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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. at sea level. 21. and freezing damage to concrete. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. When the liquid is in a closed container. Gage pressure. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. Its temperature variation.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. face and rises in a small tube. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. decreases with increasing temperature.7 psi.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream.1) where h = capillary rise. psi. . Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. are significant in others. although negligible in many water engineering problems. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.3. 21. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. or liquid surface. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. Click here to view. ft Capillarity. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. Thus. 21. as shown in Fig. is concave upward. Its value Fig. Absolute pressure. All rights reserved. respectively. is pressure above or below atmospheric. ft σ = surface tension. as shown in Fig. Meniscus. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. pitting.7 psia. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Surface tension and capillarity. Inc. psia. In equation form. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. is small and insignificant in most problems.000 ft is shown in Fig. portions of the liquid vaporize. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. like surface tension.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. 21.21. 21.2. formation of spray from water jets.1. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. (21.

8) to determine whether laminar. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. (Pressures as high as 350.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. Then.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. All rights reserved. In hydraulics. . on the bottom surface. which extend into the pores of the metal. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. lb/ft3. also called the coefficient of viscosity. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0.2) where τ = shearing stress. Viscosity. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. ft2.5 Fig. At any depth. transitional. Inc. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. ft2/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. of length and time. Since the prism is at rest. or implode. lb/ft2 21. the pressure acts equally in all directions. 21. is a measure of its resistance to flow. or dynamic viscosity. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. Click here to view. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. psf.4. and the force due to pressure p2.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. ft. ft/s y = depth. It is so named because its units. 21. as shown in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. the force due to pressure p1. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. or completely turbulent flow exists. on the top surface. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. absolute viscosity. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. and cross-sectional area A. µ of a fluid. and pitting appears.00001059 ft2/s. to collapse. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas.

4) Equation (21. (21. Figure 21. All rights reserved. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. ft.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. the depth of the centroid. (21. however.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) by A yields (21. Click here to view. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. lb/ft3. psf. the depth below the water surface. 21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. Inc. dams. (21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). .3b) then becomes (21. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. p1 is atmospheric pressure. Taking ∆h to be h.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. the pressure. at depth h. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. then p2 is p. Thus. and y sin θ = h . where w is the specific weight of water. lb. The resultant pressure force P.4. Therefore. 21.3a) Division of Eq. and other water control structures.21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. ft. tanks. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. (21. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used.3.6) – ∫ydA = y A.5) 21. Equation (21.4). the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. For horizontal surfaces.

5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.7).8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W.7). Hence y . ft. It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. the total force P = whA. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. 21.g. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . where K is the radius of gyration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf. The location of the center of pressure.7 Fig. of the surface about its centroidal axis. Click here to view. (21.2° to the horizontal (Fig. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. Pyp = ∫y dP. All rights reserved. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. Thus. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.). 21. (21.5). For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. (21.29). .p.8) equals –A. Example 21.g. if that locus is a straight line. Inc. (21.) that is below the c. Otherwise. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.) but acts at a point (c. The denominator of Eq. (21. 21. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.8).p.6 (see also Fig. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. 21. 6.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. 21. represented by the length yp.Water Resources Engineering s 21. – From Eq.

21.9).0 + 2. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. 21.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. yp = 5.0 ft.0) = 5.1. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. Note: 1. 21.42 ft. From Eq. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. 21.g. (21. All rights reserved.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. Click here to view.0 + 0. however. Therefore.5 + 1/ (5. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.08.) of common shapes. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.8. Inc.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. .7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. K2 = point G. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. Also. P = 62.42 = 5. (See Example 21. 21.3.08/5 = 5.

) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. When water is below the curved surface. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. 2. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. – From Eq.6 × 62.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. (21. 21. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its angle with the horizontal is known. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.7). Example 21. The corresponding angle is 57. 21. so the weight of the water is 19. (See Example 21.9 Fig. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. 21.14 × 25/4 = 19.2.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. All rights reserved. Fig.9).6w = 19. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. Click here to view. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. PH = whA = 62.5 × 5 = 780 lb.9. 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. Vertical component of pressure acts upward.4 × 2. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. .4 = 1220 lb = PV. and for a constant-radius surface.6 ft3. (b) Free-body diagram. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.564.4°. Inc.

. (21.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies..10a).4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. p = wh. 21. ft3 ys = distance. For a body to be in equilibrium. Inc.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. The stability of a ship. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. (21. is indicated by the metacenter.). It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. or the difference in head. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. Given in feet by Eq. the pressure head. whether floating or submerged.10b. 21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.4). ft. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. 21.21. Manometers indicate h.g. 21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.b. 21. (21. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. Click here to view. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.10b). its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.

Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. 21. What is hm? Fig. U-tube manometer. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig.11 manometer. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4 lb/ft3. (a) Piezometers. Click here to view.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11a is 2. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. The liquid is water with w = 62. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. All rights reserved. The piezometer (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. However. 21. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid).11): piezometer. Basic types of manometers.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. 21. and differential manometer.12c). . 21.17 psi. although the latter is most common. (b) U-tube manometer. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. 21. Inc. Example 21.

High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.11b) is used. the Utube manometer (Fig. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. 21.21. as opposed to a fixed scale. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity.12c). The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. A movable scale. Click here to view. . All rights reserved. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. In this application. 21. including negative gage pressures. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. Very low pressures. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances.

50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. the magnification will be 2. All rights reserved. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level.4: A differential manometer (Fig.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. or sump. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. that is. . may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. if the actual difference is 0. The differential manometer (Fig. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.75 + 13.0 ft.11) where Z1 = elevation. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. psf. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1.12a. psf. 21. Example 21. however. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point.25 ft. and the right side. Above 5. hi is 2. the actual pressure difference.5.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. The pressure at B. as shown in Fig. ft.4 × 2. 21. Most of them. One factor. psf p2 = pressure at 2. hm1 is 9 in. For example. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. 21.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.4 × 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13 indicating liquid.6 × 62.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. the total energy per unit weight at 2. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. 32. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. in the manometer. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.0 and 2. such as might be required in laboratories. is magnified by the differential manometer.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. psf w = specific weight of fluid.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. and z is 1. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Click here to view. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13.4 × 0.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. such as ft of water or psi. however. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.6). the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft. when expressed in feet of water.25 ft of water. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. 21. Inc.40.

through friction. or the total head ft: (21.13. Usually. above some arbitrary datum.11). Fig. where Q is the quantity of flow. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. ft. a Fig. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. 21.14) pa/w is called pressure head. Kinetic energy at the section. and pressure. Average velocity. across the area of the section A. As indicated in Fig. (21.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. velocity head.14. 21. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. and pressure (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. velocity.5. where W is the weight.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. 21. where Va is the velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. when added to the downstream side of Eq. It equals WVa2 / 2g. lb. however. ft3/s. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. and w is the specific weight of the fluid.13).21. This term hf.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. ft. lb/ft3. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. V2/2g. velocity. .4 ft3/s. ft/s = Q/A. (See Example 21. Example 21. 21. ft2. All rights reserved. ft/s. Inc. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. varies with velocity. Click here to view. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The total energy.

direction. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. while in pressure flow. is equal to the impulse. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. In openchannel flow.14 = 10 ft/s. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. 21. Also. and any bends. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. or magnitude of flow. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. ft.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Hence. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4/ 3. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.55 = 48. A change in momentum.15). in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. respectively.9). which may result from a change in either velocity. gate valve. sometimes called the total head line. 21. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. p2 = 0. The energy grade line. respectively. hf = 50 – 1. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. (21. Click here to view.45 ft. .7. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.15 Fig.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. Inc. since the pipe has free discharge. Thus substitution in Eq. Z2 = 0. All rights reserved. 21. Art. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow.

500 lb.11) or (21.2° – 0) = 4. Let R be the force. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.4/ 32.5 ft/s.16 s Section Twenty-One (21. . lb. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.2° – 13.1 Rx = –82. (Neglect friction loss at the bend. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. Click here to view. Fig.94 × 100 × 4. (21. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. Example 21. Fx = 181. since ∆Vy = –(–7.600 lb In the Y direction. With p1 known. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.200 + Rx = 1.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.2° + Ry = 1. Fy = –181.5°.200 lb. All rights reserved. 21.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. 21. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.000 cos 53. P2 = ppA2 = 13. which is to be determined).78 Ry = 145. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. apply Eq. so θ = 60.1 and the density ρ = 62. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.600.96 cos 53. To find F. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.16.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.78.21. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. Then.6.000 sin 53.94 × 100 × 65.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.15) first in the X direction.000 lb.12)] but may be used separately.96 sin 53. (See Example 21.2° – 71. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.700/82. and at 2. then in the Y direction. (21. since ∆Vx = –(7. Inc.5) = 65.2= 1.332π = 71.94. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1.

Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. however. In this way. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. hybrid modeling. . such as a river. For instance. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. and through execution of the computer program. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. employs both physical and mathematical models. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. 1. such as storm rainfall. Click here to view. or drainage basin.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. or proposed works. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.17 21. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. 21. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. operate. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. viscosity. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. the capability of the computing resources. In water resources engineering. In most models. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. It is. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. alternative management schemes. or prototype. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A fourth mode of modeling. Inc. to a given set of stimuli. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. All rights reserved. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. Physical models are expensive to build. Popular before the advent of digital computers. momentum. In the preceding example. droughts. erosional scour.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. With hybrid models. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations.7. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and surface tension. Usually. gravity. See also Art.7. aquifer. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system.

lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. (21. The Reynolds number is (21.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. All rights reserved.21. (21. Click here to view. The Froude number is (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Then (21.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. Squaring both sides of Eq. which is always a predominant force.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. entrainment of air in flowing water. 32. ft2/s.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. Therefore. the model is termed a true model.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. and Weber number. viscosity. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. the length ratio is the only variable. such as depth or diameter). and one other force are made proportional. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21.20) R is dimensionless. Inc. Froude number. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. Reynolds number. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. Once the length ratio has been set. such as spillways and weirs. the formation of drops and air bubbles. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Ratios of the forces of gravity.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined.22) where ρ = density of fluid. respectively. The inertial force. Similarly. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic.21a) (21. The Weber number is (21. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated.

For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat.24). T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. 21. and infiltration parameters. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. In some cases. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. mathematical models are. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. Click here to view.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. viscous.23a) (21. . in particular. Rr = Lr. For such models. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. (21. These expressions.S. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. (21. (21. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model.26) where V = mean velocity. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. such as flow networks. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. Inc. the logical representation of prototypes. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. One type of model. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes.25) In models of rivers and channels.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. in turn. such as a morning-glory spillway. catchment areas. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). inertial. All rights reserved. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. For instance. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. Sr = 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Hence. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. called a movable-bed model. and through execution of the computer program. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. This type of model is called a distorted model. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. The U.7.

