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W

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida

**WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
**

*

ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.

**21.2 Properties of Fluids
**

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

**21.1 Dimensions and Units
**

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**21.2 s Section Twenty-One
**

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2

2

Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
**

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

† atm indicates atmospheres.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

or liquid surface. Click here to view. is concave upward. Surface tension and capillarity. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube. formation of spray from water jets. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig.7 psia.21. at sea level. Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. Thus. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. is small and insignificant in most problems. All rights reserved. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. psia. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. and freezing damage to concrete.3. face and rises in a small tube. Gage pressure.7 psi. When the liquid is in a closed container. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. portions of the liquid vaporize. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure. Inc.1) where h = capillary rise.000 ft is shown in Fig. 21. is pressure above or below atmospheric. pitting. psi. however. like surface tension. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. as shown in Fig. decreases with increasing temperature. Meniscus. are significant in others. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. as shown in Fig. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Its temperature variation. In equation form. 21. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. 21. (21. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. ft Capillarity. 21. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces.2. Absolute pressure. .1. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. Its value Fig. respectively. ft σ = surface tension. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. although negligible in many water engineering problems.

the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. or implode. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. 21.00001059 ft2/s. Click here to view. Viscosity. It is so named because its units. 21. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. Inc. Then. and pitting appears. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. as shown in Fig. psf.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2.8) to determine whether laminar. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. At any depth. on the bottom surface. ft/s y = depth. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. ft. also called the coefficient of viscosity. All rights reserved. transitional. to collapse. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. lb/ft3.5 Fig. which extend into the pores of the metal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.2) where τ = shearing stress.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. psf. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems. absolute viscosity. of length and time. ft2/s. µ of a fluid. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. Since the prism is at rest. on the top surface. . It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth. the pressure acts equally in all directions. and cross-sectional area A. is a measure of its resistance to flow. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. or completely turbulent flow exists.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. In hydraulics. (Pressures as high as 350. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. the force due to pressure p1. or dynamic viscosity. lb/ft2 21. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. and the force due to pressure p2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21.4. ft2.

. ft2. (21. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. ft.4. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. For horizontal surfaces. Taking ∆h to be h.21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. at depth h.3b) then becomes (21.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. dams. lb/ft3. Click here to view. 21.3a) Division of Eq. the depth of the centroid. All rights reserved. (21. then p2 is p. the depth below the water surface.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface. however.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. Inc. (21. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. Figure 21.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5) 21. (21. Thus.6) – ∫ydA = y A. and y sin θ = h . The resultant pressure force P. p1 is atmospheric pressure. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. and other water control structures.6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) by A yields (21.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. Equation (21. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. lb. tanks. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure). ft.1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. psf. where w is the specific weight of water.4). (21.3. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure. the pressure. Therefore. (21. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4) Equation (21. 21.

5).29). The location of the center of pressure. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig. Hence y . with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21.p. Inc. yp may be calculated directly from Eq.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. Click here to view.) that is below the c.Water Resources Engineering s 21. – From Eq.7). Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA.8). . the total force P = whA. ft. Thus. (21. 6.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.2° to the horizontal (Fig. The denominator of Eq. Otherwise. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 (see also Fig. 21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. Pyp = ∫y dP. if that locus is a straight line. psf. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface.) but acts at a point (c. 21. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth.7 Fig. represented by the length yp. All rights reserved. 21. (21. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.).5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface.g.8) equals –A. 21.7). (21. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid. of the surface about its centroidal axis.g.p. where K is the radius of gyration. (21. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. 21. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c. Example 21. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined.

6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. Also. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. Therefore.) of common shapes.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.8.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Note: 1.42 = 5. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics.0) = 5. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force.9).0 ft. Inc. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2. yp = 5.3. Click here to view. From Eq. .21. however.42 ft. K2 = point G.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb. (See Example 21. The resultant pressure force can be calculated.0 + 0.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.08/5 = 5. 21.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.0 + 2. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. 21. P = 62. 21. (21.5 + 1/ (5. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2. 21. All rights reserved. The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus.g.08.

Inc.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface. – From Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (See Example 21. Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.9 Fig. Vertical component of pressure acts upward. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. 2.6 ft3.564.6 × 62. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. 21. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.9. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. Click here to view.6w = 19. (21. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1.2.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig.4 × 2. and for a constant-radius surface. PH = whA = 62. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. All rights reserved. (b) Free-body diagram. 21. Example 21.4°. Its angle with the horizontal is known. (a) Pressure variation over the surface. 21.14 × 25/4 = 19.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure.9). so the weight of the water is 19. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.Water Resources Engineering s 21. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. When water is below the curved surface. .) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.5 × 5 = 780 lb.7). 21. The corresponding angle is 57. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface.4 = 1220 lb = PV.

10a). whether floating or submerged. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21. ft3 ys = distance. is indicated by the metacenter. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig.). All rights reserved. For a body to be in equilibrium. The stability of a ship. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. 21. the pressure head.b. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10b).10b. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. or the difference in head.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. (21. .. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c.g. Click here to view. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq. (21. Given in feet by Eq.21.4). (21. p = wh.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Manometers indicate h. Inc. 21.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. 21. 21. ft.

What is hm? Fig. The liquid is water with w = 62. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. Basic types of manometers.3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. All rights reserved. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. U-tube manometer.4 lb/ft3. .11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations. The piezometer (Fig.11): piezometer. Inc.11a is 2. Click here to view. However. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. (a) Piezometers. 21. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. (b) U-tube manometer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. although the latter is most common.Water Resources Engineering s 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere.12c).11 manometer. 21. and differential manometer.17 psi. 21. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). Example 21. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.

21. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig. A movable scale. All rights reserved.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. Very low pressures.11b) is used. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. 21. In this application. the usual indicating liquid is mercury.12c). the Utube manometer (Fig.21. . can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. including negative gage pressures. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. 21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid.

the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement. 21. 21.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. The differential manometer (Fig. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.0 and 2.4: A differential manometer (Fig. Click here to view.12a. and the right side. . The pressure at B. psf. Example 21. and z is 1. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult. such as might be required in laboratories. All rights reserved.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1.25 ft of water. however. or sump. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy.40.4 × 0. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.0 ft. however. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids. when expressed in feet of water.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. such as ft of water or psi. as shown in Fig.4 × 2.6 × 62. Above 5. ft. the magnification will be 2. psf p2 = pressure at 2. 32.Water Resources Engineering s 21. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21. the greater the magnification and sensitivity. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1.13 indicating liquid. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. is magnified by the differential manometer.25 ft. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. psf w = specific weight of fluid.5. hm1 is 9 in. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. the actual pressure difference. Most of them. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.11) where Z1 = elevation. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. hi is 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. if the actual difference is 0. that is.6). The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. the total energy per unit weight at 2. in the manometer. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. For example. 21.4 × 2. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. Inc. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. One factor. psf.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. ft.75 + 13.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. where W is the weight. 21. above some arbitrary datum. a Fig. All rights reserved. lb. lb/ft3. velocity.5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig. ft/s. ft/s = Q/A.13). The total energy. where Va is the velocity. however.14. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined. across the area of the section A.4 ft3/s. and pressure (Fig. Example 21. Average velocity. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.11) applies only to an ideal fluid.14 s Section Twenty-One (21.21. As indicated in Fig. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation.13. This term hf. varies with velocity. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. or the total head ft: (21.14) pa/w is called pressure head. and w is the specific weight of the fluid. 21. velocity. Inc. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. (See Example 21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. 21. Kinetic energy at the section.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. (21.11). . V2/2g. and pressure. ft3/s. through friction. 21. Fig.5. when added to the downstream side of Eq. It equals WVa2 / 2g. 21. where Q is the quantity of flow. Click here to view. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w. Usually. velocity head. ft. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. ft. ft2.

The energy grade line. A change in momentum. 21. p2 = 0. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient. Inc. which may result from a change in either velocity. hf = 50 – 1. respectively. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. 21. Also.15 Fig. Art. Hence. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. while in pressure flow.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. ft. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0.15). direction. is equal to the impulse. since the pipe has free discharge. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. (21. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. Click here to view. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface.45 ft. In openchannel flow. respectively. Z2 = 0. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. Thus substitution in Eq.14 = 10 ft/s. . Since the datum plane passes through point 2. or magnitude of flow. gate valve. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance.7. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.9). sometimes called the total head line.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.55 = 48. and any bends.4/ 3.

Example 21. which is to be determined). lb. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.78.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s.12)] but may be used separately.000 lb.2° – 13.600 lb In the Y direction.78 Ry = 145.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.5 ft/s. Inc. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R.1 Rx = –82.4/ 32.21. (See Example 21.15) first in the X direction.94 × 100 × 4.332π = 71. then in the Y direction. since ∆Vx = –(7.200 lb.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167. 21.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction.500 lb. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fx = 181. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. Fig.600.000 sin 53. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid.11) or (21. apply Eq. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions. All rights reserved.6.96 sin 53. (21. To find F.1 and the density ρ = 62. With p1 known.2= 1. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. (21.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.2° – 71.96 cos 53. Then. so θ = 60. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145.16. The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.000 cos 53. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. Let R be the force.5) = 65. since ∆Vy = –(–7. Fy = –181. Click here to view. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate.200 + Rx = 1.5°. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. and at 2.2° + Ry = 1. P2 = ppA2 = 13. . The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.94 × 100 × 65.2° – 0) = 4.700/82. 21.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7.94.

Popular before the advent of digital computers. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. employs both physical and mathematical models. hybrid modeling. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype. and through execution of the computer program. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. See also Art. momentum. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. Inc. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. to a given set of stimuli. 1. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. viscosity. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. erosional scour.17 21. such as a river. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Physical models are expensive to build. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and surface tension. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. gravity. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype.7.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. or proposed works. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In this way.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It is. operate. such as storm rainfall. Click here to view. In water resources engineering. In most models.7. . however. A fourth mode of modeling. droughts. In the preceding example. For instance. With hybrid models. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. alternative management schemes. the capability of the computing resources. or availability of data to support the modeling effort. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. or prototype. aquifer. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. or drainage basin. All rights reserved. Usually.

respectively. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Inc. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. Once the length ratio has been set. Squaring both sides of Eq. the formation of drops and air bubbles.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. viscosity. 32. and Weber number. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. entrainment of air in flowing water.22) where ρ = density of fluid. Therefore. Reynolds number. Similarly. such as depth or diameter). and one other force are made proportional. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface.21. which is always a predominant force. Click here to view. ft2/s. All rights reserved. Ratios of the forces of gravity.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The inertial force. such as spillways and weirs. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. . and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant.21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant. Froude number. The Reynolds number is (21. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. The Weber number is (21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. The Froude number is (21.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. the model is termed a true model.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined. Then (21. (21.21a) (21. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. the length ratio is the only variable.20) R is dimensionless. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. (21.

