.18 and 21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. length = 300 ft.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.5 0. (21. 21. (21.41 For entrance control.73). (21. First find dn. Find: size of culvert.01. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. To calculate the hydraulic radius. When the entrance is not submerged. slope = 0. Substitution in Eq. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft.6. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Eq.40). and free exit.44) for discharge through an orifice. Table 21.72) and (21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Application of Eq. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.95 × 4 = 39.15 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. n = 0. groove or bell.72) yields Q =Va = 9.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. (21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. These values are for culverts flowing full.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Inc. groove or bell.10 0. All rights reserved. and the entrance will not control. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. (21. Click here to view. 21. Fig. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. square edge Concrete pipe. with Eq.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 ft3/s Table 21.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.

Thus.77) where V = average velocity.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. is generally given by (21. or slope. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. normally taken as 1. or open-channel flow. and is given by (21. Click here to view. Equation (21. Figure 21. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. Inc. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. Hence. minus the free surface width.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. .2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. It is expressed in cubic feet per second.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. It is expressed in feet as (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. or the total-head line.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. (21. It has uniform flow if the grade.21. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. 21. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. (21. ft. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. In a uniform channel. ft. 32. ft3/s. within a hydraulic jump. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. depth of flow is constant throughout. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. The wetted perimeter is the length. ft2 When the discharge is constant. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. ft. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. however.79).00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.79) The velocity head HV. All rights reserved. plus the velocity head at the point. It is.03 to 1.36 for prismatic channels.

. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. for example. ft. Click here to view. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases.84) where A = area of flow. 21. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. 21.84) reduces to Fig. (See. New York. McGrawHill Book Company. “Handbook of Hydraulics. All rights reserved. F.43 Fig. in which T is the top width of the channel. 21. 21. New York. For a rectangular channel. normal depth decreases downstream. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. the specific energy also decreases.” 6th ed. T.44. or to the diameter of a circular channel. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. roughness. 21. Inc.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. E. as shown in Fig..43.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. slope. (21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. 21. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. ft. Chow. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape.42 is called the normal depth dn.) (21.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.83) Brater.43). due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. As the depth decreases downstream. and discharge are known. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. (V. Eq.

Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known.84) is called the critical depth dc.44). . New York). ft3/s d = depth of flow. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Click here to view. for a given discharge. For rectangular channels. 21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (21. Inc. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.43. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. the depth is below critical. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig.84). The flow there is called subcritical flow. 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. F. or it may be found directly from tables (E. Eq. (21. 21.44). In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. or conversely. (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope.21. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.84) may be reduced to (21. and flow is supercritical.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the depth is greater than critical. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. 21. (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction.. Brater. For a given value of specific energy. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

21. . if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. along with a high loss of energy. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. p. 21. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. Critical depth. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. as indicated in Fig. It can be seen from Fig. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.85).45. 21. (21. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. Click here to view.57). once calculated. For every depth greater than critical depth.87) Fig. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. 21. flow is subcritical. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. All rights reserved.52b. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. ft3/s b = width of channel. Inc.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. flow is supercritical.45 where dc = critical depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. indicating an irreversible occurrence. regardless of slope. 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. without turbulence. [As indicated by Eq. however.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.44). There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. Such a change occurs gradually. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. a hydraulic jump will occur. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.

These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). S for steep (supercritical). (See also Art. are in Table 21. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U.D. 21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. New York. and the critical-depth line C. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Click here to view.23). the average n values given in Table 21.21.25). An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. there must be a continuing maintenance program. at an arbitrary elevation.46a and b. horizontal. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.89) may be written (21. and C. and adverse slope. These curves are divided into five groups.L. are identical for a channel of critical slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. C for critical.D. E. and two types for channels of critical. 21. (21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Dr.90) where A = area of flow. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Chow. Eq.S. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.and critical-depth lines. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. Inc. .L. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.L. 21. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.L. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. and the N. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.11.9 and Table 21.D. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.) 21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The M2 curve forms between the normal. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. 21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. ft V = mean velocity of flow. and A for adverse.D. 21. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.D.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter. Department of Agriculture. H for horizontal.L. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow.4. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.46.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. as shown in Fig. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).46c and d. therefore. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. The N. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. All rights reserved. (Although based on surface roughness. T. is replaced by a horizontal line.

021 0. Masonry a.025 0. Smooth and uniform b.012 0. commonly called a drawdown curve.035 0.030 0. Cemented rubble b.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.050 0.016 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.015 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Smooth wood form c.019 0.080 0. Asphalt a.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.016 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.013 0. Concrete a.017 0. Unlined channels 1.040 0. Rough C. Wood a. Dense weeds. high stage 2.014 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.014 0. 21.040 0. Clean.022 0. All rights reserved.030 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.033 0. wavy section 4.140 0. Corrugated 2.033 0. Smooth b.100 0. Dry rubble 5. Dredged earth a. Gunite. 21.025 0.015 0.035 0.120 0. Steel form b.Water Resources Engineering s 21. untreated 3.011 0.016 0.024 0.018 0.013 0.013 0.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.016 0.030 0.035 0.027 0.016 0. Light brush on banks 3.017 Max 0. Gunite.025 0. Jagged and irregular 0.020 0.080 0.028 0. good section c. straight and uniform a. Rock cuts a. Float finish b.013 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. With short grass.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Concrete (unfinished) a.018 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Metal a.050 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.013 0.060 0.012 0.015 Avg 0.46i and j.032 0.012 0.025 0.022 0. few weeds c. Planed. Inc. . Dense brush.46a and b. Click here to view.010 0.014 0.021 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.025 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. 21. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. 21. Lined channels 1. The S2 curve. Rough wood form B. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.023 0.022 0. Excavated earth.012 0.023 0. No vegetation b.035 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. high as flow depth d.011 0.025 0.014 0. after weathering b. respectively).

.L.L.D.D. Click here to view. 21..46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. critical-depth line. All rights reserved.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. C. Inc. 21. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. H. 21. Examples in Fig.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21. N. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The curves in Fig. indicates normal-depth line.46k and l. and A profiles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.

21. Explanations of both the graphical. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. French. Inc. Inc. the channel is divided into short lengths. For subcritical flow conditions. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. New York. Chow. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations.and direct-integration methods are in V. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. (21.77) if the depth were zero. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. with relatively small variation. dam. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. each reach is solved in succession.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. 21. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. and step methods. For step-method computations. known as its celerity. New York. 32. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. 21. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. free overfall. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.5.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 21. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. The wave travels at a speed. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs.47. Click here to view. T. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. See Art. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. depending on the type of flow.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. For the section of channel in Fig. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. gate. All rights reserved. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. or reaches. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form.. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined.” McGraw-Hill. H. weir.51).27. direction-integration. (R. . If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location.