” D. Also. In object-oriented software. ecosystem impacts and restoration. quantity and quality of water supply. As a general rule. This approach. and groundwater yield. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. For closed conduits other than circular. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. All rights reserved. 21. hydrodynamics. Art. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2).) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. shown in Fig. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow.” V. and private sectors. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. Click here to view. This. reservoir regulation. academia. and turbulent flow results. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. of all databases and software.” McGraw-Hill. . the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. when fully implemented. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. A. (D. density. R. G. hydrologic forecasting. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.21. 21. as in annular passages. (J. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. flood or drought impacts. 1957. 3. As this shearing stress increases. Zipparo and H. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. wave or tidal analyses. and R.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. Grigg. and among water resources modelers in the government. the model output required for design or evaluation.17. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. seepage. or pollution. Hasen. channel and river hydraulics. flow routing. “Water Resources Planning.) 21. Walker. impacts of dam breaks. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. design of hydraulic structures. New York. J. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. As a result. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. S. Maidment. H. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. vol. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. R. Rothfus. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. F. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. sediment or pollutant transport. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters.” N. however. landfill leachate analyses. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. or both. watershed hydrology. if comparisons of different plans are required. Inc. Whan. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. evaporation and irrigation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. Hoggan. “Handbook of Hydrology.

Eq.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. (21. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. 21. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 32. laminar flow is unstable. ft L = length of pipe section considered. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000.21 Fig.19.27) where V = fluid velocity. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. a disturbance will probably be magnified. McGraw-Hill Book Company. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.17).l9.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. Fig. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. 21.” 6th ed. 21. Inc.. 32. In laminar flow. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.18. As the Reynolds number increases. ft ρ = density of fluid.) 21. the flow is completely turbulent. 21. (E. New York. than for laminar flow (Fig. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. flow is laminar in circular pipes. (21. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. In this region. it is not practical to treat it analytically. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. as shown in Fig. . As a result.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. Click here to view. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. These disturbances create eddies. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the velocity distribution is more uniform. (21.29) For laminar flow. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. Therefore. handbook of Hydraulics.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. Brater. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. ft/s D = pipe diameter. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. F. at completely turbulent flow. 21.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. All rights reserved. causing the flow to become turbulent.

ft f = friction factor (see Fig.008 – 0. November 1944. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.0002 0. F. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.0005 0. (L. 32.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.00003 0. Click here to view.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Because Eq.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.19) to Determine f ε. The head loss is independent of the pressure. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. ft D = diameter of pipe. All rights reserved.0005 – 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. Inc.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.001 0. enamels. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. ft V = velocity of fluid.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.003 0. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. Moody. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.0005 – 0. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe.03 – 0. (21.008 0.0002 0. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts.001 – 0. 21. . 21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.19) L = length of pipe. (21.9.0002 – 0.003 – 0. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.21. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall.

4 and 21. ft/s C1 = coefficient. All rights reserved.33c) (21.34e) where V = velocity.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities.) Substitution into Eq. ft3/s.11 (p. ft L = length of pipe.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.34d) (21. 21. Inc. See also Table 22. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.9. which requires experience in its choice. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. (21. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. dependent on surface roughness. (21.34b) (21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. ft/s C = coefficient. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. .47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.33d) (21.33e) 21.31) where V = velocity. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21. Click here to view. Tables 21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.34c) 21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. where D is the pipe diameter. 21.33b) (21.9. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. (21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. ft S = head loss due to friction.32) where n = coefficient. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.31) gives (21. (Although based on surface roughness. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.3.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.9.

bends. because (21.017 0. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.014 0. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. Inc. ft3/s hf = friction loss. However.015 0.35b) (21.36) for a check.4 Values of n for Pipes. (21.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.012 0.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system. and valves and other pipe fittings. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view.20 ple 21.015 0.21.7.016 To 0. All rights reserved. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.012 0. (21.013 0.014 0.017 0.010 0. Example 21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.013 0.) Flow between reservoirs.35c) (21.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. .35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.017 0.015 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.012 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.013 0.011 0.013 0.017 From 0. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. 21.015 0.015 0.035 0.017 0.012 0. 21.013 0.7: Figure 21. enlargements. in short pipelines. (21.010 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.010 To 0.

1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. 21.21).25 Table 21. wood forms. (21. (21.7. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. 120 24 in and over. Table 21. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. 10 years older Average value.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. 140 Large sizes. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. so a full velocity head is lost. . 120 Centrifugally spun. are presented in Table 21. the values of K in Fig. Gibson. London. 135 In good condition. 105 30 in and over.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. good workmanship. regardless of age. Click here to view. ft/s g = 32.21 are approximate. (A.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. H.10.37) or (21. 21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. 110 4 in. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 120 Large sizes.10. where V is the velocity in the pipe.38) A special application of Eq.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 110 (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.37): (21. Ltd. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. good workmanship.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 85 16 in.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. 21. All rights reserved. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. steel forms. 115 12 in. minor losses must be considered. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. is (21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21.. (21.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft. 80 4 in.10. Inc. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir..37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.” Constable & Co.

7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.6 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. fully open Gate valve.21. D = pipe diameter.81 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. fully open Angle valve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 0.80 K = 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.9 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.66 0.4 0.9 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.1 0.0 Table 21.76 0.71 0. Globe valve. 21.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.42) Table 21.7 0.63 0.6 0.50 K = 0.68 0. such as valves and elbows. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.10.89 1.0 5.05 K = 0.5 0. Click here to view. and at bends is given by (21.8 are only approximate. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.5 0. For these reaTable 21.62 0.0 2.2 2.2 0.64 0.3 0. All rights reserved.4 21. fully open Swing check valve.25 The values in Table 21.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.0 1. .8 0. Inc.21 of the sides.

1. 1960. there is disagreement.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. Inc. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. 21. H. McGraw-Hill. the bend loss essentially remains constant. 82. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.” Journal of Research.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (V. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. and angle of bend. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If this velocity is significant.” 4th ed. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. National Bureau of Standards. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. Hasen.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Beij. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. Click here to view. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. J. . Equation (21. July 1938. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. its effect should be taken into account.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. (21.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. although they are usually round. New York. vol.44) where Q = discharge. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.) Fig. not including friction loss. The data are in agreement that the head loss.45) 21. Reynolds number. series D. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. (21. vol.42). or rectangular. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice.. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Zipparo and H. Figure 21. not including friction loss in the bend.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq..42). 21.23. 21. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. All rights reserved. Inc.27 sons. 21. 21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.11. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. Experiments on smooth pipes. this error is corrected by the C values.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Ito. (H. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge.22: (21. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends.9 for low velocity of approach. square.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. For low heads. Orifices may have any shape. no.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. however. (K.

660 0.623 0.627 0.629 0.45) becomes (21.609 0.602 0.94 to 0.615 0.594 0.641 0.0 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.617 0.593 0.616 0.46) The actual velocity.599 0.593 0.601 0.607 0.648 0.634 0.622 0.603 0. ft 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.608 0.606 0.636 0.628 0.643 0.596 0.596 0. ft 0.644 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.596 0.599 0. Click here to view.604 0.” 1886. and Eq.607 0. ft 0. .594 0. All rights reserved.590 0.598 * Hamilton Smith.04 0.611 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0.5 2 2.599 0.613 0.605 0.602 0.600 0.596 0. the vena contracta.616 0. V1 = 0..614 0.605 0.630 0.1 0.605 0.655 0.604 0.4 0. Inc.04 0.02 0.610 0.591 0.600 0.603 0.610 0.598 0.601 0. to Fig.632 0. With the reference plane through point 2. (21.612 0.628 0.598 0.602 0.601 0.617 0.02 0.611 0.606 0.613 0 610 0.6 08 1 1. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.619 0.603 0.637 0.99. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.626 0.593 0. “Hydraulics.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices. determined experimentally. Jr.631 0.618 0. of circular orifices.608 0.592 1.602 0.597 0.618 0.592 0.595 0.605 0.1 0.597 0. and Z2 = 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.648 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.602 0.599 0.632 0.603 0.596 0. 21.614 0.598 1.21.596 0.618 0.637 0.623 0.608 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.614 0.652 0.602 0.604 0.601 0.612 0.602 0.602 0.623 0.637 0. Z1 = h.600 0.592 0.595 0.607 0.595 0.621 0.619 0.600 0.0 Head.

Eq.24b.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices.” 6th ed. Inc. (21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. All rights reserved.11. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. (21. F.61 to 0.29 Fig. Figure 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.48) is obtained.67. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. the contraction is completely suppressed. Click here to view. (21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. . and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. 21. 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. 21.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 21. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.11. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. ft. between 1 and 2.25. With a partly suppressed orifice. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. 21. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. the area of the orifice.25 orifice.. see E.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. New York. In Fig.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.47) where hL = losses in head.

obtained by solving Eq. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. is that for a parabola: (21. ft h2 = head at the end.58) gives (21.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.56). (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eq. Click here to view.57) (21. to time t. (21.50) where a = area of orifice. All rights reserved.50) becomes (21. 21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.57) for t and substituting in Eq.51) upon integration becomes (21.11.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. when y = h1. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.49) Solving for dt yields (21.59). a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. (21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21.56) Fig. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. (21.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.55) 21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.58) Equation (21. For simplicity. (21. (21. 21. 21. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. s The Y coordinate is (21.58)]. ft2 A = area of reservoir.21.26): (21.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. Rearranging Eq. .51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. 32.23). when y = h2.

29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.67 V2 ) = 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. a K value for Eq. Inc. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.5 a T T Fig. however. All rights reserved.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. . 21. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. 21. 21.29. (21. 21. Click here to view.27) but the head loss is larger. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.82. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. (21. When this happens.11. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. 21. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.42) of 0.31 ty Cν = 0.67 V T / 2g = 0. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. For a short tube flowing full.11. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.28). ft2 Fig. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.82. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.80. psf w = unit weight of water. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. In the tube or pipe. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.82 VT)2/2g = 0. if one exists).27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.27. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. the coefficient of discharge C = 0.75. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. 21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. Equation (21.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. Fig. Therefore.67 V2T /2g.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.33VT / 2g.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. 21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.00 VT / 2g – 0.

