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W

M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
*
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.

Its value Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. Inc. In equation form. 21. ft σ = surface tension. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.21. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise.3. Gage pressure.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. All rights reserved.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. psi. Click here to view. formation of spray from water jets. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. Surface tension and capillarity. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations.7 psia. When the liquid is in a closed container. are significant in others. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Thus. as shown in Fig. pitting. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. however.7 psi. 21. like surface tension. Its temperature variation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Meniscus. is pressure above or below atmospheric.1) where h = capillary rise. face and rises in a small tube. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. decreases with increasing temperature. or liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. although negligible in many water engineering problems. is concave upward. is small and insignificant in most problems. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. ft Capillarity. Absolute pressure.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level.000 ft is shown in Fig. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. 21. respectively. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. psia. as shown in Fig. 21. . 21.2. at sea level. (21. and freezing damage to concrete.1.

and pitting appears. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. psf. At any depth. lb/ft2 21. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. lb/ft3.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. ft. and the force due to pressure p2. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.8) to determine whether laminar. and cross-sectional area A.5 Fig.2) where τ = shearing stress. Then. 21. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. psf. on the top surface.00001059 ft2/s. absolute viscosity. 21. ft/s y = depth. Click here to view. µ of a fluid.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. the force due to pressure p1. All rights reserved. on the bottom surface. or completely turbulent flow exists.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. is a measure of its resistance to flow. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. of length and time. (Pressures as high as 350. ft2/s.4. or dynamic viscosity.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. transitional. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Since the prism is at rest. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. which extend into the pores of the metal. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. In hydraulics. Viscosity. It is so named because its units. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. as shown in Fig. also called the coefficient of viscosity. the pressure acts equally in all directions. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.Water Resources Engineering s 21. to collapse. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. or implode. . Inc. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. ft2.

6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.3b) then becomes (21.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) Division of Eq. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. dams. Taking ∆h to be h. lb.6) – ∫ydA = y A. tanks.3a) by A yields (21.4. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. at depth h. All rights reserved. Therefore. Inc. ft.4). Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. (21. p1 is atmospheric pressure.5) 21. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. (21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. psf. lb/ft3. For horizontal surfaces. then p2 is p. Thus. Click here to view. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. (21. 21. Equation (21.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. and y sin θ = h . acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. the depth below the water surface. . The resultant pressure force P.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). where w is the specific weight of water. however.3. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft. Figure 21. the pressure. the depth of the centroid.4) Equation (21.21. and other water control structures.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. ft2. 21.

3.42 ft. 21. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. yp = 5. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.0 + 2.0 ft. All rights reserved. (See Example 21. 21. K2 = point G.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. Note: 1. .4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. P = 62. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. 21.g. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. From Eq. however. Click here to view.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0) = 5.42 = 5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) of common shapes. (21.08/5 = 5. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.21. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. Inc.8. Also.0 + 0. Therefore.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.5 + 1/ (5.08.9).1.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.

2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.7). (21. so the weight of the water is 19. 21. Example 21.9). and for a constant-radius surface. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. 21. 21.5 × 5 = 780 lb. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. Click here to view.6 ft3. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. When water is below the curved surface.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.2.4 = 1220 lb = PV. 2. PH = whA = 62. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.6w = 19.564. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.14 × 25/4 = 19. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.4°. Fig. – From Eq.9. All rights reserved.6 × 62. (See Example 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. (b) Free-body diagram.4 × 2. Inc. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Its angle with the horizontal is known. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. The corresponding angle is 57.

the pressure head. For a body to be in equilibrium. (21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. ft. Manometers indicate h. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. 21. Given in feet by Eq. Inc. is indicated by the metacenter.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. p = wh. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. whether floating or submerged.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.21. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. or the difference in head.10b). its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.g. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10a). 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Click here to view. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The stability of a ship. 21. . All rights reserved. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.). The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.4). (21. ft3 ys = distance. 21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced.10b. (21.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.b. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.

Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. What is hm? Fig. (a) Piezometers. and differential manometer. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.4 lb/ft3. Basic types of manometers. U-tube manometer. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. Click here to view. 21. 21.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.11): piezometer. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications.17 psi. All rights reserved. .11a is 2.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. although the latter is most common. (b) U-tube manometer. Inc.12c). (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The liquid is water with w = 62. The piezometer (Fig.11 manometer. 21. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).Water Resources Engineering s 21. However. Example 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.

12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.12c). . All rights reserved. A movable scale. as opposed to a fixed scale.11b) is used. 21. including negative gage pressures. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. Very low pressures. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. the Utube manometer (Fig. Click here to view. 21. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. In this application. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. 21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. Inc.

apply Eq.4/ 32.6. 21.78. (See Example 21. which is to be determined).96 cos 53. 21. Fx = 181. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. All rights reserved.96 sin 53.1 Rx = –82.000 sin 53.000 lb. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.600. since ∆Vy = –(–7. (21.200 lb. (21. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.11) or (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. .2= 1.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.700/82.2° + Ry = 1.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.2° – 0) = 4.5°. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction.200 + Rx = 1.12)] but may be used separately. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. With p1 known.94 × 100 × 4. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. since ∆Vx = –(7.500 lb.15) first in the X direction.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. To find F.2° – 71. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.2° – 13. Click here to view. Fy = –181. Inc.78 Ry = 145.1 and the density ρ = 62.94.000 cos 53. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. Then.600 lb In the Y direction. Fig. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.94 × 100 × 65. P2 = ppA2 = 13.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.5 ft/s. lb.5) = 65.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. Let R be the force.21. Example 21. then in the Y direction.332π = 71. so θ = 60. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.16. and at 2. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.

20) R is dimensionless.22) where ρ = density of fluid. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. the model is termed a true model.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Once the length ratio has been set. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Therefore. respectively. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Ratios of the forces of gravity.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. such as depth or diameter).21a) (21. Click here to view. The inertial force. (21. viscosity. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. The Reynolds number is (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. the length ratio is the only variable. such as spillways and weirs. Then (21. entrainment of air in flowing water. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. the formation of drops and air bubbles.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype.21. Reynolds number. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. and one other force are made proportional. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. . The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The Weber number is (21. ft2/s. The Froude number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. (21. All rights reserved.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. Similarly. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which is always a predominant force. Squaring both sides of Eq.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. and Weber number. Inc. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. Froude number.

If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.012 0.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. bends. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.4 Values of n for Pipes.35b) (21.013 0. (21.20 ple 21. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.015 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig. Example 21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. However.017 From 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss.014 0.014 0. in short pipelines. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.012 0. Click here to view.010 0. 21. 21.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.21. Inc.015 0.7: Figure 21.017 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.017 0. and valves and other pipe fittings.010 To 0.013 0.017 0.035 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.010 0.015 0.015 0.7.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.012 0. because (21.016 To 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.013 0.) Flow between reservoirs.013 0.013 0. .35c) (21. (21.36) for a check. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. All rights reserved.015 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.012 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21. (21.011 0.017 0. enlargements.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.