These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. hi. the head loss. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq.92) (21. the – eddy loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. Click here to view. as given by Eq.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.82). the change in elevation. rearranged as follows: Fig.93).) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. (For uniform. 21. prismatic channels. 21. ft. The smaller the value of n. Inc. (21. is negligible and can be ignored. ft Note that SoL = ∆z. . respectively. 21.93) where R = hydraulic radius. Solving Eq.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Therefore. ft. All rights reserved. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. the longer the backwater curve profile.91) for L gives (21. not the channel bottom. due to friction in the same reach. and – SL = hf. and vice versa. (21.

ft. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.93). Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. (21. the average friction slope for the reach.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. respectively. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Then. Inc. respectively.92). The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Finally. 21. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. the friction loss. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig.2 for diverging reaches. Z2. Next.94). the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. Eddy loss. (21.95) The coefficient k is 0.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. at sec– tions 1 and 2.95).11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. grade.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. and about 0. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve.47. All rights reserved. ft. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Therefore. (21.51 may be some intermediate depth. Since this step method is a converging process. S. in natural channels. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Next. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. or roughness. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.93). this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. from 0 to 0. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. after substitution of H from Eq. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Click here to view. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.1 for converging reaches. is obtained from Eq. (21. which. total head H. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. computations progress toward the initial section. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. ft. (21. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. ft/s. For lined channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and it is therefore often accounted for. Then. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. sometimes called impact loss.96). Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. . (21. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. becomes (21. (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. The value of total head computed from Eq. referred to a horizontal datum.

21.23).27. bridge piers. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. 21. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. velocity. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area).48). “Open-Channel Hydraulics.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. N.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.48 Hydraulic jump. Federal Highway Administration. is a turbulent mass of water. However.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. or other obstruction. 21. Click here to view. and J. Fig. Bradley. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. The upstream surface of the jump. known as the roller. The effect of bridges. New York. a gate. 21.1 ft in elevation. 2nd ed. respectively. 21. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. U. Utilizing the above data. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. 1970. French. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. 21. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. H. If the two values of total head do not agree.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. as shown in Figs.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. Inc. 1. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Department of Transportation.52b.S. . known as the length of jump. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. approach roadways. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. and determine the discharge. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. Bureau of Public Roads.” Hydraulics Design Series no. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. however.51 and 21.

(21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. ft w = unit weight of water. d2 must also equal dc.99). ft/s2. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. . The depth before a jump is the initial depth.98) and (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. (21. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. All rights reserved. Click here to view. 21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. ft d2 = depth after jump. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. or alternate depths.100) Equation (21.27.49) is given by (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.100). The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. This difference (Fig.16)]. ft/s. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.105) where A = area of flow. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. For rectangular channels. ft2 T = width of free surface.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s = unit of time. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. For open-channel flow. s (21.104) = discharge.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. 32. in Eq.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where L is a characteristic length. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. (21. 21.82). and g = acceleration due to gravity. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. Inc. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. V is the mean velocity. ft. this resultant pressure force is (21.99) where M = mass of water. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. (21.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.102) Equation (21.

7 to 2. which gives discharge vs. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. chute. for example. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. Inc. For F1 = 1. This jump may be called a steady jump. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. If the tailwater is too high. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.49.21. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. This jump may be called a strong jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. 21. depth after the jump. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.5. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 and larger. The jump action is rough but effective. depending on local conditions. In either case. and the performance is at its best. and energy dissipation may reach 85%.0. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. which. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. 21.7. The jump is called an undular jump. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. If the tailwater is too low. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. below a spillway. there are undulations on the surface. . If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. the jump will be drowned out.5. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. For F1 = 1. For F1 = 9. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.23).5 to 4. can travel for miles. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. Click here to view. The jump is well-balanced. the flow is critical and there is no jump. were classified by the U. 21. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. All rights reserved. For F1 = 1 to 1. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. This jump may be called a weak jump.S. For F1 = 4. very commonly in canals. Various forms of hydraulic jump. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. For F1 = 2.5 to 9.27.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1.

and sloping the apron. The curve. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place.55 curve involve changing the crest length. 21. T. therefore.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. Accessories. .50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.27.27.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These features are expensive to build. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Inc. (21. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. 21. 21. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. changing the apron elevation. prepared by V. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. The resulting curve (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Bureau of Reclamation.S.51. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. Chow from data gathered by the U. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow.105). Click here to view.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. 21. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. 21. This length (Fig.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. But it has been determined experimentally.

Conversely. 21. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening.75h in the absence of better information. 21. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.21. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. .46e and c). as shown in Fig. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. that flow is uniform. 21.7dc for simplicity. 21. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Click here to view. less than. the jump moves downstream to a new position.51. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. CB. if the downstream depth is lowered. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. 21.52a. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.52. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. 21. as shown in Fig. (21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. 21. respectively (Fig. All rights reserved. (21. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. using the step methods of Art. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.101).23) to mild. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. 21. equal in length to L.5% of critical depth.102). computed from Eq. Inc. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. curves AB and ED in Fig. equal to the computed length of the jump. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. but it is normally assumed to be 0.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. between lines CB′and EO. for simplicity. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. which occurs near the channel drop-off. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location.52b. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. As depth d2 is lowered. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. A horizontal intercept FG. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. If d2 is less than d′ .26. (21. the jump moves to a new location downstream.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. It is assumed. the computed length of jump. the jump occurs in the steep region. computed from Eq. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED.101) with d1 given. 21. as theory would indicate.

) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig.53a).3 for one with squared ends. If the entrance loss must be considered.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. 21. a new discharge is assumed. ft. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. . F. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or (b) below it. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. on the channel entrance. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g).” 6th ed. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. H. (R. ignoring entrance loss. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. and the slope of the channel. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.106) where b is the channel width. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. ft. From Q = AV.51. and discharge is at a maximum. is (21. Click here to view. where He is the specific energy head. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. 21.23). New York. Inc. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.” McGraw-Hill. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. if not. ft3/s. 21. All rights reserved. Brater. Then. or (a) above it.82) and (21.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig.85)]. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art.. the entrance loss. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels.53). (21. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.. then the assumed discharge is correct. French.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. ft. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. ft. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Inc. 21.) 21. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. “Handbook of Hydraulics. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.

21. d is normal depth. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. (b) mild-slope channel. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. (In Fig. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. He is the specific energy head.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. (21.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.23). Click here to view. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.22). 21. producing flow. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. and g is acceleration due to gravity.53b. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). ft. 21.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.2 ft/s2. A is the cross-sectional area of flow.83). ft3/s. 21. ft2. 32. Inc. 21.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. ft. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. where He – d is the actual head. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained.33). then the discharge is correct. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination.53b). if not. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. ———— charge.21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . a new discharge is chosen.

in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. 21.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. 21. ft.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. 21. In this range. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. (21. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. Therefore. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. or mV2 /rc for m. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. The error will not be great. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. where V is its average velocity. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. Click here to view.83)]. of the center line of the channel. All rights reserved. however. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. ft /s. and rc the radius of curvature. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. .108).23). all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided.107) The theoretical difference y. Inc. the true value of y would be only a few inches. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. a unit mass of water. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. If the bend continues long enough. Thus. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. 21. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. (21. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. curve (Fig. (21. ft. when a stream enters a curve. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft.59 21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.