Click here to view. Every time the flow rate is changed.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. For this analysis to be valid. As the water flows away from the closed valve. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. All rights reserved.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. 21. 21.32). However. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. the tube must flow full. 21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. either above or below the normal pressure.30). 21.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.29. 21.21. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. Inc. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but at a pressure much higher than normal. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. The change causes a pressure rise. When a valve is closed. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. 21. 21. it causes water hammer. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. the water in the pipe is motionless. the pressure in the pipe falls. 21. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. The pipe shown in Fig. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. Fig.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. this momentum drops to zero. either increased or decreased. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. As the water flows into the reservoir. . At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.

1. Eq. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. (21. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock.63a) becomes (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. For instantaneous closure: (21. .33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. ft 21. (21. All rights reserved. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. approximate solution. Click here to view.63a) In terms of pressure head.13. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. s A plot of pressure vs. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. Inc. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. 21. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. Equation (21.63).2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. 21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.64) 21. Fig. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. 43.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.13.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

32. then that obtained from Eq.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. where a equals any integer. (21. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. initial velocity = 10 ft/s.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). With the head known.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. length = 3000 ft. Hasen. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. such as L/aU. 21.2 × 108 psf. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. and Ao the original area of the valve opening.32. Click here to view.63).63). penstock thickness = 1 in. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve.) Example 21. is g = acceleration due to gravity.21. the increment of time. .65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. ft L = length of pipeline.) Velocity of pressure wave. (21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. where ∆t. diameter = 10 ft. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings.5 ft2.63). (V. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. to apply Eq. Thus. J. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. All rights reserved. (21. Vo the original velocity. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. Zipparo and H. equals L /aU. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. New York. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. area = 78. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. Once the time interval has been determined. (For penstocks as shown in Fig.. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. from Eq. s T = actual closure time of valve. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure.” 4th ed. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements.61). (21. Inc. (21. each causing an individual pressure wave. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. (21. McGraw-Hill.. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. Inc.

67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. (21. All rights reserved. Various types of relief Fig. When a valve is suddenly closed.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. in Assuming T = 4. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. in effect. approximate equation (21. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. When a valve is suddenly opened. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.75 s. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.34 tension.90 s.34). from Eq.66) where p = internal pressure. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. lb Hence. 21. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1.63).35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. floats on the line.90 s. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. and the pressure rise. Fig. psi. is Pipe Stresses 21. The water column. it is by no means the only one. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall.33) must still be designed for water hammer. Inc.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. the closure is instantaneous.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. 21. Click here to view. .64) gives the following result: 21.13. on the pipe material is (21. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the stress. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. Usually. to prevent water hammer. 21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. In this case. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. The internal diameter is used in Eq. (21.67) for concrete pipe.6). The stress. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. (21. However.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. if expansion joints are to be used. it acts like a beam. elastic Stability. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. . The force diagram in Fig. New York. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. All rights reserved. this analysis is approximate. 21. For concrete pipes. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. due to a temperature change is (21. However. For steel pipes. Click here to view. 6. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. Equation (21.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.67). but it is usually small enough to be neglected. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design.10). P Timoshenko and J.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. (21.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter.” 2nd ed. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. 21. (21. Eq. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. Art. If D/t is less than 10. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe.. (S. psi. Eq. is (21. In Fig. In all bends. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. M. 21. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. “Theory of .21.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. however. Gere.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures.

ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. In small pipes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. the joints must also be able to take these forces. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. 62. canal. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. (21. or other embankment. Eqs. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.71) give a quick solution. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf w = unit weight of water. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Inc.71) where R = resultant force on bend. However. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. 21. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. exit conditions. .70) and (21. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. (21. and slope.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. All rights reserved. 32. Click here to view. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. an exact theoretical analysis. a railroad.37 Fig. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material.

the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.30)].21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. charts. computer software. (21. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. For this reason.” EB058W. Click here to view. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.73) 21. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. Inc. 21. and the control will still be at the inlet. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. 21.38).18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. and the discharge is independent of the slope. 21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the culvert flows full. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. All rights reserved. . and the Manning equation for friction loss.23). that is. but they do not cover Fig.36). 21.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. 21. the following equation is obtained: (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Portland Cement Association. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth.33d) or (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged.37). slope is greater than the critical slope. the normal depth (Art. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. 21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge.

the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. normal pipe flow occurs. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. 21. and dn > dc . flow depends on inlet condition.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. and dn < dc . ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21. Discharge is independent of slope. ft Equation (21. (21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. Inc. and slope of culvert.75) Substituting this into Eq. 21. .23). 32. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Click here to view. All rights reserved.39 Fig.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. The fluid flows under pressure.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. (21. The discharge. 21. loss at entrance.20) 21. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. ft V = velocity in culvert.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.74) Fig.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 21. depending on the head. When slope is less than critical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Thus. When the slope is less than critical.Water Resources Engineering s 21. When slope exceeds critical. 21. open-channel flow takes place. the flow is considered subcritical (Art.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. Discharge depends on head H. Fig.74) yields (21. for the open-channel condition (Fig.39).

37). which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. Click here to view.41). ft To solve Eq. (21. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged.18). The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. 21. This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. If the friction slope approaches critical.39). (21.40). are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. Inc. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. If the head on a culvert is high. When the friction slope is flat. ft dn = normal depth of flow. and discharge is given by Eq.76).76). If this condition exists. 21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. however. (21. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation.72).21. 21. (21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. 21. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq.76). The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. . All rights reserved. Most culverts. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance.

10 0. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. (21. First find dn. square edge Concrete pipe. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. Since the culvert is under pressure. Click here to view.44) for discharge through an orifice.15 0.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. the flow is under pressure.40). When the entrance is not submerged. slope = 0. 21.5 0. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. projecting Concrete pipe.013. and free exit. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. length = 300 ft. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. .6. 21. All rights reserved. Substitution in Eq.19).72) and (21. 21. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.8 ft3/s Table 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the entrance will not control. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. Find: size of culvert. (21. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves.18 and 21. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. Table 21.41 For entrance control.72) yields Q =Va = 9. groove or bell. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. Fig. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. with Eq. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. Application of Eq. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. But H = 5 + 0. 21. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Eq. These values are for culverts flowing full.01. Example 21. Inc.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.9 0. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result.95 × 4 = 39. n = 0. (21. groove or bell. To calculate the hydraulic radius. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy.73).9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.72) applies.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. (21. (21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.

or the total-head line. (21.77) where V = average velocity. Inc. (21. Hence. The wetted perimeter is the length.79) The velocity head HV. Thus. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. 32.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. depth of flow is constant throughout.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. In a uniform channel.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. It is.21. within a hydraulic jump. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.36 for prismatic channels. ft. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. ft.79). of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. however. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. and is given by (21. Click here to view. It is expressed in feet as (21. is generally given by (21.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. . It has uniform flow if the grade.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. ft3/s. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. minus the free surface width. normally taken as 1.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. ft. or slope. or open-channel flow. All rights reserved. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So.03 to 1. ft2 When the discharge is constant.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. Equation (21. Figure 21. plus the velocity head at the point. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.

It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. (See.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. New York.44. ft. F. 21. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. Click here to view. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. slope. or to the diameter of a circular channel. Eq. McGrawHill Book Company. E. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft. in which T is the top width of the channel. .84) where A = area of flow. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. and discharge are known.43). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. (V. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) (21. T. the specific energy also decreases. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius.42 is called the normal depth dn. Chow. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. as shown in Fig.43 Fig.83) Brater. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. For a rectangular channel. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.84) reduces to Fig. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.43. normal depth decreases downstream.” 6th ed. 21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. Inc. 21. 21. All rights reserved. roughness. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. 21. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21.. New York. As the depth decreases downstream. for example. 21. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions.

Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. All rights reserved. for a given discharge. (21.84). For a given value of specific energy. New York). McGraw-Hill Book Company. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. 21. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.84) may be reduced to (21. Eq. . the depth is below critical. (21. Inc. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. and flow is supercritical.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. For rectangular channels. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. or it may be found directly from tables (E.44).85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft3/s d = depth of flow.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. (21. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.43. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. (21. the depth is greater than critical. 21. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.84) is called the critical depth dc. The flow there is called subcritical flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. Brater. 21. Click here to view.” 6th ed. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. F. “Handbook of Hydraulics.21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth.44). or conversely.. 21.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. once calculated. 21. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. 21. along with a high loss of energy. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. 21. Inc. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy.52b. 21. It can be seen from Fig. as indicated in Fig. All rights reserved. Such a change occurs gradually. indicating an irreversible occurrence. 21. 21. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.57). (21.85). but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. p. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. a hydraulic jump will occur. For every depth greater than critical depth.87) Fig. [As indicated by Eq.45 where dc = critical depth.44). . depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Click here to view. Critical depth. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. however.45.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. regardless of slope. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. ft3/s b = width of channel. flow is subcritical. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. flow is supercritical. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. (21. without turbulence. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.

89) Since the discharge Q = VA. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.90) where A = area of flow. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.4. the average n values given in Table 21. T. Inc.46c and d. and C. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. New York.L.11. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction. horizontal. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. and A for adverse. there must be a continuing maintenance program. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (See also Art. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). Click here to view. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. therefore. at an arbitrary elevation. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. are identical for a channel of critical slope.D. and the N.D. 21. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime.D. .D. are in Table 21.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius.L. C for critical.L. and the critical-depth line C.) 21.L.and critical-depth lines. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. (21. 21.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. (Although based on surface roughness. 21. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. The M2 curve forms between the normal. All rights reserved. as shown in Fig.21. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.25).) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.D. The N. ft V = mean velocity of flow. 21. 21. and adverse slope. H for horizontal.L.S. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.9 and Table 21. is replaced by a horizontal line. Dr. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.89) may be written (21. and two types for channels of critical. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. These curves are divided into five groups. E. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. Eq. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig.46a and b. Chow. S for steep (supercritical).23). ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). Department of Agriculture.46.