602 0.21.605 0.596 0. All rights reserved.599 0.598 0.605 0.594 0.607 0. Inc.602 0.601 0.611 0.594 0.643 0.46) The actual velocity.600 0.596 0.644 0.596 0.622 0.632 0.600 0. the vena contracta.618 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.630 0. to Fig.602 0.598 1.617 0.602 0.598 0.610 0.637 0.614 0.604 0.621 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.618 0.603 0. With the reference plane through point 2.607 0.652 0. ft 0.04 0. ft 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.605 0.596 0.610 0. and Eq.601 0.623 0.593 0.612 0.599 0.601 0.604 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.593 0. Jr.1 0. (21.613 0 610 0.602 0.1 0.600 0.627 0.614 0. .601 0.619 0.648 0.0 0.608 0.599 0. Click here to view. 21.595 0.619 0.602 0.593 0.595 0.616 0.655 0.631 0.629 0.” 1886. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.599 0.602 0.634 0..04 0.611 0.606 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.609 0.94 to 0.591 0.597 0.604 0.596 0. Z1 = h. V1 = 0.603 0.602 0. and Z2 = 0.606 0.605 0.615 0.4 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.592 0.592 0.603 0.628 0. of circular orifices.613 0.0 Head.590 0.628 0.45) becomes (21.99.595 0.600 0.660 0.6 08 1 1.617 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path. ft 0.603 0.02 0.623 0.592 1. Typical values of Cν range from 0.626 0.5 2 2.637 0.623 0.636 0.608 0.608 0.607 0.648 0.616 0.632 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.637 0. determined experimentally.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.597 0.02 0. “Hydraulics.641 0.618 0.596 0.614 0.612 0.

“Handbook of Hydraulics. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. between 1 and 2.67. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. the contraction is completely suppressed. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Brater.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.47) where hL = losses in head. (21. .24b. Eq. 21. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. see E.” 6th ed. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.25. McGraw-Hill Book Company. All rights reserved. 21. F.25 orifice. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. (21.61 to 0.) 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. With a partly suppressed orifice. (21.11. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.48) is obtained. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. ft. 21. Inc. 21.. New York. In Fig.11.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. Figure 21. the area of the orifice. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.29 Fig. 21.

14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. (21.34 tension. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63).3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. the stress. to prevent water hammer. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Usually. is Pipe Stresses 21. lb Hence.66) where p = internal pressure.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. it is by no means the only one. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Various types of relief Fig.13. 21. in Assuming T = 4.34).33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. the closure is instantaneous. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. .33) must still be designed for water hammer. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. 21. approximate equation (21. and the pressure rise. The water column. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.90 s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. from Eq. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer.64) gives the following result: 21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. 21. psi. floats on the line.90 s. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. Inc. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. All rights reserved. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. When a valve is suddenly opened. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed.75 s. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. on the pipe material is (21. in effect.

in many cases the pipe material takes this force.71) where R = resultant force on bend. an exact theoretical analysis. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. 62. Inc. .37 Fig. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. However. lb/ft3 Q = discharge.71) give a quick solution. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. however. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. exit conditions.70) and (21. canal. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or other embankment. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. Click here to view. a railroad. In small pipes. psf w = unit weight of water. Eqs.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. 32. All rights reserved. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and slope. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. the joints must also be able to take these forces. (21.

the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. and the Manning equation for friction loss.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.” EB058W.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. 21. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. computer software. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Click here to view. Portland Cement Association. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the discharge is independent of the slope. Inc. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. the culvert flows full. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. 21. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. the following equation is obtained: (21.21.38). and the control will still be at the inlet. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. that is. but they do not cover Fig. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. For this reason. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. . 21. charts. 21. All rights reserved. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.37). Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.73) 21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.23). slope is greater than the critical slope. the normal depth (Art.30)].22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.36).33d) or (21. (21.