C. Click here to view. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. Inc. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. All rights reserved. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq.S. depths along the inside wall. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. of greater-than-average surface elevation. (21. recross as shown. 21. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. One is a positive wave. flows around a bend in a channel. Scobey. This angle may be found from (21.111).) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. Two waves form at the start of the curve. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.55). however. 21. Fig.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. by (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .23). which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Technical Bulletin 393.16)] . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. These waves cross at M. a series of standing waves are produced.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. (F. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. and continue crossing and recrossing. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. The second is a negative wave. an increase in friction loss results. (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. Department of Agriculture.” U.110) for θ in Eq.21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. (21. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. 21. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. with sufficient accuracy. phase. His values have not been evaluated completely. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. and should be used with discretion.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. The cross slope required for 21.

low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. and channel shape and slope. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. 21. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. All rights reserved. . The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. 21. 21. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.56.2 for welldesigned transitions. When proceeding downstream through a transition. 21.2 ft/s2. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig.57). the loss factor. and g = 32.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. 21. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. or change from supercritical to subcritical. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. such as flow-rate changes. low-head-loss transfer of flow. Click here to view. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. If friction is ignored. is given by K(∆V2/2g). In this range. The transition loss.44. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. Many variables. where K. as shown in Fig. therefore. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. Inc.44.23). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Straight. 21. change from subcritical to supercritical.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. ft/s.1 for an inlet-type structure. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. plus any transition and friction losses. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. 21. 21.1 [∆(V2/2g)].61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. the average velocity decreases. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. For outlet-type structures.54). wall roughness. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. ∆V is the velocity change. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. ft. if friction is ignored. respectively. p. equals about 0. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. To place a transition properly between two open channels.8[∆(V2/2g)].113) angle of about 12.

21.58). Fig. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. 21.59. 21. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.222 ft. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. and parabolic weirs. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. .21. In contrast. If the discharge is partly under water. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. Fig. the weir is submerged or drowned. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. from which a = 0. trapezoidal weirs. triangular weirs. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. 21.57. Click here to view. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. triangular or Vnotch weirs. measured from A or B. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. as shown in Fig. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. All rights reserved.000556(20)2 = 0.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. For Fig.000556(10)2 = 0. the weir has free discharge. and. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. Inc.5 = a(30)2. y = ax2. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. 21.59 Weir not sharp-crested. such as rectangular weirs. 21. trapezoidal weirs. such as broad-crested weirs. 21. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.34. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.58 Sharp-crested weir. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21.000556.

. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Equation (21. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. A V-notch weir (Fig. Chow. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. Click here to view.5H upstream from the weir. 21. ft The head should be measured at least 2.34. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. contraction of the nappe. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.Water Resources Engineering s 21. One such equation. To be fully ventilated.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. below the crest.116) corrects for the effects of friction.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. New York). Inc. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir.5H.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. Hence. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. T. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.60 V-notch weir. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. If P is less than Fig.58) (V. At very low heads. All rights reserved.115) where Q = discharge. 21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. The height of weir P must be at least 2. 21. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. thus causing a contraction of the flow. 2.

3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig.5H upstream from the weir..34. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.2) when low discharges are to be measured. Inc.34. vol. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. measured from notch bottom. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. 21. Lenz. Fig. 21. All rights reserved. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. Click here to view. The effective length L.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. (21. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. there are two end contractions and N = 2. (21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. Discharge is given by (21.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.21. 21.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. 21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. 69.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed.34. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.119) where Q = discharge. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. there is one end contraction and N = 1. 1943). of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. 21. 21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest.61) (E. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. . Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz.118) Fig.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. His values were summarized by Brater.118)] 21. T. F. ft H = head. New York).60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.” 6th ed.

63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. Then. Where great accuracy is essential. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. Inc. . compute a trial discharge from the measured head. 1947. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies.59). 21. Click here to view. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. compute the velocity of approach.34. velocity head of approach. p. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. using this discharge. (J.121) where Q = discharge. ft3/s.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. ft. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. Dec. neglecting the velocity head.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. 32. From this total head. 21. ft3/s.” Engineering News-Record. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged.34. 25.122) where H = measured head. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. Typically. ft V = velocity of approach.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. R. ft/s V /2g = Hν. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. and then. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. heavily constructed devices. Fig. or both. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.) To use the Villemonte equation. 2 21. which may be done as follows: First. 21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.115) is rewritten in the form (21. All rights reserved. Villemonte. (21. and finally total head. Thus. 21. 866. The discharge Qs.) Equation (21. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. velocity head.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. for such weirs. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. using this rate and the required depths. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. (21. Eq.

Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. and the approach velocity. .” Government Printing Office. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested.12.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. the head in relation to the design head.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. Inc. For conditions of design head Hd. ft L′ = net crest lengths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. But the process should be repeated.13. “Design of Small Dams. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. For each change of nappe shape.S. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. head in relation to design heads.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. For conditions of design head Table 21.10 H.21.2 of the head. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. All rights reserved. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. thickness of pier. where approach velocities are high.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.02 0. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0. Therefore. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. and approach velocity. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. Department of the Interior. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.20 0. DC 20402. Washington.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Click here to view. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. The effect is most critical for low heads.123) where L = effective crest length. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. starting with the corrected discharge.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. 21.34. F. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. ft (U.5Hd > r* > 0.

Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. .5H upstream. New York). depends on the head producing the discharge. All rights reserved. at the point of maximum contraction. Figure 21. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. Chow. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. where discharge is given by Eq.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. (21. T.65.S. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 2. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig.64) has such a shape. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. called the design head Hd. This manual and V. 21. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.66 of the head. 1. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Click here to view. For flow at heads lower than the design head. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow.” Government Printing Office. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement.67 Fig. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. “Design of Small Dams. T. and therefore of an ogee crest. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.34. and 3 probably apply quite accurately.122). which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. for a sharp-crested weir. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Inc. 21. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. Department of the Interior.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. (U. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. DC 20402. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. Consequently. The ogee-crested weir (Fig.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. The shape of this nappe. Of the above rules. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. According to Chow. 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. Washington. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. This relationship is shown in Fig. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. however. Chow. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.

Bureau of Reclamation. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Click here to view. 21.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.S. . Bureau of Reclamation. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.S. 21. Inc.) Fig.” U. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. Fig. the flow differs from ideal.66.21. (From “Design of Small Dams.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Figure 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. All rights reserved.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.” U.

. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Unless otherwise noted. Click here to view.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. appear in Table 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.68. F. a plane horizontal crest. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Bureau of Reclamation.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest.67 and 21. the nappe springs free. “Handbook of Hydraulics.14.” U.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.” 6th ed. therefore. are used as spillways and control structures. F. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is determined from Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement..69 Broad-crested weir. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. Figure 21. fairly common in waterworks projects. 21. and sharp right-angled edges. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (From “Design of Small Dams. New York. New York. Brater. 21. compiled by King.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21.) Fig.S. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. 21.69 Fig.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.34. 21. because of its sharp upstream edge. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. All rights reserved. (E.. Figure 21. Weirs of irregular section.) 21.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.” 6th ed. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. (21. for example. (See. the coefficient of discharge. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. has contraction of the nappe.34. where the velocity of approach is not high. Values of the discharge coefficient. E. if flow is at other than the design head. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Brater. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.