027 0.014 0. Concrete a.013 0. Planed. Wood a. The S2 curve.012 0.025 0.030 0.014 0.032 0.040 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Asphalt a.021 0.025 0. Dry rubble 5.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.012 0.025 0. No vegetation b. Concrete (unfinished) a.035 0. Dense weeds. few weeds c. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.024 0. 21.018 0.035 0.015 0. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. commonly called a drawdown curve.030 0. good section c.018 0. Gunite. Cemented rubble b.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.010 0.016 0.120 0. Lined channels 1. Rough wood form B.060 0.025 0.014 0.016 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Cement-mortar surface 3.013 0.080 0.017 Max 0. Click here to view. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.012 0.011 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.011 0. Smooth and uniform b.019 0.050 0. Smooth wood form c.023 0. Inc.028 0.015 Avg 0.017 0. respectively).025 0.46i and j. Float finish b. Smooth b.013 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.023 0.020 0.022 0. Masonry a. With short grass.013 0. straight and uniform a.016 0.016 0.080 0.021 0. wavy section 4.140 0. Steel form b. Rough C. Unlined channels 1.030 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Clean.035 0.100 0.025 0. Corrugated 2.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Dense brush.46a and b. high as flow depth d.040 0. Light brush on banks 3.015 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Jagged and irregular 0. 21.022 0. Rock cuts a. after weathering b.014 0.050 0. Excavated earth. . Dredged earth a.035 0. 21.022 0. untreated 3.012 0. 21.016 0. high stage 2. Gunite.033 0.033 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Metal a.Water Resources Engineering s 21.013 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. C. 21. N.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The curves in Fig.21. H. 21.D.D.L.L. 21. Inc. All rights reserved. Click here to view. .48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46k and l. indicates normal-depth line.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. Examples in Fig. critical-depth line. 21. and A profiles.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.

The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. with relatively small variation. Chow. New York. New York. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Click here to view. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. For step-method computations. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. the channel is divided into short lengths. . For the section of channel in Fig. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. gate.” McGraw-Hill. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. 32.and direct-integration methods are in V. and step methods. The wave travels at a speed. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. Inc. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. direction-integration.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq.47.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. known as its celerity. 21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change.. each reach is solved in succession. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.77) if the depth were zero. or reaches. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. Inc. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. depending on the type of flow. (R.) 21.51).2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. weir. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Explanations of both the graphical. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. 21.5. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. For subcritical flow conditions. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. All rights reserved. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. T. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. French. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. H. (21. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. free overfall. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. See Art. dam. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile.27.

91) for L gives (21. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. the – eddy loss.21. respectively. 21. the head loss. as given by Eq.82). not the channel bottom. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. hi. Inc. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. (21. and – SL = hf. Therefore. is negligible and can be ignored.92) (21.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. ft. The smaller the value of n. rearranged as follows: Fig.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. . prismatic channels. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. All rights reserved. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.93). the longer the backwater curve profile. 21. ft.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. Solving Eq. (21. ft Note that SoL = ∆z.93) where R = hydraulic radius. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. 21. and vice versa. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. due to friction in the same reach. the change in elevation. Click here to view. (For uniform.

Therefore. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. is obtained from Eq.1 for converging reaches. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. ft. respectively. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. .94).96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. the average friction slope for the reach.92). is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. Finally. the friction loss. S. Next. respectively. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. Then. and it is therefore often accounted for. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. computations progress toward the initial section.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve.47. (21. (21. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. by a slight increase in Manning’s n.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. ft/s. (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. Since this step method is a converging process.96). from 0 to 0.51 may be some intermediate depth.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. and about 0. (21. (21. All rights reserved. referred to a horizontal datum. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. or roughness.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. (21. Z2. Click here to view.95) The coefficient k is 0. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. sometimes called impact loss. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. in natural channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Eddy loss. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. after substitution of H from Eq.95). ft. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. becomes (21. total head H. ft.93). Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. For lined channels.93). 21. Next. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. grade. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. (21. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. The value of total head computed from Eq. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. Inc. Then.2 for diverging reaches. which.

N. Fig. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. as shown in Figs. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. New York. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 1970.1 ft in elevation. Utilizing the above data.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.51 and 21. and J. 21. . “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. 21. 1. The upstream surface of the jump. respectively. known as the length of jump. a gate.” Hydraulics Design Series no.S. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. velocity. however. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. and determine the discharge. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.48). All rights reserved. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. Click here to view. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. known as the roller. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas.48 Hydraulic jump.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. Federal Highway Administration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. or other obstruction. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. Bureau of Public Roads. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. H. bridge piers.23). or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. The effect of bridges. is a turbulent mass of water. 21. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. 21. French. Bradley. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head).27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. Inc. If the two values of total head do not agree.21. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. Department of Transportation. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. U. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. approach roadways. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels.27. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). 2nd ed.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous.52b. However.

100) Equation (21.102) Equation (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. in Eq. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. d2 must also equal dc.105) where A = area of flow.98) and (21. or alternate depths. (21. ft3/s = unit of time. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.82). For rectangular channels. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. ft d2 = depth after jump.16)]. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. this resultant pressure force is (21.99) where M = mass of water. ft/s2. ft/s. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. Click here to view. (21. . lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. 32. 21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. This difference (Fig. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft w = unit weight of water. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. All rights reserved. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.99). the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. (21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.27.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.49) is given by (21. ft.100). Inc.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. ft2 T = width of free surface. For open-channel flow. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. where L is a characteristic length. and g = acceleration due to gravity.104) = discharge.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. V is the mean velocity. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. s (21. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. (21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.

21. All rights reserved. If the tailwater is too low. For F1 = 2.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface.0 and larger. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. Inc. The jump is well-balanced. 21.5 to 4. which gives discharge vs.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. In either case. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. For F1 = 1 to 1.5. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.23). or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. the jump will be drowned out. The jump action is rough but effective. Various forms of hydraulic jump. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The jump is called an undular jump. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. For F1 = 4. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.5 to 9. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. This jump may be called a weak jump. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. and the performance is at its best. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. . the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. This jump may be called a strong jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. 21. If the tailwater is too high. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. which. For F1 = 1. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. This jump may be called a steady jump.0. depending on local conditions. For F1 = 1. For F1 = 9. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. there are undulations on the surface.7. can travel for miles. very commonly in canals. for example. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig.5. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.7 to 2. below a spillway. 21. the flow is critical and there is no jump. were classified by the U. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. depth after the jump.27. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.49. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. chute. Click here to view.21. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period.

Bureau of Reclamation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. and sloping the apron. 21. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. 21. These features are expensive to build. therefore.27. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. All rights reserved.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. prepared by V. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. 21.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. changing the apron elevation. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. (21. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. Inc. The curve. But it has been determined experimentally. Accessories. .105). Click here to view. The resulting curve (Fig. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. T. 21. Chow from data gathered by the U.55 curve involve changing the crest length. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.27. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. 21. This length (Fig. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.S.51.

Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. as theory would indicate. As depth d2 is lowered. the jump moves to a new location downstream. computed from Eq. equal to the computed length of the jump. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. Inc. respectively (Fig. for simplicity. equal in length to L. as shown in Fig. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. 21.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If d2 is less than d′ .52. It is assumed. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. A horizontal intercept FG. which occurs near the channel drop-off. the computed length of jump.52b. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. but it is normally assumed to be 0. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. 21. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. CB. using the step methods of Art.23) to mild. between lines CB′and EO. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. the jump occurs in the steep region.52a.102).51. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. less than. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. 21. Conversely. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. the jump moves downstream to a new position. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. Click here to view. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED.46e and c). 21. 21. that flow is uniform. 21. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. 21. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.101) with d1 given.5% of critical depth. computed from Eq.21.26. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. (21. curves AB and ED in Fig.7dc for simplicity.101). . With values of d2 obtained from Eq. The actual depth at the brink is 71. (21. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. 21. if the downstream depth is lowered. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. All rights reserved. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.75h in the absence of better information. (21. 21.

Click here to view. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. ft. then the assumed discharge is correct. on the channel entrance. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. All rights reserved. Inc. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.” McGraw-Hill. .52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. ft. 21. Then. “Handbook of Hydraulics.3 for one with squared ends. 21.85)]. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. ft.) 21. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. ft.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs.. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a new discharge is assumed. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. (21. If the entrance loss must be considered. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. or (b) below it. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. where He is the specific energy head. or (a) above it. to which the resulting entrance loss is added.23). where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.106) where b is the channel width. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. ignoring entrance loss. the entrance loss. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. (R. and the slope of the channel. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. and discharge is at a maximum. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. 21.51. is (21. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular.. 21. French. if not.53a). The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. From Q = AV. ft3/s.” 6th ed.53). A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d).82) and (21. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. Brater. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. H. New York. F. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel.

The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. 21. then the discharge is correct. a new discharge is chosen. A is the cross-sectional area of flow. where He – d is the actual head. (In Fig. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq.23). producing flow.21. All rights reserved. d is normal depth. ft2. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d). 21.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21.2 ft/s2. ft. ft.83). if not. (b) mild-slope channel. Click here to view. 21. 21. Inc. 32.53b. . of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. ft3/s. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. 21.53b). 21.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art.33). (21.22). and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. and g is acceleration due to gravity. He is the specific energy head. ———— charge.

(21. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. 21. ft /s. If the bend continues long enough. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width.59 21. Inc. when a stream enters a curve. and rc the radius of curvature. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. curve (Fig. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. or mV2 /rc for m. where V is its average velocity. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. In this range. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. Click here to view. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. ft. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. . Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. however. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. Thus. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. of the center line of the channel.108). The difference in surface elevation found from Eq.107) The theoretical difference y. 21. (21. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. the true value of y would be only a few inches. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. ft. (21. ft. The error will not be great. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel.83)]. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. All rights reserved. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Therefore.23). which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area. a unit mass of water.

21.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.110) for θ in Eq. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. an increase in friction loss results. and should be used with discretion. Department of Agriculture. (F. a series of standing waves are produced. Two waves form at the start of the curve. with sufficient accuracy. flows around a bend in a channel.16)] . The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. This angle may be found from (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. and continue crossing and recrossing. Click here to view. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. phase. These waves cross at M. This angle may be determined from the equation (21. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. 21.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. Fig. recross as shown.23). which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.111). Technical Bulletin 393. by (21. The second is a negative wave. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. One is a positive wave.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.” U. depths along the inside wall. (21. The cross slope required for 21. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.S. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. 21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. His values have not been evaluated completely. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. of greater-than-average surface elevation. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve. however. Inc.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. (21. Scobey. (21.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.55). . It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. C. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. All rights reserved.

21. plus any transition and friction losses. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. Many variables. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. When proceeding downstream through a transition. and g = 32. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. If friction is ignored. To place a transition properly between two open channels. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. change from subcritical to supercritical. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.8[∆(V2/2g)]. 21. is given by K(∆V2/2g). Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. such as flow-rate changes. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. 21.113) angle of about 12. equals about 0. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. The transition loss. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. therefore. and channel shape and slope. Inc.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface.1 for an inlet-type structure. ft. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. or change from supercritical to subcritical. the loss factor. 21. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. 21. For outlet-type structures. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. if friction is ignored.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1.44. low-head-loss transfer of flow.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. Straight. ft/s. respectively.56. In this range. All rights reserved. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. 21.23). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the average velocity decreases. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. . Click here to view. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. 21. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. where K.2 for welldesigned transitions. 21. wall roughness. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth. ∆V is the velocity change.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. p.57). The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.54).Water Resources Engineering s 21. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition.2 ft/s2. as shown in Fig.44. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides.