the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless. (21. Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood.7. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model.24). movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The U. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. ft ν = kinematic viscosity.26) where V = mean velocity. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. For such models. Inc. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. Sr = 1. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. (21. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. in particular. and through execution of the computer program. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hence.S. such as flow networks. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. In some cases. For instance. inertial. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. These expressions. such as a morning-glory spillway. . The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. (21. mathematical models are. Rr = Lr.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. in turn.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering.25) In models of rivers and channels. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. viscous. This type of model is called a distorted model. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow. simulations of prototype behavior are possible.23a) (21. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. the logical representation of prototypes.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). Click here to view. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. One type of model. called a movable-bed model. and infiltration parameters. catchment areas. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. ft/s R = hydraulic radius. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale.

landfill leachate analyses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. flood or drought impacts. seepage. hydrodynamics. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. usually has more disadvantages than advantages.2). Maidment. For closed conduits other than circular. . the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. flow routing. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. F. or pollution. 1957. wave or tidal analyses. G. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. the model output required for design or evaluation. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. A.21. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. and private sectors. and groundwater yield. This approach. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. Grigg. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. 3. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. shown in Fig. and R. All rights reserved. R. In object-oriented software. Click here to view.” N. J. sediment or pollutant transport. As a general rule. density. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. impacts of dam breaks. when fully implemented. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. New York.17. 21. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. Zipparo and H. (D. Rothfus. 21. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. academia. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. vol. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. (J.” V.” McGraw-Hill. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. “Water Resources Planning. Whan. or both. quantity and quality of water supply. Hasen. As a result. hydrologic forecasting. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. Art.) 21. H. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. Also. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. ecosystem impacts and restoration. evaporation and irrigation. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. “Handbook of Hydrology. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. reservoir regulation. however. Hoggan. design of hydraulic structures. Inc. This.” D. channel and river hydraulics. Walker. of all databases and software. S. watershed hydrology. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. and turbulent flow results. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. R. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity. and among water resources modelers in the government. as in annular passages. if comparisons of different plans are required. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. As this shearing stress increases.

21. As a result. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g. 32. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means.29) For laminar flow. ft ρ = density of fluid. 21. 21. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. Fig. laminar flow is unstable. 21.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. Therefore. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. F. a disturbance will probably be magnified. Eq.” 6th ed. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. Inc. 32. ft L = length of pipe section considered.Water Resources Engineering s 21.19. (21. All rights reserved. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. than for laminar flow (Fig. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. Brater. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit.17).21 Fig.) 21. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. As the Reynolds number increases. ft/s D = pipe diameter. 21.18. New York. (21. (E. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21.28) where hf = head loss due to friction. at completely turbulent flow. In this region. as shown in Fig. 21. causing the flow to become turbulent. it is not practical to treat it analytically.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections. the velocity distribution is more uniform.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. . Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000.l9.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. McGraw-Hill Book Company. there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Click here to view. there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. flow is laminar in circular pipes. These disturbances create eddies. (21.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid.27) where V = fluid velocity. the flow is completely turbulent. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. handbook of Hydraulics. In laminar flow.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow.

21.) Because Eq. . centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe. (21.0005 – 0. Click here to view.003 – 0.0002 0.9. The head loss is independent of the pressure. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.19) L = length of pipe. (L. Inc.0002 – 0. enamels.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt. F. 32. 21.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.008 – 0. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.008 0.21. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. November 1944.03 – 0. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor.003 0. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter. ft f = friction factor (see Fig.00003 0. ft V = velocity of fluid.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig.0005 0.0002 0. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids.30) where hf = head loss due to friction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. Moody.001 0. (21. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0.19) to Determine f ε.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. All rights reserved.0005 – 0.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. 21.001 – 0. ft D = diameter of pipe.19) for evaluating the friction factor f.

See also Table 22. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor.Water Resources Engineering s 21.31) where V = velocity.11 (p.33e) 21. All rights reserved.9. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21. Tables 21. (Although based on surface roughness. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. ft S = head loss due to friction. which requires experience in its choice.3.34c) 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.34b) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe. where D is the pipe diameter.33c) (21. (21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.4 and 21. 21. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. ft3/s.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. dependent on surface roughness.) Substitution into Eq. 21. Click here to view.32) where n = coefficient. ft L = length of pipe. (21. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations.34e) where V = velocity.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.33d) (21.33b) (21.9. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. . dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius.9. ft/s C1 = coefficient. ft/s C = coefficient. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.31) gives (21.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. Inc.34d) (21.

With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.015 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.012 0.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently. and valves and other pipe fittings.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known.35c) (21.013 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. enlargements. (21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept.012 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs.017 0.017 0.035 0.013 0. Inc. ft3/s hf = friction loss.012 0.) Flow between reservoirs. bends. 21.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.014 0. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.015 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.010 To 0. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.017 0.010 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter.010 0.20 ple 21. 21.017 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem.4 Values of n for Pipes. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive.015 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.013 0. in short pipelines. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq.012 0.7: Figure 21. All rights reserved. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.017 From 0.017 Use in designing Q = discharge. However.015 0.015 0.35b) (21. Example 21. .36) for a check. (21.014 0.013 0.016 To 0.011 0.013 0.21.7. because (21. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. Click here to view.

37) or (21. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21. ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 110 4 in.10.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.7. determined experimentally by Brightmore.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. 130 All sizes up to 24 in. 10 years older Average value. London. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. wood forms. Table 21. ft. steel forms. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes.” Constable & Co. Click here to view. the values of K in Fig.21 are approximate. regardless of age. minor losses must be considered.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes.25 Table 21.10.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq.10. Ltd. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g.. (21. 21. good workmanship. All rights reserved.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss. 140 Large sizes. 21. Gibson.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe. is (21. 85 16 in. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. 135 In good condition. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. 115 12 in. The water in the reservoir has no velocity.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (A. 80 4 in.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. 120 24 in and over.21). H. 120 Large sizes.38) A special application of Eq.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement. ft/s g = 32. 21.37): (21. 110 (21. 105 30 in and over. (21. 120 Centrifugally spun. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. good workmanship..39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. so a full velocity head is lost. 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). . Inc. are presented in Table 21. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe. where V is the velocity in the pipe. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.

6 0.80 K = 0. Globe valve.0 5.71 0.0 2.89 1. fully open Angle valve. Click here to view.05 K = 0.2 0.81 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0 1. .0 Table 21. Inc.6 0.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.76 0. fully open Gate valve.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.1 0.9 0.10.21.64 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.4 0.2 0.66 0.8 are only approximate.4 21.21 of the sides.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.7 0.3 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.8 0. For these reaTable 21. such as valves and elbows.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig. D = pipe diameter.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.68 0.50 K = 0.62 0. fully open Swing check valve.63 0. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. and at bends is given by (21.5 0.42) Table 21.9 0.25 The values in Table 21.5 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21.2 2.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.

Hasen.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. (21.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. no. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. J. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. Orifices may have any shape. (H. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21.44) where Q = discharge. . “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill. (V. the bend loss essentially remains constant. 1960. vol. The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. however. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. (21. 82. although they are usually round. National Bureau of Standards.42). not including friction loss in the bend. increases significantly with an increasing r/D. H.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known.27 sons. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4. 21. or rectangular. Zipparo and H. vol. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.11. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected. Figure 21.42). Experiments on smooth pipes. there is disagreement. Inc. series D. New York.” 4th ed. Inc.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21.. Beij. July 1938. square. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.23. this error is corrected by the C values. its effect should be taken into account. 21. For low heads. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. (21. Click here to view. Ito.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. If this velocity is significant.” Journal of Research. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. Some experiments indicate that the head loss. and angle of bend. Reynolds number. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends.45) 21.22: (21. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. Equation (21.9 for low velocity of approach.) Fig. All rights reserved. 21.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. The data are in agreement that the head loss.. When r/D increases above 4 or 5. 1. not including friction loss. (K.

596 0.652 0.641 0. Z1 = h. (21.600 0.602 0.606 0.598 1.660 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.593 0.623 0.618 0.601 0.46) The actual velocity.603 0.600 0.594 0.634 0.611 0. ft 0.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.592 1.628 0. the vena contracta.611 0. of circular orifices.610 0.623 0.608 0.596 0.603 0.648 0.617 0.610 0.605 0.628 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.604 0.602 0.614 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21. All rights reserved. to Fig.1 0.598 0.598 * Hamilton Smith. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.643 0.617 0.609 0.616 0.02 0.600 0.0 Head.631 0.596 0.. Click here to view.630 0.45) becomes (21.593 0.592 0.605 0.613 0.626 0.618 0.04 0.594 0. With the reference plane through point 2.599 0.602 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.629 0.612 0.601 0. 21.602 0.619 0.613 0 610 0.601 0.591 0.614 0.603 0.601 0.21. p1/w = p2/w = 0.0 0.4 0.636 0.602 0.644 0.637 0. ft 0.604 0. ft 0.621 0.604 0.597 0.606 0.623 0.99. . and Z2 = 0. determined experimentally.655 0.603 0.602 0.590 0. “Hydraulics.632 0.599 0.5 2 2.596 0.599 0.632 0.04 0.” 1886.618 0.598 0.607 0.593 0.595 0.602 0.608 0.602 0.648 0.605 0.595 0.6 08 1 1.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.596 0. and Eq. V1 = 0. Inc.614 0.615 0.619 0.608 0.02 0.616 0.637 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.1 0.605 0.607 0.597 0.595 0. Jr. Typical values of Cν range from 0.596 0.600 0.592 0.612 0.622 0.94 to 0.599 0.627 0.607 0.637 0.

” 6th ed. Figure 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. see E. (21. between 1 and 2.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. 21. the contraction is completely suppressed. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. With a partly suppressed orifice. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. 21.25 orifice.47) where hL = losses in head. . and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction.11.11. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. 21.24b. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h. Eq.61 to 0. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. (21. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. In Fig.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig.67. ft.3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head.) 21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction.29 Fig. F. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. All rights reserved. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract.48) is obtained. Click here to view. Assuming V1 ≈ 0. Brater. 21. 21. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. the area of the orifice.Water Resources Engineering s 21. New York..25. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. (21. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.21.51) upon integration becomes (21. (21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally.56) Fig.23).49) Solving for dt yields (21. Rearranging Eq. 21. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity.26): (21. For simplicity.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq.11. Eq. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. (21. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. (21. ft h2 = head at the end. (21. when y = h2.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. Eq. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. . Inc.59). obtained by solving Eq. when y = h1.57) for t and substituting in Eq. (21. All rights reserved.56).58)].55) 21.57) (21.50) where a = area of orifice. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. 21. 21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.58) gives (21.58) Equation (21. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. is that for a parabola: (21. to time t. Click here to view. s The Y coordinate is (21. ft2 A = area of reservoir.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. (21. (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21. (21.50) becomes (21.

the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0.60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. Equation (21.11. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. Inc. a K value for Eq. if one exists).27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1.00 VT / 2g – 0.82.67 V2 ) = 0. When this happens.33VT / 2g. 21. 21. (21.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. 21.27) but the head loss is larger.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. All rights reserved.31 ty Cν = 0. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0. 21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.5 a T T Fig. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.75.67 V2T /2g. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge.80. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. however. 21. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0.42) of 0.67 V T / 2g = 0.82. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head. .28). 21.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. (21. ft2 Fig.82 VT)2/2g = 0. ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. For a short tube flowing full. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.29. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.27. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. In the tube or pipe.11. 21. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it. Therefore. Fig. psf w = unit weight of water. 21. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig.