5 2.63 2.04 3.5 3.32 3.66 2.88 3.72 2.32 3.60 2.32 3.81 2. with its load of suspended silt.64 2.03 3.61 2.70 2.63 2.32 3. erosion.26 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.92 3.32 3.20 3.64 2.63 2.79 2.68 2.5 5.69 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.68 2.31 3.32 3.77 2. once formed.5 4.75 2.70 2.68 2.54 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.0 3.8 2.32 3.68 2.20 3.64 2.75 2.28 3.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.66 2.34 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.60 2.66 2.54 2.07 3.60 2.62 2.65 2.08 3.32 3.85 3.76 2. Click here to view.07 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.64 15. 21.32 3.0 2.30 3.0 4.31 3.64 2.50 H.00 2.8 1.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.76 2.68 2.44 2.80 2.67 2.32 3.75 2.68 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.63 2.00 2.32 3.32 1.32 3.32 3.0 5.32 4.07 3.2 1.97 3.64 2.32 3.00 2.63 2.32 3.69 2.32 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.73 2.75 2.89 3.4 1.64 2. Inc.98 3. ft 0.6 1.32 2.67 2.0 1.6 0.65 2.32 3.32 3.00 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.70 2.30 3.32 3.64 2.07 3.88 2.63 2.63 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage. The smaller silt sizes.89 2.69 2.67 2.64 2.68 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.07 3.74 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.89 3. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.64 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.29 3.63 21.60 2.65 2.85 2.32 3.70 2.14 3.88 10.56 2.31 3.58 2.32 3. those carried in suspension.68 2.32 3.65 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.32 3.64 2.32 3. .70 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.00 2.32 3.80 2.32 1. those forming the bed load.00 2.50 2.32 3.64 2.92 3.35.32 3.32 3.64 2.4 0.64 2.32 2.50 2. valves.64 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.64 2.72 2. All rights reserved.32 3.32 3.00 2.32 3. and turbines.21.38 2.68 2. ft 0. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. such as a reservoir.92 2.32 3.69 2. This incoming water.49 2.70 2.63 2.72 2. such as gates.48 2. which are often of equal consequence.32 3.05 3.65 2.2 0.68 2.28 3.32 3.67 2.86 2.63 2.32 3.32 3.65 2.32 3.67 2.63 2.79 1.64 2.32 5. or soil.66 2.50 2.08 3.64 2. A density current.68 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.65 2.20 3.66 2.68 2.32 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir.74 2.61 2.19 3.75 2.

because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. Inc. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime.39. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. Click here to view. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. By this method. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. These currents are stable. The most common manner of destruction. or from year to year. see Art. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. formed from the bed load. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. overtopping. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. . because of variations in rainfall. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits.Water Resources Engineering s 21. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. the rate is not uniform during the year. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3.35. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. When neither can be done. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. once formed. Of course. on the other hand. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. However. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. however. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. or failure of materials. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. 21. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. landslide. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. are coarsegrained. 21. All rights reserved. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm.

discharge.21. which varies with both slope and discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well.1). about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt.0 ft/mi. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. gravel. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. A mean grain size of 0. 21. ft qo = critical discharge. . The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. But for the most part. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. Frequently. All rights reserved. and boulders.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. (21. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. According to Witzig. which generally occurs only during a storm. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. Therefore. Click here to view. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. Therefore. Therefore. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. however. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter.124) where Gb = total bed load. ft3/s b = width of river.35. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Inc.

of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. infiltration.S. which are of two types. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. and distribution. Weather Bureau is 24 h. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. such as wind. or digital microchip technology. on or near the land surface.) culation. by ink pen and revolving drum. Department of Agriculture. circulation. planting of burned-over areas. their chemical and physical properties. Current data. infiltrates into the soil.S. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Such screens. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. or a combination of the two.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. Weather Bureau. (See H. and pressure. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. contour plowing. Use of vegetation screens. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. such as an hour. runoff. All rights reserved. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. and stream flow 21. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. in the form of synoptic weather charts. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens.S. evaporation. . recharges groundwater. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. Graf. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. their occurrence. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. or year. including their relation to living things.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. (21-124). are published daily by the U. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.73 dation. discharges into streams.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. For instance.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. and their reaction with their environment. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. if the dam is raised at a later date. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. day. water evaporation from oceans. rivers. Click here to view. The second type is a nonrecording gage. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. In this cycle. A. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. debris barriers.” U. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. New York. lakes. groundwater flow. temperature. Einstein. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. Inc. H. check-dam construction. (W. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. It continually records. and the stream velocity. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

or ground surfaces. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. and plantleaf surfaces. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. in of mercury. R. especially if the reservoir is shallow. On an annual basis. commonly termed consumptive use. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Maidment. in of mercury. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water.126) where E = evaporation rate. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. Evapotranspiration. Of the three. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Click here to view.125)]. and other vegetation surfaces. “Handbook of Hydrology. This relation is known as Dalton’s law.125) (21.” McGraw-Hill. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. A portion may evaporate as it falls.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. developed from Dalton’s law. All rights reserved. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Inc. Evaporation may occur from free-water. Evapotranspiration is important because. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. (21. ground.. In evaporation. tropical and subtropical regions. shallow pools and 11 for large. plant. Not all rain reaches the ground. has a relatively large surface area. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. branches. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. while another portion may be caught on leaves. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. see D. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. In transpiration. equal to 15 for small. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. on a long-term basis. Inc. . called interception. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. The Meyer equation [Eq. This phenomenon. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. New York. and it increases as wind velocity increases. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. (21. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity.

to reach a channel. All rights reserved.60 and 0. dew). It is positioned 6 in above the ground.. tropical. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. also known as interflow. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. Climatic characteristics a. Classified by the path taken to a channel. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm.Water Resources Engineering s 21. On large reservoirs.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. R. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. birds. It appears in surface channels. duration. Inc. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. subsurface runoff. and storm seepage. or cetyl alcohol. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation.” McGraw-Hill. “Handbook of Hydrology. or groundwater flow. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. Click here to view. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. frost. intensity. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. Groundwater flow. Moving laterally. natural or manmade. Maidment. perhaps several years. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. except in arid. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. where it continues as channel or stream flow. hail. called a Class A Level Pan. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. runoff may be surface. In practice. time distribution. Hexadeconal.70.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. Thus. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. 21. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. New York. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. After joining stream flow. effective rain includes subsurface flow. and biologic attrition. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. (D. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. Inc. Subsurface flow. insects. or excess rain. wind tends to push the film to the shore. .80. subsurface. Precipitation—form (rain. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Commonly. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. or groundwater runoff. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. subsurface storm flow. although it may vary between 0. depending on the geographical region. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. is in widespread use. snow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. aquatic life.

70. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. drainage net. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. antecedent precipitation. . length) b. slope. lakes and other bodies of water. slope. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. orientation. International Boundary Commission. 21.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. shape of cross section. Drainage-basin characteristics a. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. direction of storm movement b.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. mean flow. groundwater formations.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. the quantity and type of data available. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. general location. Solar radiation 2. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. All rights reserved. both published and unpublished. 21. shape. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. and Weather Bureau. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts.S. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. detail.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Geological Survey. 21. Weather Bureau. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. artificial drainage. stratification Fig. the detail required in the final answer. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Agricultural Research Service. direction. the U. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. and the accuracy desired. Geological Survey. as shown in Fig. elevation. and various state and local agencies.S. permeability. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. snow storage. Geologic—soil type. roughness. These papers contain records of daily flow. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. yearly flow volume. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Atmospheric pressure f. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important.S. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. extremes during precipitation c. Humidity e. channels (size. extremes of flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc.21. special-interest items. Topographic—size. recurrence interval.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Geological Survey. Temperature—variation. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. areal distribution. Click here to view. soil moisture. land use and cover.S.” U. and completeness of the hydrologic records.S. frozen ground during storms. TVA. 21. duration d. Wind—velocity. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. As an example. All rights reserved. 2. Several methods yield only peak discharge. in/h A = drainage area.41. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. a 50. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. 5. great importance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. others give the complete hydrograph. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. T. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. the second to major hydraulic structures. Chow.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426.127) where Q = peak discharge. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. 1962).77 found in the determination of flood runoff. 3. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. The values of C in Table 21. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. Click here to view. and large downstream damage potential. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. for example. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. .128) 21. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated.or 100-year-frequency storm.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. 4. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. Inc.

15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.50 – 0. (21. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. 2% Heavy soil.22 0. 21. 2–7% Heavy soil.50 – 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.71 and Table 21.30 – 0. detached Multiunits.75 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. avg. years duration of storm.70 0. flat. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. K.18 – 0.129) Table 21. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. Inc.60 0. avg. and the flow time in conduits. min time of concentration Fig.10 – 0.20 0.05 – 0.20 – 0. coefficient. ditches. 2–7% Sandy soil.70 – 0.75 0.21.85 0.40 – 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time..25 – 0.10 – 0.10 – 0. or ditches.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.40 0. Maidment. n. Equation (21.50 0.17 0.80 – 0.85 0.25 – 0. Sherman.” McGraw-Hill. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. is a convenient. (21. (21. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. 2% Sandy soil.127). Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. (21. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.60 – 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 7% Heavy soil.128) or Eq.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.75 – 0.80 0. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.41.90 0.95 0.20 – 0.15 0. steep.50 – 0. . 21. gutters. b.30 0.70 0. the flow time in streets. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.35 0.40 0. Inc.25 0. R. After determining the time of concentration. All rights reserved. 21.60 – 0.) The flow time in gutters.70 – 0. flat. (See D. steep.15 – 0.95 0.95 0. in/h respectively.13 – 0. or any equivalent method. Click here to view. factor.89)] . Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.95 0.129).78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. streets.16).10 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.70 – 0.

3. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The method is summarized by the formula (21. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. subdivision may be required. and more accurate than any such set of factors. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. This requires that a storm of short duration.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. (Leroy K. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. vol. Inc. 4. Click here to view. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. termed a unit period. If the watershed is very large. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. easier. Sherman. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. Thus. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. 2.” Engineering News-Record.79 Table 21. usually 1 acre). 108. pp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. termed a unit storm.Water Resources Engineering s 21. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. the time of storm runoff. JanuaryJune 1932. 501-505. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. All rights reserved. that is. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.

The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Inc. . A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Illustrated in Fig.73). All rights reserved. Usually.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Then. 21.21. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. For ease of manipulation. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 21. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. because of storm variations. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown.72. 5. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. 21.

ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. “Handbook of Hydrology. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. This method was developed by Franklin F. McGraw-Hill. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. Fig. New York. K. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. 21.81 21. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. . Also. Maidment. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period.. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vol. (See D. during heavy storms.131) period. 19.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. pp. R. New York. 447–454). Inc. 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. “Hydrology for Engineers.” McGraw-Hill. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. 21. I.) where Q = flow rate. Linsley et al. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area.74).42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (R. pt.) Fig. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. perpendicular to direction of flow. This loss.” 3rd ed. Inc. Click here to view. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. All rights reserved. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.

this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.21. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. is a confined or artesian aquifer. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. cost of replenishment water. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. and methods of wastewater disposal. alternative management plans should be formulated. Frequently. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Click here to view. Regardless of how it is defined. Deteriorating water quality. rather than a change in volume. recycling. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. present and future water demands should be determined. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. poor-quality replenishment waters. Following the preceding preliminary work. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. quantity. All rights reserved. usually a number of years. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. safe yield. quality. water softening costs. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. among others. and quality of water supply. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. wastewaters. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. and indirect water-quality use costs. because of impermeable layers above and below it. or other causes. need for excessive pumping lifts. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. and location of artificial replenishment. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. source. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. (A base period is a period of time. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. groundwater levels. Inc. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. . and overdraft. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. quantity.

careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and natural and artificial replenishment. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. land speculation. motels. “Water Resources Planning. All rights reserved. fire-fighting. Click here to view. 1987. New York. and sanitary purposes. such as industrial development. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. .” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities.” N. institutional. and treatment works. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. American Society of Civil Engineers. legal. Therefore. Bear. Grigg. decreasing percentage increase. distribution. no. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. however. Linsley et al. industrial. (“Ground Water Management. commercial. flood. 40. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. pumping. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. McGraw-Hill Book Company. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. J. fire. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. 21. and public. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. The smaller the system. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. graphical comparison with other cities.” 3rd ed.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. and environmental factors. amount and location of groundwater extractions. transmission.. wastewater disposed. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. K. storage. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. is a very difficult task. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. “Groundwater Engineering. irrigation. Kashef. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. S.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. surface-water delivery facilities. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. sanitary.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. bathing. financially feasible. percentage increase. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. or other unforeseen emergency. and hotels for drinking. culinary. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. I.” R. geographical boundaries.” A. Hydrology for Engineers. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. washing. water used. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. industrial. Estimation of future population. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. apartments. Inc. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. and age of the city. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.

including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. pressure. if the cost of water increases. meter malfunctions. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. . it may control the design of the facilities. air conditioning. All rights reserved. The national demand-rate data. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. month. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. degree of industrialization. reservoir evaporation. Public use of water for parks. type of service (metered or unmetered). and quality of the water. valves. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. such as the climate.21. cost. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains.S. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. and faucets.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Public Health Service Report. size of the city. Inc. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. quality. degree of industrialization. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. public buildings. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. Demand rates vary with time of day. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. and air conditioning purposes. Table 21. and unauthorized uses. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. presents Table 21. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Click here to view. but because of the high rate at which it is required. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. mainly because of the lack of large industries. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as presented in Table 21. Mo. influence the demand rate for water. janitorial. cooling. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. are the average of a range of values. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. State of California Office of Planning and Research. and cleaning. and time of day.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. The “California Water Atlas. Calif. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. Normally. and year.” 1979. and pressure. cost. standard of living. lawn sprinkling. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. the demand for it decreases.17.