All rights reserved. from which a = 0. measured from A or B. If the discharge is partly under water. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. the weir has free discharge.58).056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening.222 ft. 21. Inc.58 Sharp-crested weir. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. 21. Fig.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. 21. triangular or Vnotch weirs. For Fig.000556.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. trapezoidal weirs. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. y = ax2. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. 21.5 = a(30)2. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. Fig. such as rectangular weirs. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air.59. 21.21. the weir is submerged or drowned. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.000556(10)2 = 0. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. 21. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. In contrast. Click here to view. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. 21.59 Weir not sharp-crested.34. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. such as broad-crested weirs.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and parabolic weirs. and.57. trapezoidal weirs. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.000556(20)2 = 0. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. . triangular weirs. as shown in Fig.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. At very low heads. Equation (21.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. Hence.115) where Q = discharge. . All rights reserved. 21. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir.58) (V. Inc. contraction of the nappe.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. Click here to view.34. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. A V-notch weir (Fig. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. below the crest. T. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. New York). ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest.60 V-notch weir. The height of weir P must be at least 2. If P is less than Fig. 2.5H upstream from the weir. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. with measurement of flow as their secondary function.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required.116) corrects for the effects of friction. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. 21.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. Chow. ft The head should be measured at least 2.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5H. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. To be fully ventilated. 21. 21. thus causing a contraction of the flow. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. One such equation.

21.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. vol. . Discharge is given by (21. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.2) when low discharges are to be measured. New York). T. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. 21. there is one end contraction and N = 1.” 6th ed. ft H = head.34. (21. Inc. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The effective length L.34.118)] 21.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. Click here to view. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. 21. Lenz.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. 21.5H upstream from the weir.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. (21. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. 21. His values were summarized by Brater. measured from notch bottom..61) (E.119) where Q = discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there are two end contractions and N = 2.21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. All rights reserved.34. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. 1943). F. ft. 69. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company.118) Fig. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.

2 21.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n.34.) Equation (21.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2.59). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. using this discharge. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. The discharge Qs. Where great accuracy is essential. 21. ft3/s.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. ft3/s. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21.) To use the Villemonte equation.Water Resources Engineering s 21. R. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. 32. Thus. heavily constructed devices. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. and then. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. using this rate and the required depths. ft V = velocity of approach. and finally total head. Inc. 25. Villemonte.115) is rewritten in the form (21. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. velocity head of approach. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. 21. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. p. for such weirs. Dec. 21.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. From this total head. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. 21. (J. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. or both. (21.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. compute the velocity of approach. neglecting the velocity head.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.” Engineering News-Record. Then.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. Typically.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. velocity head. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Eq.34. which may be done as follows: First. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. discharge must be found by a series of approximations.121) where Q = discharge. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. Click here to view. 866. ft. All rights reserved. 1947.122) where H = measured head. . (21.

. ft L′ = net crest lengths. For each change of nappe shape.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. head in relation to design heads. All rights reserved. 21.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0.10 H.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. where approach velocities are high. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.5Hd > r* > 0.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0.21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. and approach velocity. ft (U. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement.2 of the head. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. For conditions of design head Hd. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21.20 0. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. Washington. and the approach velocity. F. Therefore. DC 20402. “Design of Small Dams. Inc. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.” Government Printing Office. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.34. starting with the corrected discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.02 0. thickness of pier.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. the head in relation to the design head. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. The effect is most critical for low heads. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow.12. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.13. Click here to view.S. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. Department of the Interior. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. For conditions of design head Table 21. But the process should be repeated. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.123) where L = effective crest length. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.

Click here to view. Washington. (21. for a sharp-crested weir. DC 20402. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. 21. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. Chow. Fig. 1.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (U. This relationship is shown in Fig. and therefore of an ogee crest. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. Inc. Figure 21. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. 21.65. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. “Design of Small Dams. while 4 is simply a rough approximation.64) has such a shape. 2.34. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. New York). depends on the head producing the discharge.5H upstream.122). however. . the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. 21. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. T.” Government Printing Office.67 Fig.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. Department of the Interior. Of the above rules. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. where discharge is given by Eq. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. called the design head Hd. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This manual and V. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The shape of this nappe. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. at the point of maximum contraction.66 of the head. 21. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. According to Chow. Consequently. For flow at heads lower than the design head.S.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. T. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. Chow.

67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd.S. All rights reserved. . 21.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.” U. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. (From “Design of Small Dams. the flow differs from ideal.) Fig.21. Fig.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. Inc.” U.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. Figure 21.66. (From “Design of Small Dams. Bureau of Reclamation. 21.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. Bureau of Reclamation.S. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. 21.

) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics. has contraction of the nappe. 21. Bureau of Reclamation. E.S. 21. the coefficient of discharge. is determined from Fig. “Handbook of Hydraulics. These coefficients probably apply more accurately.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. Figure 21. . the nappe springs free.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs.34. (From “Design of Small Dams. compiled by King. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. (See. F. because of its sharp upstream edge.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. Weirs of irregular section. are used as spillways and control structures. (21. Unless otherwise noted. McGraw-Hill Book Company.14.) Fig. New York. therefore. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Values of the discharge coefficient.68. Click here to view.” 6th ed. 21.34. and sharp right-angled edges. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.69 Fig. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. F. fairly common in waterworks projects.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. Figure 21. All rights reserved.” U. where the velocity of approach is not high..69 shows a broad-crested weir that. (E.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.67 and 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. McGraw-Hill Book Company. for example.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.69 Broad-crested weir. 21. New York. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance.” 6th ed. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. if flow is at other than the design head. Brater. appear in Table 21.. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face.) 21. Brater. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. a plane horizontal crest.

88 10.64 2.32 3.32 3.68 2.67 2.07 3.68 2.63 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.31 3.60 2.26 3.00 2.8 1.32 3.32 3.07 3.32 3.5 3.67 2. which are often of equal consequence.68 2.60 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.32 3.08 3.79 1. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.4 1.32 3.32 3.74 2.64 2.03 3.49 2.0 4.54 2.32 3. with its load of suspended silt.32 3.68 2.32 3.64 2.20 3.63 2.32 3.75 2.32 3.77 2.0 2. once formed.98 3.70 2.30 3.63 2.32 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.29 3. or soil.0 1.32 3.34 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.64 2.66 2.20 3.64 2.32 3.64 2.07 3.68 2.80 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.32 3.69 2.68 2.32 1.92 2.00 2.00 2.19 3.20 3. valves. All rights reserved.63 2.32 2.64 2.00 2.75 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.64 2.63 2.69 2. ft 0.92 3.85 2. Inc.5 2.72 2.44 2.32 3.48 2.08 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir.75 2.64 2. Heavier silt sizes.00 2.50 2. erosion.58 2.2 0.05 3.32 2.50 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.32 3.88 3.28 3.85 3.68 2.63 2.65 2.07 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.2 1.65 2.88 2.70 2.64 2.92 3.61 2.97 3.60 2.79 2.64 2.64 2.68 2.66 2.64 2.28 3.61 2.65 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80 2.00 2.6 1.0 5.32 3.31 3.32 3.50 2.56 2.32 4.66 2.32 3.32 1.68 2.32 3. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.74 2.66 2. those carried in suspension.32 3.07 3.86 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.70 2.65 2. such as a reservoir.75 2.31 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.54 2.73 2.65 2.69 2.32 3.72 2.67 2.32 5. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.32 3.38 2.67 2.32 3. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.70 2.67 2.62 2.32 3.89 2.32 3.65 2.5 4.81 2.32 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.63 2.6 0.72 2. This incoming water.63 2.66 2.30 3.68 2.64 2. and turbines.50 H.76 2. A density current.4 0.64 2.8 2. The smaller silt sizes.32 3.69 2.32 3.89 3.32 3.70 2.64 2. such as gates.32 3.63 2. ft 0.32 3.21.68 2.75 2.76 2.63 21.35.64 2.00 2.64 15.65 2.0 3. those forming the bed load.14 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.32 3.32 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. 21.5 5.68 2. .32 3.04 3. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.63 2. Click here to view.60 2.89 3.70 2.32 3.

When neither can be done. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. formed from the bed load. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. The most common manner of destruction. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. because of variations in rainfall. once formed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. are coarsegrained.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. However. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin.39. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Of course. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. Inc. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. Click here to view. landslide. the rate is not uniform during the year. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. All rights reserved. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. 21. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. These currents are stable. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. on the other hand. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. or from year to year. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. 21. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas.35. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. see Art. .2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. overtopping. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. however. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. By this method. or failure of materials.

ft qo = critical discharge. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. (21. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. Frequently. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. ft3/s b = width of river. Therefore.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. But for the most part. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times.35. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. According to Witzig. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. Click here to view. Therefore.0 ft/mi. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. Therefore. gravel. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. All rights reserved. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. 21. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. .21. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. A mean grain size of 0.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. Inc. which varies with both slope and discharge. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load.124) where Gb = total bed load. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. and boulders. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. however. discharge. which generally occurs only during a storm.1).

are published daily by the U.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.” U. Use of vegetation screens. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Department of Agriculture. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. and stream flow 21. Weather Bureau. The second type is a nonrecording gage. It continually records. H. and distribution. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. by ink pen and revolving drum. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth.73 dation. Graf. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. lakes. or a combination of the two. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. and the stream velocity. runoff. rivers. and pressure. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. infiltration. For instance. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size.S. or year. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. their chemical and physical properties. on or near the land surface. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. evaporation. (See H. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. New York. water evaporation from oceans. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. their occurrence. in the form of synoptic weather charts. groundwater flow. planting of burned-over areas. which are of two types. and their reaction with their environment. debris barriers. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S. such as wind. such as an hour. circulation. All rights reserved.S. check-dam construction. infiltrates into the soil. Einstein.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. or digital microchip technology. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. . recharges groundwater. contour plowing. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. including their relation to living things.) culation. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. A. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. Weather Bureau is 24 h. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. (21-124). (W. In this cycle. Current data. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. temperature. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. discharges into streams. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. if the dam is raised at a later date. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. Such screens. day. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport.