Masonry a. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.027 0. Lined channels 1.010 0. Asphalt a.014 0. Gunite. All rights reserved. The S2 curve. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.015 Avg 0. 21.030 0. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Smooth wood form c. respectively). Clean. commonly called a drawdown curve. Cement-mortar surface 3. Dry rubble 5.035 0.032 0.014 0.011 0.018 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.013 0. straight and uniform a.022 0.013 0.014 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.020 0. Click here to view. 21. untreated 3. Steel form b.100 0.025 0. after weathering b.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Cemented rubble b.016 0.025 0.016 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type.46i and j.012 0.015 0. Rock cuts a.011 0. Wood a. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.080 0. high as flow depth d. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.025 0. Concrete a.012 0. Gunite.013 0.023 0. few weeds c.015 0.023 0.021 0.024 0. No vegetation b.46a and b. Corrugated 2.013 0.012 0. high stage 2.120 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.050 0.035 0. With short grass. 21.040 0.033 0. Dense brush.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.021 0. Smooth b. Light brush on banks 3. Float finish b.030 0.017 0. Excavated earth.140 0. good section c. .47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.030 0.016 0.012 0.080 0.035 0. Dredged earth a. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.019 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.013 0.025 0.028 0.022 0. Unlined channels 1.033 0. Planed. Dense weeds. Smooth and uniform b.016 0. Rough wood form B. Rough C.025 0. Metal a.050 0. Jagged and irregular 0.017 Max 0.025 0.040 0.016 0.014 0.060 0. wavy section 4.035 0.022 0. Inc. 21.018 0. Concrete (unfinished) a.

Examples in Fig. C.21. Inc. indicates normal-depth line. 21. and A profiles. The curves in Fig.D. 21.L.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.46k and l. Click here to view.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. N. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.L. . critical-depth line. All rights reserved. H. 21.D. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.

hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The jump is well-balanced. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. For F1 = 1. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. Click here to view. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.23). can travel for miles.27. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. for example. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head.49.5. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 4. This jump may be called a strong jump.0. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. were classified by the U. which gives discharge vs.7 to 2. there are undulations on the surface. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. very commonly in canals.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 to 4.5. depth after the jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. For F1 = 1 to 1. All rights reserved. Inc.7. 21. and the performance is at its best. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. chute.S. 21. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. This jump may be called a steady jump. depending on local conditions. If the tailwater is too low. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. In either case. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. 21.0 and larger.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number.21. This jump may be called a weak jump. The jump action is rough but effective. 21. the jump will be drowned out. below a spillway. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. The jump is called an undular jump. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.5 to 9. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. . dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. the flow is critical and there is no jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the tailwater is too high. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. For F1 = 9.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. For F1 = 1. which.

are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. 21. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. with sufficient accuracy. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. Technical Bulletin 393.21. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. 21. . an increase in friction loss results. C. however.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. recross as shown. These waves cross at M. a series of standing waves are produced. by (21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. and continue crossing and recrossing.111). 21. phase. All rights reserved. of greater-than-average surface elevation.23). The details of sill design have been determined experimentally.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. depths along the inside wall. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.S. The second is a negative wave. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. Two waves form at the start of the curve. flows around a bend in a channel.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. Fig. One is a positive wave.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. and should be used with discretion. His values have not been evaluated completely. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.16)] . It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. The cross slope required for 21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. This angle may be found from (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.55). (F. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.” U.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. Scobey. Inc.110) for θ in Eq. (21. Click here to view. Department of Agriculture. (21.

89)] . calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. (21.80 – 0.20 0.35 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . (21.21.20 – 0.85 0. detached Multiunits. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. streets. or any equivalent method.10 – 0.128) or Eq. K.18 – 0. 2% Sandy soil. 21.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.75 – 0.15 – 0.60 – 0.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. (See D.10 – 0. min time of concentration Fig.16). steep. n.129). All rights reserved.40 – 0. factor. steep. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. in/h respectively.41.80 0.22 0.50 – 0. and the flow time in conduits. b.70 – 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. 21.95 0.60 – 0. 2–7% Sandy soil..85 0. Inc.71 and Table 21.05 – 0.25 – 0. the flow time in streets. flat. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. ditches. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. Equation (21. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy. 2% Heavy soil.90 0.10 – 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.95 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.20 – 0. 2–7% Heavy soil.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.30 – 0.70 – 0. Maidment.15 0. is a convenient.75 – 0. coefficient.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.25 0.13 – 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. Inc.30 0. 7% Heavy soil. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. avg. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. years duration of storm.129) Table 21.) The flow time in gutters.75 0. New York.17 0. gutters. Click here to view.40 0. (21. Sherman. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. After determining the time of concentration. “Handbook of Hydrology.40 0. avg.127). The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.70 0. or ditches.” McGraw-Hill. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.25 – 0.70 0.95 0.50 0. (21. flat.10 0.95 0.50 – 0. R. 21.60 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.50 – 0.70 – 0.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. because of storm variations.73). Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. 21. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. All rights reserved. 5. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. . It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Inc. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. For ease of manipulation. 21. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. which is of fixed intensity and duration. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. Then. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72. Usually. Illustrated in Fig. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 21.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm.21. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Click here to view.