For this analysis to be valid. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. When a valve is closed.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. Inc. Fig. 21. 21. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water.32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. either increased or decreased. 21. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. the pressure in the pipe falls. either above or below the normal pressure. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21. the water in the pipe is motionless. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. 21. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. The pipe shown in Fig.30). but at a pressure much higher than normal. The change causes a pressure rise.21. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. it causes water hammer. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop. Fig. the tube must flow full. However.32). this momentum drops to zero. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. 21. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. All rights reserved. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. 21. As the water flows into the reservoir. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. 21. Click here to view.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. As the water flows away from the closed valve.29. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Every time the flow rate is changed.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. . This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow.

43. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. Inc. 21. (21.33 of flow and the length of the pipeline.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. 21. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous. Fig. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal. .63a) becomes (21. Click here to view. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. For instantaneous closure: (21. ft T = time required to change setting of valve.63).13.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.63a) In terms of pressure head.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21. Eq.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe.13. approximate solution. 1. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21. ft 21.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.64) 21. Equation (21. s A plot of pressure vs.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq.

(21. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. ft L = length of pipeline. area = 78. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. and Ao the original area of the valve opening.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. (21. Hasen. . to apply Eq. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.5 ft2. such as L/aU.. Thus. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement. from Eq. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.2 × 108 psf. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. where ∆t. then that obtained from Eq. is g = acceleration due to gravity. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. initial velocity = 10 ft/s. Inc.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. McGraw-Hill. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq..) Example 21. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.63). Click here to view. (21. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43.63). penstock thickness = 1 in.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. Vo the original velocity. Zipparo and H. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) Velocity of pressure wave. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. New York. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao). ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. With the head known.32.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. (V.21. the increment of time. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing.8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. Once the time interval has been determined. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. diameter = 10 ft. each causing an individual pressure wave. length = 3000 ft. Inc. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.” 4th ed. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. 32. J. where a equals any integer. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out.63). An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. (21. All rights reserved. (21. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. s T = actual closure time of valve. equals L /aU. 21. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. (21.61).

The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig. floats on the line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer. Click here to view. (21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. the stress.34 tension. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. Various types of relief Fig. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops.66) where p = internal pressure.90 s. When a valve is suddenly closed. psi. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. 21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. .33) must still be designed for water hammer.75 s. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. approximate equation (21. All rights reserved. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe. on the pipe material is (21. and the pressure rise. Usually. to prevent water hammer.34). the closure is instantaneous. in Assuming T = 4. psi D = outside diameter of pipe.63).90 s. in effect.13. it is by no means the only one. from Eq.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines. is Pipe Stresses 21. 21.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. lb Hence. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64) gives the following result: 21. When a valve is suddenly opened. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. Inc. 21. Fig. The water column.

there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. In Fig. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. “Theory of . but it is usually small enough to be neglected. however. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe. Eq.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq. In all bends. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe. The internal diameter is used in Eq. elastic Stability. In this case. 21. If D/t is less than 10. All rights reserved. if expansion joints are to be used. P Timoshenko and J. Click here to view. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. Inc. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. (S. 21. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing. Equation (21.6). The force diagram in Fig. (21. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend. Gere. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. (21. this analysis is approximate. .10).” 2nd ed. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it.16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures..67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure.67). 21. For concrete pipes. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. However. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension.67) for concrete pipe.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. Art. 6. due to a temperature change is (21. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. For steel pipes. Eq. psi.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21. (21. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The stress.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. 21. New York. is (21. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. M. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. However. it acts like a beam. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In small pipes. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. in many cases the pipe material takes this force. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend. Click here to view.71) where R = resultant force on bend.70) and (21. exit conditions. (21. canal. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. a railroad. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21.2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves.37 Fig. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. or other embankment. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. However. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. 62. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. psf w = unit weight of water.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. 21. Eqs.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and slope. . All rights reserved. the joints must also be able to take these forces.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. an exact theoretical analysis.71) give a quick solution.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. 32. (21. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. however. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. Inc.

72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21.33d) or (21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.” EB058W. the following equation is obtained: (21.37). 21. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems.30)].22) is equal to the critical depth (Art.23).21. Inc. 21. . the normal depth (Art. and the Manning equation for friction loss. and the control will still be at the inlet. that is. This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. but they do not cover Fig. 21. For this reason. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations.36). charts. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. and the discharge is independent of the slope.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. (21.38). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.73) 21. 21. All rights reserved. the culvert flows full. Portland Cement Association. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. slope is greater than the critical slope. 21. 21. computer software. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

21. the flow can be either pressure or open-channel. and dn > dc . 21. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. Inc. the flow is considered subcritical (Art.74) yields (21. and slope of culvert.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Fig. 21.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. The discharge. ft Equation (21. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 32. When the slope is less than critical. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. When slope is less than critical. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21.75) Substituting this into Eq. When slope exceeds critical. All rights reserved. 21. depending on the head.74) Fig. and dn < dc . Thus.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. for the open-channel condition (Fig. . flow depends on inlet condition.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Discharge is independent of slope.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. (21.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. Click here to view. loss at entrance. 21. open-channel flow takes place.39 Fig. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. Discharge depends on head H.39). The fluid flows under pressure.20) 21. 21. ft V = velocity in culvert.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.23). (21. normal pipe flow occurs.

18). 21.41). it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. (21. and discharge is given by Eq. If this condition exists. (21. (21. 21. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. 21.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth.39). and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. 21. When the friction slope is flat.76). This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. If the friction slope approaches critical. ft To solve Eq.37).40). . (21. however. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. Inc. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths. Most culverts. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. 21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream. 21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.76).72). ft dn = normal depth of flow. All rights reserved.76).40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. If the head on a culvert is high. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq.21.

and free exit.01. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. Inc. Application of Eq. the flow is under pressure.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft.72) and (21.72) yields Q =Va = 9.72) applies.95 × 4 = 39. All rights reserved.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. with Eq.6.73). since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.8 ft3/s Table 21. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. To calculate the hydraulic radius. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth. (21. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.5 0. Eq. 21. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert. projecting Concrete pipe.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.18 and 21.10 0.19). groove or bell. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. . (21. n = 0. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. These values are for culverts flowing full.44) for discharge through an orifice. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. length = 300 ft. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. 21. Since the culvert is under pressure.41 For entrance control. Example 21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2. square edge Concrete pipe. 21. (21. (21. 21.40).20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.15 0.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. But H = 5 + 0.9 0.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. When the entrance is not submerged. groove or bell. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. slope = 0. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. the coefficients are usually somewhat lower. and the entrance will not control. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. First find dn. Fig. (21. Substitution in Eq. Table 21.013. Find: size of culvert.

36 for prismatic channels. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. 21.03 to 1. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. Inc. Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. . Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. ft. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. Equation (21.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface.21. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. or the total-head line. Click here to view. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Hence. however. Figure 21.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. within a hydraulic jump. or slope. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. In a uniform channel. 32. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. It is expressed in feet as (21. depth of flow is constant throughout. or open-channel flow. ft2 When the discharge is constant.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow. plus the velocity head at the point. (21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. and is given by (21. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. ft3/s.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21. It is. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance. The wetted perimeter is the length.79).78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. minus the free surface width. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. It has uniform flow if the grade.77) where V = average velocity. ft. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. (21. normally taken as 1. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. is generally given by (21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. Thus.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. All rights reserved. ft.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss.79) The velocity head HV. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

and discharge are known. 21.43.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.83) Brater. Inc. ft. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor. Eq. As the depth decreases downstream. F.84) reduces to Fig. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. E. (21. 21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. 21. T.44. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. (See. .43 Fig. ft. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. in which T is the top width of the channel. 21. 21. or to the diameter of a circular channel. 21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig. Click here to view. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. slope.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (V.” 6th ed. roughness. 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. New York.42 is called the normal depth dn. Chow. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. All rights reserved. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head. the specific energy also decreases.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope.Water Resources Engineering s 21. For a rectangular channel.. New York. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.84) where A = area of flow. as shown in Fig.) (21.43). for example. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius. normal depth decreases downstream. McGrawHill Book Company.

44).44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. (21. 21. 21. . “Handbook of Hydraulics. (21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21. Eq. or it may be found directly from tables (E.84) may be reduced to (21.84). McGraw-Hill Book Company. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth. New York). ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The flow there is called subcritical flow. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point. for a given discharge. (21. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. F. For a given value of specific energy. All rights reserved. For rectangular channels.. the depth is greater than critical.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. or conversely.43.84) is called the critical depth dc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.” 6th ed. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.44). (21. Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. Inc. the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. Brater. 21. Click here to view. the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. the depth is below critical. ft3/s d = depth of flow. and flow is supercritical. indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.21.

Critical depth. once calculated. indicating an irreversible occurrence. p. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again.52b. Inc. regardless of slope. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig.45 where dc = critical depth.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. It can be seen from Fig. 21.45. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Click here to view. flow is supercritical. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. a hydraulic jump will occur. All rights reserved. (21.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. along with a high loss of energy. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Such a change occurs gradually. ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge. . 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. 21. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. without turbulence.85).87) Fig.57). 21. as indicated in Fig.44).] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. ft3/s b = width of channel. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. flow is subcritical. [As indicated by Eq. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. 21. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. For every depth greater than critical depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. 21. however. 21.

D. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).90) where A = area of flow. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow. and two types for channels of critical. 21. horizontal.L. therefore. Click here to view.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.46c and d. New York. 21. These curves are divided into five groups. are in Table 21. and C. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21.89) may be written (21. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel. The M2 curve forms between the normal. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view.9 and Table 21. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig.25). When channel banks are overtopped during a flood.23).11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.and critical-depth lines.) 21.D. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula.D.D. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r).L. are identical for a channel of critical slope. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. Chow compiled data for his table from work by R.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. S for steep (supercritical). for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope.L. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush. the average n values given in Table 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft2 Q = quantity of flow. ft V = mean velocity of flow. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. (See also Art. Inc. (Although based on surface roughness.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. and A for adverse. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. at an arbitrary elevation. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. 21. and the N. H for horizontal.46. Eq. The N.21.46a and b. (21. 21.S. All rights reserved. Dr. C for critical.11.4.L.D. .46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. Department of Agriculture. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. Chow. E. as shown in Fig. T. there must be a continuing maintenance program.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. 21. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N. and adverse slope. is replaced by a horizontal line. and the critical-depth line C.L. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.