in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. New York. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. This phenomenon. see D. In evaporation. Click here to view. while another portion may be caught on leaves. called interception. (21. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground.21. on a long-term basis.125) (21.125)]. has a relatively large surface area. and it increases as wind velocity increases. and other vegetation surfaces. In transpiration. Of the three. Not all rain reaches the ground. Evapotranspiration is important because.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. and plantleaf surfaces. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. plant. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. . developed from Dalton’s law. Inc. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Evaporation may occur from free-water. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. commonly termed consumptive use. “Handbook of Hydrology. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. Maidment. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. (21. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. Inc.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. A portion may evaporate as it falls. in of mercury. shallow pools and 11 for large. in of mercury. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. R.126) where E = evaporation rate. ground. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. tropical and subtropical regions. or ground surfaces. equal to 15 for small.” McGraw-Hill. branches. especially if the reservoir is shallow. All rights reserved. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. Evapotranspiration. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. On an annual basis. The Meyer equation [Eq. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.

time distribution. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. snow. Groundwater flow. called a Class A Level Pan.80. effective rain includes subsurface flow.70. birds. R. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. New York. Maidment. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Climatic characteristics a.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir.60 and 0. except in arid. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. or cetyl alcohol. It appears in surface channels. 21.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. to reach a channel. duration. although it may vary between 0. is in widespread use. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. subsurface runoff. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. dew). or groundwater runoff. and biologic attrition. Thus. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. In practice. where it continues as channel or stream flow. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. All rights reserved. Inc. insects. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. runoff may be surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. Inc. or excess rain. tropical. and storm seepage. hail. On large reservoirs. (D. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. or groundwater flow. Subsurface flow. natural or manmade. intensity. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Precipitation—form (rain. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. aquatic life. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. After joining stream flow. also known as interflow. frost. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. . Commonly.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. perhaps several years. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep.. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Click here to view. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. Hexadeconal. “Handbook of Hydrology. subsurface storm flow. Classified by the path taken to a channel. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. depending on the geographical region. subsurface. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Moving laterally.” McGraw-Hill.

International Boundary Commission. Drainage-basin characteristics a. slope. Wind—velocity. soil moisture. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. extremes during precipitation c. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. 21. Geologic—soil type.S. Geological Survey. Inc.21. 21. shape. 21. groundwater formations. and various state and local agencies. Agricultural Research Service.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Atmospheric pressure f. slope. Topographic—size. orientation. drainage net. land use and cover. shape of cross section. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred.S. yearly flow volume. the detail required in the final answer. general location. extremes of flow. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Solar radiation 2. the quantity and type of data available. artificial drainage. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. channels (size. Weather Bureau.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. direction. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Geological Survey.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. All rights reserved. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. snow storage. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. stratification Fig.S. and Weather Bureau. both published and unpublished. length) b.” U. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. elevation. Geological Survey. permeability. 21. mean flow.S. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. special-interest items. duration d. roughness. as shown in Fig. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. lakes and other bodies of water. frozen ground during storms. Humidity e. antecedent precipitation.S. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. TVA. Click here to view. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. and completeness of the hydrologic records. areal distribution. These papers contain records of daily flow.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. . The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. the U. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.70. and the accuracy desired. detail.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. direction of storm movement b. recurrence interval. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Temperature—variation.

A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. Chow. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient.128) 21. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. and large downstream damage potential. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.or 100-year-frequency storm. 3. T. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. great importance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. 1962).41. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. 2.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. . The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. in/h A = drainage area. Inc. 4. a 50.Water Resources Engineering s 21.127) where Q = peak discharge. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. As an example. The values of C in Table 21. 5. All rights reserved. for example. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. others give the complete hydrograph. Click here to view. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. the second to major hydraulic structures.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. Although these and similar criticisms are valid.

71 and Table 21. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. the flow time in streets.75 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.60 – 0. Inc.70 – 0. flat. Equation (21.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. 21.10 – 0. Inc.25 – 0.13 – 0.85 0. K. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.15 0.40 – 0.10 – 0. streets.16). flat.95 0. All rights reserved. 21. 2% Sandy soil. min time of concentration Fig.80 – 0. or ditches. Click here to view. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.128) or Eq.40 0.75 – 0.21.20 0. .127). (21. years duration of storm. b.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.41.50 – 0. ditches.25 – 0.30 0.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.90 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.60 – 0. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. avg. R. After determining the time of concentration.10 – 0.60 0.15 – 0.” McGraw-Hill.22 0.80 0.17 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.129).50 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.70 0.18 – 0.95 0. “Handbook of Hydrology. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.129) Table 21. steep. coefficient. detached Multiunits.25 0.20 – 0. 21.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. factor.70 – 0.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. (21. 2% Heavy soil. 7% Heavy soil.30 – 0.10 0.70 0.95 0. in/h respectively. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. n.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.85 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. or any equivalent method. avg.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. is a convenient. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. New York.95 0. and the flow time in conduits.) The flow time in gutters. Maidment.. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.05 – 0. (See D. gutters.89)] . (21. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. Sherman.70 – 0. steep.20 – 0. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.35 0.75 0.50 – 0. (21.40 0.50 – 0.

the time of storm runoff. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. Click here to view. Sherman.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. This requires that a storm of short duration. The method is summarized by the formula (21. subdivision may be required. . and more accurate than any such set of factors. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. 3. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. termed a unit period.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. 2. 4. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation.79 Table 21. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. easier.” Engineering News-Record. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. usually 1 acre). If the watershed is very large.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. vol. 108. that is. JanuaryJune 1932. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. All rights reserved. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. termed a unit storm. Thus. (Leroy K. 501-505. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. pp. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

21. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period.21. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. because of storm variations. For ease of manipulation. 5. 21. All rights reserved. Then. 21. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. which is of fixed intensity and duration. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. Illustrated in Fig.72. Usually. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. Click here to view. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. . the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig.73). It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm.

. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. Inc. (R. 21.. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. I. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. New York.” McGraw-Hill. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. New York. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. during heavy storms. “Handbook of Hydrology.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 447–454). Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph.131) period.. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. K. (See D. pt. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Inc. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand.) Fig. Also. McGraw-Hill. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pp. Click here to view.. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. . It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. All rights reserved.” 3rd ed. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined.81 21.74). The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Maidment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. This method was developed by Franklin F. Inc. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. perpendicular to direction of flow. Linsley et al. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. 21. 21. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. R. This loss. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. vol. 19. “Hydrology for Engineers.) where Q = flow rate.

because of impermeable layers above and below it. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. among others. and methods of wastewater disposal. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. is a confined or artesian aquifer. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. All rights reserved.21. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Deteriorating water quality. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. groundwater levels. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. Frequently. or other causes. usually a number of years. Inc. Click here to view. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. cost of replenishment water. water softening costs. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. safe yield. and overdraft. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. quantity. and indirect water-quality use costs. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. Following the preceding preliminary work. (A base period is a period of time. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. poor-quality replenishment waters. alternative management plans should be formulated. wastewaters. quality. need for excessive pumping lifts. Regardless of how it is defined. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and location of artificial replenishment. quantity. rather than a change in volume. recycling. These costs include increased soap costs. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. source.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. present and future water demands should be determined. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. . and quality of water supply. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield.

and hotels for drinking. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. Grigg.” 3rd ed. S. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bear. fire. J. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. bathing. institutional. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. percentage increase. water used. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. Therefore. American Society of Civil Engineers. Estimation of future population. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses.” R. All rights reserved.. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Kashef. I. “Water Resources Planning. fire-fighting. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. surface-water delivery facilities. K. washing. legal. flood. amount and location of groundwater extractions. Click here to view. Linsley et al. culinary. decreasing percentage increase. financially feasible. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities.. industrial. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. . “Groundwater Engineering. storage. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme.” A. land speculation. transmission.” N. and public.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. no. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. The smaller the system. 21. geographical boundaries. is a very difficult task. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. apartments. industrial. however. distribution. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. Water-supply facilities consist of collection.Water Resources Engineering s 21. graphical comparison with other cities. motels. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. and age of the city. irrigation. and sanitary purposes. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. and natural and artificial replenishment. 1987. sanitary. Hydrology for Engineers. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. wastewater disposed. New York. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and environmental factors. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. pumping. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. or other unforeseen emergency.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. and treatment works. (“Ground Water Management. such as industrial development. Inc. commercial. 40. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites.

The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. reservoir evaporation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. standard of living. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. pressure. and year. Public Health Service Report. The “California Water Atlas. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. the demand for it decreases. quality. it may control the design of the facilities. Public use of water for parks. valves. cost. degree of industrialization.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. if the cost of water increases. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City.21. Inc. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. and time of day. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. degree of industrialization. size of the city. cost. State of California Office of Planning and Research. janitorial. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. air conditioning. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. cooling. presents Table 21. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. are the average of a range of values.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. and unauthorized uses. . High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use.” 1979. lawn sprinkling. The national demand-rate data. and faucets. type of service (metered or unmetered). meter malfunctions. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. influence the demand rate for water. Table 21. Calif. public buildings. and quality of the water. mainly because of the lack of large industries. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. and air conditioning purposes. month.S. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. and cleaning. Mo. as presented in Table 21. All rights reserved. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Demand rates vary with time of day.17. Normally. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. but because of the high rate at which it is required. such as the climate. and pressure. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses.

000 100.000 28.0 3.000 200.000 * American Insurance Association. Moreover. MG = million gallons.000 4.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources. is frequently undesirable. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.000 85.000 17. The source must Table 21.6 4.6 1. cost.0 7.000 2. and politics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the effect of warm. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 6.500 2.000 10. MG† 0. .000 3. such as lakes.3 5. Hydrant Spacing.000 90.000 12.000 110. † MGD = million gallons per day.Water Resources Engineering s 21.4 2.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. climate. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.000 70. In the atlas.000 55.000 40. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. interdependent.000 60. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.4 17. valley cities.000 4. however.000 40.0 1.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.3 Duration.2 8. inland.000 40. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 90. Click here to view. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21.000 1. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 80. to a large extent. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. In selection of a source of supply. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 125.2 2.000 40. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. Cost.18. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 5.000 40. rivers. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 80. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. 21.000 48. Total dependence on a single source. In some local areas.000 1. gal/min P = population. diversification is essential for reliability.8 2.4 3. Inc. All rights reserved. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.8 6. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. however.8 7.132) where G = fire-demand rate. and streams.000 8.000 120. quality. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.9 4. but the demand rate is high. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 40.18 Required Fire Flow.3 0. and in some cases.6 11. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 85. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.000 10.5 14. industrialization. legality.000 40. In the past. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

dependent on local conditions. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants.21. (See also Art. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. . total dissolved solids.22. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples. All rights reserved. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations.) Source Protection s The U. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.S. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. calcium hardness. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.” U. Click here to view. The measurements should include pH. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. 21. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.) At the discretion of the state. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. alkalinity.5 – 8. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. temperature.” American Public Health Association. and Water Pollution Control Federation.S.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. and calculation of the Langelier index. American Water Works Association.3 mg / L 0. Inc. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. In addition. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. such as sulfates and chlorides.5 mg / L 0. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.

Figure 21.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. slow and rapid sand filtration.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as those mentioned above. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. . mm If R > 2000. 21. Newton’s law applies: (21.51). the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. V the flowthrough velocity. however.134). disinfection. Inc. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. (21. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. 21. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. calculated with ν = νs. (21. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.001 and 5. shape. Ann Arbor.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. and softening (see also Art. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. unpleasant tastes and odors. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. In the region where 1. All rights reserved.46. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. For this ideal basin. to be used in Eq.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. Reynolds numbers. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. Pojasek. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. 21. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. depth ho . (Usually. Figure 21. B. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . 21. and size and shape of the settling basin. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Mich. temperature and viscosity of the water.0 < R < 2000..134) where CD is the drag coefficient. (See R. particulate and colored matter. Inc. velocity is constant. is equal to or less than 1. coagulation-sedimentation. and width B.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. Click here to view. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.

103. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. at 10 °C. Click here to view. p. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. .75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. after Camp. 897. Inc. 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. vol. All rights reserved.) Fig.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. (Observed curves. 1946.

for example.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. 21. “Water Treatment Plant Design. 21. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. Okun. J. coagulants are added to the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . are removed in this basin.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. 21. short circuiting. Without coagulants. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. finely Fig.” John Wiley & Sons.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Multistory tanks. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.” McGraw-Hill. C. New York. 21. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. All rights reserved. and D.) 21. Geyer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1.78a) or circular (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view.46. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. Inc. Fair. rectangular (Fig. salt. . G.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo .78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. 21. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. and eddy currents. 1.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. New York. or other indicator to pass through the basin.8c. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Inc. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents.78b). A.. 27. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig. M. Inc. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. The tubular settler (Fig..

94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. (b) Circular clarifier. All rights reserved. Inc.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (d) Tubular settler.21. . 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

New York. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). turbidity. plankton. highmolecular-weight. color. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. L. organic polyelectrolytes. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. such as pH. 18H2O]. consequently. “Water Quality and Treatment. and neutralization of electrostatic charges.to 60min range. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. such as paper fiber.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.” McGraw-Hill. McGhee. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. or neutral in charge. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. color. J. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. and air jets. (G. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. however. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. however.” R. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. “Water Supply and Sewerage. American Water Works Association. considering both cost and performance. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Inc. or negatively charged. anionic. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Polymers are long-chain. Also. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. temperature. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. Inc. . The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. polymers have a minor effect on pH. coliform organisms. and nonionic. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. and suspended solids. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. production of a smaller volume of sludge. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. T. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Click here to view. settling. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. Anionic polymers. in some instances. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices.. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. and easier dewatering. They are available in three types: cationic. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. New York. ferric chloride (FeCl3). such as mechanical stirrers.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. chemical and biological reactions. The filtering process has many components. such as physical straining.” 4th ed. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. L. centrifugal pumps. Culp. or positively charged. Culp and R.. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply.) 21. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Corbitt. “New Concepts in Water Purification. however. Thereby. and hardness. All rights reserved.

through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The wash- Fig. Click here to view. of the sand.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. . The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. 21.to 0. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Usually.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. and dual. 21. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.79. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%.25. Inc. through the sand and gravel layers. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. by weight. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. that will pass 10%. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.to 12-in layer of gravel. depending on the turbidity. The process requires rapid mixing. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. in millimeters.35-mm range. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained.21.or mixed-media filtration.

25 to 1. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. creating a high head loss across the filter.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. Immediately after washing. . or sand incrustation will be encountered.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. bed cracking. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. such as rakes. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. may be more advantageous. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. The filtering medium may be sand. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel.35 to 0. water sprays. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. which produces an undertreated effluent. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. mixed-media.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. however. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. Dual-media. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. gal/min b = width of trough. Click here to view. and air jets.20 to 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or deep coarse-media filters. All rights reserved. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. diatomaceous earth. filters pass water at a high rate. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. or anthracite coal. which is drained to waste.005:1 range. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0.002:1 to 0.

These materials remove cations. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Okun. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.” 4th ed.. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Geyer. L. Fair... New York. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. New York. lime (CaO). in clear wells.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. L.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. “Water Supply and Sewerage. such as calcium and magnesium.” 6th ed. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. carbonates.) (21.” John Wiley & Sons. G. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Inc. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water Quality and Treatment.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. (G. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. In the lime-soda process.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. . and D.1 mg/L. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Culp and R.” and T. perforated. New York.138) (21.21. C. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. New York. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. “Water Quality and Treatment. Inc. J. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. J. American Water Works Association. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. and American Society of Civil Engineers. M. sulfates. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence. Regeneration requires between 0. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. Culp. Click here to view. respectively.139) 21. (American Water Works Association. All rights reserved. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3.” 4th ed. Some.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. and R is the zeolite material.) 21. however. gas.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains). from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].136) (21. or open-joint pipes. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and (3) total hardness. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. McGhee. where 1 gpg = 17.3 and 0..

Inc. Inc. Inc. reverse osmosis.” and T.. McGhee. New York. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Filter both solutions.Water Resources Engineering s 21. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. flood control. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21.1 or 0. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Click here to view. Fair. 21. C. manganese. lime softening. Geyer. 21. water supply. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Other disinfectants are iodine. ozone. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. Chlorine residuals of 0.99 water supplies. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.” McGraw-Hill. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. Inc... and D. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. then. J. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. .” John Wiley & Sons.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. Okun. “Water Treatment Plant Design. M. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. ultraviolet light. “Water Supply and Sewerage. taste. excessive fluorides. and electrodialysis.) respect to carbonates. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. the water is highly saturated with carbonates.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color.” McGraw-Hill. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. anion exchange. despite its low solubility. A. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. New York. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. and lime. activated carbon.) 21.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. (G.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. bromine. New York. detergents.45). If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. irrigation. chlorine dioxide. odor. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. J. cation exchange. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. iron. All rights reserved. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water.) 21.

equitable cost allocation is more difficult. The plot of volume vs.1). Inc. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. All rights reserved. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. maximum flows will govern. as is the case for many water-supply projects. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. 21. areavolume curves (Fig.52. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. minimum flows will be critical.80 Mass diagram of stream flow.21. Click here to view. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Once a reservoir site has been selected. 21. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. 21.80. The mass diagram (Fig. When the demand rate is known. 21. . as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Aeri- Fig. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. Also. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

and turbidity than deep reservoirs. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. are large distances from the city. Major sources of supply for some cities. During hours of maximum demand. such as New York. pumping plants. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. When the tem- 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods.35 and 21. In deep reservoirs. When the demand drops off.2). In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. All rights reserved. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.52. San Francisco. which may be only a few feet thick. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. . (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. 21. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. Inc. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and Los Angeles. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. odor. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. perature drops in the fall.52. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. is called the thermocline.101 Fig. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. but there is no circulation across this zone. the flow refills the reservoir. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. 21. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. give special attention to water quality. If possible.

53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig. Brune. M. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. 21.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.82) (G. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. June 1953).84).35. All rights reserved. 21. Brune. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. A flowing artesian Fig.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. 21. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. 3. 21. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 34. Inc.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. 21.83). no. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. For the correct hydraulic grade. Click here to view. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. M.52. For any given storage reservoir. 21.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. vol. 21.21.

Click here to view. Inc. .84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. All rights reserved.103 Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Fig.

ft d = diameter of well. J. screen. “Water Supply and Sewerage. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. Geyer. vol. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping.53. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. ft h = H minus drawdown. 21. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter).” John Wiley & Sons..) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. Inc. bored.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. motor. 889. Okun. Fair. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. waterjet.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. A. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. (C. 1940. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. 5. McGraw-Hill. Click here to view. 21. vol. December 1938.21.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. M.143) 21. J.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. C. or driven. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. 21. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. 72. 629.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well.53. V. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.. ft (Fig. from an artesian well is given by (21. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. . 21. p. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. Jacob. ft The steady flow. ditch.57). E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. Inc.83). Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. C. hollow-core. McGhee. The pump.84). eductor or riser pipe. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. Theis. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. p.142) where Q = flow. 33. and D.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. gal/day.” Economic Geology. T. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing.. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. Inc. or hydraulic rotary methods. pump (Art. no. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. (G. Hence. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. 21. New York.53. and motor.53. New York. 21.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. and sulfur compounds.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. rubber. Since steel is stronger than iron. concrete. and meters destroyed by corrosion. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. valves. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. zinc. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. hydrants. impurities and strains in metals. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. or Dresser-type couplings. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. brass. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. polybutylene. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. If it is cement-lined. Wood pipelines are still in existence. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. and other appurtenances. are present. stray electric currents. lead. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.146) where D = pipe diameter. and plastics. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. but wood is rarely used in new installations. plastic. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. valves. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. and ability to withstand external loads. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. an anode and a cathode. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. bacteria in water. such as polyvinyl chloride. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. tanks. bronze. however. pumps. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. . iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity.54. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. steel. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. Click here to view. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter.) At the anode. ft 21. 21. Inc. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. A machine that produces a monolithic. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. sealed flanges. contact between acids and metals. (21. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle.21. Copper. Under favorable conditions. riveting. In unlined pipes. polyethylene. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. sand. All rights reserved.

where e is an electron. Inc. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. the faster electrons can move through the water. Click here to view. zinc. and the more ions. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. caustic soda. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. to prevent corrosion.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. and treatment of the water. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. . the corrosion process continues (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. and Fig. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. water may be treated with bases. Aluminum. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. for example. Strains. such as soda ash. At the cathode. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe.86).Water Resources Engineering s 21. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. 21. cracks.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. All rights reserved. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). When selecting materials. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. use of protective coatings. 21. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Also.

Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. or impeller. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line.” 4th ed. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. horsepower. All rights reserved.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. ft. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. and the head-discharge relationship. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. efficiency. (American Water Works Association. “Water Quality and Treatment. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.147) where pa = pressure. New York.21. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Water enters at the center. Corrosion.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. To have practical meaning. however. lime. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. The centrifugal pump.. Inc.87). between pump center line and water surface Fig. ft of water z = elevation difference. hydroxides. 21. McGraw-Hill. To prevent cavitation. or eye. graphite. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. by (21. and so on on the walls of the pipes. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. . on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. 21..) w = unit weight of liquid. 21.88). magnesium. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. called a volute (Fig. in feet. the most common waterworks pump. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. Zinc. Inc. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. psia. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. Click here to view. oxides. psia. accomplishes that in two steps. z is negative.

56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. See also Art. Fig. below 200 gal/min.111 than the required NPSH. and air lift.89. . there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates..Water Resources Engineering s 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. Click here to view.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. 21. “Pump Handbook. pump discharge. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.57 and check valves in Art. head. (I. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. jet. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. 21. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. 21. propeller. however. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. reciprocating. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (Also included in Fig. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. All rights reserved. In a typical water-system analysis. depending on the number of stages. New York. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. 21.58. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) 21. 21.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump.” 2nd ed. helical. Karassik et al. J. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. 21. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. For that reason. rotary. as shown in Fig.. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump.

They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. All rights reserved. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities.or motordriven. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Inc. At sea level. utilize piston action to move water. Reciprocating pumps. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. cams.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube.90 fied). vanes. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. 21. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. (21.148) where n = impeller speed. either hand. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. which are located at the well bottom. gal/min H = head. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. 21. which is a function of specific speed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and for Ns above 7500. Jet pumps (Fig. so that the entire lift is suction. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. they can be used only for sediment-free water. . the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft.21. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Because of the close tolerances. r/min Q = discharge. Click here to view. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used.

Check. All rights reserved. which are water. globe. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Karassik et al. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. (I. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Also. cone. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. or it may be at the bottom of the well. air-relief. or Neoprene. large pressure differences. primarily because of their low cost. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. rotates the disk. rubber. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. Inc. Usually. solids deposition. availability. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. and butterfly valves. globe. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. respectively. If sand is carried out with the water. But these valves cost more than gate. fast operation. applied through a gear-reduction device. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Corrosion. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. curb. . pressure-relief. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Plug. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. J. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages.or oil-lubricated.113 tion. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Pump Handbook. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. Simplicity of construction and quick. in-service lubrication features.” 2nd ed. and butterfly. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Low head loss. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. needle. and easy. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. Hand or motor power. or corporation cocks. and low head loss when fully open.) drives to permit manual operation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. tubercle formation. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. one at the service connection. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. pressure-regulating. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. plug. The major types of isolating valves are gate. pumps. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. sluice gate. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. one just upstream of the meter.. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. New York. three valves must be used.

which connects the barrel to the main. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. All rights reserved. The most common check valve is the swing type. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. check. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. 21.21. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. and relief valves. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Furthermore. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. Usually. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Often. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. rivers. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. When the valve is in a closed position. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. Many automatic control valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. The wetbarrel. . A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. or California type. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. and large pipes. Click here to view. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. Inc. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. such as trunk lines 21. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. tube. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. For example. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Interior-differential. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Because of high head losses. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets.

149) Hydraulics. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. The cup-type meter. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. ft d2 = diameter of throat.) As in venturi meters. 21. The nutating disk is used. or modifications thereof. such as meters for individual customer connections. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. see E. Click here to view. durability. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter.” 6th ed. Inc.91. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. F. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. Brater. but they are used primarily in laboratories. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. simplicity and ease of repairs. The standard venturi meter (Fig. . ft h1 = pressure in main section. which do not affect propeller meters. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. rotary.150) where Q = flow rate. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. (21. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A clicking noise. New York.5% within the normal test-flow limits.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. called a Price meter. nozzle. respectively. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. All rights reserved. vertical velocity components. and cost.. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. or nutating-disk types. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. are the most common velocity-type devices. McGraw-Hill Book Company. for metering domestic-service connections. However. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. amount of head loss through the meter.115 of distribution systems. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. 21. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.

utility-type enterprises. peak rates of use.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Click here to view. step rate. and block rate. seasonal use. and development of the system.91 plate meter. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Inc. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. . fixed charges on capital investment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. flat rate is falling into disuse. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. (c) Orifice- 21. All rights reserved. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. (b) Nozzle meter. fire use. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. or to some other recognized system.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. if any. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. load factors. and similar items. 21. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required.

All rights reserved. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. depends on the peak usage of a customer. turbines and governors. and. . The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. where the majority of small users are. draft tube. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. and transformers. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of serving an individual customer.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cost component 3. Inc. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. 21. Click here to view. Cost component 1. where applicable. canals. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. For most distribution systems. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. including metering and billing. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. This charge is usually small. tunnel. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. penstocks. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. buying water from a wholesale supplier. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. a building to house the machinery and equipment. S. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. Cost component 2. It is generally recognized that residential areas. called the commodity component. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold.746 kW 1 kW = 1. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. switching equipment. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. called the demand component.117 With step rate. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. generators and exciters. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. tunnels. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. pumping energy. and (3) cost. treatment chemicals.Water Resources Engineering s 21.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. When fixing a system of rates. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. called the customer component.

4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. All rights reserved. such as navigation. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. to be used at some future time. . but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. and peak-load plants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. On a weekly cycle. It can be computed on a daily. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. or yearly basis. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. On a seasonal cycle. Storage can be provided for a daily. 21. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. On a daily cycle. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage.92). These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. weekly. Click here to view.21. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. Inc. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. or seasonal cycle. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. Therefore. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. If the minimum flow is very low. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Then.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. weekly. base-load plants. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. power production being only incidental. run-of-river plants with storage.

This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. (V. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. Force F2 represents silt pressure. buttress. J. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig.) 21. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Los Angeles. Calif. Its distribution is triangular. Inc. Figure 21. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. arch. 21. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom.92). New York. earth. 21. and rock-fill. it usually is not as economical.” 4th ed. (Department of Water and Power. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Zipparo and H. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. The main classifications are gravity. Hasen.. McGraw-Hill Book Company.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.119 Fig. When needed.

21. A method of calculating these forces.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. In the past. however.) (21.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.1 g.” discussion by von Karman.93 by forces F4 and F5. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. ice. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.153). today it is realized these values are much too high. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. May 1946. which forms on the reservoir surface. Click here to view. was developed by von Karman. . (21. 21. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. 98. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. These accelerations occur in every direction. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ice pressures as high as 50. which create forces on any object resting on it. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. vol. Rose.153) where w = unit weight of water. 434. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.425h above the base. given by Eq. p. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. Inc. A close approximation of the force.000 psf. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. (E. In cold climates.21. presented by Edwin Rose. 1933. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.

The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. however. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. All rights reserved. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. and uplift forces are smaller. Hence. and clay. however. because of bearing contact. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. In the past. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. However. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. such as sand and gravel. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. First. If a large quantity of pervious material. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. overturning by rotating about the toe. silt. uplift is not so important. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. Inc. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. The modes of failure are also the same. Click here to view. On arch dams. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. rock flour. but its formwork is more expensive. Although there are many types of buttress dams. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. They are not suited to most sites. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base.Water Resources Engineering s 21. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Recent belief. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. When the base is not drained. In the multiple-arch. sand. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. is available and clayey materials must be imported. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. but the structural design is much more critical. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. engineers assumed that. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. their relative importance is much different. or failure of the foundation material. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. If the deflections are not equal. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. . however.

onto the fill. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. S. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Bureau of Relamation. bonding into the dumped rock. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. the natural angle of repose of rock. J. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred.94). If the dam is on a pervious foundation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. providing power. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations.” 4th ed. Temporary facings are usually of wood. S. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. The downstream face is usually 1. therefore. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. If pervious material is not available. Zipparo and H. For dams over 200 ft high. Army Corps of Engineers. For some types of soil. Inc. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. bearing on the rubble cushion. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. The facing is usually concrete. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Leakage should be expected. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. New York. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams.3 on 1. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.” EM 1110-2-2300. All rights reserved. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. and an upstream impervious facing. although steel has been used occasionally. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation.” U. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.) 21. or wood over concrete. however. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. U. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. Today. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill.21. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Click here to view. 21.. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel.3 on 1. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Hasen. (V. . The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing.

however.95a). so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.. and the fixed-blade type. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. such as the Kaplan turbine. The wicket gates.) Fig. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. 21. and draft tube.123 bine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. 21. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. When the power demand on the turbine changes.” 4th ed. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. Hasen. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. wicket gates.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.95c). In such installations. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. At heads above 1000 ft. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. (V. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. runner. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. New York. and draft tube. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. it changes direction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. As the water flows through the tur- 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. the propeller-type (Fig. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. wicket gates. In these.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. their efficiency decreases rapidly. At heads below 100 ft. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. 21. Zipparo and H. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. The propeller turbine (Fig. All rights reserved. J. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. . however.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. However. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows.94 turbine. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. 21. This creates a force on the runner. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. 21. runner. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. if the load drops below 50%.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.65. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. This type of spillway is Fig. (c) axial flow. 21. 21.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. widely used for concrete dams because. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. Inc. . Click here to view. the dam will not be damaged by the water.21. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Kaplan. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. if designed correctly.

(This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. 21.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. All rights reserved. In a chute spillway. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. Thus.” Government Printing Office. Click here to view. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. Bureau of Reclamation. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. The weir can be sharp-crested. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. DC 20402). There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. Washington. When the head is relatively low. “Design of Small Dams. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. or ogee in cross section. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. the siphon’s intake is sealed.34). Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. This type of spillway. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. 21. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. A siphon spillway (Fig. lined. 21. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. In a side-channel spillway. model tests are usually employed. open channel. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. flared. 21. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. .) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.S. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. both depending on the head on the weir.96 Siphon spillway. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. As the head increases. In a shaft spillway. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. called an ogee spillway. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. The air vent shown in Fig. Once this second condition is reached.

On large stop-log installations. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. In contrast. . allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. causing damage and hampering operation. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. controlling flow. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. 21. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. 21.97). They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. the pipes fail. Inc. To do this. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations.5 ft/s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. 21.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.97 Taintor gate. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. In a taintor gate (Fig. level of a reservoir within close limits.21.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. making removal difficult. 21. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. 21. All rights reserved. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. and providing support for the conduit. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Fig. Fig. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.98 Bear-trap gate. Click here to view. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.65.65.

Water Resources Engineering s 21. L. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. drum gates are not suited to small dams. J. Cleasby. The drum gate (Fig.” 4th ed. To raise a bear-trap gate. and J.99 Drum gate. as shown in Fig. 21. Click here to view.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. (V. J. Hasen. Babbitt.) Fig. Inc. Doland.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. J. “Water Supply Engineering.. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged.98. Zipparo and H. and H. Because of the large recess required in the dam. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. New York. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . E. All rights reserved. 21.

Click here to view. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.blank page 21. All rights reserved. Inc.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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