000 90.6 1.3 0. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 10. climate.0 3.000 90. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 40.2 2.000 40. the effect of warm. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 12.000 85. Moreover.000 110.3 Duration. In the past. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. but the demand rate is high. † MGD = million gallons per day.Water Resources Engineering s 21. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 4. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 85. 21. is frequently undesirable. inland. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however.000 2. MG† 0. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. Click here to view. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.000 40.000 80. Hydrant Spacing.4 17. Cost.6 11. In selection of a source of supply.000 17.8 2. diversification is essential for reliability.18.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 120.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. such as lakes.000 1.5 14. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. Inc.132) where G = fire-demand rate. and politics. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.4 2.18 Required Fire Flow. gal/min P = population.000 4. interdependent.000 8.000 6.000 5. The source must Table 21. quality. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 40. and in some cases.0 7.000 1.000 3. . cost. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and streams.500 2.000 70.000 40.4 3.9 4.0 1.000 55. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. In some local areas.000 200. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.8 6. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.000 48. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 40. to a large extent.000 125.000 28. however. rivers. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.000 60. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. In the atlas.000 100. legality. industrialization. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 10.3 5.2 8. valley cities. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.6 4. All rights reserved. Total dependence on a single source.000 * American Insurance Association. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. MG = million gallons.000 40.000 80.8 7.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

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21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. All rights reserved. .50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. American Water Works Association. such as sulfates and chlorides. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. and calculation of the Langelier index.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.” U. temperature. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.” American Public Health Association. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.21. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. and Water Pollution Control Federation. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. 21.S. total dissolved solids. The measurements should include pH. Click here to view.5 mg / L 0. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants.5 – 8. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.21. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.3 mg / L 0.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. In addition.) At the discretion of the state. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. dependent on local conditions. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. calcium hardness.22.S. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. alkalinity.) Source Protection s The U. Inc. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. (See also Art.

) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . shape. calculated with ν = νs. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. V the flowthrough velocity. Ann Arbor. depth ho . where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. such as those mentioned above.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. is equal to or less than 1. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. Pojasek. In the region where 1. Figure 21. coagulation-sedimentation. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and width B. Inc. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.51).Water Resources Engineering s 21. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. disinfection.0. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. temperature and viscosity of the water.. All rights reserved. velocity is constant. 21. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. 21. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. B. slow and rapid sand filtration. Mich. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.46. 21. g/mm3 d = particle diameter.0 < R < 2000. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.001 and 5. Figure 21. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Inc. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. mm If R > 2000. (Usually. Reynolds numbers. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. unpleasant tastes and odors.134). can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. (See R. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. particulate and colored matter. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. For this ideal basin.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. and softening (see also Art. (21.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. to be used in Eq. (21. . Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. 21. Newton’s law applies: (21. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. and size and shape of the settling basin. however.

) Fig.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.21. Inc. 21. at 10 °C. after Camp. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. vol. . (Observed curves. 897. All rights reserved. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. p.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 1946. 103.

gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.” McGraw-Hill. 1.5 ft/min (most common velocity.78a) or circular (Fig.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. Without coagulants. C. A. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity.) 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Geyer. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Fair. or other indicator to pass through the basin. G. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.8c. “Water Treatment Plant Design.78b). Inc. coagulants are added to the water.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. short circuiting. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. 21.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. The tubular settler (Fig. M..77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. 21. and D. Click here to view.46. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. 27. Multistory tanks. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. are removed in this basin. J. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. New York. salt. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Inc. finely Fig.. for example. rectangular (Fig. . The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. and eddy currents. Okun.

(c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Circular clarifier. 21. Click here to view. All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Inc.

There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. coliform organisms.) 21. plankton. and air jets. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. L. and nonionic. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. considering both cost and performance. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. turbidity. New York. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or positively charged. chemical and biological reactions. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” 4th ed.. Inc. Polymers are long-chain.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. however. however. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. Corbitt. Anionic polymers.. Click here to view. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). production of a smaller volume of sludge. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. They are available in three types: cationic. color. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. organic polyelectrolytes. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. centrifugal pumps.” McGraw-Hill. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. and hardness. “Water Quality and Treatment. such as pH. such as mechanical stirrers. McGhee. Thereby. Also. 18H2O]. and easier dewatering. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. “New Concepts in Water Purification. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.” R. consequently. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. and suspended solids. Culp and R. in some instances. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. temperature.to 60min range. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. L. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. . they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. Culp. such as paper fiber.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. New York. anionic. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. or neutral in charge. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. Inc. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. color. such as physical straining. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. (G. American Water Works Association. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. T. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. J. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. to get the small floc to agglomerate. settling. highmolecular-weight. polymers have a minor effect on pH. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. or negatively charged. A. however. The filtering process has many components.

The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. that will pass 10%. through the sand and gravel layers. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. by weight. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. All rights reserved.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units.to 0. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment.25. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. 21. and dual. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. depending on the turbidity. . Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.to 12-in layer of gravel. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. 21.21. Inc. of the sand. Usually. The process requires rapid mixing. Click here to view.79.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.or mixed-media filtration. in millimeters. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig.35-mm range. The wash- Fig.

Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. mixed-media. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.20 to 1. Click here to view. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. water sprays. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or sand incrustation will be encountered. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. gal/min b = width of trough. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. All rights reserved. however. filters pass water at a high rate. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. creating a high head loss across the filter. such as rakes.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and air jets. diatomaceous earth. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. or deep coarse-media filters. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. which produces an undertreated effluent. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. may be more advantageous. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Inc. . which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Dual-media. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity.005:1 range. which is drained to waste.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. The filtering medium may be sand. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. bed cracking. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. or anthracite coal.25 to 1. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs.35 to 0. Immediately after washing. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.002:1 to 0. The troughs carry the water to the gullet.

Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. L. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. carbonates. and American Society of Civil Engineers. such as calcium and magnesium. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. . taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. G. McGhee. Some. sulfates. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. gas. Regeneration requires between 0. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Fair. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Culp.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. where 1 gpg = 17.. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. All rights reserved.139) 21.” 4th ed. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. New York. (American Water Works Association. J. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water Quality and Treatment. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Inc. In the lime-soda process. lime (CaO). “New Concepts in Water Purification.) (21.” John Wiley & Sons. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.21. “Water Quality and Treatment. and American Society of Civil Engineers. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Water Supply and Sewerage. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and (3) total hardness. and R is the zeolite material. Inc. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal.1 mg/L. in clear wells. Click here to view. Geyer. Okun.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. however.) 21.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. and D.. New York. M. A. American Water Works Association.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. respectively. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. perforated.. or open-joint pipes..140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.138) (21. New York. New York.3 and 0. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. “Water Treatment Plant Design.” and T. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. J.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. These materials remove cations. C. (G. L.” 4th ed. Culp and R.136) (21. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.” 6th ed.

(American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.99 water supplies. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. “Water Supply and Sewerage.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. excessive fluorides. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. activated carbon. bromine. then. ozone..50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. cation exchange. Other disinfectants are iodine. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. irrigation. Filter both solutions. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. and D. anion exchange. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. taste.1 or 0. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. Okun. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. odor.” and T. Click here to view. A. New York. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. M.” John Wiley & Sons. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. Chlorine residuals of 0. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. McGhee. ultraviolet light. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. flood control. manganese. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.) 21.45). Geyer. J. “Water Treatment Plant Design..) respect to carbonates. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. water supply. All rights reserved. lime softening. reverse osmosis. chlorine dioxide. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. iron. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. (G. and lime. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.” McGraw-Hill. Inc. despite its low solubility. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. Inc. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.” McGraw-Hill. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. J. detergents. Fair. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. New York. Inc. 21.) 21. 21. and electrodialysis. New York.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. C.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. Inc. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.