000 5. industrialization.000 4. In the atlas. In some local areas.000 60. gal/min P = population.000 40.6 11.4 3.000 40.000 1.000 6.000 40.000 40. valley cities.000 55. however. climate.000 40.18 Required Fire Flow. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 4.6 1. such as lakes. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.000 10.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 125.000 17.000 40. Click here to view.000 100. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 8.0 7.4 17.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. All rights reserved.000 120. but the demand rate is high.000 12. Cost. Hydrant Spacing.3 5. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 3. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The source must Table 21. diversification is essential for reliability.000 90. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day. however.3 Duration. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 1.000 85.000 85. inland. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 70. to a large extent.18.5 14.0 1. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. MG = million gallons.000 40.6 4.000 28.000 90.3 0. MG† 0.500 2. and streams. † MGD = million gallons per day. and politics.4 2. interdependent. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 * American Insurance Association. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 80. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. rivers.000 200. 21. cost.8 2.9 4.000 10. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. Moreover.2 2. is frequently undesirable.0 3. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 110. quality. and in some cases.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.8 6. In selection of a source of supply. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. Total dependence on a single source.8 7.000 80. the effect of warm. legality.000 48. .000 2. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.132) where G = fire-demand rate.2 8.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In the past.

21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

) Fig. vol. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.21. 21. Inc. (Observed curves. All rights reserved. 103. p. at 10 °C. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. after Camp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 1946. 21.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 897.

77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. for example.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. Fair. Inc. 1.” McGraw-Hill.78a) or circular (Fig. A.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.8c. short circuiting. rectangular (Fig. salt. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye.5 ft/min (most common velocity.. 21. Inc.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . Inc. Click here to view. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. “Water and Wastewater Engineering.. and D. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.46. . The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. G. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Okun. All rights reserved. coagulants are added to the water. or other indicator to pass through the basin.” John Wiley & Sons. are removed in this basin. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. New York. J. Geyer. 21. Multistory tanks. finely Fig.78b). The tubular settler (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. M. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and eddy currents. 27. Without coagulants. C. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. New York. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. “Water Treatment Plant Design.) 21.

78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. All rights reserved.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. (b) Circular clarifier.21. .

Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. color. such as pH. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. American Water Works Association. Inc.) 21. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Corbitt. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate.. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. in some instances. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. and hardness. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. however. “New Concepts in Water Purification. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc.” R. polymers have a minor effect on pH. however. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. McGhee. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also. color. and easier dewatering. Thereby. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Inc. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. “Water Supply and Sewerage. such as physical straining. All rights reserved. or positively charged. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. however. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. and nonionic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ferric chloride (FeCl3). Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. and air jets. They are available in three types: cationic. The filtering process has many components. considering both cost and performance. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. such as mechanical stirrers. (G.. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. consequently. L.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. J. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 18H2O]. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and suspended solids. production of a smaller volume of sludge. Anionic polymers. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. organic polyelectrolytes. highmolecular-weight. Polymers are long-chain. . Click here to view. or neutral in charge. temperature. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. settling. Culp and R. plankton. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Culp. chemical and biological reactions. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. anionic. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing.to 60min range. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter.” McGraw-Hill. such as paper fiber. New York. coliform organisms. centrifugal pumps. “Water Quality and Treatment. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). or negatively charged. T. L. New York. turbidity. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. A.” 4th ed.