015 0. 21. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream.013 0.016 0. . Excavated earth.025 0. Clean. Gunite. 21.080 0. The S2 curve.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Asphalt a. Corrugated 2.025 0. high as flow depth d. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. after weathering b.035 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Cemented rubble b.021 0.015 0. high stage 2.46a and b. Unlined channels 1.014 0.032 0. 21.060 0.014 0.011 0.035 0.033 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.013 0. good section c.030 0.035 0.016 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope. Dense brush.100 0. Jagged and irregular 0.011 0. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form.021 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. respectively).019 0.013 0.023 0. Smooth and uniform b. wavy section 4.012 0.013 0. Rough C.040 0.025 0. Masonry a.023 0.027 0.030 0.025 0. Inc. Metal a. Smooth wood form c. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. Rock cuts a. Float finish b.016 0.080 0. few weeds c. Wood a. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.015 Avg 0.024 0.016 0.030 0. Concrete (unfinished) a. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Lined channels 1.050 0.010 0. Smooth b. All rights reserved.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Click here to view.028 0.022 0.035 0.025 0.014 0.017 0. With short grass.050 0. Light brush on banks 3. straight and uniform a.016 0. Rough wood form B.012 0.012 0. Gunite.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.46i and j. Dredged earth a. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.033 0.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A.018 0.018 0.040 0.120 0.022 0.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line.140 0. 21.017 Max 0. untreated 3. Dense weeds.014 0.022 0.012 0.020 0. Planed. commonly called a drawdown curve. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig. Concrete a. No vegetation b.013 0. Steel form b.025 0. Dry rubble 5.

21.D. 21. . The curves in Fig. indicates normal-depth line. 21.46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Click here to view.21. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. C. and A profiles. critical-depth line. N.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig. Examples in Fig.L.. All rights reserved.46k and l. 21.D.L. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. H.

or reaches. depending on the type of flow. New York. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. weir. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. For the section of channel in Fig.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. All rights reserved. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location.5. known as its celerity.47.and direct-integration methods are in V.) 21. Chow. free overfall. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel.” McGraw-Hill. direction-integration. 32. Explanations of both the graphical.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. and step methods. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. Click here to view. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. each reach is solved in succession. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. T. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.77) if the depth were zero.51).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.. 21. New York. The wave travels at a speed. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. In a series of steps starting from a point of control. For subcritical flow conditions.27. For step-method computations. it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream. with relatively small variation. dam. Inc.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. Inc. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. 21. (R.Water Resources Engineering s 21. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve. gate. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. (21. H. 21. See Art. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. the channel is divided into short lengths. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. French. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. . The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths.

93). . respectively. the longer the backwater curve profile. the head loss. ft Note that SoL = ∆z.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. as given by Eq. prismatic channels. not the channel bottom. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. Inc. These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. The smaller the value of n. and vice versa.21.92) (21. ft. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. Click here to view. due to friction in the same reach. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.82). The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. (21. Therefore.93) where R = hydraulic radius. Solving Eq. All rights reserved. 21. ft. hi. (For uniform. 21. and – SL = hf. is negligible and can be ignored. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. rearranged as follows: Fig.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. the change in elevation.91) for L gives (21. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required. (21. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the – eddy loss.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2.

Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft. Eddy loss.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. All rights reserved. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2. from 0 to 0. which.2 for diverging reaches. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps. (21. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. computations progress toward the initial section.1 for converging reaches. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. at sec– tions 1 and 2.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error. Click here to view. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. (21. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. is obtained from Eq. Since this step method is a converging process. Z2.93). the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. . Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. Next. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. 21. The value of total head computed from Eq. (21. respectively. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined.96). and about 0. (21. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq. (21. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. total head H. the friction loss. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21.94). ft. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. in natural channels. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. the average friction slope for the reach. becomes (21.92). starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. Then. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq. grade. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. Therefore. sometimes called impact loss. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. (21. respectively. or roughness.95). the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. ft. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels.51 may be some intermediate depth.47. referred to a horizontal datum. (21. S. (21. Inc. ft.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities.95) The coefficient k is 0. For lined channels. Next. Then.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station. after substitution of H from Eq. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq. ft/s. and it is therefore often accounted for.93). Finally.

1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. 21. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance. or other obstruction. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. Inc. respectively. All rights reserved. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation. Fig. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0.21.48 Hydraulic jump. 2nd ed. 21. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady. U. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. New York.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. Utilizing the above data. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. Bradley.51 and 21. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel.23). approach roadways. and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). a gate. however. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. 1970. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. bridge piers. 21. . Federal Highway Administration. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis. 21. The upstream surface of the jump. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. French. as shown in Figs.” Hydraulics Design Series no.27. The effect of bridges.1 ft in elevation. 21.48). known as the length of jump. is a turbulent mass of water. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. However.52b. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). Department of Transportation.S. velocity. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. and determine the discharge. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). N. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. H. Click here to view. 1. and J.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. 21. If the two values of total head do not agree. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. known as the roller. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Bureau of Public Roads.

99) where M = mass of water. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy.100). ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.102) Equation (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft w = unit weight of water. 21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21. 32. . s (21. d2 must also equal dc.98) and (21. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel. (21. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. V is the mean velocity. this resultant pressure force is (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh.16)]. (21. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. All rights reserved.98) where d1 = depth before jump. ft d2 = depth after jump.49) is given by (21.99). ft3/s = unit of time.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.) According to Newton’s second law of motion.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. 21. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.27. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. ft/s2. ft. (21.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. and g = acceleration due to gravity. where L is a characteristic length.82). (21.105) where A = area of flow. in Eq. This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. This difference (Fig.104) = discharge. ft/s. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. Click here to view. lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. or alternate depths. Inc. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump.100) Equation (21. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. For rectangular channels. (21. For open-channel flow.

and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. If the tailwater is too high. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. For F1 = 1. below a spillway. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. Various forms of hydraulic jump.5 to 9. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.27. For F1 = 9.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. the jump will be drowned out.49.S. . 21. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. were classified by the U. The jump is called an undular jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. This jump may be called an oscillating jump. chute. This jump may be called a strong jump.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels.0 and larger. depth after the jump. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. depending on local conditions. If the tailwater is too low. Inc. The jump action is rough but effective.5. very commonly in canals.23). which. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. which gives discharge vs. For F1 = 2. For F1 = 1 to 1. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. for example.0. The jump is well-balanced. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. 21. and the performance is at its best. For F1 = 1.21. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. This jump may be called a weak jump.5. can travel for miles.7. 21. This jump may be called a steady jump. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. In either case. For F1 = 4.5 to 4. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. there are undulations on the surface.7 to 2. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. 21. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. Click here to view. All rights reserved. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent.

55 curve involve changing the crest length. 21. prepared by V.105). Bureau of Reclamation. 21. 21. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.27. Inc.S. Chow from data gathered by the U. Accessories. 21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed. All rights reserved. Click here to view. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps. (21. This length (Fig. a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. But it has been determined experimentally.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. therefore.51. 21. T. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. changing the apron elevation. These features are expensive to build.27.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. . The resulting curve (Fig. The curve.48) defies accurate mathematical expression. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. and sloping the apron. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump.

A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. Click here to view. the jump occurs in the steep region. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. equal to the computed length of the jump. respectively (Fig. A horizontal intercept FG. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG.52a. 21. but it is normally assumed to be 0. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. but instead occurs a short distance upstream. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. If d2 is less than d′ . If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. that flow is uniform. the computed length of jump. (21.26.7dc for simplicity. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. It is assumed. 21.21. 21. The actual depth at the brink is 71. equal in length to L.23) to mild.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. computed from Eq. the jump moves to a new location downstream.5% of critical depth. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . less than. curves AB and ED in Fig. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. As depth d2 is lowered. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. as theory would indicate.75h in the absence of better information. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge.101).46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O.52. 21. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening. Conversely. (21. 21. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. if the downstream depth is lowered. for simplicity. as shown in Fig. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate.102). are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta. the jump moves downstream to a new position. as shown in Fig. All rights reserved. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. 21. (21. CB. between lines CB′and EO.51.101) with d1 given. With values of d2 obtained from Eq.52b. 21. using the step methods of Art. computed from Eq. Inc. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. which occurs near the channel drop-off. 21. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. 21.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc.46e and c).

If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). ft. From Q = AV. Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0.” McGraw-Hill.” 6th ed. ft. then the assumed discharge is correct. on the channel entrance. Click here to view. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. (21.82) and (21.28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. Inc. Brater. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance.3 for one with squared ends. If the entrance loss must be considered.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.53a). where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. French. and the slope of the channel. or (b) below it. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. 21. or (a) above it. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Handbook of Hydraulics. to which the resulting entrance loss is added. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. 21. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. ft.. 21. ignoring entrance loss.23).57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. (R. F. the entrance loss.53).52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. ft3/s.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. H.) 21. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. 21. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen.51. ft.85)]. McGraw-Hill Book Company. a new discharge is assumed. if not.. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. Then.106) where b is the channel width. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). Inc. which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. New York. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. New York. is (21. . and discharge is at a maximum. All rights reserved. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. where He is the specific energy head.

2 ft/s2. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. d is normal depth. 21. Click here to view. a new discharge is chosen. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. . 21. ft2. producing flow. All rights reserved. where He – d is the actual head. is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).21. 21. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy.53b. (21.83). 21. then the discharge is correct. He is the specific energy head.53b). A is the cross-sectional area of flow. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. 32. Inc. The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig. ft. ft3/s. if not.22). 21. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. 21. (In Fig.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. (b) mild-slope channel.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. and g is acceleration due to gravity.33).58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. ft. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ———— charge. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. 21.23). This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves.

all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Thus. or mV2 /rc for m.107) The theoretical difference y.83)]. a unit mass of water. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view.23). 21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.108). The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow. The error will not be great. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. the true value of y would be only a few inches. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. 21. ft /s. (21. If the bend continues long enough. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. when a stream enters a curve.59 21. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area. ft. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power. of the center line of the channel. (21. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. ft. 21. When water is forced to flow in a curved path.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. ft. where V is its average velocity. . however. and rc the radius of curvature. In this range. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. curve (Fig. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. Inc. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. 21. The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. All rights reserved. Therefore. (21.

flows around a bend in a channel.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. (21. C. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height. (F. however. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. with sufficient accuracy. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.55).23). are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. recross as shown. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.” U. 21. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control. Inc. Fig. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.S.110) for θ in Eq.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. These waves cross at M. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. (21. The cross slope required for 21. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. One is a positive wave. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. Department of Agriculture. phase. 21. of greater-than-average surface elevation. Click here to view. Scobey. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance. Two waves form at the start of the curve. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. This angle may be found from (21. by (21. and continue crossing and recrossing. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Technical Bulletin 393. depths along the inside wall. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. His values have not been evaluated completely. (21.16)] . a series of standing waves are produced. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given.111).001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume.21. and should be used with discretion. The second is a negative wave.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. All rights reserved. 21. an increase in friction loss results.

21. such as flow-rate changes. Straight.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.23).56.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. as shown in Fig.44. 21. equals about 0.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. or change from supercritical to subcritical. where K. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. low-head-loss transfer of flow. and g = 32. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. The transition loss. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. When proceeding downstream through a transition. In this range.54). ft/s. the loss factor. In design of an inlet-type transition structure. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. ∆V is the velocity change. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows.8[∆(V2/2g)]. For outlet-type structures. The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. After the design has been completed for maximum flow. The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. 21. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 21. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. Click here to view. Many variables.57). the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. p. therefore. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. . plus any transition and friction losses. 21. if friction is ignored. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.2 ft/s2.44. respectively. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.2 for welldesigned transitions. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The outlet loss factor is normally 0. the average velocity decreases. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. ft. To place a transition properly between two open channels. is given by K(∆V2/2g). 21. 21.1 for an inlet-type structure. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.113) angle of about 12.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. change from subcritical to supercritical. wall roughness. If friction is ignored. and channel shape and slope. Inc. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth.

Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola.000556.000556(10)2 = 0. Click here to view.58). trapezoidal weirs.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.222 ft. and. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. as shown in Fig.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. 21. 21.57. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. such as rectangular weirs.34. triangular weirs. the weir has free discharge. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions. 21.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. For Fig. and parabolic weirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0. y = ax2. If the discharge is partly under water. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. such as broad-crested weirs. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. Fig. Fig. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. 21.000556(20)2 = 0. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. In contrast.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. from which a = 0. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. measured from A or B. trapezoidal weirs. Inc. 21. All rights reserved.59 Weir not sharp-crested. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 21. .21. triangular or Vnotch weirs.5 = a(30)2.59. 21. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft.58 Sharp-crested weir. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x. the weir is submerged or drowned.

21. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. One such equation. 21. below the crest. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices.116) corrects for the effects of friction.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. thus causing a contraction of the flow.34. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. A V-notch weir (Fig. .60 V-notch weir. Click here to view. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. contraction of the nappe. At very low heads. Chow. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. If P is less than Fig. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. To be fully ventilated. Inc.115) where Q = discharge. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. New York). Equation (21. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. 21. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. unequal velocities in the channel of approach. The height of weir P must be at least 2. ft The head should be measured at least 2.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length.58) (V.5H. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. All rights reserved. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure.5H upstream from the weir. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. 2. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. T. 21. Hence.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.

ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. there are two end contractions and N = 2. vol.34. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. (21. . 21. His values were summarized by Brater. Discharge is given by (21. there is one end contraction and N = 1.119) where Q = discharge. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. 21. 1943).34. ft. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. Lenz. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination. F. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. 21. measured from notch bottom. Inc. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics. Click here to view. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. New York).4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. Fig. 21. ft H = head. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.5H upstream from the weir.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir. 69. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A.21. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows.34. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. 21.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. T.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.118) Fig.118)] 21..2) when low discharges are to be measured. The effective length L.” 6th ed.61) (E. All rights reserved. 21.

“Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. Click here to view. 21. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. ft3/s. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. and finally total head. They must be determined experimentally for each installation. 21.34. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. and then.Water Resources Engineering s 21.115) is rewritten in the form (21. velocity head.122) where H = measured head.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown. The discharge Qs. (J.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. compute the velocity of approach.34. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. p. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. Villemonte. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. for such weirs. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21. or both. heavily constructed devices. Typically. velocity head of approach.121) where Q = discharge. Dec.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used. Inc. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir. R. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. Where great accuracy is essential. it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. 21. ft/s V /2g = Hν. 21. All rights reserved. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge. ft3/s. which may be done as follows: First. 32. Then. From this total head. Thus. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%. Eq. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. using this rate and the required depths.) Equation (21. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. ft.59). ft V = velocity of approach. for that weir by a function of H2/H1.” Engineering News-Record.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. (21.) To use the Villemonte equation.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig. . neglecting the velocity head. 2 21. 1947. using this discharge. 866. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Fig. 25.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n.

12. ft L′ = net crest lengths.02 0. DC 20402. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. where approach velocities are high. The effect is most critical for low heads. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. head in relation to design heads. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. ft (U. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. Washington.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge.20 0. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. Department of the Interior. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies.34.13. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.21. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head. For conditions of design head Table 21. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier.123) where L = effective crest length. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. and approach velocity.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E.5Hd > r* > 0.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir.S.” Government Printing Office.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. But the process should be repeated. . For conditions of design head Hd.2 of the head.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. starting with the corrected discharge. 21. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. the head in relation to the design head. For each change of nappe shape.10 H. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. Click here to view.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed. All rights reserved. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. thickness of pier. and the approach velocity. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Inc. “Design of Small Dams. F. Therefore. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.

This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. 2. Washington. This relationship is shown in Fig. Of the above rules. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. depends on the head producing the discharge. Department of the Interior. for a sharp-crested weir.65. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. For flow at heads lower than the design head.66 of the head. (21. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2.S. however. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. 21. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. 21. called the design head Hd. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. DC 20402. Inc. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. Chow. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. The shape of this nappe. where discharge is given by Eq. . Consequently.34. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. According to Chow. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. Chow. Click here to view. 1. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head.122). at the point of maximum contraction.67 Fig. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric.” Government Printing Office. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Figure 21. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested. 21.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. T. 21. 21.5H upstream. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests. and therefore of an ogee crest. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. This manual and V. New York). All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.64) has such a shape.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. (U. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. “Design of Small Dams. Fig.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. T. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile.) Fig.S. (From “Design of Small Dams.66. 21.S. the flow differs from ideal. Bureau of Reclamation. (From “Design of Small Dams. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head. Inc. 21. All rights reserved. Figure 21.21.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. New York.” U. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Bureau of Reclamation.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. Fig. 21. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig.” U.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. .68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics.

and sharp right-angled edges.67 and 21. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section. E.69 Broad-crested weir. for example.) 21. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. fairly common in waterworks projects. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. “Handbook of Hydraulics. are used as spillways and control structures. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes. Values of the discharge coefficient. 21. New York. (See.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. the coefficient of discharge.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face.69 Fig.” 6th ed. Figure 21. appear in Table 21. where the velocity of approach is not high. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.14. (E. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. 21. Figure 21.68. 21.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face.S.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bureau of Reclamation.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. McGraw-Hill Book Company. a plane horizontal crest. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge. Unless otherwise noted.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. Click here to view. the nappe springs free. has contraction of the nappe. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. is determined from Fig. Brater. because of its sharp upstream edge. 21. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. therefore.) Fig.34. New York.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. compiled by King. if flow is at other than the design head. F. (From “Design of Small Dams.” 6th ed. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. Brater.34. F. . Weirs of irregular section. All rights reserved.” U.69 shows a broad-crested weir that..

32 3.64 2.97 3.35.32 2.32 3.65 2.07 3.60 2.04 3.63 2.64 2.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.32 3.72 2.76 2.74 2.64 2.32 3.65 2.64 2.00 2.50 2.32 2.4 0.00 2. such as a reservoir.67 2.64 2.67 2.32 3. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.44 2.32 3.50 H.67 2.63 2.34 2.69 2.68 2.50 2.5 4.92 3.70 2. which are often of equal consequence.63 2.32 5.75 2. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels.5 5.64 2.69 2. and turbines.88 10.98 3.61 2. The smaller silt sizes.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water.32 3.32 3. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.49 2.67 2.89 3. This incoming water.48 2.61 2.6 1.65 2.88 3.63 2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.26 3. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.81 2.66 2. or soil.79 1.65 2.32 3. Inc.60 2.80 2.08 3.64 2.75 2.2 0.32 4.64 2.88 2.68 2.64 2.68 2. 21.6 0.32 3.28 3.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.68 2. ft 0.32 3.75 2.64 2.60 2.85 3.32 3.32 3.00 2.63 2. erosion.69 2.4 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 2.21.72 2. Click here to view.60 2.63 2.8 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.66 2.64 2.32 3.63 2.20 3.32 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.32 3.32 3.85 2.77 2.54 2.63 2.08 3.32 3.32 3.0 1.32 3.29 3.54 2.31 3.79 2.00 2.75 2.32 3.0 2.64 2. valves.32 3.32 3. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water.0 5.63 21.63 2.64 2.32 Breadth of crest of weir.07 3. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.89 3.92 2.31 3.32 3.32 3.64 2.30 3.8 1.68 2.68 2.74 2. . such as gates.69 2.92 3.72 2.05 3. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.68 2.31 3.70 2.62 2.0 3. A density current.32 3.14 3.70 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment.00 2.2 1.5 2.68 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.07 3.64 15.28 3.70 2.89 2.20 3.76 2.32 3.56 2.80 2.68 2.70 2.00 2.32 3.32 3.66 2. once formed.73 2. All rights reserved.32 3. those forming the bed load.68 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment. ft 0.66 2.66 2.0 4.32 3.32 3.65 2.00 2.19 3.68 2.20 3.32 1.70 2.86 2.03 3.32 3.38 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.32 3.5 3.30 3.65 2.64 2.68 2.58 2.32 1.63 2.67 2.32 3.75 2.32 3.07 3.32 3.50 2. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.64 2. those carried in suspension.07 3.65 2. with its load of suspended silt.32 3. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.

The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. 21. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. All rights reserved. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3.39. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. once formed.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. on the other hand. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Of course. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. . Inc. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. the rate is not uniform during the year. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. see Art. formed from the bed load. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. or from year to year.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. When neither can be done. or failure of materials. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. because of variations in rainfall. overtopping. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. 21. However. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. however. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. By this method. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits. The most common manner of destruction. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas.Water Resources Engineering s 21. are coarsegrained. These currents are stable. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. landslide. Click here to view.35. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime.

00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. discharge. and boulders. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. Frequently. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. Therefore. which varies with both slope and discharge. . in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. According to Witzig. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. A mean grain size of 0. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. Therefore. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter. Click here to view. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. Therefore. All rights reserved. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy.21. 21. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. (21. which generally occurs only during a storm. Inc. But for the most part. however.1). gravel. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow.35.0 ft/mi. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. ft qo = critical discharge. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles.124) where Gb = total bed load. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. This size range includes particles of coarse sand.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art. ft3/s b = width of river. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses.

infiltration.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. In this cycle. and stream flow 21. check-dam construction. in the form of synoptic weather charts. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. New York.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. It continually records. Department of Agriculture. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. groundwater flow. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. evaporation. All rights reserved. infiltrates into the soil. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. water evaporation from oceans. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. including their relation to living things. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. temperature. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. Graf. runoff. Current data. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. are published daily by the U. and pressure. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. their occurrence. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. or digital microchip technology.S. Use of vegetation screens. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin.) culation. and distribution. (21-124). recharges groundwater. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth. . day. rivers. Such screens. which are of two types. discharges into streams. Weather Bureau.” U. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and their reaction with their environment. H. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. such as an hour. (W. contour plowing. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21.S. by ink pen and revolving drum. Inc. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. or year.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their chemical and physical properties. circulation. planting of burned-over areas.73 dation. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. For instance.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. A. Click here to view. on or near the land surface. (See H. The first type is a recording or automatic gage. Einstein. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. if the dam is raised at a later date. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. lakes. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. The precipitation forms runoff on the land.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. debris barriers. such as wind. or a combination of the two. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages. Weather Bureau is 24 h. and the stream velocity.S. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow.

An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. (21. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. R. Evapotranspiration is important because. equal to 15 for small. New York. ground. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. and it increases as wind velocity increases. see D. on a long-term basis. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. commonly termed consumptive use. branches. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. This phenomenon. Evapotranspiration. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. In evaporation. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water.126) where E = evaporation rate. and plantleaf surfaces. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. Maidment. in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation.” McGraw-Hill. This relation is known as Dalton’s law.21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. In transpiration. tropical and subtropical regions. shallow pools and 11 for large. while another portion may be caught on leaves.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. has a relatively large surface area. or ground surfaces. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. Inc. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. in of mercury.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small.125) (21. On an annual basis. .125)]. “Handbook of Hydrology. The Meyer equation [Eq. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A portion may evaporate as it falls. All rights reserved. developed from Dalton’s law. in of mercury. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. Of the three. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. Click here to view. called interception. plant. and other vegetation surfaces.. Evaporation may occur from free-water. and is located in a semiarid or arid region. Inc. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. Not all rain reaches the ground. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. especially if the reservoir is shallow. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. (21. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue.

The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. intensity. wind tends to push the film to the shore. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. runoff may be surface. tropical. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. birds. Inc. Hexadeconal. or cetyl alcohol. frost.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. 21. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff.80. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. to reach a channel. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. On large reservoirs. New York..60 and 0. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. snow. insects. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. called a Class A Level Pan. All rights reserved. natural or manmade. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. Click here to view. Inc. effective rain includes subsurface flow. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. Commonly. subsurface runoff. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers. Moving laterally. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. After joining stream flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. It appears in surface channels. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. although it may vary between 0. is in widespread use. Climatic characteristics a. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. . The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. Precipitation—form (rain. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. Groundwater flow. where it continues as channel or stream flow. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. duration. perhaps several years. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft.” McGraw-Hill. hail. or groundwater runoff. subsurface storm flow. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Subsurface flow. and biologic attrition. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. aquatic life. “Handbook of Hydrology. dew). (D.Water Resources Engineering s 21. subsurface. Maidment. or groundwater flow. R. except in arid. In practice. or excess rain.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. time distribution. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. also known as interflow. Thus. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.70. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. depending on the geographical region. and storm seepage. Classified by the path taken to a channel. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm.

S.70. 21. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. which may be either precipitation or stream flow. both published and unpublished. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. Wind—velocity. 21. 21.21. soil moisture. stratification Fig. the U. direction of storm movement b. and various state and local agencies.S. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. slope. and completeness of the hydrologic records.” U.S. artificial drainage. TVA. detail. recurrence interval. antecedent precipitation. Atmospheric pressure f.S. extremes of flow. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. special-interest items. Drainage-basin characteristics a. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. drainage net. shape of cross section. extremes during precipitation c. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. permeability. yearly flow volume. Geological Survey. Inc. International Boundary Commission. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. elevation. 21.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. groundwater formations. Geologic—soil type. as shown in Fig. . Geological Survey. Temperature—variation. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. snow storage. and Weather Bureau. channels (size. direction. length) b. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the accuracy desired. Solar radiation 2. lakes and other bodies of water. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. duration d.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. shape.S. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. Geological Survey. mean flow. Humidity e. areal distribution. Agricultural Research Service. Topographic—size. All rights reserved.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. land use and cover. Weather Bureau.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. These papers contain records of daily flow. Click here to view. roughness. slope. general location. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. the detail required in the final answer. orientation. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. frozen ground during storms. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. the quantity and type of data available. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts.

Chow. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. 5. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. a 50. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. others give the complete hydrograph. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. great importance. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.128) 21. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. and large downstream damage potential. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance.or 100-year-frequency storm. All rights reserved. the second to major hydraulic structures.41. 1962). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering. for example. As an example. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. 2. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels.127) where Q = peak discharge. Inc.77 found in the determination of flood runoff. T. 3. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. in/h A = drainage area. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. Click here to view. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable. . The values of C in Table 21.

in/h respectively. min time of concentration Fig.70 – 0. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.10 0. 2% Sandy soil.75 – 0. years duration of storm. Equation (21. or ditches. and the flow time in conduits.05 – 0. (21. n. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K. The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes.17 0. b. Click here to view.60 – 0.40 0. flat.16). 21. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil. is a convenient. steep. gutters.13 – 0. steep. New York. Sherman. “Handbook of Hydrology. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. (See D. or any equivalent method.128) or Eq.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.15 0. 21.60 – 0. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21.35 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. detached Multiunits.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.85 0. Inc.70 0.30 – 0.25 0. flat.20 0.95 0.” McGraw-Hill. After determining the time of concentration.60 0. 2–7% Sandy soil.129) Table 21. coefficient.95 0. 21. R.129).90 0. 2% Heavy soil.127). and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.75 0.70 0. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall.85 0. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.40 0..10 – 0. .95 0. streets.15 – 0.95 0.50 – 0. (21. avg. Maidment.10 – 0.75 – 0.18 – 0.22 0.20 – 0.21.40 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks. (21.20 – 0.25 – 0.70 – 0.50 – 0. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.89)] . (21.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.) The flow time in gutters. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time. avg. K.30 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method. All rights reserved. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.80 – 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ditches.80 0.41.10 – 0. factor.70 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0.50 – 0. Inc.50 0. 7% Heavy soil. 2–7% Heavy soil.25 – 0.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq.71 and Table 21. the flow time in streets.

The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. 2. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. All rights reserved. Thus. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency. usually 1 acre). the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. (Leroy K. that is. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.79 Table 21. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 501-505.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. 108.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. easier. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. and more accurate than any such set of factors. 4. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. termed a unit storm. Click here to view.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. JanuaryJune 1932. Inc. vol. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. Sherman. If the watershed is very large. termed a unit period.) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. pp. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. subdivision may be required. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. . the time of storm runoff. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. The method is summarized by the formula (21. 3.” Engineering News-Record. This requires that a storm of short duration. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made.

Inc. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. 21.72. Click here to view. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). 5.80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. 21.21. This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. which is of fixed intensity and duration. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. For ease of manipulation. Then. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. All rights reserved. . Usually. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms.73). Illustrated in Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. because of storm variations. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs.

vol.131) period.. (See D. 19... Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors. “Hydrology for Engineers. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. pt.) where Q = flow rate.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Inc. I. 21.74). Click here to view.42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin.” 3rd ed. New York. Inc. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. This loss. Maidment.81 21. perpendicular to direction of flow. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. McGraw-Hill. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. “Handbook of Hydrology. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. during heavy storms..) Fig. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. 447–454). 21. Linsley et al. (R. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. Also. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined. K. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. 21. R. pp.” McGraw-Hill. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig. This method was developed by Franklin F. Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. Inc. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. New York. . Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Fig. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

safe yield. water softening costs. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. These costs include increased soap costs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. poor-quality replenishment waters. and methods of wastewater disposal. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. recycling. Regardless of how it is defined. Click here to view. (A base period is a period of time. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. rather than a change in volume. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table.21. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer. because of impermeable layers above and below it. and location of artificial replenishment. Frequently.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. Inc. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. usually a number of years. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. Following the preceding preliminary work. quantity.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. present and future water demands should be determined. groundwater levels. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. quality. cost of replenishment water. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. need for excessive pumping lifts. and overdraft. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. All rights reserved. is a confined or artesian aquifer. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. and quality of water supply. Deteriorating water quality. among others. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). source. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. . Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. or other causes. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. alternative management plans should be formulated. and indirect water-quality use costs. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. quantity. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. wastewaters. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources.

and sanitary purposes. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. Kashef. McGraw-Hill Book Company. water used. industrial. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. Therefore.” N. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. 1987. or other unforeseen emergency.Water Resources Engineering s 21. surface-water delivery facilities. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. 40. decreasing percentage increase. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. The smaller the system. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. Estimation of future population. American Society of Civil Engineers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. All rights reserved. Inc.” 3rd ed. and hotels for drinking. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors.” A. (“Ground Water Management. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. and environmental factors. fire-fighting. is a very difficult task. geographical boundaries. apartments. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. S. industrial. legal. Bear. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan.. amount and location of groundwater extractions. wastewater disposed. New York. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. transmission. and public. “Hydraulics of Ground Water.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. financially feasible. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. I. pumping. distribution. J. and treatment works. storage..83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. such as industrial development. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. and age of the city.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. K. flood. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. however.” R. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. percentage increase.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. culinary. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. 21. “Groundwater Engineering. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. Hydrology for Engineers. . Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. commercial. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. and natural and artificial replenishment. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. motels. Click here to view. bathing. may drastically alter mathematical estimates. washing. graphical comparison with other cities. institutional. no. sanitary. Linsley et al. fire. land speculation. Grigg. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city. “Water Resources Planning. irrigation.

cost. Public Health Service Report. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. cooling. Inc. degree of industrialization. The “California Water Atlas. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. as presented in Table 21. Demand rates vary with time of day. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community.S. and cleaning. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. lawn sprinkling. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. valves.17. All rights reserved. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses.21. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. month. quality. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. cost. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. mainly because of the lack of large industries. pressure. degree of industrialization. The national demand-rate data. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. reservoir evaporation. janitorial. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. Table 21. Public use of water for parks. State of California Office of Planning and Research. air conditioning. public buildings. and quality of the water. if the cost of water increases. and pressure.” 1979.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. . but because of the high rate at which it is required. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. influence the demand rate for water. it may control the design of the facilities. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. size of the city. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. are the average of a range of values. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. Calif. type of service (metered or unmetered). Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and air conditioning purposes.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. meter malfunctions. such as the climate. and faucets. Mo. A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. Normally. presents Table 21. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. the demand for it decreases. and year. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. Click here to view. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City. and time of day. standard of living. and unauthorized uses. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions.

surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters.000 100. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size.000 85. Cost.000 8. Hydrant Spacing.6 1.000 10. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.000 1. † MGD = million gallons per day. quality. In selection of a source of supply.6 4. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small.000 85.000 * American Insurance Association.500 2.132) where G = fire-demand rate. gal/min P = population.3 Duration. but the demand rate is high. All rights reserved. inland. diversification is essential for reliability.3 0. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.000 60.18.000 55.000 70.0 3.000 2. Moreover. industrialization.3 5. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination. MG† 0.8 2.000 4. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21.000 40. In the past.000 40.4 2.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 10. climate. Click here to view.0 7.000 40.0 1.18 Required Fire Flow. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.000 40.000 5.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. interdependent. In the atlas. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems.9 4.000 90.000 1.000 28. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.2 8. and in some cases. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. MG = million gallons. cost.000 40.6 11. is frequently undesirable.000 40.000 80.5 14. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.4 3. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price. such as lakes. In some local areas.000 48. The source must Table 21. Total dependence on a single source.000 3. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.8 7. .4 17. and streams. valley cities. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand.000 200.000 12. the effect of warm.8 6. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day.000 17.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 80. however.000 4.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater. legality. Inc.000 110. rivers.000 125. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and politics. however. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.000 6.000 90. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry.000 40. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.000 120. to a large extent.2 2.

**21.86 s Section Twenty-One
**

also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.45 Quality Standards for Water
**

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
**

Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

**Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
**

Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.

Turbidity in surface water systems only

**21.88 s Section Twenty-One
**

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L

0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L

50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L

* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
**

When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.

Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5

Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4

* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.

an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.” U. dependent on local conditions. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. . the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics.S.5 mg / L 0.21. calcium hardness. 21.) At the discretion of the state. The measurements should include pH. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively. additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. temperature.5 – 8. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Click here to view. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations. (See also Art. All rights reserved. and calculation of the Langelier index.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L.21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6.) Source Protection s The U. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In addition.” American Public Health Association. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. alkalinity. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. total dissolved solids.22. and Water Pollution Control Federation.3 mg / L 0. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. such as sulfates and chlorides. Inc. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. American Water Works Association. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.

Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21. shape.” Ann Arbor Science Publishers. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. slow and rapid sand filtration.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. Pojasek. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area. coagulation-sedimentation. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. (See R. Reynolds numbers. velocity is constant. Click here to view. Mich. 21. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. 21. 21. mm If R > 2000. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. In the region where 1. (21. disinfection. Inc.134). Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo.46. Ann Arbor. and specific gravity of the suspended particles. Newton’s law applies: (21. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. (21. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. temperature and viscosity of the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. Figure 21. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist.0. Figure 21. and width B. particulate and colored matter. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone. to be used in Eq. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. such as those mentioned above. and softening (see also Art. is equal to or less than 1. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. Inc.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. For this ideal basin. .0 < R < 2000.51). however. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. V the flowthrough velocity. calculated with ν = νs. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. unpleasant tastes and odors. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. and size and shape of the settling basin. B. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo . Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping. (Usually. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. 21.001 and 5.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. depth ho . the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system. The basin has a volumetric capacity C.

76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S. 21.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. 897. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) Fig.21. p. Click here to view. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 21. All rights reserved. at 10 °C. vol.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Inc. 103. 1946. . (Observed curves. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. after Camp.

. 21. Fair. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye.) 21. Inc. Without coagulants. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. finely Fig.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. salt. “Water Treatment Plant Design. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. The tubular settler (Fig.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. G. Multistory tanks. Inc.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo . New York. J. 21.” John Wiley & Sons.46. 1. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. A.5 ft/min (most common velocity. rectangular (Fig.78b). occupy less site area than the single-story basin. and D.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . and eddy currents. All rights reserved. 21.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. C.78a) or circular (Fig.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. 21. short circuiting. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes. New York.” McGraw-Hill. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. are removed in this basin. Inc. coagulants are added to the water. 27. for example. . M. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.8c. Okun. Geyer.. or other indicator to pass through the basin. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig.

(c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Click here to view. Inc.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21.21. (d) Tubular settler. (b) Circular clarifier. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.

) 21.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. however. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and easier dewatering. 18H2O]. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. and nonionic. Corbitt. in some instances. Click here to view. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. consequently.” McGraw-Hill. however. production of a smaller volume of sludge. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. or neutral in charge. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. such as physical straining.to 60min range. (G. and air jets. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering.” 4th ed. and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. color. New York. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. “Water Quality and Treatment. American Water Works Association. New York. The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. T. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. They are available in three types: cationic. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. J. plankton. A. ferric chloride (FeCl3). The filtering process has many components. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up. settling. Also. temperature. . such as pH. turbidity. Polymers are long-chain.” R. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. polymers have a minor effect on pH. considering both cost and performance. Inc. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (2) flocculation or slow stirring.. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Thereby. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. All rights reserved. McGhee. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. organic polyelectrolytes. such as paper fiber. Culp. Inc. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. L. or positively charged. color. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min.. such as mechanical stirrers. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. highmolecular-weight. chemical and biological reactions. coliform organisms. or negatively charged. centrifugal pumps. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. “Water Supply and Sewerage.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. and hardness. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. anionic. The speed of the agitators must be great enough. to get the small floc to agglomerate. Culp and R. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. Anionic polymers. however. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. L. and suspended solids.

Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. of the sand. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.21.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. by weight. The process requires rapid mixing. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. . 21.25. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. and dual. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. Inc. depending on the turbidity.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs.to 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view. through the sand and gravel layers. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection.35-mm range. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. in millimeters. All rights reserved. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day. Usually. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. The wash- Fig.or mixed-media filtration. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain. 21. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. that will pass 10%. The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6.79.to 12-in layer of gravel.

97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. may be more advantageous. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.005:1 range.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. and air jets. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Dual-media.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1.135) where Q = total flow received by trough.002:1 to 0. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. which is drained to waste. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in.20 to 1. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. gal/min b = width of trough. which produces an undertreated effluent. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. such as rakes. Click here to view. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. bed cracking. All rights reserved. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. mixed-media. The filtering medium may be sand. however. . The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.35 to 0. Inc. Immediately after washing. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. creating a high head loss across the filter. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2. or anthracite coal.25 to 1. filters pass water at a high rate. or sand incrustation will be encountered. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. or deep coarse-media filters. water sprays. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases. diatomaceous earth. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water.

Some. (American Water Works Association. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. All rights reserved. sulfates.136) (21.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. A. L. New York. McGhee. Culp and R. “New Concepts in Water Purification.” John Wiley & Sons.138) (21. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. or open-joint pipes. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table. carbonates. These materials remove cations. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. Regeneration requires between 0. where 1 gpg = 17. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21. New York. In the lime-soda process. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains.. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains. New York.. C. Fair. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. lime (CaO). American Water Works Association. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” and T. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. G. J. such as calcium and magnesium.” 4th ed.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. Click here to view. from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations.. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 mg/L. respectively. J. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Inc. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water.” 6th ed. New York.) 21. and American Society of Civil Engineers.3 and 0. and (3) total hardness. Okun. Geyer.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Inc. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit.) (21. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2]. perforated. gas. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. (G. however.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness.139) 21. and D. M.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. L. “Water Quality and Treatment. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30.” 4th ed.21. and R is the zeolite material. “Water Supply and Sewerage. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. “Water Treatment Plant Design. in clear wells. “Water Quality and Treatment.. Culp.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. .

1 or 0. reverse osmosis. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. ozone. Fair. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water. flood control. Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. . Click here to view.) 21. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. J. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. New York. Filter both solutions.99 water supplies. “Water Treatment Plant Design. despite its low solubility.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.” and T. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. irrigation.” McGraw-Hill. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. C.) 21. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. bromine. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. 21.45). excessive fluorides. anion exchange. Inc. Geyer.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples.” John Wiley & Sons. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.” McGraw-Hill. M. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. McGhee. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter.. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. then.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells. water supply. (G. Inc. Other disinfectants are iodine. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. New York. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. and lime. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. and D. Inc.. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. odor.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. Okun.) respect to carbonates. lime softening. and electrodialysis. Inc. iron. Chlorine residuals of 0.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. taste. New York. detergents. A.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. All rights reserved. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide.. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. activated carbon. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. J. chlorine dioxide. ultraviolet light. “Water Supply and Sewerage. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. manganese. cation exchange. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water Treatment Plant Design.

An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs. Also. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. All rights reserved. . maximum flows will govern.1). Many large reservoirs are multipurpose. minimum flows will be critical. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.21. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. 21.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. areavolume curves (Fig. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow. Click here to view. 21. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. Once a reservoir site has been selected. Aeri- Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. 21. The mass diagram (Fig. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. The plot of volume vs.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site.80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria.80 Mass diagram of stream flow. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. When the demand rate is known. as is the case for many water-supply projects. Inc. 21.80.52. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow.

Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply.52. Because of the large cost of aqueducts. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.101 Fig. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. but there is no circulation across this zone. perature drops in the fall. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. pumping plants.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. When the demand drops off. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler. odor.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand. Inc. During hours of maximum demand. When the tem- 21. Click here to view. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. In deep reservoirs. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. the flow refills the reservoir. The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. are large distances from the city. and Los Angeles. San Francisco. If possible. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. such as New York. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. . is called the thermocline.2). give special attention to water quality.52. 21. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. All rights reserved. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Major sources of supply for some cities. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. which may be only a few feet thick.35 and 21. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. and turbidity than deep reservoirs.Water Resources Engineering s 21.

a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. no. For any given storage reservoir. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Brune. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. A flowing artesian Fig.83). the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. M. 21. This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 21.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. 34.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs. For the correct hydraulic grade. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. vol.82) (G.84). so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.21.35. 21. June 1953). 3. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. M. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. Brune. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. 21. Inc.52. 21. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. . who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Click here to view. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 21. All rights reserved.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. 21. Click here to view.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. . 21.103 Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fig.

ft h = H minus drawdown. Inc. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. and motor. gal/day.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” John Wiley & Sons. no. Inc. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous. Inc. from an artesian well is given by (21. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well. waterjet. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression. hollow-core. 21. McGraw-Hill. 21. pump (Art. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. New York. 21. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies.” 6th ed. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well.53.143) 21. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel. J. (G. p.84). 72. 889. J. Jacob. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. McGhee. The pump. and D. December 1938. where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. 1940. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. vol.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing. T. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. Click here to view. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. eductor or riser pipe.53.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. . C. Hence. New York. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. ft d = diameter of well. 21. or driven. Theis. 629. (C.57).. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K. ft (Fig. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity.. Fair. All rights reserved. Okun. ft The steady flow. M.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head.142) where Q = flow. C. A.. 21. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference.53. 5.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. p. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. ditch.53. “Water Supply and Sewerage. or hydraulic rotary methods. E. bored. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. Geyer. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). V.21.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.” Economic Geology. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well.83). 33. motor.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. screen. vol.

Water Resources Engineering s 21.105

**21.54 Water Distribution Piping
**

A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

**21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
**

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

**21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
**

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.

**21.106 s Section Twenty-One
**

specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).

(a)

may

be

**Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
**

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

**21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
**

The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.

**21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
**

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

**21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
**

When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. If it is cement-lined. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. A machine that produces a monolithic. an anode and a cathode. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. brass. zinc. contact between acids and metals. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. impurities and strains in metals. and other appurtenances. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle. bacteria in water. valves. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins.146) where D = pipe diameter. Inc.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron. rubber.) At the anode. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. bronze. are present. stray electric currents. polyethylene. however. Under favorable conditions.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications. and sulfur compounds. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket. and meters destroyed by corrosion. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. Click here to view. concrete. 21. Since steel is stronger than iron. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage.54. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. polybutylene. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. hydrants.21. riveting. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. . dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. All rights reserved. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. pumps. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. and ability to withstand external loads. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. plastic. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. or Dresser-type couplings. tanks. Copper. such as polyvinyl chloride. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. steel. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. ft 21. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. sealed flanges. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. In unlined pipes. Wood pipelines are still in existence. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. but wood is rarely used in new installations. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. and plastics. sand. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures. (21. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. valves. lead.

Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. use of protective coatings. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced.86). When selecting materials. At the cathode. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. the corrosion process continues (Fig. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position. Aluminum. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. and Fig. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. to prevent corrosion. where e is an electron. water may be treated with bases. Strains. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. for example. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. zinc. . and the more ions. such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and treatment of the water. Also.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Inc. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. 21. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. caustic soda. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. cracks. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. 21. All rights reserved. such as soda ash. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. the faster electrons can move through the water. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

ft. graphite. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates. or eye. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode.88).56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. in feet. Click here to view.. The centrifugal pump.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. Corrosion. z is negative. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig.. Inc. lime. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.) w = unit weight of liquid. called a volute (Fig. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. Inc. All rights reserved. Zinc. “Water Quality and Treatment. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line.87 Cathodic protection of a metal. by (21.147) where pa = pressure. psia.21. magnesium. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. efficiency. 21. ft of water z = elevation difference. 21.87). or impeller. the most common waterworks pump. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. 21. between pump center line and water surface Fig. and the head-discharge relationship. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21. . It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. psia. To prevent cavitation. and so on on the walls of the pipes. horsepower. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. (American Water Works Association. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. To have practical meaning. New York. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. McGraw-Hill. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. however. 21. accomplishes that in two steps.” 4th ed. oxides. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. hydroxides. Water enters at the center.

58.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. jet.. head.) 21. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Inc. and air lift. Click here to view.111 than the required NPSH. (Also included in Fig. with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. 21. Karassik et al. J. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depending on the number of stages. reciprocating. Although centrifugal pumps (Art.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. . the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. helical. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. 21. 21.. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. See also Art. pump discharge. however. All rights reserved.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. Fig.89. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The intersection of these curves with the head vs. rotary.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. 21.57 and check valves in Art. New York. 21. below 200 gal/min. For that reason. (I. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. “Pump Handbook.” 2nd ed. propeller. 21. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired. as shown in Fig.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. In a typical water-system analysis. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.

Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Inc. . All rights reserved. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. either hand. the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. which are located at the well bottom. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. Jet pumps have low efficiencies.90 fied). Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. r/min Q = discharge. Jet pumps (Fig. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller.21. vanes. cams.148) where n = impeller speed. 21. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Click here to view. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig.or motordriven. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. Reciprocating pumps. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gal/min H = head. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. and for Ns above 7500. 21. they can be used only for sediment-free water. At sea level. which is a function of specific speed. utilize piston action to move water. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. so that the entire lift is suction. Because of the close tolerances.

availability. air-relief. or it may be at the bottom of the well. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. or Neoprene. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. and butterfly valves. and easy. But these valves cost more than gate. The major types of isolating valves are gate.. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. fast operation. Usually. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. plug.” 2nd ed. large pressure differences. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. or corporation cocks. one just upstream of the meter. Also. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. solids deposition. Inc. rubber. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. primarily because of their low cost. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft.or oil-lubricated. Low head loss. globe.Water Resources Engineering s 21. curb. Hand or motor power. and low head loss when fully open. All rights reserved. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems.113 tion. Check. “Pump Handbook. cone. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. Simplicity of construction and quick. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. in-service lubrication features. Karassik et al. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. If sand is carried out with the water. and butterfly. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. pumps. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. rotates the disk. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Click here to view.) drives to permit manual operation. which are water. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells. applied through a gear-reduction device. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Corrosion. three valves must be used. J. needle. respectively. . sluice gate. tubercle formation. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow. New York. one at the service connection. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. (I. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. pressure-regulating. Plug. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. pressure-relief. globe.. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages.

tube. Furthermore. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. 21. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. and large pipes.21. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. Interior-differential. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. which connects the barrel to the main. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. rivers. Usually. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Inc. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. Click here to view. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. The most common check valve is the swing type. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. check. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. Often. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. or California type. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. When the valve is in a closed position.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant. Because of high head losses.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. such as pressure regulators and altitude. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. Many automatic control valves. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. All rights reserved. such as trunk lines 21. For example. and relief valves. . The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. The wetbarrel. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant.

Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow. respectively. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows. Brater. A clicking noise. The standard venturi meter (Fig. simplicity and ease of repairs. All rights reserved. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Click here to view.149) Hydraulics. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. but they are used primarily in laboratories. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. see E. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate. 21. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft d2 = diameter of throat. which is similar to that of a top before it stops. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. McGraw-Hill Book Company. or nutating-disk types. ft h1 = pressure in main section. called a Price meter. F.) As in venturi meters. The cup-type meter. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. for metering domestic-service connections.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss.115 of distribution systems. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. amount of head loss through the meter. Inc. (21. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. and cost. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters.Water Resources Engineering s 21.91. . Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. durability.. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. or modifications thereof. The nutating disk is used. such as meters for individual customer connections. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation.” 6th ed. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. which do not affect propeller meters. vertical velocity components. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. are the most common velocity-type devices. New York. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter. However. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. nozzle. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. almost to the exclusion of the two other types.150) where Q = flow rate. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. rotary. 21.

Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered. 21. flat rate is falling into disuse. All rights reserved. (c) Orifice- 21. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. and development of the system. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. fixed charges on capital investment. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. load factors. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. and block rate. This type of charge tends to encourage waste.91 plate meter. peak rates of use. (b) Nozzle meter. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. seasonal use. Click here to view. and similar items.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. step rate.21.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. or to some other recognized system. fire use. Inc. utility-type enterprises. if any.

Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. S. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. switching equipment. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. It is generally recognized that residential areas.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. draft tube. called the customer component. and.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. tunnel. Inc. generators and exciters. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. When fixing a system of rates. including metering and billing. All rights reserved. treatment chemicals. penstocks. This charge is usually small. Click here to view. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. depends on the peak usage of a customer. where the majority of small users are. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream. called the commodity component. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. equipment such as protective devices and regulators.117 With step rate.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers. turbines and governors. Cost component 1. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. and transformers. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. where applicable. .746 kW 1 kW = 1. buying water from a wholesale supplier. of serving an individual customer. pumping energy. and (3) cost. For most distribution systems. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system.Water Resources Engineering s 21. canals. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. Cost component 2. a building to house the machinery and equipment. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. Cost component 3. called the demand component. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. tunnels.

These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. or seasonal cycle. during periods of peak power demand (Fig. weekly. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity. If the minimum flow is very low. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants. The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose.21. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. On a weekly cycle.92). the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation. On a seasonal cycle. . power production being only incidental. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. Click here to view. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. 21. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. to be used at some future time. It can be computed on a daily. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. On a daily cycle. Then. Inc. All rights reserved.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. such as navigation. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. weekly. Therefore. or yearly basis. base-load plants. Storage can be provided for a daily.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. run-of-river plants with storage.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. and peak-load plants. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available.

The main classifications are gravity.) 21. earth. 21. Inc. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. (V. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. it usually is not as economical. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. New York. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. Figure 21. The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. All rights reserved. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. McGraw-Hill Book Company. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Hasen. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. Calif.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Click here to view.. . J.” 4th ed.) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. Zipparo and H. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. 21.119 Fig. arch. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Force F2 represents silt pressure. (Department of Water and Power. When needed. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and rock-fill. Its distribution is triangular. Los Angeles.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1. buttress.92).

98. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. 21. given by Eq. May 1946.1 g. presented by Edwin Rose. was developed by von Karman. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. (21. All rights reserved.000 psf. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. In the past.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. vol. In cold climates. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth.153).93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.) (21. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. These accelerations occur in every direction. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. which forms on the reservoir surface. today it is realized these values are much too high. Inc. p. Rose. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions. which create forces on any object resting on it. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction.93 by forces F4 and F5. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.” discussion by von Karman. ice pressures as high as 50. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt. Click here to view. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. ice.425h above the base. (E. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. A close approximation of the force. . 21. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.153) where w = unit weight of water. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. 434. however.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 1933.21. A method of calculating these forces. where g is the acceleration due to gravity.

First. The modes of failure are also the same. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. silt. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. however. Inc. Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. In the multiple-arch. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. In the past. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. the membrane is a series of concrete arches. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam.Water Resources Engineering s 21. their relative importance is much different. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. On arch dams. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. Although there are many types of buttress dams. however. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. is available and clayey materials must be imported. Recent belief. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. If the deflections are not equal. engineers assumed that. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. or failure of the foundation material. and uplift forces are smaller. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. uplift is not so important. All rights reserved. overturning by rotating about the toe. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. When the base is not drained. but the structural design is much more critical. rock flour. If a large quantity of pervious material. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. . The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. such as sand and gravel. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. because of bearing contact. Hence. sand. but its formwork is more expensive. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Click here to view. They are not suited to most sites. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. However. and clay. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length.

Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. . (V. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work.3 on 1. and an upstream impervious facing. The facing is usually concrete. Leakage should be expected. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. Bureau of Relamation. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations. or wood over concrete. Hasen. All rights reserved. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. bonding into the dumped rock. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. The downstream face is usually 1.” EM 1110-2-2300. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. although steel has been used occasionally. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. Inc. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams. For dams over 200 ft high. therefore. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. Click here to view. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines.) 21. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. providing power. 21. onto the fill. the natural angle of repose of rock. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. J. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical.. Today.94). The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. however.3 on 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Temporary facings are usually of wood. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. For some types of soil. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place.” U. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. S. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. no well-defined yield acceleration exists. U. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. S. Army Corps of Engineers. bearing on the rubble cushion. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically.” 4th ed. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. Zipparo and H. If pervious material is not available.64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past.

the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. their efficiency decreases rapidly. it changes direction. runner. however. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient.95a). Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. However. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. In these.. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.95c). Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case. J. wicket gates.) Fig. so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head. At heads above 1000 ft. As the water flows through the tur- 21. The wicket gates. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. however.123 bine. Zipparo and H. All rights reserved. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. 21. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. 21. wicket gates. .” 4th ed. When the power demand on the turbine changes.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. if the load drops below 50%. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. 21. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work.94 turbine. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. New York. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. runner. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. (V. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. and draft tube. Click here to view. located just outside the perimeter of the runner. Inc. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. and the fixed-blade type. and draft tube. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. At heads below 100 ft. The propeller turbine (Fig. In such installations. such as the Kaplan turbine.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. Hasen.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. 21. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. This creates a force on the runner. the propeller-type (Fig. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type.

Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam. . 21. This type of spillway is Fig. All rights reserved. Click here to view. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. Inc.21.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. (b) Kaplan.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. widely used for concrete dams because. if designed correctly. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the dam will not be damaged by the water.65. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. (c) axial flow. 21.

The weir can be sharp-crested. model tests are usually employed. the siphon’s intake is sealed. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. flared. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. called an ogee spillway. lined.” Government Printing Office.34). In a side-channel spillway. Washington. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel. Once this second condition is reached. siphon spillways hold the water Fig.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. In a shaft spillway. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. Click here to view. The air vent shown in Fig. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. Bureau of Reclamation. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. When the head is relatively low.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. or ogee in cross section. the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Inc. 21. DC 20402). Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. 21. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. 21. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice.96 Siphon spillway. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . both depending on the head on the weir. “Design of Small Dams. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. A siphon spillway (Fig.S. In a chute spillway. open channel. This type of spillway. Thus. As the head increases. All rights reserved.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. 21.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated.

65. 21. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. causing damage and hampering operation. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0.5 ft/s. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head. the pipes fail. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. level of a reservoir within close limits. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. . Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation. 21. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. making removal difficult. On large stop-log installations.98 Bear-trap gate. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. In a taintor gate (Fig.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. and providing support for the conduit. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. Fig. All rights reserved. 21.97). 21. Inc. In contrast. To do this. Click here to view. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum.65. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. 21. Fig. controlling flow.21.97 Taintor gate. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. are 395-fthigh concrete towers.

New York. Hasen. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. E. 21. Zipparo and H. J. Cleasby. “Water Supply Engineering. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. and J. Because of the large recess required in the dam. (V. Babbitt. J.” 4th ed. drum gates are not suited to small dams. J. as shown in Fig. Inc..127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.) Fig. All rights reserved. L.Water Resources Engineering s 21. . The drum gate (Fig. 21. Doland.99 Drum gate. and H.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use. To raise a bear-trap gate.98.

128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . Click here to view.blank page 21. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.

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