A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. maximum flows will govern. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. 21. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. 21. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. minimum flows will be critical. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Aeri- Fig. Click here to view. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow.21. .1). All rights reserved.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.52. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. Also.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. The plot of volume vs. 21. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. The mass diagram (Fig. areavolume curves (Fig. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. When the demand rate is known. 21. 21. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Inc.

give special attention to water quality. and Los Angeles. are large distances from the city. Click here to view. If possible. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. All rights reserved.52. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. During hours of maximum demand. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. . al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. perature drops in the fall. Inc.35 and 21. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. 21. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. San Francisco. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. the flow refills the reservoir. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. When the tem- 21. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In deep reservoirs. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. but there is no circulation across this zone.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines.101 Fig. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir.52. is called the thermocline.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler.2). 21. such as New York. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. When the demand drops off. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. pumping plants. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. which may be only a few feet thick. Major sources of supply for some cities. odor.

A flowing artesian Fig. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. . If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. 34. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. Brune. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. M.52.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. no. All rights reserved. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.35. Inc.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. M. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig.84). For the correct hydraulic grade. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 21.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig.21. 21.82) (G. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. 21. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Click here to view. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. vol. 3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. Brune. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed.83).2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. For any given storage reservoir.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. June 1953). “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Fig. 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Inc.103 Fig. 21. Click here to view.

889. or hydraulic rotary methods.” Economic Geology.. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer.53.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter).142) where Q = flow. 21. bored. no. from an artesian well is given by (21. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. motor. 21. M. C. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well.53.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. 21. December 1938. Okun. 33. V. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. screen. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The pump. Inc.53. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. T. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. p. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. ft (Fig. ft h = H minus drawdown. 21. hollow-core. A. vol. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.84). correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. Geyer. ditch.” John Wiley & Sons.53.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. 72.” 6th ed. Inc. (G. New York. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. (C. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Water Supply and Sewerage. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. ft d = diameter of well.21. New York. 21. vol. Inc. J. . or driven.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. 21. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. J.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. E. eductor or riser pipe. C. and motor.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. and D. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.57).. Theis. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. waterjet. McGhee. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. All rights reserved. ft The steady flow. 1940. McGraw-Hill. pump (Art. Click here to view. Fair. 5.83).. Jacob. 629. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool.143) 21. gal/day. p. Hence.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

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21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

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Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

In unlined pipes. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil.21. rubber. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. hydrants. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. brass. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. such as polyvinyl chloride. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. valves. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. Since steel is stronger than iron. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. zinc. and other appurtenances.146) where D = pipe diameter. bacteria in water. stray electric currents. Under favorable conditions.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. ft 21. concrete. impurities and strains in metals. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. A machine that produces a monolithic. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. If it is cement-lined. Copper. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. and sulfur compounds. pumps. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. however. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. Wood pipelines are still in existence. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. (21. polyethylene. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. sealed flanges.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. polybutylene.) At the anode. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. steel. contact between acids and metals. are present. Inc. . riveting. and meters destroyed by corrosion. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. an anode and a cathode. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. plastic. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. sand.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. bronze. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. Click here to view. lead. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe.54. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. 21. but wood is rarely used in new installations. and plastics. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. valves. and ability to withstand external loads. All rights reserved. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. or Dresser-type couplings. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. tanks. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes.

for example. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. use of protective coatings. When selecting materials. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. At the cathode. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). All rights reserved. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. such as soda ash. Strains. caustic soda.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. to prevent corrosion. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. water may be treated with bases. where e is an electron. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. zinc. the faster electrons can move through the water.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Click here to view. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. and the more ions. . Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. and treatment of the water. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. 21. Inc. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Aluminum. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. cracks. and Fig.86). the corrosion process continues (Fig.

Corrosion. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element.21. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. Inc. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates.) w = unit weight of liquid. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. 21. (American Water Works Association.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. magnesium. “Water Quality and Treatment. and so on on the walls of the pipes.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.88). McGraw-Hill. . The centrifugal pump. in feet. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH.147) where pa = pressure. graphite. oxides. ft. ft of water z = elevation difference. 21. Water enters at the center.” 4th ed. hydroxides. z is negative. Click here to view. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. between pump center line and water surface Fig. To prevent cavitation. horsepower. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.87).88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. psia. however. To have practical meaning. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. Zinc.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. or impeller. or eye. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. accomplishes that in two steps. and the head-discharge relationship. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. lime. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. psia. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Inc. efficiency. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. the most common waterworks pump. called a volute (Fig.. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. by (21.. All rights reserved. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. New York.

pump discharge. rotary. depending on the number of stages. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. jet. reciprocating.58. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. and air lift.. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. For that reason.” 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. helical. New York. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. 21. Click here to view.57 and check valves in Art.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. head. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.89. however. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. 21. J. as shown in Fig. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. (I. below 200 gal/min. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. . circumstances may dictate one of the other types.) 21. “Pump Handbook.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. propeller. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. In a typical water-system analysis. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. (Also included in Fig. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved.111 than the required NPSH. Inc.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. 21. Karassik et al.. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. See also Art. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. 21. Fig.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs.

90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube.or motordriven. gal/min H = head. 21. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. . Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Because of the close tolerances. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. which is a function of specific speed. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. cams. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Reciprocating pumps. At sea level. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Jet pumps (Fig. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. vanes. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Click here to view. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Inc.90 fied). the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. utilize piston action to move water. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. either hand. they can be used only for sediment-free water.148) where n = impeller speed. and for Ns above 7500. which are located at the well bottom. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. so that the entire lift is suction. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. r/min Q = discharge. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications.21. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. (21. All rights reserved.

one at the service connection. All rights reserved. large pressure differences. and low head loss when fully open. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. or corporation cocks. Plug. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. pumps.. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. rotates the disk. “Pump Handbook. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. and easy.) drives to permit manual operation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. availability. tubercle formation. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. rubber. globe. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Click here to view. Simplicity of construction and quick.113 tion. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties.Water Resources Engineering s 21. one just upstream of the meter. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. solids deposition. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Usually. Also. primarily because of their low cost. fast operation. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. sluice gate. Hand or motor power. J. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. pressure-relief. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Low head loss.. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates.” 2nd ed. globe. in-service lubrication features. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Check. air-relief. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. cone. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. plug. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. or Neoprene. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Karassik et al. New York. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. But these valves cost more than gate. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Corrosion. needle. (I. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. If sand is carried out with the water. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. pressure-regulating. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. applied through a gear-reduction device. and butterfly. McGraw-Hill Book Company. curb. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Inc. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). three valves must be used. The major types of isolating valves are gate. and butterfly valves. respectively. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. . which are water.or oil-lubricated.

such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. or California type. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. check.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. 21. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water.21. rivers. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Inc. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. such as pressure regulators and altitude. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. Click here to view. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Usually. and relief valves. Many automatic control valves. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. such as trunk lines 21. Because of high head losses. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. The wetbarrel. The most common check valve is the swing type. and large pipes.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Interior-differential. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Furthermore. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. For example. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. When the valve is in a closed position. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Often. tube. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. which connects the barrel to the main. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started.

are the most common velocity-type devices. However. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. 21. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement.5% within the normal test-flow limits.. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. and cost. ft h1 = pressure in main section. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. respectively. The standard venturi meter (Fig. F. . rotary. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. or modifications thereof. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. vertical velocity components. McGraw-Hill Book Company. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.115 of distribution systems.150) where Q = flow rate. such as meters for individual customer connections. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk.91. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. durability. amount of head loss through the meter. The nutating disk is used.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. or nutating-disk types. nozzle.” 6th ed. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. for metering domestic-service connections. A clicking noise. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. New York. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter.) As in venturi meters. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Click here to view. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. simplicity and ease of repairs. 21. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. The cup-type meter. Brater. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. which do not affect propeller meters. All rights reserved. see E. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Inc.149) Hydraulics. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. called a Price meter. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section.

Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. utility-type enterprises. Inc. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. or to some other recognized system. and similar items. (c) Orifice- 21. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. and block rate.21. load factors. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. seasonal use.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. flat rate is falling into disuse. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. if any. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. peak rates of use. and development of the system.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required.91 plate meter. . step rate. (b) Nozzle meter. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Click here to view. fire use. fixed charges on capital investment. 21.

This charge is usually small. switching equipment. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. When fixing a system of rates. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. of serving an individual customer. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. S. Click here to view. penstocks. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. buying water from a wholesale supplier. pumping energy. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. called the demand component. and (3) cost. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. generators and exciters. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For most distribution systems. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0.117 With step rate. Inc. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.746 kW 1 kW = 1. called the customer component. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. where applicable. called the commodity component. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. including metering and billing. canals. treatment chemicals. All rights reserved. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. Cost component 1. and transformers. Cost component 3. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. 21.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. turbines and governors. depends on the peak usage of a customer. draft tube. . This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. It is generally recognized that residential areas. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. Cost component 2. tunnels. and. where the majority of small users are. a building to house the machinery and equipment. tunnel.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments.

The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. 21. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. and peak-load plants.21. If the minimum flow is very low. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. Inc. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. or seasonal cycle.92). base-load plants. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. weekly. On a seasonal cycle. On a weekly cycle. to be used at some future time. such as navigation.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. Then. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. Therefore. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Click here to view. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. run-of-river plants with storage. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. weekly. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. It can be computed on a daily. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Storage can be provided for a daily. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. power production being only incidental.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. . Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. or yearly basis. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. On a daily cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river.

“Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam.. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. 21. Click here to view. J. and rock-fill. All rights reserved. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. earth.” 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. The main classifications are gravity. Figure 21.) 21.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. (Department of Water and Power. (V. Los Angeles. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. 21.92). This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. Its distribution is triangular. the energy loss may make it uneconomical.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . Inc. New York. Calif. it usually is not as economical. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.119 Fig.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. buttress. Force F2 represents silt pressure. When needed. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Zipparo and H. arch. Hasen.

Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. 98. Rose. Inc. 21.000 psf. A close approximation of the force. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. presented by Edwin Rose. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.) (21. 1933. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.1 g. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. In cold climates.21. however. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. All rights reserved. which forms on the reservoir surface.” discussion by von Karman.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.153). vol. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. given by Eq. May 1946. ice. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. which create forces on any object resting on it. ice pressures as high as 50. . These accelerations occur in every direction. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.425h above the base. In the past.93 by forces F4 and F5.153) where w = unit weight of water. Click here to view. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. A method of calculating these forces.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. today it is realized these values are much too high. 434. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. 21. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. (E. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. was developed by von Karman. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. Although there are many types of buttress dams. but its formwork is more expensive. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. . because of bearing contact. however. and uplift forces are smaller. The modes of failure are also the same. or failure of the foundation material. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. On arch dams. overturning by rotating about the toe. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. If the deflections are not equal. Click here to view. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. but the structural design is much more critical. Recent belief. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. sand. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. In the past. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. When the base is not drained. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. In the multiple-arch. is available and clayey materials must be imported. silt. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. First. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. uplift is not so important. engineers assumed that. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. however. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. rock flour. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. however. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. such as sand and gravel. They are not suited to most sites. Inc. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. However. their relative importance is much different. If a large quantity of pervious material. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. and clay. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. Hence.

Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. Hasen. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work.” U. or wood over concrete. and an upstream impervious facing. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. All rights reserved.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines.) 21. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. providing power.” EM 1110-2-2300. Bureau of Relamation. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Army Corps of Engineers. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.. For some types of soil. (V. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. Zipparo and H. Leakage should be expected. therefore. The facing is usually concrete. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. onto the fill. New York. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. For dams over 200 ft high. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1.3 on 1. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Click here to view. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. the natural angle of repose of rock. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. although steel has been used occasionally. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. The downstream face is usually 1. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Temporary facings are usually of wood. If pervious material is not available. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams.94). One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.” 4th ed. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. bearing on the rubble cushion. S. U. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3 on 1. S. however. 21. J. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. .21. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. bonding into the dumped rock. Inc. Today. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams.

Zipparo and H. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. and draft tube. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. wicket gates. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The wicket gates.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. When the power demand on the turbine changes.) Fig. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. This creates a force on the runner. the propeller-type (Fig. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. 21. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. The propeller turbine (Fig. J. and draft tube.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their efficiency decreases rapidly. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. As the water flows through the tur- 21. Inc. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft.95a).123 bine. Click here to view. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. However. runner.95c). Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. 21. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. runner. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. wicket gates. (V. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. Hasen. it changes direction. however. At heads above 1000 ft. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. In these. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. New York. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.94 turbine. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load.” 4th ed. causing it to rotate and turn the generator.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. At heads below 100 ft. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. and the fixed-blade type. 21. 21. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. however. if the load drops below 50%. 21. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. such as the Kaplan turbine. .. In such installations.

65. . All rights reserved.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. (b) Kaplan. if designed correctly. 21. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. Inc.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (c) axial flow.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. widely used for concrete dams because. the dam will not be damaged by the water.21. This type of spillway is Fig. Click here to view. 21.

open channel. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. As the head increases. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. The air vent shown in Fig. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. A siphon spillway (Fig. When the head is relatively low. lined.” Government Printing Office. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. flared.S. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. both depending on the head on the weir. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. 21. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. Thus. Inc. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. called an ogee spillway. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. 21. In a chute spillway. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. . In a side-channel spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or ogee in cross section. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. “Design of Small Dams. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. the siphon’s intake is sealed. All rights reserved. Washington. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel.96 Siphon spillway. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. In a shaft spillway. Once this second condition is reached. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. The weir can be sharp-crested. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. DC 20402). Click here to view. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. 21.34). sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. This type of spillway. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. model tests are usually employed.

Fig. To do this.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. 21. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. level of a reservoir within close limits. the pipes fail. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest.97 Taintor gate. 21. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. Inc.65.65. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. In a taintor gate (Fig. .21. All rights reserved. Click here to view. causing damage and hampering operation. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. and providing support for the conduit.97). 21. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. On large stop-log installations. In contrast. making removal difficult.5 ft/s. 21. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized.98 Bear-trap gate. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. 21. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. controlling flow. Fig. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.

“Water Supply Engineering. J.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. J. All rights reserved.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.” 4th ed. J. . water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. as shown in Fig. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. 21. L. The drum gate (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.) Fig. 21. and H. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and J. New York.98.99 Drum gate. Hasen. E. Inc.. To raise a bear-trap gate. 21. Click here to view. Babbitt. (V. Doland. Because of the large recess required in the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Cleasby. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Zipparo and H. drum gates are not suited to small dams.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Click here to view.blank page 21. All rights reserved.

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