21. of the sand. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection.25. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters.79. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. 21. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. . agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. Inc. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.21. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. in millimeters.to 12-in layer of gravel. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. that will pass 10%. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.to 0. depending on the turbidity. All rights reserved.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3.or mixed-media filtration. and dual. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water.35-mm range. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Usually. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. by weight. The wash- Fig. Click here to view. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. through the sand and gravel layers. The process requires rapid mixing.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. .Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. Click here to view. 21. Inc. 21.103 Fig. All rights reserved.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

21.106 s Section Twenty-One

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Aluminum. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. the faster electrons can move through the water. All rights reserved. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. 21. Inc. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. At the cathode. to prevent corrosion. 21. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. and treatment of the water. water may be treated with bases. and Fig. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. and the more ions. and chromium are examples of this type of metal.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. When selecting materials. the corrosion process continues (Fig. . such as soda ash. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. cracks. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. caustic soda. where e is an electron. zinc. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. for example. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Strains.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Also. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe.86). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Click here to view. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. use of protective coatings. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe.

and development of the system. Click here to view. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. or to some other recognized system. load factors. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. if any.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. fire use. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. utility-type enterprises.21. . Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. flat rate is falling into disuse. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. (c) Orifice- 21. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used.91 plate meter. and block rate. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. seasonal use. 21. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. step rate. peak rates of use. All rights reserved. and similar items. fixed charges on capital investment. (b) Nozzle meter. Inc.

is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. tunnels.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. of serving an individual customer. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. including metering and billing.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. Cost component 3. where the majority of small users are. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. where applicable.117 With step rate. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. When fixing a system of rates. All rights reserved. Cost component 1. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. canals. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. draft tube. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. Click here to view. and transformers.746 kW 1 kW = 1. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. depends on the peak usage of a customer. a building to house the machinery and equipment.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. turbines and governors. . called the demand component. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. This charge is usually small. It is generally recognized that residential areas. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. treatment chemicals. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. Cost component 2. generators and exciters. buying water from a wholesale supplier. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. called the commodity component. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. For most distribution systems. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. penstocks.Water Resources Engineering s 21. switching equipment. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. and. and (3) cost. S. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. called the customer component. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. pumping energy. 21. tunnel. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component.

) (21. . (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Rose. presented by Edwin Rose. 21. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. which create forces on any object resting on it.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. In cold climates. was developed by von Karman. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam.153) where w = unit weight of water. p. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. A close approximation of the force. (E. given by Eq. Inc. A method of calculating these forces.000 psf. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. All rights reserved. ice.425h above the base. May 1946. today it is realized these values are much too high. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. These accelerations occur in every direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. 98.” discussion by von Karman. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.93 by forces F4 and F5. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1933. 21.153). Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. In the past. vol. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. ice pressures as high as 50.1 g. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. however.21. (21.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. which forms on the reservoir surface. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. 434.

The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The facing is usually concrete. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. J. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. and an upstream impervious facing. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available.) 21. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. or wood over concrete. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Temporary facings are usually of wood. . McGraw-Hill Book Company. however. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. S. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. therefore. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. sometimes from as high as 175 ft.3 on 1. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Bureau of Relamation. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. Today. For dams over 200 ft high.21. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. bonding into the dumped rock. For some types of soil. U. New York. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. the natural angle of repose of rock. If pervious material is not available. Zipparo and H. bearing on the rubble cushion. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. All rights reserved. Hasen. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. providing power. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. Army Corps of Engineers. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures.94). The cutoff wall is usually concrete.” EM 1110-2-2300. Inc. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.” 4th ed..122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. S. although steel has been used occasionally. onto the fill. Click here to view. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Leakage should be expected. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. (V.” U. The downstream face is usually 1. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle.3 on 1. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage.