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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
3. or liquid surface.7 psi. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. ft σ = surface tension. When the liquid is in a closed container. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. portions of the liquid vaporize. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere.21. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. however. 21.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. Absolute pressure. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft Capillarity. Meniscus. although negligible in many water engineering problems.1) where h = capillary rise. Thus. pitting. interpretation of the results obtained on small models.1. . (21. Gage pressure. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. like surface tension. 21. is pressure above or below atmospheric.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. and freezing damage to concrete. as shown in Fig. at sea level. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. 21. 21. 21. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. face and rises in a small tube. Its temperature variation. Surface tension and capillarity. psia. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. Inc.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. psi. is small and insignificant in most problems. Click here to view. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric.2. In equation form. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. is concave upward. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. respectively. Its value Fig. as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. formation of spray from water jets. are significant in others.000 ft is shown in Fig. decreases with increasing temperature. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.7 psia. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream.
ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc.00001059 ft2/s.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. on the top surface. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. All rights reserved. psf. ft/s y = depth. Since the prism is at rest. or completely turbulent flow exists. 21. on the bottom surface. lb/ft3. At any depth. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity. In hydraulics.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2.4. .3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. the pressure acts equally in all directions. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21. to collapse. Click here to view. also called the coefficient of viscosity.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature.5 Fig. Viscosity. as shown in Fig. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero.2) where τ = shearing stress. absolute viscosity. psf. and pitting appears. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. or implode. is a measure of its resistance to flow. or dynamic viscosity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force due to pressure p1. of length and time. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. (Pressures as high as 350. µ of a fluid. lb/ft2 21. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. 21. transitional. and the force due to pressure p2.8) to determine whether laminar. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. ft2. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. which extend into the pores of the metal. Then. and cross-sectional area A. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. ft2/s. It is so named because its units.
6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ.21.3a) by A yields (21. and y sin θ = h .3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. For horizontal surfaces. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. (21. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). (21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. at depth h.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig. psf.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. (21. where w is the specific weight of water.4. the pressure. the depth below the water surface. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. Equation (21.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs.4). The resultant pressure force P.3a) Division of Eq.4) Equation (21. and other water control structures. lb. 21. however. Therefore. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. Taking ∆h to be h. tanks. ft. ft. Thus. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. the depth of the centroid. (21.3. Click here to view. then p2 is p. p1 is atmospheric pressure.6) – ∫ydA = y A. dams.5) 21. ft2. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. 21.3b) then becomes (21. lb/ft3. . All rights reserved.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Figure 21. (21.
It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.5). It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. Click here to view. All rights reserved. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psf.8) equals –A. The location of the center of pressure. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. if that locus is a straight line. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. The denominator of Eq.g. Pyp = ∫y dP. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . Hence y . For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. ft.6 (see also Fig. – From Eq. Otherwise. (21. 21.7).9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. Example 21.p. (21. (21. 21. Thus. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig. represented by the length yp. 21. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.) that is below the c. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. the total force P = whA.8). is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. (21. .).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. where K is the radius of gyration.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53. 6. 21. 21.g. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.7). The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. of the surface about its centroidal axis. Inc. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.Water Resources Engineering s 21.p. (21.) but acts at a point (c.7 Fig.29).2° to the horizontal (Fig.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c.
6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.8. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig.0 ft. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.1.3.5 + 1/ (5. All rights reserved.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. Inc. Note: 1. K2 = point G. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.9). yp = 5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially.0 + 0. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.42 ft. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.42 = 5.0) = 5.) of common shapes.0 + 2. (21. P = 62. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. (See Example 21. . however.21.08.g. Also. 21.08/5 = 5.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. From Eq. Click here to view. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. 21. Therefore. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
Its angle with the horizontal is known. When water is below the curved surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV. . 2. Example 21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. All rights reserved.9).6 × 62. 21.7). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume.14 × 25/4 = 19. – From Eq. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. Fig.4 × 2. Inc.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. PH = whA = 62. (21. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. 21.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.9. Click here to view.6w = 19. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3.564.9 Fig. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface. The corresponding angle is 57. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Free-body diagram.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and for a constant-radius surface. such as for a taintor gate (Fig. 21. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface.5 × 5 = 780 lb.2. 21. so the weight of the water is 19. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. (See Example 21. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.6 ft3.4°.
It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. Given in feet by Eq. ft. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. or the difference in head.10b).4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. Click here to view. whether floating or submerged. Manometers indicate h.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.g.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. All rights reserved. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. The stability of a ship. is indicated by the metacenter. (21.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. the pressure head. 21.). The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. 21.10a). The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures.4).b. p = wh. (21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. Inc. 21. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. . ft3 ys = distance.21. For a body to be in equilibrium. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig.10b. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. 21. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.
11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. Click here to view.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. although the latter is most common.11a is 2. Inc. 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. 21. . 21.12c). All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21.17 psi. (b) U-tube manometer. Example 21. The liquid is water with w = 62. However. Basic types of manometers. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). 21. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. What is hm? Fig.11 manometer. (a) Piezometers. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. and differential manometer. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures.4 lb/ft3.11): piezometer. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. The piezometer (Fig. U-tube manometer. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less.
including negative gage pressures. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. the Utube manometer (Fig.21. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale.11b) is used. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. In this application. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid.12c). The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. Inc. 21. A movable scale. 21. Click here to view. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. Very low pressures. . All rights reserved. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.
) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. as shown in Fig. and z is 1. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. psf. psf.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. or sump. however.4 × 0. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The differential manometer (Fig. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. the magnification will be 2. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. the actual pressure difference. Most of them. such as ft of water or psi. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.13 indicating liquid. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. when expressed in feet of water. All rights reserved. is magnified by the differential manometer. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. ft. .0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Click here to view. Above 5.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.0 and 2. psf p2 = pressure at 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence.11) where Z1 = elevation. hi is 2. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. such as might be required in laboratories. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Inc. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. the total energy per unit weight at 2.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. hm1 is 9 in. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. The pressure at B. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.0 ft.40. 21.4 × 2. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. Example 21. that is. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.6). The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. For example. psf w = specific weight of fluid. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.25 ft of water.12a. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. if the actual difference is 0.75 + 13. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1. 21. 32.6 × 62.25 ft. in the manometer. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1.5. however.4 × 2. One factor. 21. and the right side. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
21. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. lb.14 s Section Twenty-One (21. when added to the downstream side of Eq. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. As indicated in Fig. above some arbitrary datum. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Average velocity.4 ft3/s. ft/s = Q/A. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. and pressure (Fig. ft. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. All rights reserved. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.13). The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. Usually.14) pa/w is called pressure head.14. 21. however.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. (21. where Q is the quantity of flow. ft. or the total head ft: (21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. velocity head. Kinetic energy at the section.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. Click here to view. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. where W is the weight. velocity. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. lb/ft3. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. ft/s. and pressure.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.5.11). 21. through friction. varies with velocity. (See Example 21. The total energy. 21. .21. across the area of the section A.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. velocity. Inc. V2/2g. 21.13. Example 21. ft2.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. Fig. where Va is the velocity. ft3/s. This term hf. a Fig. It equals WVa2 / 2g.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.
respectively. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. respectively. 21. Also.15 Fig. while in pressure flow.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. In openchannel flow. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. gate valve. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. p2 = 0. 21. or magnitude of flow. is equal to the impulse.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. . The energy grade line. which may result from a change in either velocity. Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hence. (21.7. Click here to view. direction.45 ft.14 = 10 ft/s.9). Since the datum plane passes through point 2. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. sometimes called the total head line. and any bends. Inc. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Thus substitution in Eq. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.15). since the pipe has free discharge. ft. 21. Z2 = 0. A change in momentum. hf = 50 – 1.4/ 3. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.55 = 48. All rights reserved. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow.
(Neglect friction loss at the bend. Fig. then in the Y direction. Let R be the force. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. (21. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.332π = 71.5°. Click here to view.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.16.21.1 and the density ρ = 62. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe.2= 1. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi.600. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. since ∆Vx = –(7. Example 21.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.000 sin 53.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. (21.94 × 100 × 4.2° – 13. apply Eq.500 lb. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and at 2.1 Rx = –82. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181. 21. which is to be determined).12)] but may be used separately.78. P2 = ppA2 = 13. since ∆Vy = –(–7.4/ 32.96 sin 53. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction.000 lb.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. . With p1 known.94.2° – 0) = 4.000 cos 53.11) or (21.5 ft/s. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction.6. (See Example 21.2° + Ry = 1.200 lb. Fy = –181.2° – 71. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. 21. so θ = 60. lb.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Fx = 181. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.5) = 65. All rights reserved.600 lb In the Y direction.96 cos 53.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.78 Ry = 145.200 + Rx = 1.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. To find F.94 × 100 × 65.15) first in the X direction.700/82. Then.
or drainage basin. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. In most models. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model.Water Resources Engineering s 21. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Popular before the advent of digital computers. Usually. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. droughts. It is. For instance. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. In the preceding example. employs both physical and mathematical models.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. . Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. to a given set of stimuli. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. All rights reserved. the capability of the computing resources. or proposed works. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. viscosity. momentum. and through execution of the computer program.7. gravity. or prototype.17 21. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. however. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. hybrid modeling. 21. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. operate. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. such as storm rainfall. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. erosional scour. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. In this way. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. or availability of data to support the modeling effort.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. alternative management schemes. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. See also Art. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. A fourth mode of modeling. 1. such as a river. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Inc. Physical models are expensive to build. With hybrid models. Click here to view. In water resources engineering. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. aquifer. and surface tension. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion.7.
2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. entrainment of air in flowing water. the formation of drops and air bubbles. The inertial force. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. Similarly. (21. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Then (21. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Reynolds number. (21. Therefore.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity. Once the length ratio has been set. .20) R is dimensionless.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. the model is termed a true model. respectively. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. All rights reserved. The Froude number is (21. The Reynolds number is (21.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. viscosity.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The Weber number is (21. Click here to view. such as depth or diameter).22) where ρ = density of fluid. Squaring both sides of Eq. and one other force are made proportional. which is always a predominant force.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. and Weber number. such as spillways and weirs. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system.21. the length ratio is the only variable.21a) (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. Froude number. Ratios of the forces of gravity. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Inc. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. 32. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2/s. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated.
. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio.26) where V = mean velocity. (21. inertial. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. the logical representation of prototypes. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds.S. such as flow networks.Water Resources Engineering s 21. mathematical models are. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. and infiltration parameters. For such models. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. One type of model.24). viscous.7. This type of model is called a distorted model. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). Click here to view. 21. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. such as a morning-glory spillway. For instance. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. called a movable-bed model. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.25) In models of rivers and channels. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. (21. Sr = 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Hence.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. All rights reserved.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. Rr = Lr. These expressions. catchment areas. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. in turn. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system.23a) (21. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The U.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering. in particular. In some cases. Inc. and through execution of the computer program.
hydrologic forecasting. This approach. All rights reserved.” McGraw-Hill. when fully implemented. (J. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. wave or tidal analyses. vol. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. In object-oriented software. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components.” N.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. H. 3. and groundwater yield. New York. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. channel and river hydraulics. For closed conduits other than circular. This. as in annular passages. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. sediment or pollutant transport. R. landfill leachate analyses. watershed hydrology. Art. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. Rothfus. Zipparo and H.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Inc. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. J. impacts of dam breaks. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. Hasen. 21. Whan. flow routing. or pollution.” D. G. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. of all databases and software. the model output required for design or evaluation. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. evaporation and irrigation. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. F. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. and among water resources modelers in the government.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. As this shearing stress increases. Hoggan. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. design of hydraulic structures. “Handbook of Hydrology. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. R. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced.” V. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding.) 21. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction.2). ecosystem impacts and restoration.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow.17. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. A. Click here to view. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. S. and private sectors. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. Maidment. quantity and quality of water supply. 1957. hydrodynamics. academia. reservoir regulation. or both. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. shown in Fig. (D. and turbulent flow results. if comparisons of different plans are required. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. however.21. . flood or drought impacts. seepage. Also. As a general rule. Walker. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and R. density. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. As a result. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. 21. Grigg. “Water Resources Planning.
McGraw-Hill Book Company. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” 6th ed. 32. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. than for laminar flow (Fig. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. As a result. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. it is not practical to treat it analytically.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R.. a disturbance will probably be magnified. (21. In this region. F. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. These disturbances create eddies.21 Fig.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. 32. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. as shown in Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics.Water Resources Engineering s 21. handbook of Hydraulics. Fig. Click here to view. 21. Therefore. flow is laminar in circular pipes. In laminar flow. ft ρ = density of fluid. (21. the velocity distribution is more uniform. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. ft L = length of pipe section considered. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. 21. causing the flow to become turbulent. (21. (E. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow.l9.29) For laminar flow. Brater. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. the flow is completely turbulent. Eq. All rights reserved. laminar flow is unstable. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. ft/s D = pipe diameter. As the Reynolds number increases. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. 21. 21.18. New York. .) 21.27) where V = fluid velocity. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. 21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.19.17). at completely turbulent flow.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. Inc. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until.
it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. 21. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. 21.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.9. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. 21.0002 0. 32. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.19) L = length of pipe. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. . ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Inc. ft V = velocity of fluid.03 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. enamels. (21. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.003 – 0. 21.001 0.0005 – 0.008 0. F.) Because Eq.003 0.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.0005 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.008 – 0. All rights reserved.001 – 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.0002 – 0.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow. 21.0005 – 0.19) to Determine f ε.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Moody. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.0002 0.30) is dimensionally homogeneous. ft D = diameter of pipe. The head loss is independent of the pressure. (L.19) for evaluating the friction factor f. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.00003 0. (21. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. November 1944.
33b) (21.34d) (21. where D is the pipe diameter.9. ft3/s. (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.4 and 21.31) gives (21.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system.11 (p. See also Table 22. ft L = length of pipe. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. (21. .33a) Upon substitution of D/4.34c) 21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. All rights reserved.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.32) where n = coefficient. dependent on surface roughness. 21. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21. 21.34b) (21. Click here to view.3. (21.9. ft S = head loss due to friction.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius. (Although based on surface roughness. ft/s C = coefficient.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow.31) where V = velocity. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material.33d) (21.9.33e) 21. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. ft/s C1 = coefficient.33c) (21. Tables 21. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe. Inc. which requires experience in its choice.) Substitution into Eq.34e) where V = velocity.
many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.36) for a check.016 To 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.012 0.017 0.013 0.) Flow between reservoirs. However.017 0.017 From 0. bends.7.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.015 0. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.013 0.013 0.014 0.011 0. (21.35c) (21.017 0.015 0.20 ple 21.35b) (21. 21.013 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs.010 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. (21. . Click here to view. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. (21. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0. in short pipelines. Inc.017 0.012 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D. and valves and other pipe fittings.4 Values of n for Pipes. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.012 0.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq.015 0.014 0.035 0.010 To 0. enlargements. All rights reserved. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example 21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.7: Figure 21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.012 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.015 0.015 0. because (21. 21. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.013 0.010 0.21. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. ft3/s hf = friction loss.
Table 21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.37) or (21.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir. ft/s g = 32.7. steel forms. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.10.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. minor losses must be considered. the values of K in Fig.37): (21. Gibson.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. 110 4 in. determined experimentally by Brightmore. All rights reserved. . is (21. 110 (21. good workmanship.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. 85 16 in. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. 21. 120 Centrifugally spun.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 105 30 in and over. (21. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. ft. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. regardless of age. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.21).1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 140 Large sizes. (A. 115 12 in. Click here to view. 135 In good condition.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. The water in the reservoir has no velocity.10.” Constable & Co. (21.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. London.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. H. 21.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. so a full velocity head is lost. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.. 120 Large sizes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”).39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. Ltd. Inc. are presented in Table 21. good workmanship. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. wood forms.21 are approximate. 120 24 in and over.38) A special application of Eq. 80 4 in. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 10 years older Average value..10. where V is the velocity in the pipe. (21.25 Table 21.
71 0.9 0.89 1.10.5 0. and at bends is given by (21.64 0.76 0. 21.0 2. . Click here to view. fully open Swing check valve.5 0. All rights reserved.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings. Globe valve. such as valves and elbows.9 0.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.21 of the sides.2 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.62 0.80 K = 0.25 The values in Table 21.0 Table 21.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.05 K = 0.7 0. fully open Gate valve. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 are only approximate.1 0.81 0. fully open Angle valve. For these reaTable 21.4 0.50 K = 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 0.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.6 0. D = pipe diameter.3 0.21.66 0.63 0. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.4 21.2 2.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. Inc.0 5.6 0.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.42) Table 21.8 0.0 1.68 0.
vol. (K. not including friction loss in the bend. 21.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. series D.42).. All rights reserved. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.23. 1. Zipparo and H. (H. If this velocity is significant. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. Reynolds number. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. Inc. 1960. (21. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.” Journal of Research.Water Resources Engineering s 21. there is disagreement.45) 21. not including friction loss. the bend loss essentially remains constant. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.22: (21. For low heads.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. no. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. or rectangular. 82. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc.9 for low velocity of approach. Inc. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. National Bureau of Standards. Experiments on smooth pipes.44) where Q = discharge. increases significantly with an increasing r/D.) Fig.42). ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D. July 1938. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.11. H. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. 21. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. Hasen. Equation (21. The data are in agreement that the head loss. New York. vol. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. 21. Beij. 21. although they are usually round. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. Ito.” 4th ed.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. its effect should be taken into account. .) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (V. McGraw-Hill. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity.27 sons.. (21. (21. however. Figure 21. Orifices may have any shape. square. J. this error is corrected by the C values. and angle of bend.
632 0.637 0. V1 = 0.4 0.608 0.603 0.597 0.596 0.605 0.614 0.99.608 0. 21.593 0. “Hydraulics.632 0.596 0.1 0.” 1886.612 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.627 0.602 0.602 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.618 0.593 0.626 0.603 0.607 0.1 0. the vena contracta.637 0.618 0.6 08 1 1.615 0.648 0.628 0.605 0.641 0.605 0.613 0 610 0. Jr.644 0.611 0.5 2 2.621 0.618 0.600 0.592 0. to Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.598 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.607 0.619 0.607 0.614 0.595 0.606 0.594 0.602 0.593 0.600 0.595 0.599 0.610 0. and Eq. ft 0. ft 0. Z1 = h.603 0.599 0.614 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.04 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.617 0.610 0.600 0. .02 0.623 0.612 0.606 0. With the reference plane through point 2.597 0.599 0.604 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.601 0. (21.630 0. Inc.598 0.45) becomes (21.613 0.628 0. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.599 0.619 0.602 0.655 0.594 0.634 0.591 0.94 to 0.602 0. determined experimentally.643 0.604 0.598 1. p1/w = p2/w = 0. Click here to view.652 0.617 0.623 0.601 0.605 0.592 1.598 * Hamilton Smith.602 0..02 0.601 0.629 0.04 0.0 0. of circular orifices. and Z2 = 0.596 0.622 0.636 0.604 0.631 0.602 0.596 0.596 0.21.616 0.596 0.648 0.602 0.600 0.616 0.592 0.601 0.603 0.590 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.46) The actual velocity.611 0.609 0.0 Head.623 0.637 0. ft 0.660 0.608 0.595 0.
. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.24b. 21.67.” 6th ed. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. New York. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices.61 to 0.48) is obtained. Eq. F. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Inc. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.29 Fig.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (21. Brater. 21. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. (21. All rights reserved. 21. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. “Handbook of Hydraulics. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the contraction is completely suppressed.11. between 1 and 2. (b) Round-edged with no contraction.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. the area of the orifice. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. see E.47) where hL = losses in head. Figure 21. 21. (21. ft. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. 21. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. With a partly suppressed orifice.25.25 orifice. Click here to view.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction..) 21.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. In Fig.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction.
is that for a parabola: (21. (21.55) 21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. 21. (21.11.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig. s The Y coordinate is (21.21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. 21.57) (21. All rights reserved.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. For simplicity.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.56) Fig.49) Solving for dt yields (21. (21.56).51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.53) where h = head on center line of orifice.58) gives (21. (21. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.57) for t and substituting in Eq.51) upon integration becomes (21.59). Eq. Click here to view. (21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. 32. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level. ft2 A = area of reservoir. The initial velocity of the jet is (21.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.50) becomes (21. obtained by solving Eq. when y = h2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Rearranging Eq.50) where a = area of orifice. Eq. Inc. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero. (21. (21. when y = h1.23).58) Equation (21. to time t.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. . 21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t.58)]. (21.26): (21. ft h2 = head at the end.
lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice.11.29.42) of 0. psf w = unit weight of water. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. When this happens. For a short tube flowing full.5 a T T Fig. however. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. In the tube or pipe. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure. Fig. (21. if one exists). a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. Click here to view. 21. 21.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. (21.11.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. 21.33VT / 2g. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. Equation (21.67 V2 ) = 0. Therefore. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. 21. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.80. 21. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube.82 VT)2/2g = 0. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.82.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short.00 VT / 2g – 0. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.67 V2T /2g. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. ft2 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.28).5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. Inc. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.27) but the head loss is larger. 21.31 ty Cν = 0.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. a K value for Eq. . as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.67 V T / 2g = 0.27. All rights reserved. 21. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. 21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig.82.
This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. Fig. As the water flows away from the closed valve. The pipe shown in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. either above or below the normal pressure. Inc. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. When a valve is closed.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. The change causes a pressure rise.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. the tube must flow full. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.21. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. However. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. 21. As the water flows into the reservoir. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. this momentum drops to zero. the water in the pipe is motionless. either increased or decreased. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. 21. For this analysis to be valid. but at a pressure much higher than normal.29. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. All rights reserved. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. 21. 21. it causes water hammer. 21. 21. the pressure in the pipe falls. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. . Click here to view. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. Every time the flow rate is changed. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe.32).30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. Fig.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon.30). 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.
The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. (21.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. All rights reserved. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.63). (21.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. ft 21. approximate solution. For instantaneous closure: (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. Fig. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop.63a) becomes (21. Equation (21. Inc. Eq. Click here to view. 21. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.13. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.63a) In terms of pressure head.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. 43.64) 21. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. 1. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. (21. 21. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. s A plot of pressure vs. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting.
so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. Thus.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. Zipparo and H.) Velocity of pressure wave. Inc.. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made.” 4th ed..2 × 108 psf. McGraw-Hill. equals L /aU. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. is g = acceleration due to gravity. s T = actual closure time of valve. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Once the time interval has been determined. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. Vo the original velocity. penstock thickness = 1 in.21. from Eq. then that obtained from Eq. Inc. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. ft L = length of pipeline. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.32. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics.) Example 21. 32. thickness and diameter normally vary with head. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. the increment of time.63). An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. Click here to view. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.61). The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U. (V. such as L/aU. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. (21. (21. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. where a equals any integer. (21. area = 78. (21. New York. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq.63).8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. . The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. J. With the head known. Hasen.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. length = 3000 ft. to apply Eq. (21.63). where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. diameter = 10 ft. each causing an individual pressure wave. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. where ∆t.5 ft2. All rights reserved.
and the pressure rise. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. psi.34 tension. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. to prevent water hammer. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. Fig.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls.63).64) gives the following result: 21.90 s. When a valve is suddenly closed. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. is Pipe Stresses 21. All rights reserved. 21.75 s.33) must still be designed for water hammer.90 s. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. it is by no means the only one. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. the closure is instantaneous. the stress. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. (21. Inc. from Eq. Various types of relief Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits.66) where p = internal pressure. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. 21. on the pipe material is (21. 21.34).67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. When a valve is suddenly opened.13. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1. approximate equation (21.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. in Assuming T = 4. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. floats on the line. Usually. Click here to view. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. The water column. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. . lb Hence. in effect.
this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. The stress. 21. Gere.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. . psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. For concrete pipes. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. New York. Click here to view. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. (21. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21.67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. 6.6). M.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. (21.21. Equation (21. (21. it acts like a beam.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe.67) for concrete pipe. (S. if expansion joints are to be used. For steel pipes. 21. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. In Fig. However. this analysis is approximate.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. Eq. is (21.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for.10). due to a temperature change is (21.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. P Timoshenko and J. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. elastic Stability. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6.” 2nd ed.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter..35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. In this case. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. However. Eq. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. McGraw-Hill Book Company.67).68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. All rights reserved. (21. The force diagram in Fig. “Theory of . Inc. If D/t is less than 10. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. however. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. Art. psi. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In all bends.
However. a railroad. Inc. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. exit conditions. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. (21. Click here to view. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. (21. All rights reserved. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.37 Fig. 32. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. canal. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21. psf w = unit weight of water. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. In small pipes.70) and (21. and slope.71) give a quick solution.71) where R = resultant force on bend. however. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Eqs.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the joints must also be able to take these forces.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. an exact theoretical analysis. or other embankment.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . 62. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site.
From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc .36).38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff. slope is greater than the critical slope. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. computer software. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope. and the discharge is independent of the slope.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.73) 21. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. the culvert flows full.23). This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. .37). that is. the normal depth (Art. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged.21. For this reason. (21. Inc. 21.” EB058W. Portland Cement Association. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. the following equation is obtained: (21. 21.30)]. but they do not cover Fig. 21.38).33d) or (21. 21. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. 21. Click here to view. charts. All rights reserved. and the control will still be at the inlet. and the Manning equation for friction loss.
39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged.74) Fig. When slope exceeds critical. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. The discharge. and dn > dc .19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. ft V = velocity in culvert. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. The fluid flows under pressure. for the open-channel condition (Fig. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.75) Substituting this into Eq. 21. 21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. Thus. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art.39).74) yields (21. 21. . Discharge is independent of slope. When the slope is less than critical. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. (21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. open-channel flow takes place.Water Resources Engineering s 21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. Inc. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. 21. Click here to view. depending on the head.20) 21. Discharge depends on head H. Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. and slope of culvert. flow depends on inlet condition. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert.39 Fig. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. normal pipe flow occurs. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. 32.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. and dn < dc .23). ft Equation (21. 21. When slope is less than critical. 21. loss at entrance. (21.
.76). causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art.41). 21. ft To solve Eq. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. however. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. 21. If the head on a culvert is high. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig.76). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig.21. Click here to view. (21. All rights reserved. 21. 21. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream.39). This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. If the friction slope approaches critical. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. When the friction slope is flat.18). and discharge is given by Eq. Most culverts.76).40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.40). the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. 21. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig.72). (21. Inc. 21. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.37). there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. (21. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. If this condition exists. (21. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft dn = normal depth of flow. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig.
21. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft. Calculate Q assuming entrance control.72) and (21. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. To calculate the hydraulic radius. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs. groove or bell.18 and 21.19).8 ft3/s Table 21. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. (21.72) yields Q =Va = 9.40). (21. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. Example 21. with Eq. 21. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. the flow is under pressure. All rights reserved. (21. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft.Water Resources Engineering s 21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions.5 0.73).20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. Inc. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. square edge Concrete pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Table 21.6. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. and the entrance will not control. groove or bell.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. 21. First find dn.95 × 4 = 39.9 0. Since the culvert is under pressure. n = 0. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. These values are for culverts flowing full. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. Find: size of culvert. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. length = 300 ft. slope = 0. Fig. When the entrance is not submerged.15 0.01.72) applies. and free exit. projecting Concrete pipe. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. . Application of Eq. (21. Substitution in Eq. Click here to view.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 0.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.013. (21. Eq. But H = 5 + 0.44) for discharge through an orifice. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. 21.41 For entrance control.
Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.03 to 1. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. Thus. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. normally taken as 1. plus the velocity head at the point. It is expressed in feet as (21. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. ft3/s. or open-channel flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. Equation (21. ft.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So.36 for prismatic channels. In a uniform channel. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. . The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. depth of flow is constant throughout.79). however. Figure 21. It is.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. 21. It has uniform flow if the grade. ft. minus the free surface width. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point.79) The velocity head HV. is generally given by (21. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. ft. 32. Click here to view.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. or slope. Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. and is given by (21. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. Hence. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. The wetted perimeter is the length. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. within a hydraulic jump. or the total-head line.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. (21. ft2 When the discharge is constant. Inc. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1.77) where V = average velocity. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. All rights reserved. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.21.
slope.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. (See. (V.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. and discharge are known. F. For a rectangular channel. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. 21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. As the depth decreases downstream. as shown in Fig.” 6th ed. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. Chow. 21. 21. Inc. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. New York. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel.) (21. . A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation. All rights reserved. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21..83) Brater. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. E. in which T is the top width of the channel. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Eq. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases.84) reduces to Fig.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.43 Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. T. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. for example. roughness. normal depth decreases downstream. ft. 21. New York. 21.43). the specific energy also decreases.43. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig.42 is called the normal depth dn. 21. McGrawHill Book Company.44. ft.84) where A = area of flow. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. or to the diameter of a circular channel.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. or it may be found directly from tables (E.43.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig..21. (21.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.44). . 21. All rights reserved. (21. Click here to view. the depth is greater than critical. For a given value of specific energy.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. Eq. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. (21. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. ft3/s d = depth of flow. 21. for a given discharge. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.84) is called the critical depth dc.84) may be reduced to (21. 21.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. the depth is below critical. and flow is supercritical. The flow there is called subcritical flow. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.44). McGraw-Hill Book Company. Brater. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21. New York). F. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. 21. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. Inc. or conversely. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. For rectangular channels.” 6th ed.84).
21. indicating an irreversible occurrence. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth.87) Fig. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. Inc. 21. p. 21. flow is supercritical. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. without turbulence.57). along with a high loss of energy.45. It can be seen from Fig. [As indicated by Eq. 21.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. 21.45 where dc = critical depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Such a change occurs gradually.52b. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. 21. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical.44). (21. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Critical depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel.85). ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. For every depth greater than critical depth. 21. however. a hydraulic jump will occur.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. as indicated in Fig. once calculated. (21. ft3/s b = width of channel. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. flow is subcritical. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. regardless of slope. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel.
21. ft V = mean velocity of flow.D. and the N.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.89) may be written (21. Inc. therefore.46a and b. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical). All rights reserved.11. (See also Art. S for steep (supercritical).90) where A = area of flow.L.L. horizontal. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. Dr. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. 21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. and A for adverse. and C. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. Click here to view. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. as shown in Fig. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.L.S.L.46. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. are identical for a channel of critical slope. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.9 and Table 21. are in Table 21. and two types for channels of critical. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. The M2 curve forms between the normal.D. 21.L. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. C for critical. (21. there must be a continuing maintenance program. 21. Eq. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Department of Agriculture. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.46c and d.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art.) 21. New York. 21.D. the average n values given in Table 21. The N.4. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.and critical-depth lines.D. These curves are divided into five groups. 21. H for horizontal. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).23).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.21. T. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. is replaced by a horizontal line. .25). When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. (Although based on surface roughness. at an arbitrary elevation. E. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. and adverse slope. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and the critical-depth line C.D. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. Chow.
030 0.016 0. With short grass. Rock cuts a. Float finish b. respectively). high as flow depth d. commonly called a drawdown curve.015 0.014 0.46a and b. .025 0. Corrugated 2. Smooth and uniform b. wavy section 4. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.016 0.46i and j.032 0. Click here to view. Metal a. good section c. high stage 2. Jagged and irregular 0.018 0.028 0.019 0. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig.013 0. Cement-mortar surface 3.020 0.120 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. untreated 3. Asphalt a.013 0.013 0.012 0.014 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21.022 0.025 0.080 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b.022 0.033 0. 21.060 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. All rights reserved. Planed.022 0.011 0. few weeds c.017 Max 0.015 Avg 0. Clean. Dense brush. The S2 curve.024 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Dense weeds.016 0.040 0. Gunite.018 0.030 0.025 0.013 0.035 0.023 0. Concrete (unfinished) a. Rough C. Gunite.140 0.035 0.017 0.030 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. Masonry a. Steel form b.050 0.012 0.016 0.012 0.035 0.025 0. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2. Inc.010 0.021 0.025 0. 21.014 0. No vegetation b. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Rough wood form B. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.025 0.016 0.050 0.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.100 0.080 0.015 0. Cemented rubble b.014 0. 21.011 0. after weathering b. Dredged earth a.021 0. Smooth wood form c.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Lined channels 1. It terminates in a hydraulic jump.012 0.035 0. Wood a.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. straight and uniform a. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Concrete a.023 0.027 0.040 0.013 0.033 0. Smooth b. Unlined channels 1. Light brush on banks 3. Dry rubble 5. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Excavated earth. 21.
21. indicates normal-depth line.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.D. .L.D.. The curves in Fig. 21. Inc. N.21. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes.L. critical-depth line. Click here to view. Examples in Fig. and A profiles. All rights reserved. 21. H. C.46k and l.
Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. Solutions available include the graphical-integration.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. depending on the type of flow. the channel is divided into short lengths. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. New York. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. The wave travels at a speed. 21. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations.77) if the depth were zero. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages.27.47. (21. direction-integration. Inc. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.) 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. French. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Explanations of both the graphical. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. T. 21. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. H. 32..26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. or reaches. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow.5. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.and direct-integration methods are in V. For subcritical flow conditions. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. Chow. weir. Click here to view. (R. and step methods. free overfall. dam.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. New York. each reach is solved in succession. For the section of channel in Fig.” McGraw-Hill. backwater curves form both before and after the jump. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. gate. All rights reserved. with relatively small variation.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. See Art. known as its celerity. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream.51). The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. . For step-method computations.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. Inc.
50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. as given by Eq. The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. is negligible and can be ignored.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. . Inc. hi. (21. and vice versa. due to friction in the same reach. Click here to view. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art.92) (21. respectively. the change in elevation. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. prismatic channels. and – SL = hf. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. Therefore. (For uniform. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. The smaller the value of n.91) for L gives (21.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. 21. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the – eddy loss. Solving Eq.82). 21. ft.93) where R = hydraulic radius. (21.93). the longer the backwater curve profile. rearranged as follows: Fig. not the channel bottom. the head loss. (21.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. 21. All rights reserved. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. ft Note that SoL = ∆z.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.21. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. ft.
(21. (21. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. at sec– tions 1 and 2. referred to a horizontal datum.2 for diverging reaches. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.95) The coefficient k is 0. becomes (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. (21. ft. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Next. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. (21. For lined channels. ft. the friction loss. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. ft. Next. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. is obtained from Eq. Z2. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. and it is therefore often accounted for. . Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. and about 0. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. sometimes called impact loss. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Then. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. computations progress toward the initial section.47. 21. in natural channels.51 may be some intermediate depth. ft/s. All rights reserved. The total head at any section of the channel is (21.96). Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. (21. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. respectively. (21. S.95).97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. after substitution of H from Eq. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. The value of total head computed from Eq. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. from 0 to 0. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. the average friction slope for the reach. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. (21.93). Eddy loss. or roughness.92). which. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. grade. total head H. (21. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. Inc. Then. Finally. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. Click here to view.1 for converging reaches. respectively. Therefore. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections.Water Resources Engineering s 21.93).5 for abrupt expansions and contractions.94). Since this step method is a converging process.
Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section.S. Click here to view. The upstream surface of the jump.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect.. and determine the discharge.21. a gate. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving.23). 1. is a turbulent mass of water. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. or other obstruction. N. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. 1970. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. Bureau of Public Roads. U. Utilizing the above data. . H. 21. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. known as the length of jump. If the two values of total head do not agree. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0.27. respectively. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. velocity. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. bridge piers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.48). The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. All rights reserved. however. The effect of bridges. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild.1 ft in elevation. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. Department of Transportation. and J. 2nd ed. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. However. 21. 21. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. 21. as shown in Figs.52b. New York. French. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. approach roadways. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. 21.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. known as the roller. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. 21. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Fig. Federal Highway Administration. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Bradley.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous.48 Hydraulic jump.51 and 21.” Hydraulics Design Series no. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation.
s (21.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump.16)]. ft/s. This difference (Fig. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. For open-channel flow. The depth before a jump is the initial depth. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump.98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.82). the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. this resultant pressure force is (21. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. ft3/s = unit of time. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. For rectangular channels.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. All rights reserved. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq.100). Hydraulic depth is defined as (21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.102) Equation (21.99) where M = mass of water.98) and (21.49) is given by (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. Inc. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. V is the mean velocity. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. (21. and g = acceleration due to gravity.104) = discharge. (21. ft/s2. ft w = unit weight of water.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.105) where A = area of flow.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft.99). (21. where L is a characteristic length. ft2 T = width of free surface.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. (21. in Eq. 21.100) Equation (21. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. . 32.27. or alternate depths. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft d2 = depth after jump. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. d2 must also equal dc. (21.
27. The jump action is rough but effective. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. If the tailwater is too high. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve.5 to 4. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.7 to 2. Click here to view. This jump may be called a strong jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. 21. Inc. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. Various forms of hydraulic jump.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. For F1 = 2. which gives discharge vs.5 to 9. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.5. The jump is well-balanced. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig.0.21. 21. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. depending on local conditions.49. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. there are undulations on the surface. If the tailwater is too low. very commonly in canals. the flow is critical and there is no jump.7. can travel for miles. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. In either case. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. the jump will be drowned out. were classified by the U. For F1 = 1. For F1 = 1. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. for example. which. This jump may be called a steady jump.S. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. All rights reserved. For F1 = 1 to 1. For F1 = 4. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. chute. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. This jump may be called a weak jump. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream.23). This jump may be called an oscillating jump.5. For F1 = 9. 21. The jump is called an undular jump. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. depth after the jump.0 and larger. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. 21. . below a spillway. and the performance is at its best. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.
The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. 21.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. therefore. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. But it has been determined experimentally. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.51. Inc. These features are expensive to build. and sloping the apron. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig.105). The curve. Chow from data gathered by the U. . was developed for jumps in rectangular channels.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. All rights reserved. 21.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. The resulting curve (Fig.S. This length (Fig.27. prepared by V. (21. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. changing the apron elevation.55 curve involve changing the crest length. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action.27. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. Accessories. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump. T. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. Click here to view. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin.
As depth d2 is lowered. With values of d2 obtained from Eq.21. computed from Eq. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. using the step methods of Art. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. the jump moves to a new location downstream. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. A horizontal intercept FG. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. which occurs near the channel drop-off. Conversely.75h in the absence of better information. . The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. 21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. equal in length to L.102). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. the jump occurs in the steep region.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. for simplicity. Inc. as shown in Fig. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate.46e and c). The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. as theory would indicate. 21.101). (21. the computed length of jump. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. less than. as shown in Fig.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. 21. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. if the downstream depth is lowered. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. computed from Eq. If d2 is less than d′ . (21. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. It is assumed. 21. 21. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump.52a. 21. between lines CB′and EO. (21. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig.101) with d1 given. respectively (Fig. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. CB. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. that flow is uniform.26. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break.52b. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location.7dc for simplicity. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0.52. 21. Click here to view. 21.51. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but it is normally assumed to be 0. the jump moves downstream to a new position.5% of critical depth.23) to mild. equal to the computed length of the jump. curves AB and ED in Fig. All rights reserved.
the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. From Q = AV. or (a) above it.” McGraw-Hill. New York.. 21. ft. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. All rights reserved. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H.” 6th ed. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. (21. 21. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). New York. then the assumed discharge is correct.85)]. on the channel entrance. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. . or (b) below it. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. ft. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. ignoring entrance loss.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. if not.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. 21. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. and the slope of the channel. If the entrance loss must be considered. and the computations continued until a balance is reached.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). (R. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. Inc.. and discharge is at a maximum. is (21. F. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. ft3/s.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. ft. where He is the specific energy head. Then.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs.3 for one with squared ends. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.53). Brater. ft. H. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels.23). Click here to view. McGraw-Hill Book Company.53a).82) and (21. the entrance loss. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.) 21. 21. a new discharge is assumed.51. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig.106) where b is the channel width. French.
32. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. 21. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. (b) mild-slope channel. and g is acceleration due to gravity. ft. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. . 21.53b. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).2 ft/s2. a new discharge is chosen. producing flow.83). ———— charge.21. A is the cross-sectional area of flow.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft2. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig.23). d is normal depth. if not. 21. then the discharge is correct. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft3/s. All rights reserved. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. (In Fig. He is the specific energy head. (21.33). 21. 21. 21.22).53b). Inc. where He – d is the actual head.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. Click here to view. 21. ft.
If the bend continues long enough. 21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. or mV2 /rc for m. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. ft /s.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. The error will not be great.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. ft.23). The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.59 21.83)]. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. Click here to view. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. and rc the radius of curvature. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. when a stream enters a curve. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. Thus. where V is its average velocity. In this range. . a unit mass of water. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. Inc.107) The theoretical difference y.108). This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. ft. (21. however. 21. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. the true value of y would be only a few inches. Therefore. 21. (21. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. of the center line of the channel. curve (Fig. ft. 21. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels.
The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo.23). . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. 21. His values have not been evaluated completely.” U. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.111).55). Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. These waves cross at M. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. The cross slope required for 21. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude. Two waves form at the start of the curve. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. Department of Agriculture. by (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. The second is a negative wave.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. and should be used with discretion. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. depths along the inside wall.S. (F. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. Click here to view. (21. Inc. a series of standing waves are produced. however. an increase in friction loss results. C. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.110) for θ in Eq. recross as shown.16)] . of greater-than-average surface elevation. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature. Scobey.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. One is a positive wave. (21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. and continue crossing and recrossing.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. phase. 21. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. All rights reserved. Technical Bulletin 393. flows around a bend in a channel. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. 21.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve.21. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. with sufficient accuracy. (21. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. This angle may be found from (21.
Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. All rights reserved.54). Many variables. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow.2 for welldesigned transitions. If friction is ignored. the average velocity decreases. where K. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. equals about 0. For outlet-type structures.56. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. 21. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. 21. ft/s. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. When proceeding downstream through a transition.57). depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. such as flow-rate changes. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. low-head-loss transfer of flow. respectively. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. or change from supercritical to subcritical. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. p. The transition loss. . it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. is given by K(∆V2/2g). The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig.44. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel. Inc. as shown in Fig. Straight. therefore. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. 21. In this range. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. 21. 21. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour.113) angle of about 12.1 for an inlet-type structure.2 ft/s2. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed. if friction is ignored.8[∆(V2/2g)].23). and g = 32. ft. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. wall roughness. and channel shape and slope. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. ∆V is the velocity change. 21. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. To place a transition properly between two open channels. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.44.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth. change from subcritical to supercritical. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.1 [∆(V2/2g)].114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. the loss factor. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. Click here to view. plus any transition and friction losses.
.5 = a(30)2. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. For Fig. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. triangular weirs. the weir has free discharge. y = ax2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the discharge is partly under water. such as broad-crested weirs. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. and parabolic weirs.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. 21. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. 21. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. Fig. the weir is submerged or drowned. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.59. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. and. In contrast.59 Weir not sharp-crested. as shown in Fig. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0.57. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21.21. 21. triangular or Vnotch weirs. measured from A or B. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. 21. such as rectangular weirs. All rights reserved. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.000556(10)2 = 0.58). trapezoidal weirs. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. 21.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.58 Sharp-crested weir.222 ft. 21. from which a = 0.34.000556. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig. Inc. trapezoidal weirs. Click here to view.000556(20)2 = 0. 21.
Click here to view. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device.115) where Q = discharge. 21. To be fully ventilated.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.5H upstream from the weir. Equation (21. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. T.60 V-notch weir.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. ft The head should be measured at least 2. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. Inc. contraction of the nappe. Hence. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. thus causing a contraction of the flow.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. New York). The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.5H. A V-notch weir (Fig. One such equation. All rights reserved. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. 2. 21. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head.116) corrects for the effects of friction. If P is less than Fig. The height of weir P must be at least 2. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. . ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. below the crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. At very low heads.58) (V. 21.34.
” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.61) (E. 21.” 6th ed. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. Discharge is given by (21. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. Click here to view. (21. 21. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir.119) where Q = discharge. 21. T. F. His values were summarized by Brater. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.34. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length.34. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients.. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region. The effective length L. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. 21.2) when low discharges are to be measured. there are two end contractions and N = 2. 69. measured from notch bottom. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. All rights reserved.118)] 21. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. Fig. 21. ft. 1943).61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.5H upstream from the weir.118) Fig.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. (21. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.21. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.34. . 21. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. vol.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Inc. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York). ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. ft H = head. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Lenz.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. 21. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle.
(21. p. and then.122) where H = measured head. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. 25. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest.” Engineering News-Record.115) is rewritten in the form (21. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir.81) g = acceleration due to gravity. 1947. solve for the submerged discharge Qs.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. R. ft V = velocity of approach. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Where great accuracy is essential. All rights reserved. 21. 21. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. The discharge Qs.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. and finally total head. Villemonte. ft3/s. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. .63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. ft.) Equation (21. Inc. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. From this total head. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. for such weirs.121) where Q = discharge.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 866. using this discharge. 2 21. heavily constructed devices. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. Fig. 32. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. Then. ft3/s. neglecting the velocity head. 21. Click here to view. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q.59). Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. compute the velocity of approach. velocity head of approach. Dec. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel.34.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. or both. which may be done as follows: First.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. using this rate and the required depths. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν.) To use the Villemonte equation. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. 21. (J. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.34. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. Thus. (21.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n. ft/s V /2g = Hν. Typically. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. Eq. velocity head.
starting with the corrected discharge. and approach velocity. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. and the approach velocity. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. But the process should be repeated. The effect is most critical for low heads. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. Department of the Interior.13. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway.5Hd > r* > 0.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. For conditions of design head Hd. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21.2 of the head.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. head in relation to design heads. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. For each change of nappe shape. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. the head in relation to the design head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.10 H. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Washington. ft L′ = net crest lengths. For conditions of design head Table 21. Click here to view. thickness of pier.20 0. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. .S. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge. 21. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Inc. ft (U. F. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. DC 20402. All rights reserved.” Government Printing Office.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding.123) where L = effective crest length. Therefore. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.02 0. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.12. “Design of Small Dams. where approach velocities are high. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0.21.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge.34.
The ogee-crested weir (Fig.” Government Printing Office. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. 21. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. According to Chow.34.5H upstream. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. Chow. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. Washington.65. Chow. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd.66 of the head. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 1. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. 21. All rights reserved. T. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. This relationship is shown in Fig. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. DC 20402. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V.122). (U. Fig. (21. Of the above rules. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. Figure 21. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. 2. T. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. . 21. and therefore of an ogee crest. New York). and 3 probably apply quite accurately.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Design of Small Dams. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. For flow at heads lower than the design head.S. Department of the Interior. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. Consequently. This manual and V. however. The shape of this nappe.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. Click here to view. at the point of maximum contraction. depends on the head producing the discharge. Inc. 21. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.67 Fig. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. for a sharp-crested weir. where discharge is given by Eq. called the design head Hd. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.64) has such a shape. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.
Bureau of Reclamation. 21.” U. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. 21. New York. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. Figure 21. (From “Design of Small Dams.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .21.” U.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. (From “Design of Small Dams.) Fig. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. Click here to view. the flow differs from ideal.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. Bureau of Reclamation.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. All rights reserved.66. 21. Fig.
21. Bureau of Reclamation.” 6th ed.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. Weirs of irregular section.67 and 21. Click here to view. Values of the discharge coefficient. Figure 21. Unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved.) Fig. F.” 6th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. 21.” U. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq.69 shows a broad-crested weir that. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. .115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. is determined from Fig. F. because of its sharp upstream edge. Brater.68. 21.S.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. where the velocity of approach is not high.. 21. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. New York. (E. (From “Design of Small Dams. McGraw-Hill Book Company.34. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. fairly common in waterworks projects. New York. appear in Table 21.. and sharp right-angled edges. the coefficient of discharge.14. if flow is at other than the design head.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. Brater.69 Broad-crested weir. therefore. it will be assumed to have vertical faces.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.) 21. compiled by King. a plane horizontal crest. E. (See. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face.34.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. (21. has contraction of the nappe. “Handbook of Hydraulics. the nappe springs free. McGraw-Hill Book Company.69 Fig. for example. are used as spillways and control structures.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Figure 21.
32 3.65 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam. or soil.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.69 2.03 3.07 3.65 2.68 2.64 2.74 2.29 3.6 0.00 2.68 2.64 2. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels. ft 0.48 2.64 2.67 2.32 3.0 1.07 3.65 2.32 3.07 3.56 2.64 2.32 3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.64 2.38 2.32 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface. Click here to view.68 2. which are often of equal consequence.89 2.28 3.49 2.20 3.26 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.32 3.68 2.8 2. Inc.32 3.75 2.32 3.76 2.2 1.70 2.50 2.72 2.2 0. valves.32 3.34 2.50 2.19 3.54 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.6 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Heavier silt sizes.30 3.31 3.66 2.73 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.00 2. such as gates.75 2.67 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.63 2.4 1.35.68 2.32 3. erosion.80 2.4 0.89 3. 21.85 2.32 3.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.88 2.54 2.64 2.8 1. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.32 1. and turbines.68 2.32 3.63 2.67 2.63 2.0 5. .68 2.66 2.64 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.63 2.64 2.92 3.32 3.63 2.97 3.66 2.32 3.74 2.32 3.32 3.32 2.0 4.89 3.32 3.32 2.60 2.30 3. A density current.32 3.5 2.77 2.20 3.07 3.70 2.69 2.61 2.64 2.81 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.65 2.63 21.79 2.64 15.32 3.32 3.68 2.62 2.20 3. once formed.65 2.32 3.44 2.32 3.32 3.21.64 2.72 2.88 10. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.69 2.32 4.66 2.64 2.98 3.32 3.05 3.50 2.32 3.67 2.00 2.70 2.32 3.65 2. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.32 1. such as a reservoir.32 5.86 2.68 2.32 3.61 2.32 3. All rights reserved.00 2. those carried in suspension.5 5.32 3.31 3.80 2.70 2.32 3. The smaller silt sizes.88 3.64 2. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.68 2.31 3.5 3.07 3. This incoming water.92 2.08 3.70 2.70 2.00 2.00 2.58 2.32 3.63 2.32 3.32 3.76 2.32 3.60 2.28 3.75 2.75 2.63 2.64 2.50 H.67 2.85 3.0 2.14 3.08 3. those forming the bed load.60 2.79 1.72 2.32 3.32 3.69 2.68 2.63 2. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area. ft 0.5 4.64 2.92 3.75 2.65 2.66 2.60 2.00 2.63 2. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.64 2. with its load of suspended silt.04 3.32 Breadth of crest of weir.64 2.32 3.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.68 2.63 2.0 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.32 3.64 2.32 3.
landslide. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. or from year to year. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. the rate is not uniform during the year. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. 21. When neither can be done. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. Of course. or failure of materials. The most common manner of destruction. . The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas.35. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. Inc. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. formed from the bed load. If sediment deposits are periodically above water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. because of variations in rainfall. are coarsegrained. on the other hand. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. By this method. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. All rights reserved. These currents are stable. However. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. overtopping. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. once formed. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. see Art. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. Click here to view. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. however. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3.39. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur.
Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. which generally occurs only during a storm.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. A mean grain size of 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. which varies with both slope and discharge. and boulders.35. 21. Click here to view.0 ft/mi. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. Therefore. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. (21. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. Therefore. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. ft3/s b = width of river.1). Therefore.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. All rights reserved. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Frequently.124) where Gb = total bed load. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. Inc.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. But for the most part. According to Witzig. however. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. . These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. gravel. discharge. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels.21. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. ft qo = critical discharge. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream.
contour plowing. and pressure. which are of two types. It continually records.Water Resources Engineering s 21. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or a combination of the two.” U. In this cycle. their occurrence. in the form of synoptic weather charts. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and distribution. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. H. evaporation. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. their chemical and physical properties. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. (See H. For instance. All rights reserved. Click here to view. or digital microchip technology. check-dam construction. discharges into streams. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. including their relation to living things. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. (W. Inc.) culation. such as an hour. day. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Such screens. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. planting of burned-over areas. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. groundwater flow. rivers. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. recharges groundwater.S. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period.73 dation. Einstein. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. on or near the land surface. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. Department of Agriculture. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. Weather Bureau. if the dam is raised at a later date. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. and stream flow 21. circulation. and the stream velocity.S. such as wind. water evaporation from oceans. (21-124). and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. and their reaction with their environment. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21.S. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. infiltration. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. Weather Bureau is 24 h. A. Current data. lakes. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. Use of vegetation screens. are published daily by the U. . Graf. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. temperature. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. runoff. infiltrates into the soil.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. debris barriers. or year. New York.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. by ink pen and revolving drum. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin.
in of mercury. The Meyer equation [Eq. R. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. in of mercury. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. A portion may evaporate as it falls. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure.” McGraw-Hill. commonly termed consumptive use. or ground surfaces. Not all rain reaches the ground. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation. Evaporation may occur from free-water. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Evapotranspiration. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. Inc. “Handbook of Hydrology. see D. . has a relatively large surface area. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. branches. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. New York. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. In evaporation. tropical and subtropical regions. developed from Dalton’s law. This phenomenon. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Of the three. Click here to view. on a long-term basis. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. and it increases as wind velocity increases.21.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff.126) where E = evaporation rate. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. while another portion may be caught on leaves. plant. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. All rights reserved.125)]. (21. and other vegetation surfaces. On an annual basis. Inc. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. equal to 15 for small. In transpiration.125) (21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. called interception. Maidment. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. Evapotranspiration is important because. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. ground. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shallow pools and 11 for large.. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. and plantleaf surfaces.
) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. or groundwater runoff. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. R. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used.80. also known as interflow. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. depending on the geographical region. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. effective rain includes subsurface flow. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. aquatic life. Inc.70. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow.” McGraw-Hill. Groundwater flow. birds. Climatic characteristics a.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted.Water Resources Engineering s 21. hail. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. In practice. time distribution. Click here to view. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. dew). On large reservoirs. subsurface runoff. frost. wind tends to push the film to the shore. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. Moving laterally. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. natural or manmade. Runoff is supplied by precipitation.. Commonly. or excess rain. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. Precipitation—form (rain. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. It appears in surface channels. After joining stream flow. is in widespread use. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Classified by the path taken to a channel. New York. and storm seepage. perhaps several years. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. or cetyl alcohol. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. subsurface. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. intensity. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. although it may vary between 0. Subsurface flow. except in arid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. 21. Inc. snow. and biologic attrition. insects. Thus. to reach a channel.60 and 0. (D. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. All rights reserved.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. where it continues as channel or stream flow. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. tropical. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. called a Class A Level Pan. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. or groundwater flow. Hexadeconal. duration. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. . Maidment. runoff may be surface. subsurface storm flow. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation. “Handbook of Hydrology.
Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. as shown in Fig. direction. 21. antecedent precipitation.S. extremes during precipitation c. both published and unpublished. duration d. TVA. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. These papers contain records of daily flow. snow storage. Topographic—size. recurrence interval. channels (size. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. stratification Fig. Click here to view. and various state and local agencies. 21. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers.S. International Boundary Commission. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. shape. artificial drainage. frozen ground during storms. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. Inc.S. groundwater formations. Geological Survey. Geologic—soil type. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. elevation. slope. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. and Weather Bureau. the U. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. drainage net. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data.21. and the accuracy desired. the quantity and type of data available. general location. detail. slope.” U.S. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. 21. Geological Survey. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. roughness. land use and cover.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. Drainage-basin characteristics a.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. orientation. Wind—velocity.S. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. . mean flow.70. direction of storm movement b. special-interest items. lakes and other bodies of water. yearly flow volume. Agricultural Research Service. Atmospheric pressure f. permeability. All rights reserved. the detail required in the final answer. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. Solar radiation 2. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. length) b. Temperature—variation. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. soil moisture.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. areal distribution. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. and completeness of the hydrologic records. extremes of flow. Humidity e. shape of cross section. Geological Survey. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. Weather Bureau.
The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. All rights reserved. T. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient. The values of C in Table 21. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. 5.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 2. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. and large downstream damage potential. a 50. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. the second to major hydraulic structures. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Several methods yield only peak discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.or 100-year-frequency storm. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. great importance. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Inc.128) 21. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. 3.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. 1962). The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases.41. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. Chow.127) where Q = peak discharge. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. others give the complete hydrograph. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. As an example. Click here to view. in/h A = drainage area. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. . After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. 4. for example.
gutters.85 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig.71 and Table 21.50 – 0.75 0. (21.60 – 0. n.129).89)] .90 0.80 – 0. avg.40 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.70 – 0. Inc.18 – 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.70 – 0. min time of concentration Fig.21.” McGraw-Hill. 21. and the flow time in conduits. the flow time in streets. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.15 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.128) or Eq.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. in/h respectively. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.80 0. flat.10 – 0. years duration of storm.10 – 0. (See D. . 21.22 0. steep. avg.95 0.75 – 0.30 – 0. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.40 – 0.85 0.95 0.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. steep.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h. or any equivalent method. K. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose. 2–7% Sandy soil. factor.50 0. 7% Heavy soil. R. b. (21.70 0..75 – 0. detached Multiunits. 2–7% Heavy soil. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.95 0. “Handbook of Hydrology.20 0. 2% Heavy soil.) The flow time in gutters.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.129) Table 21. Equation (21. coefficient. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.70 – 0. 21.10 0.127). (21. or ditches.20 – 0.17 0.10 – 0.60 0. (21.25 – 0.25 0. After determining the time of concentration.41.16).50 – 0.60 – 0. Click here to view. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. Maidment. 2% Sandy soil. flat.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ditches. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.95 0.15 0. All rights reserved.05 – 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. Sherman.50 – 0.30 0.35 0. streets.13 – 0. New York.25 – 0.20 – 0. Inc.40 0. is a convenient. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area.70 0.
vol. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. 4. Inc. 2. 501-505. termed a unit period. that is. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. JanuaryJune 1932.” Engineering News-Record.79 Table 21.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. 108. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. the time of storm runoff. Click here to view. If the watershed is very large. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. The method is summarized by the formula (21. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. 3. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. pp. usually 1 acre). This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. subdivision may be required. easier. . It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. termed a unit storm. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. and more accurate than any such set of factors.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. Thus.Water Resources Engineering s 21. All rights reserved. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. Sherman. (Leroy K. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. This requires that a storm of short duration. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures.
which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). Then. 5. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. 21.73). The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. because of storm variations.72.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Click here to view. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. Illustrated in Fig. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. . Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. Usually. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. Inc. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. For ease of manipulation. 21. which is of fixed intensity and duration. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. All rights reserved. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. 21.
Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply.. vol. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. (R. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. (See D.) Fig. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. This method was developed by Franklin F.74). 447–454). is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. All rights reserved. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. 21.131) period. Inc. “Hydrology for Engineers. during heavy storms. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. 21. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21.. K. New York.) where Q = flow rate. This loss. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.” 3rd ed. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. R.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. “Handbook of Hydrology. Fig. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain.” McGraw-Hill. Also.. McGraw-Hill. Linsley et al. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. . Inc. Maidment. perpendicular to direction of flow. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. pp. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. I.81 21.. 19. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Inc. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. pt.
alternative management plans should be formulated. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. groundwater levels. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. safe yield. These costs include increased soap costs. present and future water demands should be determined. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer.21. quantity. recycling. because of impermeable layers above and below it.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. usually a number of years. need for excessive pumping lifts. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. Inc. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. source. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. water softening costs. poor-quality replenishment waters. Frequently. Deteriorating water quality. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. Following the preceding preliminary work. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. Regardless of how it is defined. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. (A base period is a period of time. cost of replenishment water. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. quantity. wastewaters. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. and location of artificial replenishment. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. and overdraft. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. among others.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. rather than a change in volume. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. and indirect water-quality use costs.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. Click here to view. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. is a confined or artesian aquifer. . or other causes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. quality. and methods of wastewater disposal. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers.
Kashef. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. “Water Resources Planning. American Society of Civil Engineers. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.. culinary. and environmental factors. bathing. such as industrial development. land speculation. Click here to view. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. is a very difficult task. Linsley et al. transmission. storage. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. I. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. no. institutional. Hydrology for Engineers. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. . the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. (“Ground Water Management. 40. wastewater disposed. washing.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. percentage increase. Grigg.” 3rd ed. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. “Groundwater Engineering. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors. pumping. and age of the city. motels. flood. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. commercial. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bear.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. surface-water delivery facilities. 21. J. or other unforeseen emergency.” R.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. however.” A. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. and hotels for drinking. Therefore.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. water used. geographical boundaries. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. The smaller the system. irrigation. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan.. K. Estimation of future population. industrial. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. amount and location of groundwater extractions. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. and natural and artificial replenishment. legal. apartments.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. fire. financially feasible. and public. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. decreasing percentage increase. and treatment works. industrial. All rights reserved. sanitary. and sanitary purposes. 1987. distribution.” N. Inc. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. fire-fighting. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. S. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. graphical comparison with other cities. New York.
Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Inc. Demand rates vary with time of day. degree of industrialization. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita.S. and air conditioning purposes. degree of industrialization. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pressure. Mo. reservoir evaporation. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality.17. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and quality of the water.” 1979. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. air conditioning. and time of day. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. State of California Office of Planning and Research. valves. it may control the design of the facilities. size of the city. presents Table 21. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. cost. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. janitorial. mainly because of the lack of large industries. month. as presented in Table 21. if the cost of water increases. type of service (metered or unmetered). quality. Click here to view. and unauthorized uses. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. are the average of a range of values. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. . No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. Calif. influence the demand rate for water. The national demand-rate data. and year. lawn sprinkling. Normally. cooling. the demand for it decreases. Public use of water for parks.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and pressure. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. public buildings. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. standard of living. Public Health Service Report. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. and faucets. Table 21. meter malfunctions. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. but because of the high rate at which it is required. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. and cleaning.21. cost. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. such as the climate. All rights reserved. The “California Water Atlas.
consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 8.4 3.000 110.000 80.000 5. Hydrant Spacing.000 1.000 55. valley cities.000 12. and politics.000 40.2 8. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. legality.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. rivers. 21. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. quality.9 4.000 70.000 40. to a large extent.8 2. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 60.18 Required Fire Flow.132) where G = fire-demand rate.000 10. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. All rights reserved.000 17.2 2.18.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. inland. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. cost.4 17.3 5. interdependent.000 1. but the demand rate is high. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.8 7. industrialization. In some local areas.000 40.000 10. gal/min P = population.000 2.8 6.6 1. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. † MGD = million gallons per day. is frequently undesirable. such as lakes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 48.000 85. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities. MG† 0. diversification is essential for reliability. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100.000 * American Insurance Association. however. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.6 11. climate. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 80.000 3. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability.0 3.000 4. Moreover.000 100.500 2.000 90. the effect of warm. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.000 40. Click here to view. In the past.3 0.000 40. Total dependence on a single source.4 2.6 4. Cost. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.000 200. In the atlas. however. and in some cases. In selection of a source of supply. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living. When calculating the total flow to be used in design.5 14. and streams.000 120.000 125.000 90. The source must Table 21. Inc.0 7. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 28.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts.000 6. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.3 Duration. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.0 1.000 40. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 40.000 85. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. MG = million gallons. .Water Resources Engineering s 21.000 4.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.21. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.) At the discretion of the state. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. In addition. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21.S. and calculation of the Langelier index. 21.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.22.5 mg / L 0. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately.S.3 mg / L 0. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. calcium hardness. (See also Art.” American Public Health Association. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. and Water Pollution Control Federation. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. Click here to view. dependent on local conditions.5 – 8. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. such as sulfates and chlorides. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Source Protection s The U. alkalinity. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.21. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L.” U. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. The measurements should include pH. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. All rights reserved. . These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. total dissolved solids. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. Inc. American Water Works Association. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. temperature.
can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. (Usually.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. unpleasant tastes and odors. Inc. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping. however.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. In the region where 1.134). where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. such as those mentioned above. coagulation-sedimentation. velocity is constant. Ann Arbor. 21. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. and size and shape of the settling basin. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. Mich. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Figure 21. and softening (see also Art. Pojasek.001 and 5. All rights reserved.75 shows a plot of CD values vs.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. calculated with ν = νs. slow and rapid sand filtration. Newton’s law applies: (21. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. Figure 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. to be used in Eq. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. mm If R > 2000. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size. Click here to view. Reynolds numbers.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. shape. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. For this ideal basin. particulate and colored matter. (21.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible.. . Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity. is equal to or less than 1.51).0. and specific gravity of the suspended particles.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. 21. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter.0 < R < 2000.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.46. and width B. depth ho . The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. V the flowthrough velocity. (See R. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. temperature and viscosity of the water. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. disinfection. (21. B. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. Inc.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means.
Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. All rights reserved. 103. p. at 10 °C. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. 21. vol.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 897. 1946.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. . after Camp. Inc.) Fig. (Observed curves. 21.21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21. and eddy currents. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Okun. Inc. Without coagulants.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. are removed in this basin.5 ft/min (most common velocity.46. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. Inc. Fair. Geyer. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. 1. short circuiting. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. and D. rectangular (Fig. 21.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . New York. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. C. M.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. Inc.) 21.. . occupy less site area than the single-story basin. salt. 21. 21. finely Fig.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Multistory tanks.78b). “Water Treatment Plant Design. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The tubular settler (Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York. or other indicator to pass through the basin.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . Click here to view. G.8c. All rights reserved..” McGraw-Hill. A. coagulants are added to the water. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye. for example.” John Wiley & Sons. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. 27. 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. J.78a) or circular (Fig. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.
21.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. (d) Tubular settler. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (b) Circular clarifier. All rights reserved. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Click here to view. 21. Inc. .
The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step.” R. Click here to view. temperature.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Anionic polymers. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. L. such as paper fiber. in some instances. Corbitt. 18H2O]. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. The filtering process has many components. such as mechanical stirrers. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. organic polyelectrolytes. or neutral in charge. such as pH. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. Polymers are long-chain. American Water Works Association. and suspended solids. color. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. polymers have a minor effect on pH. and easier dewatering. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing.. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. to get the small floc to agglomerate.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). Culp. coliform organisms. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. consequently. New York. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. J. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. color. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. “New Concepts in Water Purification. or positively charged. production of a smaller volume of sludge.. or negatively charged.” McGraw-Hill. turbidity. centrifugal pumps. however. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. T. however. and air jets. and nonionic. considering both cost and performance.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria.to 60min range. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. Inc. and hardness. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. such as physical straining. ferric chloride (FeCl3).” 4th ed. highmolecular-weight. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles.) 21. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. settling. McGhee. “Water Supply and Sewerage. Inc. Culp and R. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. All rights reserved. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. Thereby. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. (G. however. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). . commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. anionic. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. They are available in three types: cationic. A. chemical and biological reactions. L. New York. plankton. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. Also. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. “Water Quality and Treatment.
The process requires rapid mixing.35-mm range.79. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. that will pass 10%. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. in millimeters. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. and dual. of the sand. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.25. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Usually.21.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. All rights reserved. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. 21. by weight. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0.to 0. Click here to view.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. Inc. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process.to 12-in layer of gravel. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed. The wash- Fig. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. depending on the turbidity.or mixed-media filtration. through the sand and gravel layers. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. . 21.
such as rakes. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. which is drained to waste. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence.005:1 range. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. . or sand incrustation will be encountered. filters pass water at a high rate. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. bed cracking. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Immediately after washing. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1. diatomaceous earth. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. or anthracite coal. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. creating a high head loss across the filter.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.002:1 to 0. The filtering medium may be sand.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. may be more advantageous.20 to 1.25 to 1.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. gal/min b = width of trough. and air jets. or deep coarse-media filters. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. which produces an undertreated effluent.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals.35 to 0. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Dual-media. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. water sprays. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. mixed-media. All rights reserved. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. however. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding.
Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. American Water Works Association. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. J.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. in clear wells. New York. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. Okun. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).” and T.139) 21. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. Inc. where 1 gpg = 17. L. perforated. and American Society of Civil Engineers. McGhee. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO.21. These materials remove cations.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.138) (21.) 21. Culp and R.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins.1 mg/L.. and D. and (3) total hardness. Inc. Fair.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights.) (21. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. Regeneration requires between 0. C. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. Click here to view. such as calcium and magnesium. respectively. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Culp. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. All rights reserved. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. Geyer. “Water Supply and Sewerage.. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. or open-joint pipes. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms.. and American Society of Civil Engineers. .140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” 4th ed. “Water Treatment Plant Design..136) (21. M. (American Water Works Association. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. In the lime-soda process. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. and R is the zeolite material. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. sulfates. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. however. G. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. carbonates.3 and 0. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 4th ed. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. “Water Quality and Treatment. A. New York. New York. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. “New Concepts in Water Purification. “Water Quality and Treatment. lime (CaO). Some. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. L. (G. gas. New York. J.” 6th ed. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers.” John Wiley & Sons.
The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Filter both solutions. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation.Water Resources Engineering s 21.” McGraw-Hill. “Water Treatment Plant Design. flood control. New York.1 or 0. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.) respect to carbonates. ozone. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. Inc. Inc. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. odor. detergents. and electrodialysis.” John Wiley & Sons. New York. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Fair. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. irrigation. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. activated carbon.) 21. bromine. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. A.99 water supplies. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. iron.45). Inc. . An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. then. J. Click here to view. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. All rights reserved. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. despite its low solubility. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. water supply. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. chlorine dioxide.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.) 21. taste. McGhee. Okun. and lime. ultraviolet light. and D.” and T. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample. cation exchange. Chlorine residuals of 0. J. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. C. lime softening. New York.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. excessive fluorides. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art.. manganese. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. M. (G.” McGraw-Hill. “Water Treatment Plant Design.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Other disinfectants are iodine.. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. Geyer. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. anion exchange.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. 21. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. “Water Supply and Sewerage. reverse osmosis.
80 Mass diagram of stream flow. . maximum flows will govern. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. 21.1). 21. Inc.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. The mass diagram (Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Once a reservoir site has been selected. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. Aeri- Fig. minimum flows will be critical. All rights reserved. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. When the demand rate is known. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Click here to view. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC.21. 21. areavolume curves (Fig. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. Also. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. 21. as is the case for many water-supply projects. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.52. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. The plot of volume vs.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.
When the tem- 21. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. which may be only a few feet thick. Click here to view.35 and 21.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. and Los Angeles. the flow refills the reservoir. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. When the demand drops off. give special attention to water quality. but there is no circulation across this zone. All rights reserved. In deep reservoirs. is called the thermocline. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. such as New York. odor. If possible. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.2).81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir.101 Fig. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. perature drops in the fall. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. Inc. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. Major sources of supply for some cities.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. San Francisco. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. pumping plants. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. 21.52. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. During hours of maximum demand. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. . are large distances from the city.52. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler.
21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. no.84). 21. A flowing artesian Fig. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. . ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig.82) (G. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. 34.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves. 21. vol. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. M. 3.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. 21. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. For any given storage reservoir. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.35.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined. 21. 21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. For the correct hydraulic grade. 21. Click here to view. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio.83). All rights reserved. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. M. Brune. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir.52. June 1953). Brune. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21.
21. . Inc.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.103 Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig.
waterjet.83). A. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. New York. 1940. 21. E. ft h = H minus drawdown. hollow-core..” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.57).4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. p. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. 21. screen. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. 21. C.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. J. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. 5. Okun. 21. C. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. vol. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface.84). gal/day. bored. pump (Art. Theis. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. ft (Fig.” Economic Geology. (G. The pump. Click here to view. Inc. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. “Water Supply and Sewerage. . or driven. 21. Inc. eductor or riser pipe. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well.21.53. p. Jacob.” John Wiley & Sons.” 6th ed. Inc. (C. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. Hence. McGhee. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 33. 629. 72. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. and motor.53. Fair. 889.142) where Q = flow. Geyer. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. T. and D.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. December 1938. All rights reserved. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. ft d = diameter of well. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. McGraw-Hill. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. ft The steady flow. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. from an artesian well is given by (21. or hydraulic rotary methods. ditch.143) 21. vol.. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. V. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. motor. New York.53. 21.53. J.. no. M.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. and other appurtenances. Since steel is stronger than iron. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures.54. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. steel. bacteria in water. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. but wood is rarely used in new installations. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. Wood pipelines are still in existence. zinc. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. A machine that produces a monolithic. Under favorable conditions. ft 21. rubber. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. or Dresser-type couplings. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. and meters destroyed by corrosion.21. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost.) At the anode. Copper. plastic. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. polyethylene. brass. are present. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. valves.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. lead. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. and plastics. stray electric currents. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. such as polyvinyl chloride. pumps. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. tanks. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. and sulfur compounds.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. hydrants. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. If it is cement-lined. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. an anode and a cathode. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls.146) where D = pipe diameter. polybutylene. impurities and strains in metals. Inc. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. All rights reserved. Click here to view. sand. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. valves. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. concrete. and ability to withstand external loads. contact between acids and metals. 21. In unlined pipes. bronze. riveting. however. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. sealed flanges. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. (21.
thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films.Water Resources Engineering s 21. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Inc. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Aluminum. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. . Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. All rights reserved. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. When selecting materials.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. the faster electrons can move through the water. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. At the cathode. zinc. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). cracks. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. to prevent corrosion. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Also. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. use of protective coatings. and Fig. and the more ions. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. caustic soda. Click here to view. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. water may be treated with bases. Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. for example. such as soda ash.) For an iron pipe exposed to water.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. 21. Strains. 21. and treatment of the water. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe.86). where e is an electron. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials.
ft of water z = elevation difference.” 4th ed. graphite. The centrifugal pump. hydroxides.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.87). it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. To prevent cavitation. To have practical meaning.88). ..21. psia. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. or eye. however.147) where pa = pressure. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials. 21. All rights reserved. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. efficiency.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. and the head-discharge relationship. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy.. ft. Inc. horsepower. the most common waterworks pump. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. “Water Quality and Treatment. in feet. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. (American Water Works Association. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. Click here to view.) w = unit weight of liquid. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. 21. 21. Water enters at the center. oxides. lime. Zinc. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. Corrosion. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Inc. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. psia. and so on on the walls of the pipes. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. accomplishes that in two steps. between pump center line and water surface Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or impeller. called a volute (Fig. by (21. McGraw-Hill. 21. z is negative. magnesium.
58.) 21. Fig. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. reciprocating. depending on the number of stages. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. (I. J. 21. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter.89 are the other curves used in pump selection.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. 21.” 2nd ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. 21. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. as shown in Fig. . For that reason. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. rotary. “Pump Handbook. below 200 gal/min. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump. 21. 21.57 and check valves in Art. pump discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In a typical water-system analysis.89. See also Art. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. however. and air lift.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. 21. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. Karassik et al. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. head. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Inc.. jet.111 than the required NPSH. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. All rights reserved.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. propeller. helical. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Click here to view. (Also included in Fig. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. New York.
or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. which are located at the well bottom. Jet pumps (Fig. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. Inc. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. gal/min H = head. and for Ns above 7500.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. vanes. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. All rights reserved. utilize piston action to move water. (21. r/min Q = discharge. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. At sea level. 21.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. 21. so that the entire lift is suction. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. which is a function of specific speed. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter.or motordriven. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Click here to view.90 fied). the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. either hand. . Reciprocating pumps. they can be used only for sediment-free water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cams. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Jet pumps have low efficiencies.148) where n = impeller speed. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Because of the close tolerances. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe.
in-service lubrication features.. plug. one just upstream of the meter. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Plug. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. applied through a gear-reduction device. The major types of isolating valves are gate. or Neoprene. or it may be at the bottom of the well. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. pumps. sluice gate. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. tubercle formation. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. solids deposition. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve.) drives to permit manual operation. Also. which are water. Low head loss. and low head loss when fully open. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. McGraw-Hill Book Company. air-relief. large pressure differences. But these valves cost more than gate. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. primarily because of their low cost. Simplicity of construction and quick. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. needle. and easy. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe.113 tion. globe. Usually. availability. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. Click here to view. Karassik et al. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. “Pump Handbook. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. and butterfly valves. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings.” 2nd ed. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. If sand is carried out with the water. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). J. New York. respectively. globe. curb. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. Hand or motor power. one at the service connection. . and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. pressure-regulating.. Corrosion. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. rubber. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. and butterfly. Inc. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. (I. Check.or oil-lubricated. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. rotates the disk. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. three valves must be used. fast operation. or corporation cocks. cone. pressure-relief. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump.
hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. Click here to view. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. For example. All rights reserved. Often. rivers. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. Inc. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. When the valve is in a closed position. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. The most common check valve is the swing type. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. which connects the barrel to the main. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. tube. such as trunk lines 21. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. 21.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Because of high head losses. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. and relief valves. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. such as pressure regulators and altitude. . This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Usually. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. Interior-differential. and large pipes. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening.21. Many automatic control valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. The wetbarrel. check. or California type. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. Furthermore. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
or nutating-disk types. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. called a Price meter. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. nozzle. Inc.. Brater. or modifications thereof. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. such as meters for individual customer connections. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. see E. New York. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. However. respectively. vertical velocity components. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. (21. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. are the most common velocity-type devices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied.150) where Q = flow rate. simplicity and ease of repairs.149) Hydraulics. and cost. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. The cup-type meter. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. amount of head loss through the meter. The standard venturi meter (Fig. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. which do not affect propeller meters. but they are used primarily in laboratories. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. for metering domestic-service connections.” 6th ed. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. Click here to view. McGraw-Hill Book Company.115 of distribution systems. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation. .) As in venturi meters. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. durability. ft h1 = pressure in main section. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.91.5% within the normal test-flow limits. rotary. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. A clicking noise. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. F. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. The nutating disk is used. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. 21. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. 21.
91 plate meter. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. fixed charges on capital investment. Click here to view. fire use. 21. (b) Nozzle meter. Inc. load factors. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. (c) Orifice- 21. step rate. peak rates of use. . flat rate is falling into disuse. or to some other recognized system. and block rate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. utility-type enterprises. if any. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. seasonal use. This type of charge tends to encourage waste.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. and development of the system. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. and similar items. Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required.
Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. depends on the peak usage of a customer. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. When fixing a system of rates. Cost component 1. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. and transformers. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. penstocks. turbines and governors. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. generators and exciters. a building to house the machinery and equipment. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. . where applicable. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. All rights reserved. treatment chemicals. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. For most distribution systems. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. This charge is usually small.746 kW 1 kW = 1. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. called the customer component. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. pumping energy. draft tube. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Inc. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. and (3) cost. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. canals. called the demand component. Cost component 2. switching equipment. It is generally recognized that residential areas. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. tunnel. Click here to view. Cost component 3. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. called the commodity component. S. buying water from a wholesale supplier.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. including metering and billing. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. tunnels. of serving an individual customer. where the majority of small users are. and. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. 21.117 With step rate. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.
during periods of peak power demand (Fig. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Therefore. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Then. or yearly basis.92). Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Storage can be provided for a daily. Click here to view. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. It can be computed on a daily. and peak-load plants. such as navigation. On a weekly cycle. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. or seasonal cycle. 21. On a seasonal cycle. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects.21. Inc.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. All rights reserved. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. . the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. to be used at some future time. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. weekly. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. power production being only incidental. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. base-load plants. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. On a daily cycle. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. weekly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. run-of-river plants with storage. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the minimum flow is very low.
The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis.92 Daily load curves for generating plants.119 Fig. earth.” 4th ed. Inc. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the energy loss may make it uneconomical.92). Click here to view. and rock-fill. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak.) 21. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered.. Force F2 represents silt pressure. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. buttress. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. (V. Hasen.Water Resources Engineering s 21.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Zipparo and H. 21. When needed. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. arch. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. All rights reserved. Calif. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. New York. J. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. it usually is not as economical. Los Angeles. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. (Department of Water and Power. Figure 21.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. Its distribution is triangular. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. The main classifications are gravity.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. .
The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes.1 g. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. 21. was developed by von Karman. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. p.425h above the base. ice. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.” discussion by von Karman. 98. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. . A method of calculating these forces. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. Rose. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. (21. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. vol. 434. given by Eq.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. 1933. today it is realized these values are much too high. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. May 1946. presented by Edwin Rose. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. In cold climates.) (21. These accelerations occur in every direction. In the past.93 by forces F4 and F5. Inc.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.153). (E. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. which create forces on any object resting on it. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21.153) where w = unit weight of water.000 psf.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. A close approximation of the force. which forms on the reservoir surface. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. ice pressures as high as 50. however.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Click here to view. 21. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir.
the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. sand. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. First. If the deflections are not equal. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. and clay.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. They are not suited to most sites. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. such as sand and gravel. and uplift forces are smaller. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. overturning by rotating about the toe. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. engineers assumed that. Click here to view. Recent belief. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. uplift is not so important. because of bearing contact. On arch dams. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. All rights reserved. however. Hence. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. however. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. their relative importance is much different. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. but its formwork is more expensive. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. In the multiple-arch.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. In the past. Inc. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. If a large quantity of pervious material. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. Although there are many types of buttress dams. The modes of failure are also the same. but the structural design is much more critical. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. or failure of the foundation material. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. When the base is not drained. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. . However. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. however. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. silt. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. is available and clayey materials must be imported. rock flour. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam.
Temporary facings are usually of wood. If pervious material is not available. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. (V. the natural angle of repose of rock. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. 21. . The cutoff wall is usually concrete.) 21.3 on 1. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Today. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Bureau of Relamation.” 4th ed. Inc. Zipparo and H.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. bonding into the dumped rock.” U. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations.21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” EM 1110-2-2300. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. J. therefore. New York.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Click here to view. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Leakage should be expected. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. however. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams.94). although steel has been used occasionally.3 on 1. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. For dams over 200 ft high. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. or wood over concrete. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. and an upstream impervious facing. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. bearing on the rubble cushion. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. For some types of soil. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. All rights reserved. providing power. Army Corps of Engineers. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. Hasen. S. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. The facing is usually concrete. U. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. onto the fill. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. The downstream face is usually 1. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. S. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. McGraw-Hill Book Company. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically..
runner. In these. Inc.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner.) Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity.” 4th ed. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. 21. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft.. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. the propeller-type (Fig. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work. All rights reserved.95a). J. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. wicket gates. their efficiency decreases rapidly. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. This creates a force on the runner. 21. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. However. At heads above 1000 ft. . As the water flows through the tur- 21. New York. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. however. (V. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. Hasen. wicket gates. and the fixed-blade type. runner. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate.123 bine. and draft tube. When the power demand on the turbine changes. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. At heads below 100 ft. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. if the load drops below 50%. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and draft tube. 21. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. Click here to view.94 turbine. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. Zipparo and H. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. The propeller turbine (Fig. it changes direction. 21. such as the Kaplan turbine. In such installations. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. The wicket gates.95c).
21.65.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. This type of spillway is Fig. if designed correctly. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. 21.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. widely used for concrete dams because. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. (b) Kaplan.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. the dam will not be damaged by the water. (c) axial flow. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams.21. .
Inc.S. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the siphon’s intake is sealed.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. DC 20402).Water Resources Engineering s 21. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. or ogee in cross section. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. The air vent shown in Fig.” Government Printing Office. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. The weir can be sharp-crested. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. 21. In a chute spillway. In a shaft spillway. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. This type of spillway.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. . (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams.96 Siphon spillway. both depending on the head on the weir. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. “Design of Small Dams. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. As the head increases. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. In a side-channel spillway. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. A siphon spillway (Fig. Thus. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. Bureau of Reclamation. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. called an ogee spillway. Click here to view. flared. open channel. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. lined. 21. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. model tests are usually employed. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. 21. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. All rights reserved. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.34). sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. When the head is relatively low. Washington. 21. Once this second condition is reached.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway.
making removal difficult. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply.98 Bear-trap gate. Click here to view. 21. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. excluding debris and ice from a conduit.5 ft/s. controlling flow.21. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.97 Taintor gate. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. In a taintor gate (Fig. level of a reservoir within close limits. All rights reserved. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. On large stop-log installations. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. 21.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained.97). and providing support for the conduit. To do this. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. 21. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. the pipes fail. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. 21. Inc. In contrast. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. 21. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. Fig. causing damage and hampering operation.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. . Fig. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head.65. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir.65. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest.
Inc.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top.) Fig. as shown in Fig.. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. (V. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York.99 Drum gate. and J. Cleasby. J. 21. and H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. Click here to view. Zipparo and H.98. Babbitt. drum gates are not suited to small dams. The drum gate (Fig.” 4th ed. Hasen. L. “Water Supply Engineering. Because of the large recess required in the dam. Doland.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. To raise a bear-trap gate. E. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. J. J. All rights reserved. .
. All rights reserved.128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.blank page 21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
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