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M. Kent Loftin
Chief Civil Engineer South Florida Water Management District West Palm Beach, Florida
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
ater resources engineering is concerned with the protection, development, and efficient management of water resources for beneficial purposes. It involves planning, design, and construction of projects for supply of water for domestic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes, flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water resources, including prevention of pollution. Water resources engineering primarily deals with water sources, collection, flow control, transmission, storage, and distribution. For efficient management of these aspects, water resources engineers require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology; water demand, quality requirements, and treatment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers, and seas; transmission and distribution of water supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and production of hydroelectric power. These subjects are addressed in the following articles.
Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water under various static and dynamic conditions. This theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose particles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients and formulas are used to describe more accurately the behavior of water. These empiricisms are intended to compensate for all neglected and unknown factors. The relatively high degree of dependence on empiricism, however, does not minimize the importance of an understanding of the basic theory. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom identical to the experiments from which the empirical coefficients were derived, the application of fundamentals is frequently the only means available for analysis and design.
21.2 Properties of Fluids
Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as weight per unit volume. The specific weight of water varies from 62.42 lb/ft3 at 32 °F to 62.22 lb/ft3 at 80 °F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft3 for the majority of engineering calculations. The specific weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft3. Density ρ is defined as mass per unit volume and is significant in all flow problems where acceleration
21.1 Dimensions and Units
A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conversion factors for commonly used quantities, including the basic equivalents between the English and metric systems. For additional conversions to the metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.
*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
21.2 s Section Twenty-One
Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering Symbol A C C1 d dc D E F g H h hf L M n P P p Q q r R T t V W w y Z ε µ ν ρ σ τ Terminology Area Chezy roughness coefficient Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Depth Critical depth Diameter Modulus of elasticity Force Acceleration due to gravity Total head, head on weir Head or height Head loss due to friction Length Mass Manning's roughness coefficient Perimeter, weir height Force due to pressure Pressure Flow rate Unit flow rate Radius Hydraulic radius Time Time, thickness Velocity Weight Specific weight Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary Height above datum Size of roughness Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Surface tension Shear stress Symbols for dimensionless quantities Symbol C Cc Cν F f K R S Sc η Sp. gr. Quantity Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge Coefficient of contraction Coefficient of velocity Froude number Darcy-Weisbach friction factor Head-loss coefficient Reynolds number Friction slope—slope of energy grade line Critical slope Efficiency Specific gravity Dimensions L L1/ 2/T L0.37/ T L L L F/L2 F L/T2 L L L L FT 2 /L T / L 1/3 L F F /L2 L3 / T L3 / T•L L L T T, L L/T F F /L3 L L L FT /L2 L2 / T FT2 / L4 F/L F/L2
Units ft2 ft1/ 2/s ft0.37/s ft ft ft psi lb ft/s2 ft ft ft ft lb•s2 /ft s/ft1/3 ft lb psf ft3 /s ft3 /(s•ft) ft ft s s, ft ft /s lb lb /ft3 ft ft ft lb•s/ft ft2 / s lb•s2 /ft4 lb /ft psi
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.3
is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The variation of g with latitude and altitude is small enough to warrant the assumption that its value is constant at 32.2 ft/s2 in hydraulics computations. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density at some temperature to that of pure water at 68.2 °F (20 °C). Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as the change in pressure intensity divided by the corresponding change in volume per unit volume. Its value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slightly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of water is large enough to permit the assumption that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13). Surface tension and capillarity are a result of the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface tension σ is due to the cohesive forces between liquid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature and is also dependent on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in contact. The surface tension of water at 70°F in contact with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft. Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in liquid surface elevations between the inside and outside of a small tube that has one end submerged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of water molecules are greater than the cohesive forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-
Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities Area 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 mi2 = 640 acres Volume 1 ft3 = 7.4805 gal 1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal 1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft Power 1 hp = 550 ft • lb/s 1 hp = 0.746 kW 1 hp = 6535 kWh / year Weight of water 1 ft3 weighs 62.4 lb 1 gal weighs 8.34 lb Discharge 1 ft3/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day 1 ft3/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year 1 ft3/s = 50 miner’s inches in Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and South Dakota 1 ft3/s = 40 miner’s inches in Arizona, California, Montana, and Oregon 1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year 1 MGD* = 1.55 ft3/s = 694 gal/min 1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft3/s Pressure 1 psi = 2.31 ft of water = 51.7 mm of mercury 1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water 1 ft of water = 0.433 psi 1 atm† = 29.9 in of mercury = 14.7 psi Metric equivalents Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m2 Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L 1 m3 = 264.17 gal Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg * Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons
† atm indicates atmospheres.
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Cavitation is a major problem in the design of pumps and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations. portions of the liquid vaporize. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . pitting. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the weight of the air above the earth’s surface. face and rises in a small tube. as shown in Fig.4 s Section Twenty-One at sea level is 2116 psf or 14. or liquid surface. respectively.7 psia. lb/ft w1 and w2 = specific weights of fluids below and above meniscus. like surface tension.3. psia. Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of this rise. 21. are significant in others. ft Capillarity. and loss of efficiency through gradual destruction of the impeller. (21. Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. abrupt pressure increases force them Fig. 21. The cavitation phenomenon may be described as follows: Because of low pressures.21. Click here to view. is the total pressure including atmospheric pressure.000 ft is shown in Fig. Surface tension and capillarity. In equation form. Its value Fig. interpretation of the results obtained on small models. Gage pressure. The variation in atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level to 10. is pressure above or below atmospheric. formation of spray from water jets. however. although negligible in many water engineering problems. When the liquid is in a closed container. Its temperature variation. Thus. 21. 21. as shown in Fig. As these cavities are carried a short distance downstream. Gage pressure is positive when pressure is greater than atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less than atmospheric. such as capillary rise and flow of liquids in narrow spaces. decreases with increasing temperature.1. The curve is based on the ICAO standard atmosphere. ft σ = surface tension.7 psi. Inc. is concave upward. the partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the surface increases until the rates at which the molecules leave and reenter the liquid are equal.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with elevation above mean sea level. is small and insignificant in most problems. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and freezing damage to concrete. with subsequent formation of vapor cavities. psi. Meniscus. Absolute pressure.1) where h = capillary rise. All rights reserved. The vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is called the saturation pressure. lb/ft θ = angle of contact r = radius of capillary tube.2.1 Capillary action raises water in a small-diameter tube. 21. at sea level. a gage pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24. Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a liquid. Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pressures below the vapor pressure of the liquid.
lb/ft3. as shown in Fig. and cross-sectional area A. ft/s y = depth. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid. It is expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing stresses between flow layers to the rate of change of velocity with depth: (21.000 psi have been measured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University. All rights reserved. Cavitation may be prevented by designing pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liquid at all points is always above its vapor pressure. weakening of the metal results as fatigue develops. Viscosity. and pitting appears. The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. lb/ft2 21. transitional. . the pressure acts equally in all directions. the force due to pressure p1. are a combination of the kinematic units Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the variation of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid and nonlinear for a gas. psf.3 Fluid Pressures Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface within a fluid. µ of a fluid. The implosion and ensuing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high pressure. the forces acting in the vertical direction are the weight of the prism wA ∆h. In hydraulics. Inc. (Pressures as high as 350. or implode. Water at 70 °F has a viscosity of 0. ft Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but may be assumed independent of changes in pressure for the majority of engineering problems.2) where τ = shearing stress. absolute viscosity. Summing these vertical forces and setting the total equal to zero yields V = velocity.00001059 ft2/s. At any depth. ft2/s.Water Resources Engineering s 21. which extend into the pores of the metal. also called the coefficient of viscosity. on the bottom surface. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to depth.5 Fig. Since the prism is at rest. 21.00002050 lb⋅s/ft2. This results from the inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest. and the force due to pressure p2.4.) Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at very high frequencies. viscosity is most frequently encountered in the calculation of Reynolds number (Art. or dynamic viscosity. of length and time. Then. It is so named because its units. Click here to view. on the top surface. ft. It may be derived by considering a submerged rectangular prism of water of height ∆h. psf. ft2.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.8) to determine whether laminar. 21. to collapse. is a measure of its resistance to flow. Kinematic viscosity ν is defined as viscosity µ divided by density ρ. or completely turbulent flow exists. Fluid pressure acts normal to the surface at all points. Water at 70 °F has a kinematic viscosity of 0. the summation of all forces in both the vertical and horizontal directions must be zero. 21.
1 Pressures on Submerged Plane Surfaces This is important in the design of weirs. Click here to view. The resultant pressure force P. and other water control structures. p1 is zero (gage pressure is zero at atmospheric pressure).6 s Section Twenty-One Fig.3a) by A yields (21. ft. (21. Inc. where w is the specific weight of water. ft2.4.5) 21.3b) then becomes (21. acting on the surface is equal to ∫p dA. then p2 is p.21.6) can be simplified by setting – – surface.3. however. and y sin θ = h . ft. Since p = wh and h = y sin θ. For determination of the pressure force on inclined or vertical surfaces. Figure 21. the depth below the water surface.5 represents any submerged plane surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal.7) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. (21. (21. psf.4) Equation (21. (21. By adding atmospheric pressure pa to Eq. the depth of the centroid. where A is the area of the submerged Equation (21.4). Equation (21. the pressure. Therefore. absolute pressure pab is obtained as shown in Fig. Since most hydraulics problems involve gage pressure.4) gives the depth of water h of specific weight w required to produce a gage pressure p. the summation concepts of integral calculus must be used. at depth h. All rights reserved. the pressure-force determination is a simple matter since the pressure is constant. (21. dams. . 21.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth. p1 is atmospheric pressure.3b) For the special case where the top of the prism coincides with the water surface. (21. lb. For horizontal surfaces. lb/ft3. tanks.3a) Division of Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6) – ∫ydA = y A. Thus. Taking ∆h to be h.
21.8). 21. with Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. Click here to view. (21.) but acts at a point (c. where pcg is the pressure at the centroid.2° to the horizontal (Fig.5 and lying in the plane of the submerged surface. where K is the radius of gyration. The location of the center of pressure.9) – and K2/y is the distance between the centroid and center of pressure. ft. the horizontal location may be found by taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the one through W in Fig. .6 (see also Fig. 21. is calculated by summing the moments of the incremental forces about an axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.) that is below the c. Thus. of the surface about its centroidal axis. yp may be calculated directly from Eq. Values of K2 for some common shapes are given in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.8) equals –A.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity (c. (21. The point on the submerged surface at which the resultant pressure force acts is called the center of pressure (c.p.g.8) The quantity ∫y2 dA is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis through W. Inc. the total force P = whA. The horizontal location of the center of pressure may be determined as follows: It lies on the vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical about the vertical. All rights reserved. Hence y . (21.1: Determine the magnitude and point of action of the resultant pressure force on a 5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle θ of 53.g. 21.7). represented by the length yp.p. It lies on the locus of the midpoints of horizontal lines located on the submerged surface. It also equals – AK2 + Ay 2 . Pyp = ∫y dP. if that locus is a straight line.7).5). Otherwise.29). It is below the center of gravity because the pressure intensity increases with depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. – From Eq.7 Fig. Since dP = wy sin θ dA and P = w∫y sin θ dA. Example 21. For areas for which radius of gyration has not been determined. psf.). 6. The denominator of Eq. (21.
yp = 5. Consider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free body by the principles of statics. .) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Also. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c. (21. P = 62. however.2 Pressure on Submerged Curved Surfaces The resultant pressure force on submerged curved surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations developed for the pressure force on submerged Fig.5 + 1/ (5.42 ft.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure.42 = 5. by determining its horizontal and vertical components and combining them vectorially. 21.0 + 0.) of common shapes.3.4 × 4 × 25 = 6240 lb.08/5 = 5. 21. – – its point of action is a distance yp = y + K2/y from – = 2.8 s Section Twenty-One Fig.21.0 ft. A typical configuration of pressure on a submerged curved surface is shown in Fig. The resultant pressure force can be calculated. 21.0 + 2. All rights reserved. Note: 1.8. Inc. and y 2 b2/12 = 52/12 = 2.0) = 5.1. plane surfaces because of the variation in direction of the pressure force. (See Example 21.08.9). The horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the Thus. From Eq. Therefore. K2 = point G. Click here to view.g.
14 × 25/4 = 19.4 × 2. 21.564. The positions of the horizontal and vertical components of the resultant pressure force are not required to find the point of action of the resultant. (a) Pressure variation over the surface.7).5 × 5 = 780 lb. (See Example 21.2: Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. (21.6 × 62. 21. (b) Free-body diagram. 2. and for a constant-radius surface.6w = 19.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged curved surface.2.9). 21.9. Its angle with the horizontal is known. The volume of this prism is πR2/4 = 3. Fig.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved surface under pressure. PH = whA = 62.4 = 1220 lb = PV. . Vertical component of pressure acts upward. the vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the imaginary volume of water vertically above the surface. The magnitude of the resultant pressure force equals The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure force makes with the horizontal = PV /PH = 1220/780 = 1. The magnitude of the vertical component of the resultant pressure force equals the weight of the imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above the curved surface.4°. PV acts upward through the center of gravity of this imaginary volume. The horizontal location of the vertical component is calculated by taking moments of the two vertical forces about point C. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The corresponding angle is 57. Inc. When water is below the curved surface. pressure force on the vertical projection AC of the curved surface and acts at the centroid of pressure diagram ACDE. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Example 21. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. – From Eq.6 ft3.9 Fig. such as for a taintor gate (Fig.) The magnitude of the horizontal component PH of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate. The vertical component PV of the resultant pressure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of the pressure force on the horizontal projection AB of the curved surface and the weight of the water vertically above ABC. the resultant must act perpendicular to the surface. All rights reserved. so the weight of the water is 19.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 Submerged and Floating Bodies The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of submerged and floating bodies and are important in determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels. It consists of a tube containing a column of one or two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.10b). 21.10 s Section Twenty-One 21.21. the pressure head. for which aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Manometers indicate h. 21.4). A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to its weight. 21. which is located at the center of gravity of the volume of liquid displaced. . ft3 ys = distance. the center of buoyancy and center of gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.10b. ft4 V = volume of displaced liquid. The basis for the calculation of this unknown pressure is provided by the height of the liquid column. 21. whether floating or submerged. p = wh. For a body to be in equilibrium. Click here to view. All manometer problems may be solved with Eq.g. (21.10a). (21. its tendency not to overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position. The buoyant force acts vertically through the center of buoyancy c. or the difference in head.. Inc. The primary application of manometers is measurement of relatively low pressures. Given in feet by Eq. 21. All rights reserved. It is the point at which a vertical line through the center of buoyancy intersects the rotated position of the line through the centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium condition A′B′ (Fig. The ship is stable only if the metacenter is above the center of gravity since the resulting moment for this condition tends to right the ship.10) ym is a measure of degree of stability or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of moments produced in a roll are directly proportional to this distance. The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. ft.5 Manometers A manometer is a device for measuring pressure.10) where I = moment of inertia of ship’s cross section at waterline about longitudinal axis through 0.). between centers of buoyancy and gravity when ship is in equilibrium The negative sign should be used when the center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy. (21. The distance between the ship’s metacenter and center of gravity is called the metacentric height and is designated by ym in Fig. The stability of a ship.b. is indicated by the metacenter.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.11 accurate because of their inherent mechanical limitations.11): piezometer. and differential manometer. Click here to view.11a is 2.11 manometer. The piezometer is a sensitive gage. Larger pressures would create an impractically high column of liquid. manometers may also be used in precise measurement of high pressures by arranging several U-tube manometers in series (Fig. usually heads of 5 ft of water or less. The only liquid it contains is the one whose pressure is being measured (the metered liquid). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . 21. The liquid is water with w = 62.17 psi. However. 21. Inc. Basic types of manometers.4 lb/ft3. (b) U-tube manometer. (a) Piezometers. Three basic types are used (shown in Fig. 21.11a) consists of a tube with one end tapped flush with the wall of the container in which the pressure is to be measured and the other end open to the atmosphere. but it is limited to the measurement of relatively small pressures. U-tube manometer.12c).3: The gage pressure pc in the pipe of Fig. although the latter is most common. (c) differential Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. 21. The piezometer (Fig. Manometers are used for both static and flow applications. Following is a brief discussion of the basic types. All rights reserved. Example 21. What is hm? Fig.
A movable scale. In this application. .12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. 21. The U-tube manometer is used when pressures are either too high or too low for the piezometer. 21.12 s Section Twenty-One For pressures greater than 5 ft of water.11b) is used. (b) Inverted U for measuring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. Click here to view. Very low pressures. 21. It is similar to the piezometer except that it contains an indicating liquid with a specific gravity usually much larger than that of the metered liquid. The scale is positioned between the two vertical legs and moved to adjust for the variation in distance hm from the center line of the pressure vessel to the Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The most common use of the Utube manometer is measurement of the pressures of flowing water. the Utube manometer (Fig. as opposed to a fixed scale. facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. Inc. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures. High pressures can be measured by arranging Utube manometers in series (Fig.21. The only other criteria are that the indicating liquid should have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the metered liquid. All rights reserved. the usual indicating liquid is mercury. can be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends below the center line of the container of the metered liquid. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12c). including negative gage pressures.
75 + 13.7 psi When small pressure differences in water are measured. the height of the liquid column hi will be 1. is magnified by the differential manometer. in the manometer.12a.25 = pc1 + 1957 Since the pressure at A must equal that at B. ft. such as ft of water or psi.4 × 2. when expressed in feet of water. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig. For example. at downstream point in fluid above same datum p1 = pressure at 1. All rights reserved.4 × 0.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid 21. 21.6 × 62. and the right side. psf. is pA = pc1 + w1hm1 + wihi = pc1 + 62. Many factors affect the accuracy of manometers. The indicating liquid is mercury (specific gravity = 13. the law of conservation of energy is represented by the Bernoulli equation: (21.11c) is identical to the U-tube manometer but measures the difference in pressure between two points. the pressure differential between the pipes is pc2 – pcl = 1832 psf = 12. The closer the specific gravities of the metered and indicating liquids. This zero adjustment enables a direct reading of the heights hi and hm of the liquid columns. One factor. Click here to view. the magnification will be 2. or sump. Inc. psf w = specific weight of fluid. (It does not indicate the pressure at either point.5.13 indicating liquid.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a lower specific gravity than the metered liquid. the actual pressure difference. hi is 2.6). psf. Above 5. is significant: the existence of surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations and disturbances in the flow of water resulting from turbulence. lb/ft3 V1 = velocity of fluid at 1.) The differential manometer may have either the standard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube configuration. such as might be required in laboratories. These surges make reading of the manometer difficult.2 ft/s2 The left side of the equation sums the total energy per unit weight of fluid at 1. is pB = pc2 + w2hm2 = pc2 + 62. the increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly defined and sluggish in movement.11) where Z1 = elevation. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The differential manometer (Fig. They may be reduced or eliminated by installing a large-diameter section. pc2 + 125 = pc1 + 1957 Hence. 21.0 ft. at any point 1 of flowing fluid above an arbitrary datum Z2 = elevation. psf p2 = pressure at 2. 32. as shown in Fig.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure between two water pipes.4 × 2.0 and the points at which the pressure is being measured are at the same level. This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the distance from the center line of the conduit to the indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.25 ft.0 = pc2 + 125 The pressure at A. 21. the greater the magnification and sensitivity.25 ft of water. that is. and z is 1.40. This is true only up to a magnification of about 5. The scale may be calibrated in any convenient units.Water Resources Engineering s 21.0 and 2. ft/s V2 = velocity of fluid at 2. however. What is the pressure differential between the two pipes? has a specific gravity of 1. if the specific gravity of the indicating liquid is between 1. . Equation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow For fluid energy. may be neglected in the majority of hydraulics applications since they are significant only in precise reading of manometers. Most of them. ft. however. hm1 is 9 in. depending on the comparative specific gravities of the indicating and metered liquids.4: A differential manometer (Fig. the total energy per unit weight at 2. Example 21. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 21. if the actual difference is 0. The pressure at B.
5: Determine the energy loss between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in Fig.14. when added to the downstream side of Eq. This term hf. ft3/s. velocity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. where Va is the velocity. of the fluid in the elemental volume and Za is its elevation. Example 21. varies with velocity. Inc. The pipe carries water flowing at 31. Usually. lb. (See Example 21. ft. velocity head.14) pa/w is called pressure head. lb/ft3. 21. yields the form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used: (21. The total energy. Fig. where pa is the pressure lb/ft2. The pressure energy equals Wpa /w.13). and w is the specific weight of the fluid. Average velocity. where Q is the quantity of flow. ft2. V2/2g.11). 21.4 ft3/s. where W is the weight.13. Click here to view. As indicated in Fig.13 Energy in a liquid depends on elevation. and pressure (Fig. (21. The energy due to velocity is the kinetic energy.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. in the elemental volume of fluid is (21. Its practical use requires a term to account for the decrease in total head. It equals WVa2 / 2g. 21. All rights reserved.5. . through friction.12) The energy contained in an elemental volume of fluid thus is a function of its elevation. 21. 21. however. ft/s. velocity. ft. a Fig. Z + p/w is constant for any point in a cross section and normal to the flow through a pipe or channel. or the total head ft: (21. The energy due to elevation is the potential energy and equals WZa. across the area of the section A. above some arbitrary datum. Kinetic energy at the section.21.14 Flow from an elevated reservoir—application of the Bernoulli equation. ft/s = Q/A. and pressure.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.14 s Section Twenty-One (21.13) Dividing both sides of the equation by W yields the energy per unit weight of flowing fluid. Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equation is applied to flow across the section or when total head is to be determined.
Hence. direction. sometimes called the total head line. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is termed the hydraulic gradient.15). 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.4/ 3. Click here to view. the hydraulic grade line coincides with the water surface. hf = 50 – 1.9).Water Resources Engineering s 21. The Bernoulli equation and the variation of pressure may be represented graphically. 21. Z2 = 0. since the pipe has free discharge. it represents the height to which water would rise in a piezometer (see also Example 21. Also. gate valve. ft. (21.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure head. Since the datum plane passes through point 2. Note that in this example hf includes minor losses due to the pipe entrance. . 21. The hydraulic grade line lies a distance V2/2g below the energy grade line and shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the direction of flow. respectively.55 = 48. The slope of the energy grade line is called the energy gradient or friction slope.7. or magnitude of flow. Momentum is a fundamental concept that must be considered in the design of essentially all waterworks facilities involving flow. Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31. A change in momentum. Select point 1 far enough from the reservoir outlet that V1 can be assumed to be 0. by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig. Thus substitution in Eq. is equal to the impulse.14 = 10 ft/s. shows the decrease in total energy per unit weight H in the direction of flow. while in pressure flow. or impulse-momentum equation: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.12) yields where hf is the friction loss. Dividing the total change in momentum by the time interval over which the change occurs gives the momentum equation. respectively. In openchannel flow. the force F acting on the fluid times the period of time dt over which it acts. which may result from a change in either velocity. The energy grade line. Inc. in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel. p2 = 0. and any bends.15 Fig. Art.45 ft.
2° – 71.78. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21.94 × 100 × 65.000 lb. Click here to view.600.12)] but may be used separately.94 × 100 × 4.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 ft/s. ft/s Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z directions.700 lb ——— The resultant R = √ Rx2+Ry2 = 167.78 Ry = 145. To find F.000 cos 53.1 Rx = –82. so θ = 60.96 ft/s and V2 = 100 × 4/1. ft3/s ∆Vx = change in velocity in X direction. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) Q = flow rate. All rights reserved.000 sin 53. Let R be the force.200 + Rx = 1. the force F changing the momentum of the fluid equals the vector sum P1 – P2 + R. 21.5) = 65.6.200 lb. (See Example 21. apply Eq.2° + Ry = 1.2° – 0) = 4.11) or (21. Example 21. . since ∆Vy = –(–7.96 sin 53. and determine the resultant of the forces: In the X direction. The pressure at the upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100 psi. The pipe center line lies in a horizontal plane.500 lb.15) where Fx = summation of all forces in X direction per unit time causing change in momentum in X direction. exerted by the pipe on the fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force against the pipe. lb. and at 2.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of section—application of momentum equation.96 cos 53.1 and the density ρ = 62.15) first in the X direction. since ∆Vx = –(7.) Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing Q = 100 ft3/s by the respective areas: V1 = 100 × 4/42π = 7. Then. It acts at an angle θ with the horizontal such that tan θ = 145. Inc. (Neglect friction loss at the bend.2= 1.6: Calculate the resultant force on the reducer elbow in Fig.94.16 s Section Twenty-One (21.16. which is to be determined). The pipe reduces from 48 in in diameter to 16 in.332π = 71.4/ 32. (21.5°.600 lb In the Y direction. Fig. With p1 known.700/82. and the water flow is 100 ft3/s. lb ρ = density of flowing fluid. the Bernoulli equation for the flow in the elbow is: Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2: p2 = 9500 psf The total pressure force at 1 is P1 = p1A1 = 181.21. then in the Y direction. 21. Fx = 181. The impulse-momentum equation often is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation [Eq. P2 = ppA2 = 13.2° – 13. The force against the pipe acts in the opposite direction. Fy = –181.
A fourth mode of modeling. All rights reserved. and the physical model may be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local head loss at the pier or structure. Analog models are an abstraction of the prototype. and sediment deposition occurring in the immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control structure can be best modeled with a physical model while the overall water surface. to a given set of stimuli. the two models can be executed interactively until all common boundary conditions synchronize. aquifer. Some conveyance and resistance phenomena such as those found in transmission networks and groundwater analyses are easily modeled with analog techniques inasmuch as electric current flow and water flow behave similarly in certain instances. employs both physical and mathematical models. hybrid modeling. it is usually not possible to have all four forces in the model in the same proportions as they are in the prototype. In water resources engineering. Analog Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with electronic circuits that represent components of the system. Models are cost-effective and convenient for such investigations. or proposed works. Inc. or availability of data to support the modeling effort.Water Resources Engineering s 21. models are used to determine the likely response of a system. Forces acting on the model should be proportional to forces on the prototype.7.7. viscosity. The resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathematical model that properly accounts for overall hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or structure and a physical model that properly accounts for localized forces affecting the stability or performance of the pier or structure. 1. or drainage basin.17 21. They can be as simple or as complex as a given analysis requires and are among the most cost-effective means to perform certain analyses. and surface tension. Click here to view. alternative management schemes. or prototype. the fact that two of the four forces are not in the same proportion as they are in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Mathematical models are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language. scale factors are applied to set the model at only a fraction of the size and cost of the prototype. See also Art. In most models. Physical models are expensive to build. A knowledge of the laws governing the phenomena under investigation is necessary if the model study is to yield accurate quantitative results. . and through execution of the computer program. and velocity profile over the encompassing river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate mathematical model. momentum. The four forces usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia. such as a river. analog models are now infrequently used in view of the efficiency and portability of mathematical models. erosional scour.7 Water Resources Modeling A model is a tool that can be used to determine the likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli without having to actually impose those stimuli on the system. 21.1 Similitude for Physical Models A physical model is a system whose operation can be used to predict the characteristics of a similar system. complex three-dimensional flow patterns. Mathematical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. In this way. Popular before the advent of digital computers. usually more complex or built to a much larger scale. such as storm rainfall. Usually. one model often provides input to or verification of the other model. Models can typically be categorized as one of three major types: Physical Models s The system (prototype) is modeled with physical components that represent components of the system. and maintain but are especially useful in analyzing complex phenomena that are not easy or presently possible to express mathematically. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. It exploits the advantages of these types of models while avoiding their limitations. In the preceding example. a simple procedure to have two predominant forces in the same proportion. Mathematical models are limited only by the model creator’s ability to describe the prototype mathematically. For instance. however. gravity. It is. droughts. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. operate. Because of the laws governing these forces and because the model and prototype are normally not the same size. the capability of the computing resources. the mathematical model would provide depth and velocity profile input to the physical model. With hybrid models.
21b) The variable factors that fix the design of a true model when the Reynolds number governs are the length ratio and the viscosity ratio. And equating the Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface tension and inertial forces. (21. where there is a rapidly changing water-surface profile. If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a model to all the corresponding physical dimensions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio. the two predominant forces are inertia and gravity.21a) (21. The Reynolds numbers of model and prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial forces are predominant. which is always a predominant force.18 s Section Twenty-One the prototype does not introduce serious error. such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. Once the length ratio has been set. .2 ft/s2 For hydraulic structures. The inertial force.17a) where subscript m applies to the model and p to the prototype. such as spillways and weirs.17b) Let Vr = Vm/Vp and Lr = Lm/Lp. all the physical dimensions of the model are fixed. the length ratio is the only variable. All rights reserved.17a) and grouping like terms yields (21. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. ft2/s. In a true model where the Froude number is the governing design criterion. psf The Weber numbers of model and prototype are equated in certain types of wave studies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Similarly. equating the Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype ensures that the viscous and inertial forces will be in the same proportion. entrainment of air in flowing water. The discharge ratio is determined as follows: (21. the model is termed a true model. viscosity. and surface tension to the force of inertia are designated. The Weber number is (21. respectively. Froude number. ft/s L = linear dimension (characteristic. the Froude numbers of the model and prototype are equated: (21. and ν is the kinematic viscosity of fluid.19a) Since Vr = Lr1/2 and Ar = area ratio = L2r. The Froude number is (21. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g) σ = surface tension of fluid. Ratios of the forces of gravity. and Weber number. Then (21. 32. (21. Inc.18) The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model to that in prototype. the formation of drops and air bubbles.19b) By this method all the necessary characteristics of a spillway or weir model can be determined.16) where F = Froude number (dimensionless) V = velocity of fluid. Click here to view. Reynolds number. Therefore.22) where ρ = density of fluid. Viscous forces are usually predominant when flow occurs in a closed system. The following relations are obtained by equating Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype: (21. such as depth or diameter). and other phenomena where surface tension and inertial forces are predominant.20) R is dimensionless. The velocity ratio is determined as follows: Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The Reynolds number is (21.21. and one other force are made proportional. Equating the Froude number of the model and the Froude number of the prototype ensures that the gravitational and inertial forces are in the same proportion. Squaring both sides of Eq.
This type of model is called a distorted model. For the flow of water in open channels and rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat. the software (the computer program code) and the application input codes (hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. model designs are often based on the Manning equation. may be part of the source code and is said to be hardwired into the computer program. and gravity forces all have an important effect on the flow.23a) (21. Sr = 1. The solution to this type of problem is mostly empirical and may consist of an attempt to evaluate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately. One type of model. (21. the depth scale is often made much larger than the length scale. catchment areas. All rights reserved.24) where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L1/3. it may have to be uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent. ft2/s If the model is to be a true model. The only difference is that the slope ratio Sr equals the depth ratio dr and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the width ratio and depth ratio. For such models. is used to study erosion and transportation of silt in riverbeds. in turn. the logical representation of prototypes. The U. ft ν = kinematic viscosity. viscous. These expressions. Inc. Waterways Experiment Station has determined that flow will be turbulent if (21. Hence. For instance. simulations of prototype behavior are possible. mathematical models are.24). Because the laws governing the transportation of material are not fully understood. it is necessary for the flow to be turbulent. In a true model of a wide river where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch. and through execution of the computer program. They are normally programmed in an appropriate computer language.7. (21. Mathematical models are used for both analysis and design. inertial.25) In models of rivers and channels. called a movable-bed model.2 Types and Applications of Mathematical Models Used in many applications of water resources engineering.19 Another problem also encountered in true models is surface tension. To overcome the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent flow. Click here to view. Rr = Lr. the surface tension will distort the flow to such an extent that the model may be useless.23b) The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the design of a model governed by the Weber number. are linked together to represent the system as a whole. and infiltration parameters. Single-purpose models typically represent the specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the prototype directly in the computer code. They may be single-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose (applicable to a variety of sites). such as a morning-glory spillway. The relations between the model and prototype are determined as follows: (21. The relations between a distorted model of a channel and a prototype are determined in the same manner as was Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations of man-made and natural systems for both surfacewater and groundwater purposes. ft/s R = hydraulic radius.26) where V = mean velocity. In some cases. T representing time) R = hydraulic radius (L) S = loss of head due to friction per unit length of conduit (dimensionless) = slope of energy gradient For true models. . in particular. In these cases it is usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and Froude numbers of the model and prototype equal.S. movable-bed models are built largely on the basis of experience and give only qualitative results. The system (prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical expressions that represent components of the system. such as flow networks.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21.
as in annular passages. if comparisons of different plans are required. “Fluid Friction in Noncircular Ducts. and private sectors. vol. It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. the model output required for design or evaluation. As a result. Also.20 s Section Twenty-One into one entity. As this shearing stress increases. evaporation and irrigation. 21. Art. A. “Handbook of Hydrology. this approach will provide nearly complete compatibility of all databases. and R.) 21. especially when modifications of the model are required or when the model has to be applied by engineers who were not involved in the original program coding. These may be as simple as determination of excess rainfall. fluid particles move in parallel layers in one direction. This approach. 21. Maidment. “Water Resources Planning. (D. however. All rights reserved. and viscosity and the size of the conduit. . This. Grigg. hydrodynamics. and the general acceptance by the engineering community should be considered in selection of a model or group of models for any investigation. The preferred approach in modeling is instead to develop general-purpose models by writing software that is essentially independent of application input code. The availability and quality of data for calibration and verification.” D. watershed hydrology. Zipparo and H. (J. shown in Fig. F. when fully implemented. Rothfus. the greater the chance that meaningful results will be produced.8 Laminar Flow In laminar flow.17. Several different models varying in complexity or sophistication. ecosystem impacts and restoration. For closed conduits other than circular. S. The result will be a reduction in duplication of the efforts of software developers and modelers and an increase in the efficiency of water-resources engineering investigations. A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number has been found to be a reliable criterion for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow. flow routing.2).” N. reasonably good results are obtained in the turbulent range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic radius. the fewer the number of models employed in a given study. reservoir regulation. General-purpose models are used for specific analytical tasks. “Computer-Assisted Floodplain Hydrology and Hydraulics. The region of change is dependent on the fluid’s velocity.21. R. Advances are continually being made in computer resources and use of models is becoming more widespread. H. J. and turbulent flow results. quantity and quality of water supply. and in application type may be required in many types of investigations. Hoggan. flood or drought impacts. or pollution. creates a shearing stress τ = µ dV/dy. this method gives flows significantly underestimated. design of hydraulic structures. the desirability of more uniformity of software packages and of object-oriented software has become apparent. Click here to view. Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest changing fields in engineering. of all databases and software. G. 1957. landfill leachate analyses. The parabolic velocity distribution in laminar flow. hydrologic forecasting. and is given by Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and groundwater yield. 3. wave or tidal analyses. the viscous forces become unable to damp out disturbances. and among water resources modelers in the government. will provide complete compatibility among all types of water resources software. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. R. Inc. New York. usually has more disadvantages than advantages. academia.” McGraw-Hill. Hasen. channel and river hydraulics. density. seepage. or both. where dV/dy is the rate of change of velocity with depth and µ is the coefficient of viscosity (see Viscosity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Whan. given rainfall and rainfall-loss parameters. In object-oriented software. Typical applications of mathematical models include the following: stochastic processes. Applications should be upgraded accordingly if their continued use is expected. But when there is severe deviation from a circular cross section. impacts of dam breaks.” V.) Pipe Flow The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with fluid. or as complex as long-period simulation of flow and pollutant transport in combined groundwater and surface-water systems. sediment or pollutant transport.” Journal of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. As a general rule. every program component is generalized as much as feasible and the entire program is essentially a collection of modular software components. Walker.
21. 32. Because of the random nature of turbulent flow. To the right of the dashed line in Fig. it no longer covers any of the roughness projections.l9.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than that for lamellar flow. lb⋅s2/ft4 (specific weight divided by g.29) is identical to the Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq.9 Turbulent Flow In turbulent flow. handbook of Hydraulics. the velocity distribution is more uniform. which have both a rotational and translational velocity. As a result. Fig. All rights reserved. 21. ft2/s For a Reynolds number less than 2000. the following equation for head loss due to friction can be developed by considering the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe: (21. The head loss varies almost as the square of the velocity. New York. Inc.2 ft/s2 w = specific weight of fluid. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.19. When the Reynolds number is greater than 2000. laminar flow is unstable. F. For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to the left of the dashed line in Fig. than for laminar flow (Fig. as shown in Fig.29) For laminar flow.30) since in laminar flow the friction f = 64 /R. a disturbance will probably be magnified.Water Resources Engineering s 21.. (21.2 ft/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid lb⋅s/ft2 ν = µ/ρ = kinematic viscosity. at completely turbulent flow. . there is a laminar film at the boundaries that covers some of the smaller roughness projections. flow is laminar in circular pipes. this laminar boundary layer decreases in thickness until. This explains why the friction loss in this region has both laminar and turbulent characteristics. formulas for head loss and flow in the turbulent regions have been developed through experimental and statistical means. it is not practical to treat it analytically.” 6th ed. (E.) 21. 21. ft ρ = density of fluid. 21. causing the flow to become turbulent. In laminar flow. Maximum velocity is twice the average velocity. the flow is completely turbulent. the inertial forces are so great that viscous forces cannot dampen out disturbances caused primarily by the surface roughness. These disturbances create eddies.21 Fig.18. (21.27) where V = fluid velocity. Therefore. (21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. and viscous forces do not affect the friction loss. Experimentation in turbulent flow has shown that: The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe. Brater. ft/s D = pipe diameter. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 32. In this region. ft g = acceleration due to gravity. Eq. ft L = length of pipe section considered. The translation of these eddies is a mixing action that affects an interchange of momentum across the cross section of the conduit. lb/ft3 Substitution of the Reynolds number yields (21. 21. As the Reynolds number increases.17). there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. McGraw-Hill Book Company.28) where hf = head loss due to friction.
19) for evaluating the friction factor f. the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the above condition and is valid for laminar or turbulent flow in all fluids. ft f = friction factor (see Fig. ft Steel pipe: Severe tuberculation and incrustation General tuberculation Heavy brush-coat asphalts. enamels.001 – 0. Moody. it can be used with any consistent set of units without changing the value of the friction factor. centrifugally applied concrete linings Steel-formed concrete pipe.00085 One of the most widely used equations for pipe flow.30) is dimensionally homogeneous.2 ft/s 2 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.0005 – 0. The head loss depends on the surface roughness of the pipe wall. 32.19) L = length of pipe.) Because Eq. 21. (21. .0002 0. good workmanship New cast-iron pipe 0. November 1944. and tars Light rust New smooth pipe. 21. It employs the Moody diagram (Fig.00003 0. (L.19) to Determine f ε.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use in the Moody Diagram (Fig. All rights reserved. The head loss is independent of the pressure. The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.22 s Section Twenty-One Fig.0002 0. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.0002 – 0.003 – 0. F.” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Inc. Click here to view.001 0.008 0.30) where hf = head loss due to friction.003 0. (21. ft D = diameter of pipe. “Friction Factors for Pipe Flow.21. 21. ft V = velocity of fluid.0005 0.03 – 0. 21.0005 – 0. The head loss depends on the fluid’s density and viscosity.008 – 0.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes. centrifugally applied enamels Hot-dipped asphalt.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula Table 21.
9. which requires experience in its choice.32) where n = coefficient. (Although based on surface roughness.33d) (21. ft Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sectional area of the fluid in it divided by the perimeter of the wetted section.33b) (21.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes. 21. (21.11 (p.4 Hazen-Williams Formula This is one of the most widely used formulas for pipe-flow computations of water utilities. They contain a factor that depends on the surface roughness of the pipe material. 21.31) where V = velocity. Manning concluded that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq.34d) (21.4 and 21. Inc.31) gives (21. ft S = head loss due to friction. Click here to view. (21. ft/s C = coefficient. (21. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.2 Chezy Formula where Q = flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.34a) For pipes flowing full: (21. The following formulas were derived for head loss in waterworks design and give good results for water-transmission and -distribution calculations. dependent on surface roughness R = hydraulic radius. The accuracy of these formulas is greatly affected by the selection of the roughness factor. ft Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.9. dependent on surface roughness of conduit S = slope of energy grade line or head loss due to friction.) Substitution into Eq. dependent on surface roughness.3.47) give values of n for the foot-pound-second system. See also Table 22. ft/ft of conduit R = hydraulic radius.23 Roughness values ε (ft) for use with the Moody diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f are listed in Table 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for the hydraulic radius of the pipe.34e) where V = velocity. This equation holds for head loss in conduits and gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds numbers: (21. although it was developed for both open channels and pipe flow: (21.31)] should vary as R1/6 (21. where D is the pipe diameter. .33e) 21.33c) (21.34b) (21.34c) 21.33a) Upon substitution of D/4. Tables 21. ft L = length of pipe. ft/s C1 = coefficient. All rights reserved. ft3/s. the following equations are obtained for pipes flowing full: (21.9.3 Manning’s Formula Through experimentation. ft/ft of pipe D = diameter of pipe.
.010 To 0.20 shows a typical three-reservoir problem. Click here to view.5 are in the foot-poundsecond system.012 0.013 0. because (21.7: Figure 21.21.017 Use in designing Q = discharge.017 From 0.016 To 0.013 0. ft3/s hf = friction loss. (21. 21. Example 21.24 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.36) for a check.012 0. This would indicate water is flowing from reservoir A into reservoirs B and C.035 0.34d)] can be written for each pipe meeting at D.015 0. 21.012 0.013 0. Flow in pipe network is easily determined with available computer programs. If the value of Zd + pD/w becomes greater than Zb.010 0.017 0.36) where pD = pressure at D w = unit weight of liquid Fig.10 Minor Losses in Pipes Energy losses occur in pipe contractions. (21. Determination of flow in branching pipes illustrates the use of friction-loss equations and the hydraulic-grade-line concept. in short pipelines.014 0.35a) With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and the pipe intersection known. to Be Used with the Manning Formula Variation Material of pipe From Clean cast iron Dirty or tuberculated cast iron Riveted steel or spiral steel Welded steel Galvanized iron Wood stave Concrete Good workmanship Poor workmanship 0.35b) (21. These losses can usually be neglected if the length of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipe’s diameter. many of which are specialized to solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.017 0.013 0.013 0. there are as many equations as there are unknowns: (21. enlargements. bends.35) and substituting the values obtained for Q into Eq. the sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of positive. However.012 0. (21.4 Values of n for Pipes.015 0. the easiest way to solve these equations is by trying different values of pD/w in Eqs. and valves and other pipe fittings.015 0. With the continuity equation for quantity of flow.015 0.014 0.35c) (21. The Hazen-Williams equation for friction loss [Eq. All rights reserved.011 0.7.010 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft The C1 terms in Table 21.) Flow between reservoirs.015 0. (See Exam- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The elevations of the hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal at point D.20 ple 21.017 0. Inc.017 0.
37) where V1 = velocity before enlargement.25 Table 21.21 are approximate. (21. 80 4 in. Another formula for determining the loss of head caused by a sudden contraction. Another equation for the head loss caused by sudden enlargements was determined experimentally by Archer. determined by Julius Weisbach (“Die Experiments-Hydraulik”). 120 24 in and over. minor losses must be considered.. This equation gives slightly better agreement with experimental results than Eq. All rights reserved. London. good workmanship. 120 Large sizes.10. are presented in Table 21. 21. ft/s g = 32. is (21. ft/s This equation gives best results when the head loss is greater than 1 ft. Table 21.. Inc. regardless of age.7.2 ft/s 2 It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation across an enlargement.21). 135 In good condition. 65 Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.40) where Cc = coefficient of contraction (see Table 21. A special case of sudden contraction is the entrance loss for pipes. 130 All sizes up to 24 in.3 Sudden Contraction The following equation for the head loss across a sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by the same type of analytical studies as Eq. H.1 Sudden Enlargements The following equation for the head loss.” Constable & Co. where V is the velocity in the pipe.10. so a full velocity head is lost.) 40 years old Welded steel Riveted steel Wood stave Concrete or concrete-lined 21. ft. Ltd. 140 Large sizes. The water in the reservoir has no velocity. 115 12 in. 110 4 in.6 gives Cc values for sudden contractions. 85 16 in. Gibson. 21. “Hydraulics and Its Applications.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Vitrified these losses may exceed the friction losses. Since the experimental data available on gradual enlargements are limited and inconclusive. (21.38) A special application of Eq. steel forms. 110 (21. (A.5 Values of C1 in Hazen and Williams Formula Type of pipe Cast iron: New 5 years old 10 years old C1 All sizes. 21.10. the values of K in Fig. 21. Some typical values of the loss coefficient K in hL = KV 2 / 2g. . ft/s V2 = velocity after enlargement. 10 years older Average value. across a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been determined analytically and agrees well with experimental results: (21. good workmanship. wood forms. 105 30 in and over.37): Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.2 Gradual Enlargements The equation for the head loss due to a gradual conical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form: (21.37) or (21.41) This equation gives best results if the head loss is less than 1 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. determined experimentally by Brightmore. 120 Centrifugally spun.38) is the discharge from a pipe into a reservoir.6) V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe.39) where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 5 years older Values the same as for cast-iron pipe.37): (21. (21. Click here to view.
Inc.8 gives some typical K values for these losses.0 5.4 Bends and Standard Fitting Losses The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings.5) 45° elbow * r = radius of bend.71 0.6 0.4 21.7 0.42) Table 21.2 2. and at bends is given by (21. All rights reserved.76 0.80 K = 0.3 0. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and Losses at Bends Fitting K 10.2 0. Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence Table 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.8 are only approximate. fully open Gate valve. .25 The values in Table 21. such as valves and elbows.64 0.2 0.10. K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting but with different manufacturers.50 K = 0.5 0.21.0 2.89 1. Click here to view.0 Table 21.8 0.66 0.21 of the sides.9 0.1 0. fully open Angle valve. fully open Swing check valve.68 0. D = pipe diameter.26 s Section Twenty-One Fig.6 Cc for Contractions in Pipe Area from A1 to A2 A2 /A1 Cc 0.63 0.81 0.9 0.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses Pipe projecting into reservoir Sharp-cornered entrance Bellmouth entrance Slightly rounded entrance K = 0. Globe valve.0 1.05 K = 0.0)* Long-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1. For these reaTable 21. fully open Closed-return bend Short-radius elbow (r/D ≈ 1.6 0.5 0.4 0.62 0.
there is disagreement. For low heads. bend-loss coefficients give only an approximation of losses to be expected.11. Experiments on smooth pipes. . increases significantly with an increasing r/D. the bend loss essentially remains constant. its effect should be taken into account. 21. ft2 g = acceleration due to gravity. however. the following formula may be used to adjust the K values given in Fig.. Inc. series D. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.) To obtain losses in bends other than 90°. Beij. The data are in agreement that the head loss. Ito. indicate that this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of 4.1 Orifice Discharge into Free Air Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be calculated from (21. 1960.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.44) is applicable for any head for which the coefficient of discharge is known. measuring the head from the center line of the orifice is not theoretically correct. National Bureau of Standards.22 gives values of K for 90 ° bends for use with Eq.22 Recommended values of head-loss coefficients K for 90° bends in closed conduits. Some experiments indicate that the head loss.45) 21. manufacturers’ data are the best source for loss coefficients. 1. square. not including friction loss. vol.) Fig. deg The K′ value may be used in place of K in Eq. 82. Click here to view. All rights reserved. ft Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table 21.11 Orifices An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter through which water flows. Inc. 21. this error is corrected by the C values. New York.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (21. (H. although they are usually round. no.22: (21. The theoretical velocity may be calculated by writing Bernoulli’s equation for points 1 and 2 in Fig. Experimental data available on bend losses cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experiments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not give conclusive results. and angle of bend.” Journal of Research. not including friction loss in the bend.27 sons.43) where ∆ = deflection angle. Minor losses are often given as the equivalent length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the same discharge. 21. H. (21. 21. ft/s2 h = head on horizontal center line of orifice. July 1938. “Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends. McGraw-Hill.9 for low velocity of approach.) Because experiments have produced such widely varying data. Zipparo and H. Figure 21. J. “Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends. (K. (21. ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D.” 4th ed. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge a = area of orifice. When r/D increases above 4 or 5.23. Orifices may have any shape. (V. If this velocity is significant.42). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Hasen..42). The coefficient of velocity is the ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged) by the theoretical velocity. vol. Equation (21.44) where Q = discharge. The coefficient of discharge C is the product of the coefficient of velocity Cν and the coefficient of contraction Cc. The data indicate the losses vary with surface roughness. or rectangular. 21. decreases sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to around 4 or 5. Reynolds number. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics.
590 0.611 0.02 0.28 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.600 0.606 0.591 0.21.9 Smith’s Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction* Dia.02 0. ft 0.0 0.598 0.592 0.616 0.648 0.598 0.602 0.599 0. the vena contracta.605 0.607 0.600 0.612 0.613 0.596 0.632 0.604 0.602 0.595 0.617 0. of circular orifices.615 0.616 0.602 0.601 0.626 0.612 0.627 0.599 0.643 0.660 0. and Z2 = 0.603 0.605 0.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.599 0.601 0.630 0.602 0.603 0.637 0.594 0.623 0.597 0.608 0.596 0.648 0. (21.593 0.623 0. 21.” 1886.637 0.614 0.600 0. determined experimentally.594 0.613 0 610 0.595 0.632 0. to Fig.629 0.611 0.94 to 0.596 0.04 0.621 0.596 0.5 2 2.602 0.5 3 4 6 8 10 20 50 100 Side of square orifices.636 0.618 0.602 0.1 0.595 0.607 0. ft 0.644 0.628 0.596 0.0 Head.610 0..04 0.618 0.601 0.593 0.641 0. Jr.598 1.628 0.652 0.617 0. The coefficient of contraction Cc is the ratio of the smallest area of the jet.609 0.608 0.607 0.604 0.619 0. “Hydraulics.46) The actual velocity.614 0.603 0.622 0. Typical values of Cν range from 0.99.608 0.599 0.606 0.614 0.631 0.604 0.602 0.600 0. and Eq.619 0.618 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.596 0. With the reference plane through point 2.598 * Hamilton Smith.593 0. Click here to view.603 0.592 1.597 0. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.610 0.1 0. Z1 = h.605 0. p1/w = p2/w = 0. All rights reserved. ft 0.45) becomes (21.637 0.605 0. is less than the theoretical velocity because of the energy loss from point 1 to point 2.592 0.4 0. .601 0. Inc. V1 = 0.623 0.634 0.6 08 1 1.655 0.602 0.
3 Discharge under Falling Head The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the inflow is less than the outflow represents a condition of falling head. 21.. “Handbook of Hydraulics. Discharge through a submerged Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. setting h1 – h2 = ∆h.47) where hL = losses in head. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21.29 Fig. ft. 21. Eq.) 21. The time required for a certain quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be calculated by equating the volume of water that flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the Fig. F. (b) Round-edged with no contraction. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.48) Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. between 1 and 2.11. see E.24a is an example of a partly suppressed contraction. (For table of values of coefficients of discharge for submerged orifices. and using a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses.11.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. This fluid has a momentum component perpendicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to contract. Figure 21.” 6th ed. . All rights reserved.67. (21. the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the contraction on one side is partly offset because more water at a higher velocity enters on the other sides. Contraction of a fluid jet will occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an angle to the direction of flow through the orifice. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the area of the orifice.25. Brater. Click here to view. 21.2 Submerged Orifices Flow through a submerged orifice may be computed by applying Bernoulli’s equation to points 1 and 2 in Fig. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of contraction. New York.25 orifice. no contraction occurs at the bottom of the jet. the contraction is completely suppressed. If the water entering the orifice does not have this momentum. Assuming V1 ≈ 0.24b. the edges of the orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate the contraction. (21. With a partly suppressed orifice. (21. In Fig. Inc. 21.48) is obtained.61 to 0. Typical values of the coefficient of contraction range from 0.
For simplicity.2 ft/s2 Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and summing from time zero.52) The X coordinate at time t is where h1 = head at the start. when y = h1. is that for a parabola: (21.58) can be used to determine Cν experimentally. ft t = time interval for head to fall from h1 to h2. .56). (21. ft2 y = head on orifice at time t. 32. Eq. (21.59). (21. (21.53) where h = head on center line of orifice. where Vavg = average velocity over period of time t.57) (21. 21. to time t.49) Solving for dt yields (21. The initial velocity of the jet is (21. Eq.59) The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a laboratory and Cν calculated from Eq. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft2 A = area of reservoir. Inc. Rearranging Eq.50) becomes (21.54) The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and thereafter a function of time and the acceleration of gravity: (21.51) upon integration becomes (21. 21. ft Cν = coefficient of velocity The direction of the initial velocity depends on the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is located. Click here to view.11. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (21. s The Y coordinate is (21. ft h2 = head at the end.26): (21. obtained by solving Eq.30 s Section Twenty-One volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig.56) Fig. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq.21. (21.58)].58) gives (21.58) Equation (21. All rights reserved. The velocity of the jet in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant. a fluid discharged through an orifice into the air will follow the path of a projectile. the following equations were determined assuming the orifice is located in a vertical surface (Fig.26 Discharge from a reservoir with dropping water level.51) If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies.55) 21.57) for t and substituting in Eq. (21.4 Fluid Jets Where the effect of air resistance is small.50) where a = area of orifice.23). 21. when y = h2. ft C = coefficient of discharge g = acceleration due to gravity. (21.
60) for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2 in Fig.75.60) where p2 = gage pressure at tube entrance.67 V2 ) = 0.5 a T T Fig. The head loss hL = 2 2 2 1. as can be seen by applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1 and 2 in Fig.27 Flow from a reservoir through a tube with a sharp-edged inlet. (21.67 V2T /2g.5 is obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head with no loss is V2 / 2g.28 Flow from a reservoir through a reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube (Fig. 21. the water contracts and then expands to fill the tube. Actual velocity head is V2 /2g T a = (0. 21. 21.82.28). Inc.67 V T / 2g = 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Equation (21.00 and the coefficient of veloci- 21.5 Orifice Discharge into Short Tubes When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or tube with a sharp leading edge. and the loss coefficient K equals 0. lb/ft3 h = head on center line of orifice. the same type of contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice.11. For a short tube flowing full. Fig.29 Diverging conical tube increases flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reducing the pressure below atmospheric. If the tube is discharging at atmospheric pressure.27. if one exists). ft2 a3 = area of discharge end of tube. the coefficient of discharge C = 0. All rights reserved.82. (21. a partial vacuum is created at the contraction. This reduced pressure causes the flow through a short tube to be greater than that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same dimensions. When this happens. 21.82 VT)2/2g = 0.33VT / 2g. K = 2ghL/V2 = (0.27) but the head loss is larger. the coefficient of contraction Cc = 1. ft a2 = area of smallest part of jet (vena contracta.00 VT / 2g – 0. however. In the tube or pipe. 21.33 V2 × 2g)/(2g × 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . Click here to view. the coefficients of velocity and discharge equal 0. psf w = unit weight of water.31 ty Cν = 0. where Va / 2g is the actual velocity head. If the head on the tube is greater than 50 ft and the tube is short. Therefore. From hL = 2 2 KVa / 2g.42) of 0. ft2 Fig. For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir (Fig. 21.29. the water will shoot through the tube without filling it.80.6 Orifice Discharge into Diverging Conical Tubes This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice. a K value for Eq. 21.11. Solving for head loss as a proportion of final velocity head.
Fig. For this analysis to be valid. . This is a misnomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is above atmospheric. The American Society of Civil Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression that it acts as a siphon. 21. At the instant the pressure wave reaches the reservoir. the stresses are not critical in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities. 21. This is accomplished by writing the Bernoulli equation across a point of known pressure and a point where the elevation head or the velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. The water flowing in a pipe has momentum equal to the mass of the water times its velocity. either increased or decreased. Fig.30).32 s Section Twenty-One Discharge is also calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21. However. Click here to view.21.12 Siphons A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at some point is below atmospheric (Fig. If the pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure. As the water flows into the reservoir. Every time the flow rate is changed. vaporization would decrease or totally stop the flow. either above or below the normal pressure. All rights reserved. and the pressure in the throat of the tube must not fall to the vapor pressure of water. 21. Flow through a siphon can be calculated by writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe. As the water flows away from the closed valve. Inc.32). the water has attained considerable momentum up the pipe. 21. The pipe shown in Fig. 21. 21. it causes water hammer.13 Water Hammer Water hammer is a change in pressure. which begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of water between them. But the pressure in the siphon must be checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pressure of water. the pressure in the pipe falls. Experiments by Venturi show the most efficient angle θ to be around 5°. the tube must flow full. The most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway. When a valve is closed. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise. 21. the pressure at the valve drops until differential pressure again brings the water to a stop. The differential pressure between the pipe and the reservoir then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into the reservoir. The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high enough to overcome the momentum of the water and bring the water to a stop.29. At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches normal.31 is also commonly called a siphon or inverted siphon. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but at a pressure much higher than normal. This pressure buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the reservoir (Fig. this momentum drops to zero. the water in the pipe is motionless. The change causes a pressure rise.
approximate solution. The pressure rise or head change is assumed to be in direct proportion to the closure time: (21.63a) becomes (21.2 × 106 psf ρ = density of water. .2 Gradual Closure The following method of determining the pressure change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a quick. (21. psf ∆h = head change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. ft ∆V= change in the velocity of water caused by adjusting valve.Water Resources Engineering s 21. psf t = thickness of pipe wall. 21. 1. Because of the high velocity of the pressure waves. s A plot of pressure vs. so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe. For instantaneous closure: (21.1 Instantaneous Closure The magnitude of the pressure change that results when flow is varied depends on the rate of change Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.63b) where ∆p = pressure change from normal due to instantaneous change of valve setting. Equation (21.32 for the instantaneous closure of a valve. ft Ep = modulus of elasticity of pipe material. time for various points along a pipe is shown in Fig. This cycle repeats over and over until friction damps these oscillations. ft/s E = modulus of elasticity of water.94 lb⋅s/ft (specific weight divided by acceleration due to gravity) 4 D = diameter of pipe. Fig.32 Variation with time of pressure at three points in a penstock. the pressure change can be calculated in one step from Eq. The pressure in the pipe is now below normal.63a) for the pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve was derived by equating the momentum of the water in the pipe to the force impulse required to bring the water to a stop. The equation for the velocity of a wave in a pipe is (21.13. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.63a) In terms of pressure head. 43. ft 21.64) 21. ft/s If the closing or opening of a valve is instantaneous.61) where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe. Click here to view.62) where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve. 21.63).33 of flow and the length of the pipeline. each cycle may take only a fraction of a second. ft T = time required to change setting of valve. (21. This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir. Inc. Any gradual movement of a valve that is made in less time than it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve produces the same pressure change as an instantaneous movement. for water hammer from instantaneous closure of a valve.13. Eq.
(21.34 s Section Twenty-One where ∆hg = head change due to gradual closure.2 ft/s2 Arithmetic integration is a more exact method for finding the pressure change due to gradual movement of a valve. this area can be determined from closure characteristics of valve or by assuming its characteristics. length = 3000 ft. The change in head can now be calculated with Eq. an estimate of the velocity change ∆V during each time interval must be made. (21. A rough estimate for the velocity following the incremental change is Vn = Vo(An /Ao).) Velocity of pressure wave. ft Ho + Σ ∆h = total pressure at valve after particular movement.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T seconds for closing.63). The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in sign to the water reflected from the reservoir. Zipparo and H. (21. McGraw-Hill. penstock thickness = 1 in. Click here to view. (It is convenient to make the time interval some submultiple of L/U.65) where Ho = head at valve before any movement of valve. (For penstocks as shown in Fig. Inc. initial velocity = 10 ft/s.21. All rights reserved. s T = actual closure time of valve. ft L = length of pipeline. 32. 21..8: The following problem illustrates the use of the preceding methods and compares the results: Steel penstock. The valve is assumed to close in a series of small movements. such as L/aU. where Vn is the velocity following a certain incremental movement. and Ao the original area of the valve opening. The individual pressure waves are totaled to give the pressure at any desired point for a certain time. ft ∆V = change in velocity of water due to instantaneous closure. area = 78. (V. where a equals any integer.) Example 21.65) differs greatly from the estimated velocity. where ∆t. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . the esti- = 3180 ft/s Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Vo the original velocity. Thus. so that the pressure waves reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed upon the new waves being formed at the valve. The calculations can be readily programmed for a computer and are available in software packages.63). from Eq. each causing an individual pressure wave.” 4th ed. Hasen. New York. Separate calculations for the velocity of the pressure wave should be made for each thickness and diameter of penstock to obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the reservoir and back to the valve. ft ti = time for wave to travel from the valve to the reservoir and be reflected back to valve. Once the time interval has been determined.2 × 108 psf.65) should be used to recalculate ∆h. An the area of the valve opening after the corresponding incremental movement. The magnitude of these pressure waves is given by Eq. Integration is a direct means of studying every physical element of the process of water hammer. With the head known.63). Inc. the number of incremental closing movements required is T/∆t. to apply Eq. (21. (21. ft2 If the velocity obtained from Eq. ft An = area of valve opening after n incremental closings. thickness and diameter normally vary with head.. J.32. the velocity of the pressure waves is different in each section of the penstock. is g = acceleration due to gravity. s ∆h = head rise due to instantaneous closure. this includes pressure change caused by valve movement plus effect of waves reflected from reservoir. equals L /aU.61). so there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel out. head at turbine with valve open = 1000 ft. diameter = 10 ft. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. and modulus of elasticity of steel = 43. (21.5 ft2. ft/s mated velocity Vn can be checked by the following equation: (21. The first step in this method is to choose the time interval for each incremental movement of the valve. then that obtained from Eq. the increment of time.
to prevent water hammer.35 valves and air chambers are widely used on smalldiameter lines.13. in F = force acting on each cut of edge of pipe. 21. the closure is instantaneous. If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.33) must still be designed for water hammer.14 Pipe Stresses Perpendicular to the Longitudinal Axis The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or external pressures on the pipe walls. psi. is Pipe Stresses 21. Usually. Fig. A surge tank is a tank containing water and connected to the conduit. Various types of relief Fig. (21. floats on the line. from Eq. psi D = outside diameter of pipe. 21. When a valve is suddenly closed. The time required for the wave to travel to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U = 6000/3180 = 1. Inc. Click here to view.63).34).90 s. The water level in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water. and the pressure rise. The water column. in Assuming T = 4. . 21. The section of pipe between the surge tank and the valve (Fig.67) where A = area of cut edge of pipe.90 s. the stress. on the pipe material is (21. It may be calculated by taking a free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig. Although a surge tank is one of the most commonly used devices to prevent water hammer. The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is (21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on a penstock to prevent water hammer.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 Surge Tanks It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for pressures created by water hammer or to operate a valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures. When a valve is suddenly opened. where the pressure of water hammer may be relieved by the release of a relatively small quantity of water. lb Hence.66) where p = internal pressure.64) gives the following result: 21. ft2 t = thickness of pipe wall. the water in the line rushes into the surge tank. 21. but the closure time to reduce the pressures for this section will be only a fraction of the time required without the surge tank. the surge tank supplies water to the line when the pressure drops. All rights reserved. approximate equation (21. The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.75 s. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension. it is by no means the only one. Internal pipe pressure produces hoop Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.34 tension. a surge tank is installed close to valves at the end of long conduits. in effect.
ft2 F2m = force due to momentum of water in section 2 = V2Qw/g F1m = force due to momentum of water in section 1 = V1Qw/g 21. For concrete pipes. Gere. Art. Equation (21. there will be an additional pressure change that can be calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Example 6. When there is a change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe. elastic Stability. 21. 21. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe. there will be a slight loss of head due to turbulence and friction. All rights reserved. it would appear that the diameter used for calculations should be the inside diameter. However. psf A1 = area before size change in pipe.67). This loss will cause a pressure change across the bend.17 Forces Due to Pipe Bends It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water. ft/s V2 = velocity after change in size of pipe.67) is exact for all practical purposes when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. M. (21. (21. the pressure differential may be large and must be considered.35: V1 = velocity before change in size of pipe. However.35 is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. ft2 A2 = area after size change in pipe. it acts like a beam.69) where ∆L = movement in length L of pipe L = length between expansion joints 21.68) where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel to the Longitudinal Axis If a pipe is supported on piers. this equation will usually be quite conservative and therefore will yield an uneconomical design. .16 Temperature Expansion of Pipe If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures. The external pressure creates bending and compressive stresses that cause buckling. For steel pipes. 6. The stresses created can be calculated from the bending moment and shear equations for a continuous circular hollow beam. Eq.36 s Section Twenty-One From the derivation of Eq.” 2nd ed. In Fig.6).67) gives directly the thickness required to resist internal pressure. The force diagram in Fig. P Timoshenko and J. thin-walled pipes usually require stiffening to prevent buckling and excessive deflection from the concentrated loads. if expansion joints are to be used. (21. The stress. The internal diameter is used in Eq. For this reason the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. This stress is usually not critical in high-head pipes. since concrete cannot resist large tensile stresses. but it is usually small enough to be neglected. due to a temperature change is (21. 21.67) is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly lower than those actually developed. is (21. the pipe should be the stress due to temperature variation designed for or expansion joints should be provided. In this case. Inc. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Eq. Click here to view.) ∆T = temperature change from installation temperature c = coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material The movement that should be allowed for. psi. In all bends.21. however. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. this analysis is approximate. psi Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.67) for concrete pipe. 21. “Theory of .10). (S. If D/t is less than 10. psf p2 = pressure after bend or size change in pipe.. ft/s p1 = pressure before bend or size change in pipe. the analysis is much more complex because the pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. When a pipe has external pressure acting on it. (21. The force F must be carried by steel reinforcing.
or other embankment.Water Resources Engineering s 21. an exact theoretical analysis. In small pipes. 21. 62. Because of the many combinations obtained by varying the entrance conditions. An understanding of uniform and nonuniform flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully. however.37 Fig. psf w = unit weight of water. canal. However. ft2 θ = angle between pipes (0° < θ < 180°) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and slope. in many cases the pipe material takes this force.70) and (21. is usually unwarranted because of the rela- (21.70) Although thrust blocks are normally used to take the force on bends.4 lb/ft3 V = velocity of flow. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. 32. P2 = pressure of water in section 2 times area of section 2 = p2A2 P1 = pressure of water in section 1 times area of section 1 = p1A1 w = unit weight of liquid. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the force caused by bends can easily be carried by the pipe material. The basic method for determining discharge through a culvert requires application of the Bernoulli equation between a point just outside the entrance and a point somewhere downstream. lb α = angle R makes with F1m p = pressure. no single formula can be given that will apply to all culvert problems. Inc. the joints must also be able to take these forces. Eqs. The slope of a culvert and its inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined by the topography of the site. involving detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater curves. (21.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter. (21. .2 ft/s2 A = area of pipe. exit conditions. The stress caused by this force is directly additive to other stresses along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. a railroad. Culverts A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of surface drainage under a highway. Click here to view. lb/ft3 Q = discharge. All rights reserved.71) where R = resultant force on bend.71) give a quick solution. ft3/s If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there is no change in magnitude of velocity around the bend.
slope is greater than the critical slope. 21.33d) or (21. Inc. Click here to view. Entrance and Exit Submerged s When both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig. the entire range of entry conditions encountered in culvert problems. the normal depth (Art.73) 21. the normal depth is equal to or less than the critical depth. the submergence of the exit will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert (Fig. 21. and the discharge is independent of the slope.37). This is normal pipe flow and is easily solved by using the Manning or Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq. The jump will not affect the culvert discharge. The discharge is given by the equation for flow through an orifice if the entrance is submerged. From the Bernoulli equation for the entrance and exit. the culvert flows full. or by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance is not submerged. and the Manning equation for friction loss. (21.38).36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge.38 s Section Twenty-One tively low accuracy attainable in determining runoff.72) Solution for the velocity of flow yields (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. but they do not cover Fig. 21.) Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s In this case. 21.36). Portland Cement Association. All rights reserved. the discharge will be entirely dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig. the following equation is obtained: (21. computer software.21. and nomographs have been developed and are used almost exclusively in design.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23). Coefficients of discharge for weirs and orifices give good results.” EB058W. For this reason. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s If a culvert is on critical slope or steeper. that is. Increasing the slope of the culvert past critical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow downstream from the entrance. and the control will still be at the inlet. Normal depth dn is less than critical depth dc . Neglecting drawdown and backwater curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but greatly simplifies the calculations. But the increased slope will not increase the amount of water entering the culvert because the entrance depth will remain at critical. 21. 21.18 Culverts on Critical Slopes or Steeper In a culvert with a critical slope.30)]. (“Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics. charts.
21. normal pipe flow occurs.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than the critical depth dc when the entrance is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. and dn < dc . Fig. ft Equation (21.72) can be solved directly since the velocity is the only unknown. and slope of culvert.74) Fig. . 21. ft Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity. Thus. Inc. When slope is less than critical. Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged but Free Exit s For these conditions. where H = elevation difference between headwater and tailwater. (21. When slope exceeds critical. depending on the head. When the slope is less than critical. open-channel flow takes place. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The fluid flows under pressure. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli and Manning equations. Discharge depends on head H. Discharge is independent of slope. is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for a point just outside the entrance and a point a short distance downstream from the entrance.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance unsubmerged but exit submerged. ft R = hydraulic radius of culvert. 21. for the open-channel condition (Fig. The velocity can be determined from the Manning equation: (21. the flow is considered subcritical (Art. All rights reserved. 21. ft V = velocity in culvert. 21. and dn > dc . the flow can be either pressure or open-channel.2 ft/s2 Ke = entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21. 21.75) Substituting this into Eq.19 Culverts on Subcritical Slopes Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain flow at critical depth.74) yields (21.39 Fig.20) n = Manning s roughness coefficient L = length of culvert.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert submerged. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The discharge. 32.76) where H = head on entrance measured from bottom of culvert. loss at entrance. Click here to view. flow depends on inlet condition. (21.39).20) 21.23).Water Resources Engineering s 21.
ft dn = normal depth of flow. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow. Inc. (21. there will be a large difference between normal and critical depth. 21. the backwater from the submergence will not extend to the entrance.76). This drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the culvert will increase the discharge. When the friction slope is flat. If the head on a culvert is high. Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Submerged s If the level of submergence of the exit is well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig.18). there will be a drawdown of the water surface at the exit and for some distance upstream. 21. 21. When the depth of the water is slightly below the top of the culvert. (21. Short Culvert with Free Exit s When a culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit. which for culverts is assumed to equal slope of bottom of culvert R = hydraulic radius of culvert.40).72). ft To solve Eq. are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have any effect for an appreciable distance upstream.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth dn greater than critical depth dc flows full when the entrance is deeply submerged. it may be assumed that the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and Fig. The discharge for this case will be given by Eq. and the drawdown will not extend for any significant distance upstream. This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. causing it to be about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper than critical (Art. Most culverts. The condition that gives the lesser discharge should be assumed to exist. .76). (21. The effect of the drawdown will extend a greater distance upstream and may reach the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. it is necessary to try different values of dn and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation. the difference between normal depth and critical depth is small (Fig. a value of dn less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. If the level of submergence of the exit is close to the level of the entrance. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The magnitude of the drawdown depends on the friction slope of the culvert and the difference between the critical and normal depths.37). and discharge is given by Eq. (21. Click here to view. If this condition exists. 21. however.39). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.40 s Section Twenty-One S = slope of energy grade line.76). All rights reserved. there is a range of unstable flow fluctuating between pressure and open channel. 21.21. 21.41). If the friction slope approaches critical. it is good practice to check the discharge for both pressure flow and open-channel flow.
the coefficients are usually somewhat lower.40). Assume a 2 × 2 ft concrete box section. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 + 1/2 × 2 = 6 ft. then investigate the assumed section to find its discharge. since this will give the maximum possible value of the hydraulic radius for this culvert.15 0.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical affects depth at entrance and controls discharge. n = 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. discharge Q = 40 ft3/s. Eq. Procedure: First assume a trial culvert.72) and (21. Since dn is greater than the culvert depth.9 0.8 ft3/s Table 21. All rights reserved. Inc. groove or bell. These values are for culverts flowing full. But because of the many unknowns entering into determination of culvert flow. Example 21.72) applies. Application of Eq.20 Entrance Losses for Culverts Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts. The coefficient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about 0. When the entrance is not submerged. 21.33a) gives a pipe flow condition will result. When the level of submergence falls between these two cases and the project does not warrant a trial approach with backwater curves. (21. (21. assume the depth is slightly less than 2 ft. groove or bell. and free exit. the flow is under pressure. Calculate Q assuming entrance control. the values tabulated can be used for submerged or unsubmerged cases without much loss of accuracy. and the entrance will not control.01. First find dn. square edge Concrete pipe.73).013.01 × 300 = 8 ft (see Fig.19).10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for Culverts Inlet condition Sharp-edged projecting inlet Flush inlet. Find: size of culvert. The discharge for this case is given by Eqs.9: Given: Maximum head above the top of the culvert = 5 ft. The hydraulic radius for pipe flow is R = 22/8 = 1/2. Fig.08 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 and 21.10 lists coefficients of entrance loss Ke for some typical entrance conditions. the flow must be supercritical and dn must be less than 2 ft.44) for discharge through an orifice. it is good practice to assume the condition that gives the lesser discharge. length = 300 ft.72) yields Q =Va = 9.41 For entrance control. Since the culvert is under pressure. Substitution in Eq. To calculate the hydraulic radius.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Click here to view. slope = 0. (21. Entrance area a = 2 × 2 = 4 ft2.6. flush Well-rounded entrance Ke 0. 21. But H = 5 + 0. with Eq.5 0. . Table 21. 21.95 × 4 = 39. 21. (21. projecting Concrete pipe.10 0. (21.
Open-Channel Flow Free surface flow. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The hydraulic radius R equals the area of flow divided by its wetted perimeter. or open-channel flow. within a hydraulic jump. or the total-head line. It is expressed in cubic feet per second. The average velocity of flow V is defined Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21.03 to 1.77) where V = average velocity. varied flow occurs if the longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with the channel bottom. Thus. of a line bounding the cross-sectional area of flow. Hence. All rights reserved.82) A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the specific energy head is called the energy grade line. the flow is said to be continuous and therefore (21.21 Basic Elements of Open Channels A uniform channel is one of constant cross section. is generally given by (21. . It is composed of the depth of flow at any point. The discharge Q at any section is defined as the volume of water passing that section per unit of time. the assumed culvert would be satisfactory. ft/s A = cross-sectional area of flow. plus the velocity head at the point. depth of flow is constant throughout.42 s Section Twenty-One Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert section under the allowable head equals the maximum expected runoff.78) is known as the continuity equation for continuous steady flow.81) where α is an empirical coefficient that represents the degree of turbulence. flow in a pipe is openchannel flow if the pipe is only partly full. normally taken as 1. 32.42 shows a section of uniform open channel for which the slopes of the water surface Sw and the energy grade line S equal the slope of the channel bottom So. ft. (21.2 ft/s2 Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary considerably above and below the velocity head based on the average velocity. The wetted perimeter is the length. ft2 When the discharge is constant.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluated only for precise investigations of energy loss. The vertical distance between these profiles at any point equals the velocity head at that point. It is expressed in feet as (21.80) where V = average velocity from Eq. and is given by (21. Inc. In a uniform channel. of the water surface is the same as that of the channel.79) The velocity head HV. It has uniform flow if the grade. as the discharge divided by the area of flow. however. (21. ft. Varied flow exists within the limits of backwater curves. ft/s g = acceleration due to gravity.78) where the subscripts designate different channel sections. the average of the velocity heads will be greater than the average-velocity head. Figure 21. Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance.79). Loss of head due to friction hf in channel length L equals the drop in elevation of the channel ∆Z in the same distance. The total energy per pound of water relative to the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is called the specific energy head He. minus the free surface width. ft. A longitudinal profile of the water surface is called the hydraulic grade line. or slope. Steady flow in a channel occurs if the depth at any location remains constant with time. from the bottom of a channel to the water surface. The true velocity head may be expressed as (21.36 for prismatic channels. It is. Experimental data indicate that α may vary from about 1. and within a channel of changing slope or discharge. Since these velocities are squared in head and energy computations. includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere. Equation (21. ft3/s. 21. Click here to view.
43 Fig. 21. The specific energy is high initially where the channel is relatively flat because of the large normal depth (Fig. ft3/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head.83) Brater. Click here to view. as shown in Fig. Depth dn for uniform channels may be computed with computer software or for manual computations simplified by use of tables that relate dn to the bottom width of a rectangular or trapezoidal channel. All rights reserved. ft 2 R = hydraulic radius.44. 21.22 Normal Depth of Flow The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the channel of Fig.42 is called the normal depth dn.43. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Normal depth increases downstream as slope increases. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.43 Prismatic channel with gradually increasing bottom slope. 21.43). F.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. and discharge are known. 21. McGrawHill Book Company. ft Q = amount of flow or discharge. . the specific energy also decreases. As the depth decreases downstream.84) where A = area of flow.. slope. New York. Inc. and specific energy first decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. This depth is unique for specific discharge and channel conditions. “Handbook of Hydraulics. 21. ft. For a rectangular channel. Eq.” 6th ed. for example. It reaches a minimum at the point where the flow satisfies the equation (21. ft. (V. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. normal depth decreases downstream. T.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow. (21. in which T is the top width of the channel. 21. E. Chow.) In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing slope. (See. It may be computed by a trialand-error process when the channel shape. New York.) (21. A form of the Manning equation has been suggested for this calculation.84) reduces to Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. roughness. or to the diameter of a circular channel. due to friction per lin ft of channel AR2/3 is referred to as a section factor.
21. Brater. and flow is supercritical. for a given discharge. ft This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum where the normal depth equals twice the velocity head. For a given value of specific energy.44). the specific energy increases again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. The flow there is called subcritical flow. the depth is greater than critical. As the depth continues to decrease in the downstream direction. He is a minimum for flow with critical depth.84) may be reduced to (21.23 Critical Depth of OpenChannel Flow The depth of flow that satisfies Eq.” 6th ed. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Determination of this depth is independent of the channel slope and roughness since critical depth simply represents a depth for which the specific energy head is a minimum.84) is called the critical depth dc. 21.85) where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow. F. “Handbook of Hydraulics.86) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here to view. or it may be found directly from tables (E.84). the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth (Fig. . indicating that the velocity is less than that at critical depth.43. or conversely. (21. ft3/s d = depth of flow. All rights reserved. (21. 21.44 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 21. Critical depth may be calculated by trial and error with Eq. The velocity there exceeds that at critical depth. the depth is below critical. New York). (21.21. In the section of steeper slope below the critical-depth point.44 Specific energy head He changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel of changing slope. Inc. Eq.. In the section of mild slope upstream from the critical-depth point in Fig 21.44). Critical depth may be computed for a uniform channel once the discharge is known. For rectangular channels. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the critical depth gives the greatest discharge.
ft Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed that will maintain flow at critical depth. if the velocity head is less than half the depth in a rectangular channel. It can be seen from Fig.87) Fig. For every depth greater than critical depth. flow will always seek to attain the normal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain that depth unless an obstruction is met. 21. These depths of equal energy are called alternate depths. without turbulence. All rights reserved. to determine whether the normal depth at any section is subcritical or supercritical. flow is subcritical. regardless of slope.45.] If channel configuration is such that the normal depth must go from below to above critical. If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat slope because of a sudden grade change in the channel (Fig. Inc. so the possibility of a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition should be investigated. 21.44). p. (21.57). 21. should be plotted for the full length of a uniform channel. Such slopes should be avoided in channel design because flow near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits turbulence and water-surface undulations. Critical depth. The new depth is said to be sequent to the initial depth. but if velocity head exceeds half the depth. ft3/s b = width of channel.52b. as indicated in Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.44 that any obstruction to flow that causes a reduction in total head causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in depth and supercritical flow to undergo an increase in depth. depth increases suddenly from the depth below critical to a depth above critical in a hydraulic jump. along with a high loss of energy. The depth following the jump will not be the alternate depth. There has been a loss of energy in making the jump.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually. once calculated. a hydraulic jump will occur. There is no similar phenomenon that allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding gain in energy. The fact that the energy is the same for alternate depths does not mean that the flow may switch from one alternate depth to the other and back again.85). ft Q = quantity of flow or discharge.24 Manning’s Equation for Open Channels One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula. [As indicated by Eq. flow is supercritical. 21. 21. however.45 where dc = critical depth. (21. indicating an irreversible occurrence. Such a change occurs gradually. there is a corresponding depth less than critical that has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. Click here to view. . Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Critical depth will change if the channel cross section changes. 21.
21. is replaced by a horizontal line. ft2 Q = quantity of flow.D. Eq. therefore.D. A deeper-than-normal flow will also result in an increase in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of brush along the banks within the path of flow. and A for adverse. 21.89) Since the discharge Q = VA. Department of Agriculture. for the channels of horizontal or adverse slope. and the N.L. and the critical-depth line C. The N. ft3/s Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels. New York.L. are in Table 21.L. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from which all backwater curves derive their name and is the most important from a practical point of view. It occurs under conditions shown in Fig. Values of the roughness coefficient n for Manning’s equation have been determined for a wide range of natural and artificial channel construction materials.25 Water-Surface Profiles for Gradually Varied Flow Examples of various surface curves possible with gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. These curves are divided into five groups.46c and d. All rights reserved.23). there must be a continuing maintenance program. ft/s S = slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction.L. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. Excerpts from a table of these coefficients taken from V.25). Chow compiled data for his table from work by R. 21. It forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when water is backed up a stream by high water in the downstream channel.11 are recommended only for well-maintained channels. When Manning’s C is used in the Chezy formula. the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open channel results: (21. Each group is labeled with a letter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical).88) where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earlier Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. and C. S for steep (supercritical).11. There are three types of surface-profile curves possible in channels of mild or steep slope. n in practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for all head losses.) 21. These surface profiles represent backwater curves that form under the conditions illustrated in examples (a) through (r). An unlined channel excavated in earth may have one n value when first put in service and another when overgrown with weeds and brush.46 s Section Twenty-One where R = hydraulic radius. ft V = mean velocity of flow. the effective n value increases as the flow spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.9 and Table 21.90) where A = area of flow. . at an arbitrary elevation. Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result in an increase in the effective n value if the channel bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of silt since these projections would then have a larger influence on the flow than for deep flow.D. the average n values given in Table 21. C for critical.L. The two dashed lines in the left-hand figure for each class are the normaldepth line N.D.46. Dr. (21.89) may be written (21. (See also Art. are identical for a channel of critical slope.4. and two types for channels of critical.S. Channel roughness does not remain constant with time or even depth of flow. horizontal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. Inc. (Although based on surface roughness. 21. T. and adverse slope. as shown in Fig. If an unlined channel is to have a reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime. 21. 21.) The roughness of a lined channel experiences change with age because of both deterioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign matter.and critical-depth lines.46a and b. Horton and from technical bulletins published by the U. E.D. Chow. H for horizontal. The M2 curve forms between the normal. ft/lin ft of channel C = Chezy roughness coefficient Manning proposed (21. corresponding to an increase in channel width or slope. When channel banks are overtopped during a flood. according to the slope of the channel in which they appear (Art.
Corrugated 2.035 0.46e and f (a partly opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel slope.018 0.024 0.033 0.013 0.015 0.100 0. Open-channel flow in closed conduits 1.013 0.011 0.021 0.012 0.46i and j.018 0.040 0.020 0. Excavated earth. Corrugated-metal storm drain 2.050 0. 21. Planed.035 0.021 0.080 0. Dry rubble 5. except where a drop-off in the channel occurs before a jump can form. Float finish b. Smooth wood form c. Metal a. Lined channels 1. Examples of the M3 curve are in Fig. Steel form b. commonly called a drawdown curve.023 0.014 0. 21. Gunite.025 0.023 0.46a and b. All rights reserved.027 0.032 0. Clean.025 0.014 0.012 0.140 0.017 Max 0.025 0. extends downstream from the critical depth and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.025 0. Rough C.014 0.015 Avg 0.040 0. Asphalt a.022 0.060 0.016 0.025 0.035 0.016 0.080 0. Jagged and irregular 0.013 0.015 0. Cement-mortar surface 3. wavy section 4.011 0. respectively). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21.47 The M3 curve forms between the channel bottom and critical-depth line. becoming tangent to a horizontal line (Fig.012 0. The S2 curve.030 0. good section c.028 0.120 0. Gunite.46g and h) under channel conditions corresponding to those for Fig.Water Resources Engineering s 21.010 0. high stage 2.030 0.016 0. Dense brush. 21. . Click here to view.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation Min A. Wood a.016 0. It forms between two normal depths of less than critical Table 21.022 0. Dredged earth a. untreated 3.025 0. With short grass. Smooth and uniform b.050 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Masonry a. Smooth b.019 0. few weeds c. Inc.050 0. after weathering b.022 0. Smooth steel (unpainted) b. straight and uniform a. Rough wood form B.014 0. Cemented rubble b.016 0.013 0. high as flow depth d.030 0. Rock cuts a.035 0.012 0. Unlined channels 1.013 0.033 0. Concrete (unfinished) a. Dense weeds. It terminates in a hydraulic jump. No vegetation b. The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and extends downstream. Concrete a.017 0. The S3 curve is of the transitional type. Light brush on banks 3.
46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. C. The curves in Fig. Examples in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.L. and A profiles.L. critical-depth line.21. 21.46m through r show conditions for the formation of C. 21. .46 approach the normaldepth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. 21. Click here to view. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.. N. indicates normal-depth line. H. All rights reserved. Inc.D. The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at Fig. 21.D.48 s Section Twenty-One depth under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.46k and l.
21. gate.26 Backwater-Curve Computations The solution of a backwater curve involves computation of a gradually varied flow profile. with relatively small variation. the channel is divided into short lengths. For subcritical flow conditions. Two variations of the step method include the direct or uniform method and the standard method.” McGraw-Hill. The surface curve that occurs under supercritical flow conditions proceeds downstream from the point of control and might better be called a downwater curve. which always equals the critical velocity for the channel. backwater curves form both before and after the jump.49 a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy Eq. Bernoulli’s equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is (21. 32. ft g – S = acceleration due to gravity.5. For the section of channel in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. depending on the type of flow. These curves either start or end at what is called a point of control. ft/s d1 and d2 = depths of flow at sections 1 and 2. (R. Explanations of both the graphical. Inc. For step-method computations.. . French. Step methods have been developed for channels with uniform or varying cross sections. direction-integration.91) where V1 and V2 = mean velocities of flow at sections 1 and 2. weir. Click here to view. known as its celerity.2 ft/s2 = average head loss due to friction. (21. and step methods. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. New York. T. New York. or other feature at that location that causes a backwater curve to form.47. See Art. or reaches. The procedure is applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with gradually varying area of flow. The curves are shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a reminder that this portion of the curve does not possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of the curve because of neglect of vertical components of velocity in the calculations. This is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be thought of as being the result of some disruption of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance in the channel. Inc. free overfall.27. In a series of steps starting from a point of control.77) if the depth were zero. and a hydraulic jump always occurs across critical depth. Computations for these backwater curves are carried toward the jump from their respective points of control and are extended across the jump to help determine its exact location. If a disturbance wave attempts to move upstream against supercritical flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical). it will be swept downstream by the flow and have no effect on conditions upstream.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.and direct-integration methods are in V. The wave travels at a speed. each reach is solved in succession. The point of control for the backwater curve in the subcritical region below the jump is at the free overfall where critical depth occurs. They are simple and widely used and are available in many software packages. This depth is usually different from the normal depth for the channel because of a grade change. The point of control for the curve in the supercritical region above the jump will be located at the vena contracta that forms just below the sluice gate. Direct step method of backwater computation involves solving for an unknown length of channel between two known depths. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. A disturbance wave is held steady by critical flow and moves upstream in subcritical flow.51). The surface profiles involved terminate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth. Solutions available include the graphical-integration. When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. Chow. Calculations for the length and shape of the surface profile of a backwater curve start at this known depth and location and proceed either up or downstream. 21.) 21. H. But a backwater curve cannot be calculated through a hydraulic jump from either direction. 21. A point of control is a physical location in a prismatic channel at which the depth of steady flow may readily be determined. All rights reserved. dam. The point of control is always at the downstream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. ft/ft of channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the curve proceeds upstream from the point of control in a true backwater curve.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. the head loss. due to friction in the same reach. ft Note that SoL = ∆z.22) but where He1 and He2 are the specific energy heads for sections 1 and 2. the – eddy loss.) S equals the slope calculated for the average depth in the reach but may be approximated by the average of the values of friction slope S for the depths at sections 1 and 2. . These depths will range from the depth at the point of control to the ending depth for the backwater curve. All rights reserved. the smallest n possible for the prevailing conditions should be selected for computation of a backwater curve if knowledge of the longest possible flow profile is required.93). hi. Solving Eq. Inc. Click here to view.21.82). The friction slope S at any point may be computed by the Manning equation. The first step in the direct step method involves choosing a series of depths for the end points of each reach.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.24) Note that the slope S used in the Manning equation is the slope of the energy grade line. This ending depth is often the normal depth for the channel (Art. is negligible and can be ignored. not the channel bottom. of the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2. and vice versa.93) where R = hydraulic radius. as given by Eq. rearranged as follows: Fig. prismatic channels. ft. and – SL = hf.50 s Section Twenty-One So = slope of channel bottom L = length of channel between sections 1 and 2. (For uniform. 21. the longer the backwater curve profile. (21.91) for L gives (21. the change in elevation. (21. Note also that the roughness coefficient n is squared in Eq. The smaller the value of n. 21. respectively. and its value must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid an exaggerated error in the computed friction slope. ft n = roughness coefficient (Art. Therefore. ft.92) (21. 21.
depending on whether flow is supercritical or subcritical. the friction loss.97) where H1 and H2 equal the total head of sections 1 and 2. Eddy loss hi is found from Eq.51 may be some intermediate depth. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. Click here to view. ft. the differ– ence between S and slope of channel bottom So should be computed and the length of reach determined from Eq. and the depth of flow is determined by trial and error.5 for abrupt expansions and contractions. . in which the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z1 and at section 2.93). this procedure produces the true depth for the initial section within a relatively few steps.96) where Z equals the elevation of the channel bottom above the given datum plus the depth of flow d at that section.11)] for sections 1 and 2 Yields (21. it has been expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows: (21. The total head at any section of the channel is (21. which.95) The coefficient k is 0. Next. such as for a curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Inc. in the reach (SL) is denoted by hf. (21. No rational method is available for determination of eddy loss. A surface profile is determined in the following manner: The channel is examined for changes in cross section. (21. Writing Bernoulli’s equation [Eq.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Data concerning the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected at each station.94). computations progress toward the initial section. Standard step method allows computation of backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural channels and nonuniform artificial channels as well as in uniform channels. Since this step method is a converging process. ft. after substitution of H from Eq. Nonprismatic channels do not have welldefined points of control to aid in determining the starting depth for a backwater curve. Therefore. grade. (21. Finally.93). Eddy loss. and it is therefore often accounted for. referred to a horizontal datum. This method involves solving for the depth of flow at various locations along a channel with Bernoulli’s energy equation and a known length of reach. is a head loss caused by flow running contrary to the main current because of irregularities in the channel. becomes (21. the friction slope S should be computed at each section from Eq. total head H.2 for diverging reaches. (21. (21. Computation of the surface curve is then made in steps. and the locations of these changes are given station numbers. sometimes called impact loss. from 0 to 0. ft/s. respectively. The energy balance used in the standard step method is shown graphically in Fig. (21. For lined channels. Stations are also established between these locations such that the velocity change between any two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of the velocity at the former station. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in velocity head. Friction loss – hf is the product of S and the length of the reach L. Also the change in depth between sections should never exceed 1 ft.92). 21. Friction slope S is computed from – Eq.95). All rights reserved. respectively. at sec– tions 1 and 2. Z2. The specific energy head He should be computed for the chosen depth at each of the various sections and the change in specific energy between sections determined. is obtained from Eq. ft. Depths should be chosen so that the velocity change across a reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the beginning of the reach. the water-surface elevation at the beginning must be determined as follows: The step computations are started at a point in the channel some distance upstream or downstream from the desired starting point. in natural channels. starting from the point of control and progressing from station to station—in an upstream direction for subcritical flow and downstream for supercritical flow. The value of total head computed from Eq. Then. or roughness.96). the average friction slope for the reach. (21. The length of reach in each step is given by the stationing. The average of two sections gives the fric– tion slope S between sections.97) must agree with the value of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.47. S. Next. and the term hi is added to account for eddy loss. by a slight increase in Manning’s n. is calculated as the mean of the slope for the section and the preceding section. and about 0.94) where V1 and V2 are the mean velocities. Then.1 for converging reaches.
and α (the energy coefficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the velocity head). 1970.23). Bradley.27 Hydraulic Jump This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water (Fig. their number should be limited to as few as accuracy permits. 21. some account must be taken of the varying channel roughness and the differences in velocity and capacity in the main channel and the overbank or floodplain portions of the stream channel. The backwater curve is usually started by assuming normal depth at a point some distance downstream from the start of the reach under analysis.48 Hydraulic jump. and friction slope for each subarea at selected watersurface elevations. 21. velocity. determine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea discharges). This allows the intermediate sections to “dampen out” any minor errors in the assumed starting water-surface elevation.52 s Section Twenty-One total head calculated previously for the section or the assumed water-surface elevation Z1 is incorrect. 2nd ed. Several intermediate cross sections should be taken between the point where normal depth is assumed and the start of the reach for which a detailed water-surface profile is required. 1.27. approach roadways. The accuracy or validity of the water-surface profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of the channel roughness and judicious selection of cross-section location. 21. Bureau of Public Roads.52b. The first condition is met in a mild channel downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow spillway. or at an abrupt change in channel slope from steep to mild. or where a steep channel enters a reservoir. Utilizing the above data. The effect of bridges. Many of the available computer software packages that compute backwater profiles are applicable to irregular channels and flooded overbank areas. The upstream surface of the jump. 21. 21. however. Backwater curves for natural river or stream channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calculated in a manner similar to that described for regularly shaped channels. Department of Transportation.48). and J. However. and determine the discharge. Click here to view. New York. a gate. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. as shown in Figs. “Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance.S. All rights reserved. The second condition occurs where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an overflow weir. Agreement is assumed if the two values of total head are within 0. Inc. A hydraulic jump is the only means by which the depth of flow can change from less than critical to greater than critical in a uniform channel. . known as the length of jump. known as the roller. Federal Highway Administration. A jump will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a channel of subcritical slope. or other obstruction.” Hydraulics Design Series no.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and culverts can be determined using procedures outlined in R. The most expeditious way of determining the backwater curves is to plot the channel cross section to a scale convenient for measurement of lengths and areas. is a turbulent mass of water.. H. subdivide the cross section into main channels and floodplain areas. N. If the two values of total head do not agree. Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art.1 Depth and Head Loss in a Hydraulic Jump Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. A greater number of cross sections generally enhances the validity of the water-surface profile. Fig. the mean velocity (the total discharge divided by the total area). depending on whether the flow is steady or unsteady.1 ft in elevation. French. 21. respectively. a new water-surface elevation must be assumed for Z1 and the computations repeated until agreement is obtained. A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or moving. U.21. The value that finally leads to agreement gives the correct water-surface elevation.51 and 21. because of the extensive calculations involved with each cross section. bridge piers. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Inc. Relationships may be derived similarly for channels of any cross section. this resultant pressure force is (21.98) where d1 = depth before jump. 21. depending on the Froude number of the incoming flow F = V/(gL)1/2 [Eq. in Eq.27. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. ft/s q t = discharge per foot width of rectangular channel.102) Equation (21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. (Initial and sequent depths should not be confused with the depths of equal energy. the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the moving water and tending to retard its motion. ft3/s = unit of time. s (21. and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. The depths before and after a hydraulic jump may be related to the critical depth by the equation dc = critical depth for the channel.53 which is continually tumbling erratically against the rapidly flowing sheet below. The head loss in a jump equals the difference in specific-energy head before and after the jump. ft He2 = specific-energy head of stream after jump. and g = acceleration due to gravity. ft w = unit weight of water. (21. For open-channel flow. ft It may be seen from this equation that if d1 = dc.49) is given by (21.100). (21. the characteristic length for the Froude number is made equal to the hydraulic depth dh. ft2 T = width of free surface. ft.16)].99) where M = mass of water. ft The specific energy for free-surface flow is given by Eq.2 Jump in Horizontal Rectangular Channels The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular channel may be of several distinct types.103) where He1 = specific-energy head of stream before jump. 32. ft/s V2 = velocity at depth d2. or alternate depths. .105) where A = area of flow.82). This unbalanced force equals the difference between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to the depths before and after the jump. d2 must also equal dc. ft d2 = depth after jump. 21.100) may then be solved for the sequent depth: (21. (21. ft/s2. ft/s. and substituting V1d1 for q and V1d1/d2 for V2.104) = discharge. All rights reserved. lb⋅s2/ft V1 = velocity at depth d1.101) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. V is the mean velocity. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump. Click here to view.2 ft/s2 Equating the values of F in Eqs. The depth before a jump is the initial depth.99). lb/ft3 The rate of change of momentum at the jump per foot width of channel equals where q (21. ft3/s per ft of channel width If V2d2/d1 is substituted for V1.98) and (21.) According to Newton’s second law of motion. This difference (Fig. ft g = acceleration due to gravity.100) Equation (21. the reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes (21. where L is a characteristic length.102) may be used in determining the position of the jump where V2 and d2 are known. For rectangular channels. (21. Hydraulic depth is defined as (21.
were classified by the U. and their relation to the Froude number of the approaching flow F1. The jump is called an undular jump. can travel for miles. or sluice gate by quickly reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved apron. chute. The jump is well-balanced.5. Note that the ranges of the Froude number given for the various types of jump are not clearcut but overlap to a certain extent. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is low. Click here to view. coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating curve. hydraulic depth equals depth of flow. the elevation of the water surface after the jump must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation for every discharge. For F1 = 2. All rights reserved. for example. doing extensive damage to earth banks and riprap surfaces. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. depending on local conditions. For F1 = 1. generating waves downstream and causing a rough surface. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. which gives discharge vs. very commonly in canals. A special section of channel built to contain a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin. but the downstream water surface remains smooth. This jump may be called an oscillating jump.3 Hydraulic Jump as an Energy Dissipator A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. depth after the jump. This jump may be called a steady jump. For F1 = 9. The jet moves from the channel bottom to the surface and back again with no set period. 21. and the performance is at its best. Various forms of hydraulic jump. the flow is critical and there is no jump. a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump. there are undulations on the surface. In either case. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal depths in the discharge channel for the range of flows to be expected. If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an energy dissipator. The jump action is rough but effective. below a spillway. If the tailwater is too high. which.5 to 9. the jump will be drowned out.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on Froude number. A jump may be used to prevent erosion below an overflow spillway. 21. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular period. The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth curve. .5. This jump may be called a weak jump.0 and larger. 21. If the tailwater is too low. This jump may be called a strong jump. Bureau of Reclamation and are presented in Fig.7 to 2. and energy dissipation may reach 85%. For F1 = 4.54 s Section Twenty-One For rectangular channels.49. For F1 = 1 to 1. Changes in the spillway design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating Fig. the high-velocity flow will continue downstream for some distance before the jump can occur. the high-velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front face of the jump. 21. dangerous erosion is likely to occur for a considerable distance downstream. an oscillating jet is entering the jump. the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which the highvelocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section. The energy dissipation ranges from 45 to 70%.27.S. For F1 = 1.5 to 4.0. and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total head. The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tailwater depth.21.7.23).
Bureau of Reclamation. The curve. The curve thus minimizes the effect of any errors made in calculation of the Fig. 21. 21. 21. such as chute blocks and baffle blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to control the jump.5 Location of a Hydraulic Jump It is important to know where a hydraulic jump will form since the turbulent energy released in a jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. . a great savings can be realized if their use is restricted to a limited area through a knowledge of the jump location.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d2 and the Froude number of the approaching flow. but it will give approximate results for jumps formed in trapezoidal channels. The method of prediction used for rectangular channels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. The experimental results may be summarized conveniently by plotting the Froude number of the upstream flow F1 against a dimensionless ratio of jump length to downstream depth L/d2. T. and sloping the apron. Controls within a stilling basin have additional advantages in that they improve the dissipation function of the basin and stabilize the jump action. prepared by V.105). Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. was developed for jumps in rectangular channels. 21. 21. (21. For other than rectangular channels the depth d1 used in the equation for Froude number is the hydraulic depth given by Eq. Click here to view. This length (Fig. not only to force the jump to occur within the basin but to reduce the size and therefore the cost of the basin. changing the apron elevation. The resulting curve (Fig. therefore. These features are expensive to build.27. Inc. partly because of the nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump. Special reinforced sections of channel must be built to withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth at the jump. The precision with which the location is predicted depends on the accuracy with which the friction losses and length of jump are estimated and on whether the discharge is as assumed.48) defies accurate mathematical expression.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of the roller to a point on the raised surface immediately downstream from cessation of the violent turbulence. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The main purpose of these accessories is to shorten the range within which the jump will take place. 21. All rights reserved.Water Resources Engineering s 21.S.27. Froude number in the range where this information is most frequently needed. Accessories. Chow from data gathered by the U.50) has a flat portion in the range of steady jumps.55 curve involve changing the crest length. But it has been determined experimentally.51.
If d2 is less than d′ . equal in length to L. All rights reserved. 21. Two 1 possible positions are shown in Fig. the computed length of jump. but instead occurs a short distance upstream.23) to mild. using the step methods of Art. As depth d2 is lowered. which forms just downstream from the sluice gate. as shown in Fig. a jump forms that may be located either above or below the grade change. equal to the computed length of the jump. is plotted through the area where it crosses curve ED. 21. computed from Eq. (21. The jump location is found by producing a horizontal intercept FG. It is assumed. computed from Eq.52a.46e and c). If the downstream depth d2 is greater than the upstream sequent depth d′1. (21. Line CB′ is a plot of the depth d′1 sequent to the depth of approach line AB. as shown in Fig. is then fitted between the curves CB and ED. 21. respectively (Fig.52. Inc. The depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken as 0. 21. the curve of depths sequent to curve AB. 21. When the slope of a channel has an abrupt change from steeper than critical (Art. 21.26. the jump occurs in the steep region. which occurs near the channel drop-off. Click here to view.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate. 21. If the downstream depth is increased because of an obstruction. but it is normally assumed to be 0. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the edge. The distance from the gate to the vena contracta Le is nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. The distance is small (from three to four times dc) and can be ignored for most problems. The position of the jump depends on whether the downstream depth d2 is greater than. (21. the jump moves upstream and may eventually be drowned out in front of the sluice gate. A horizontal intercept FG. the jump moves downstream to a new position. for simplicity.51. CB. Jump location is determined as follows: The backwater curves AB and ED are computed in their respective directions until they overlap.7dc for simplicity. that flow is uniform. between lines CB′and EO. The water-surface profiles of the flow approaching and leaving the jump. curves AB and ED in Fig. The actual depth at the brink is 71.102).5% of critical depth. are type M3 and M2 backwater curves. if the downstream depth is lowered.56 s Section Twenty-One Fig. less than. The jump may be expected to form between the points H and G since all requirements for the formation of a jump are satisfied at this location. or equal to the depth d′ sequent to the upstream depth d1. the 1 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.21. Depth at the contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. The point of control for backwater curve AB is taken as the depth at the vena contracta.52b. The amount of contraction varies with both the head on the gate and the gate opening.101). as theory would indicate. except in the reach between the jump and the grade break. A jump will form between H and G since all requirements are satisfied for this location. 21. 21. the jump moves to a new location downstream.75h in the absence of better information.46) and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. Backwater curve ED has as its point of control the critical depth dc. With values of d2 obtained from Eq. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.101) with d1 given. Conversely.
or (a) above it. 21. a new discharge is assumed. ft. where He is the specific energy head. If the channel has a slope steeper than the critical slope (Art. Inc. with the area of flow A = bdc = 2 /3bHe and the velocity the discharge for rectangular channels. the critical depth for the given shape of channel entrance is determined (see those in E. (21. This sum then is compared with the specific energy of the reservoir water. “Open-Channel Hydraulics.57 jump will form in the mild channel and can be located as described for Fig. Then. Inc. (This velocity head is normally so small that it may be taken as zero in most calculations. New York.106) where b is the channel width.3 for one with squared ends.53a). (R. French.” 6th ed. H. The procedure for finding the correct discharge is as follows: A trial discharge is chosen. . From Q = AV. where (He – d) gives actual head producing flow (Fig. 21..28 Flow at Entrance to a Steep Channel The discharge Q. ignoring entrance loss.82) and (21. Brater. and discharge is at a maximum. McGraw-Hill Book Company. the entrance loss. A first trial discharge may be found from Q = ———— A√ 2g(He– d). which equals the depth of water above datum plus the velocity head of flow toward the channel. 21. If the entrance loss must be considered. in the reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of the channel (Fig. sum of specific energy and entrance loss determined for the channel entrance.85)]. the flow passes through critical depth at the entrance. If the channel entrance is rectangular in cross section. is (21. in a channel leaving a reservoir is a function of the total head H. then the assumed discharge is correct.51. “Handbook of Hydraulics. A reasonable value for the depth d would be 2/3He for steep channels and an even greater percentage of He for mild channels. the critical depth dc = 2/3He [according to Eqs. ft3/s.) If the specific energy computed for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the Fig. 21. If the velocity in the reservoir is assumed to be zero. then the entrance loss is k(V21 / 2g). Safe design values for the coefficient vary from about 0. ft.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change in bottom slope. if not. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill.1 for a wellrounded entrance to slightly over 0. 21. or if the channel entrance is other than rectangular. F. ft. or (b) below it. All rights reserved. The entrance loss equals the product of an empirical constant k and the change in velocity head ∆Hν at the entrance. ft.) 21. and the slope of the channel. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York.53). Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.23). to which the resulting entrance loss is added.) Adding dc to its associated velocity head gives the specific energy in the channel entrance. the inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error since the discharge is unknown.. and the computations continued until a balance is reached. where V1 is the velocity computed for the channel entrance.Water Resources Engineering s 21. on the channel entrance.
All rights reserved. (In Fig. the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21. ft. 21.83). ———— charge.58 s Section Twenty-One Fig. The entrance depth and discharge are dependent on each other. The normal depth of the channel is determined for this discharge from Eq. 21. d is normal depth. ft. and the calculations continued until a satisfactory balance is obtained. The velocity head is computed for this depth-discharge combination. Click here to view. and an entrance-loss calculation is made (see Art. 32. then the discharge is correct.29 Flow at Entrance to a Channel of Mild Slope When water flows from a reservoir into a channel with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21. Inc. if not. ft3/s. a new discharge is chosen. and g is acceleration due to gravity. If the trial discharge gives this balance of energy. 21. of the reservoir water relative to datum at lip of channel. producing flow.23). The sum of the specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to exist between those points (Fig.53b). where He – d is the actual head. This requirement necessitates the formation of normal depth d since only at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to change the discharge or to form backwater curves.2 ft/s2. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.53b. ft2. The discharge that results from a given head is that for which flow enters the channel without forming either a backwater or drawdown curve within the entrance.21.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel. (b) mild-slope channel.22).) A solution for discharge at entrance to a channel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. (21. 21. He is the specific energy head. A is the cross-sectional area of flow.33). . is estimated from Q = A√ 2g(He– d).
21. 21. 21.54) is found by multiplying tan φ by the top width of the channel T. The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher velocity than flow near the bottom because of the retarding effect of friction along the floor of the channel. The difference in surface elevation found from Eq. its surface assumes a position normal to the resultant of the forces of gravity and radial acceleration. rather than empirically derived values more representative of actual conditions. of the center line of the channel. The error will not be great. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal surface since the only force acting on it is the force of gravity. (21. in water-surface level between the inside and outside banks of a Fig.107) The theoretical difference y.59 21. Water reacts in accordance with Newton’s first law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless deflected from its path by an outside force. the true value of y would be only a few inches. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. If the bend continues long enough. does not allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside bank. Inc. curve (Fig. (21. ft. The water surface makes an angle φ with the horizontal such that (21. the free surface of steady uniform flow is always normal to the resultant of the forces acting on the water. where V is its average velocity.83)]. . The rectangular section with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow equal to one-half the width. The water surface there is wavy and thus needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a straight channel. This can be seen from the Manning equation for discharge [Eq. all the high-velocity water will move against the outer bank and may cause extensive scour unless special bank protection is provided. In this range. ft. but it finds some use in metal flumes where sections can be preformed. When water is forced to flow in a curved path. (21. if the depth of flow is well above critical (Art. The most efficient of all possible open-channel cross sections is the semicircle. when a stream enters a curve. although it involves some drop in surface elevation on the inside of the curve. The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that area.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a channel with subcritical flow.30 Channel Section of Greatest Efficiency If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest hydraulic efficiency. A greater force is required to deflect the highvelocity flow.108) where the radius of curvature rc of the center of the channel is assumed to represent the average curvature of flow. in which Q is a direct function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power.108). The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the half hexagon. ft. a unit mass of water. Click here to view. Thus.23). the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside of the bend. Therefore.Water Resources Engineering s 21. however. This equation gives values of y smaller than those actually encountered because of the use of average values of velocity and radius. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and rc the radius of curvature. 21. There are practical objections to the use of this shape because of the difficulty of construction.31 Subcritical Flow around Bends in Channels Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing stress. The force due to radial acceleration equals the force required to turn the water from a straight-line path. ft /s. This shape is often used for box culverts and small drainage ditches. or mV2 /rc for m. which is used extensively for large water-supply channels. it must have the shortest possible wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.
flows around a bend in a channel. These waves cross at M. 21. One is a positive wave. His values have not been evaluated completely. The two waves at the entrance form at an angle with the approach channel known as the wave angle βo. A transition curve should have a radius of curvature twice the radius of the central curve.16)] . C. The depths along the banks at an angle θ < θo are given by (21. (21. Circular transition curves aid in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal sills. (21.109) where F1 represents the Froude number of flow in the approach channel [Eq. 21.S. Department of Agriculture. Click here to view. The details of sill design have been determined experimentally. with sufficient accuracy. (F. of greater-than-average surface elevation.32 Supercritical Flow around Bends in Channels When water. The depth of maximum height for the first positive wave is obtained by substituting the value of θo found from Eq. and shape to neutralize the undesirable oscillations that normally form at the change of curvature.111) where the positive sign gives depths along the outside wall and the negative sign. an increase in friction loss results. 21. The sills introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magnitude.23).) The distance from the beginning of the curve to the first wave peak on the outside bank is determined by the central angle θo. Standing waves in existing rectangular channels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills at the beginning and end of the curve.60 s Section Twenty-One Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed directly against the bank. The cross slope required for 21. which starts at the outside wall and extends across the channel on the line AME (Fig. Inc.” U. The second is a negative wave. This angle may be found from (21.001 for each 20° of curvature in 100 ft of flume. It should curve in the same direction and have a central angle given. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. recross as shown. It permits equilibrium conditions to be set up without introduction of a counterdisturbance.112) Transition curves should be used at both the beginning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances downstream. Banking the channel bottom is the most effective method of wave control.55). and should be used with discretion. Scobey suggests that the value of n be increased by 0. Technical Bulletin 393. and continue crossing and recrossing. “The Flow of Water in Flumes. All rights reserved. Good flow conditions may be ensured in new projects with supercritical flow in rectangular channels by providing transition curves or by banking the channel bottom. a series of standing waves are produced. (21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. This increased loss may be accounted for in calculations by assuming an increased value of the roughness coefficient n within the curve. . are reflected from opposite channel walls at D and E. depths along the inside wall. Scobey. by (21. Two waves form at the start of the curve. This angle may be determined from the equation (21.21. which starts at the inside wall and extends across the channel on the line BMD. Fig.110) where T is the normal top width of channel and rc is the radius of curvature of the center of channel. with a surface elevation of less-than-average height.110) for θ in Eq.55 Plan view of supercritical flow around a bend in an open channel. traveling at a velocity greater than critical (Art.111). phase. however.
ft/s. Click here to view.44.2 ft/s2. The rise of the water surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease in velocity head minus the outlet and friction losses. Many well-designed transitions have a reverse parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water surfaces in each channel (Fig. 21. Straight. ∆V is the velocity change. low-head-loss structure is obtained for an Fig. depth and crosssectional areas are selected at points along the transition to produce this smooth curve. ft. the flow may remain subcritical or supercritical (Art. the loss factor. Many variables. as shown in Fig. therefore. the average velocity decreases. is given by K(∆V2/2g). The relationship of flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot such as Fig. the water-surface level of the downstream channel must be set below the water-surface level of the upstream channel by at least the sum of the increase in velocity head. The length of the transition Lt is then given by (21. If friction is ignored. Special care must be exercised in the design if the depth in either of the two channels connected is near the critical depth. The angle φ the bottom makes with the horizontal is found from the equation (21. 21. respectively.1 [∆(V2/2g)]. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. a small change in energy head within the transition may cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate depth.56 Plan view of a transition between two open channels with different widths. and channel shape and slope. 21. equals about 0. or change from supercritical to subcritical. When proceeding downstream through a transition. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. p. where K. change from subcritical to supercritical.8[∆(V2/2g)].57). plus any transition and friction losses. it is necessary to determine the design flow and calculate normal and critical depths for each channel section. such as flow-rate changes. Normal depth for each section is used for the design depth. . The latter flow possibility may produce a hydraulic jump. angular walls usually will not produce a smooth parabolic water surface.23). 21. All rights reserved. and g = 32.5° between the channel axis and the lines of intersection of the water surface with the channel sides. After such a water-surface profile is chosen. 21. The major problems associated with design of a transition lie in locating the invert and determining the various cross-sectional areas so that the flow is in accord with the assumptions made in locating the invert.114) where T2 and T1 are the top widths of sections 2 and 1. A flow that changes to its supercritical alternate depth may cause excessive channel scour. A flow that switches to its subcritical alternate depth may overflow the channel.33 Transitions in Open Channels A transition is a structure placed between two open channels of different shape or cross-sectional area to produce a smooth.61 equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21. a transition with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.1 for an inlet-type structure.113) angle of about 12. To place a transition properly between two open channels. In this range.44. The transition length that produces a smoothflowing. hydraulic calculations should be made to check the suitability of the structure for lower flows. 21. low-head-loss transfer of flow. For outlet-type structures. wall roughness. The total drop in water surface yd across the inlet-type transition is then 1. Inc.54).56. if friction is ignored. Maximum flow is usually selected as the design flow. the total rise in water surface yr across the outlet structure is 0. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. The transition loss. After the design has been completed for maximum flow.2 for welldesigned transitions. must be taken into account in design of a smooth-flow transition. and part of the loss in velocity head is recovered as added depth. In design of an inlet-type transition structure.
21.5 = a(30)2. 21. as shown in Fig. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest.056 ft and y2 = ax2 = 0. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. If the discharge is partly under water. It is assumed that the water surface will follow parabola AC for the length Lt / 2 to produce a water-surface drop of yd /2 and that the other half of the surface drop takes place along the parabola CB. and parabolic weirs. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. y3 = ax2 = yd / 2 = 0.59 Weir not sharp-crested. 21. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. . the weir is submerged or drowned. Then y1 = ax21 = 0. 2 If the nappe discharges into the air. In contrast.21. For Fig. y = ax2. six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used.000556(20)2 = 0. trapezoidal weirs. Click here to view. 21. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp-crested.34.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.57. Inc. measured from A or B.34 Weirs A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which water flows. and.222 ft. The total transition length Lt is split into an even number of sections of equal length x. from which a = 0. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of measuring flowing water.000556(10)2 = 0. triangular weirs. The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found as follows: At the midpoint of the transition. for an assumed drop in water surface yd of 1 ft. such as rectangular weirs. Fig.58). 21.58 Sharp-crested weir. 21. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. The watersurface profile can be determined from the general equation for a parabola. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.000556. 21. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. such as broad-crested weirs. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. weirs not sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into 21. trapezoidal weirs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the weir has free discharge. where y is the vertical drop in the distance x.1 Types of Weirs A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharpcrested weir (Fig. Fig.62 s Section Twenty-One Fig.59. triangular or Vnotch weirs.
34. At very low heads. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result through removal of air by the overflowing jet if there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the weir. was developed by Rehbock and simplified by Chow: (21.58) (V. End contractions occur when the weir opening does not extend the full width of the approach channel. to be beyond the drop in the water surface (surface contraction) near the weir. Chow.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested Weirs Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is given by (21. T.60) should be used for measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy of measurement is required. which applies only when the nappe is fully ventilated.116) where P is the height of the weir above the channel bottom (Fig. All rights reserved. the nappe has a minimum width less than the crest length. . One such equation. ft3/s C = discharge coefficient L = effective length of crest. ft H = measured head = depth of flow above elevation of crest. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.5H for a complete crest contraction to form. the crest contraction is reduced and said to be partly suppressed.Water Resources Engineering s 21.5H. 21. a nappe must have its lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pressure. Click here to view.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York). To be fully ventilated. The resulting unsteady condition is very objectionable when the weir is used as a measuring device. A V-notch weir (Fig. 21. the nappe has a tendency to adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular weir even when means for ventilation are provided. ft The head should be measured at least 2. below the crest.63 hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. If P is less than Fig. contraction of the nappe. and partial suppression of the crest contraction and includes a correction for the velocity of approach and the associated velocity head. The nappe continues to contract as it passes over the crest. Hence.115) where Q = discharge. A weir operating under such conditions could not be expected to have the same relationship between head and discharge as would a fully ventilated nappe. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. Numerous equations have been developed for finding the discharge coefficient C. This lack of ventilation causes increased discharge and a fluctuation and shape change of the nappe. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. The height of weir P must be at least 2. thus causing a contraction of the flow. 2. Equation (21.5H upstream from the weir. unequal velocities in the channel of approach.116) corrects for the effects of friction. 21.60 V-notch weir. 21. Water flowing near the walls must move toward the center of the channel to pass over the weir.
21.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.34. New York). All rights reserved. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a point. If the weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the other.34. ft H = head. A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus the overflowing nappe.61) (E. (21. ft3/s L = length of notch at bottom. McGraw-Hill Book Company.” 6th ed. The effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken as its measured length. there are two end contractions and N = 2.2) when low discharges are to be measured. ft. Click here to view.5H upstream from the weir. ft If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir. 21.117) where L′ = measured length of crest. 21. 21. Inc. 1943). Values of the discharge coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz. who presented the data in the form of curves (Fig. Such a weir is said to have its contractions suppressed. there is one end contraction and N = 1. Lenz. This characteristic prevents a change in the headdischarge relationship at low flows and adds materially to the reliability of the weir.118) Fig.. vol. ft C1 = discharge coefficient The head H is measured from the notch elevation to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2. of a contracted-width weir is given by (21. F.4 Trapezoidal SharpCrested Weirs The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig.118)] 21.60) has a distinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested weir (Art.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. 69. who developed a procedure for including the effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. 21. The effective length L. Fig. 21. measured from notch bottom. The coefficients depend on head and notch angle. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Brater “Handbook of Hydraulics.62) is assumed the same as that from a rectangular weir and a triangular weir in combination.21. causing it to spring clear of the downstream face for even the smallest flows. His values were summarized by Brater. “Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on VNotch Weir Coefficients. ft N = number of end contractions H = measured head. This has the effect of spreading out the low-discharge end of the depthdischarge curve and therefore allows more accurate determination of discharge in this region.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21. T. Discharge is given by (21. ft Z = b/H [substituted for tan (θ/2) in Eq.3 Triangular or V-Notch Sharp-Crested Weirs The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. and both discharge and width of flow increase as a function of depth.119) where Q = discharge.34.64 s Section Twenty-One where θ = notch angle H = measured head. 21.
neglecting the velocity head. normally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig. Eq. or both. ft3/s C = coefficient of discharge L = effective length of crest. 2 21. Typically. (J. All rights reserved. (21.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested These are sturdy. 21. neglecting degree of turbulence given by Eq. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the channel. Villemonte. compute a trial discharge from the measured head. Then. ft Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach. for a submerged weir is related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q. its purpose is normally one of control and regulation of water levels or discharge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for such weirs. The velocity head of approach is accounted for by the discharge coefficient for sharp-crested weirs but must be considered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Such a weir can be used for discharge measurement. (21.65 b = half the difference between lengths of notch at top and bottom. “Submerged-Weir Discharge Studies. a weir not sharp-crested serves as the crest section for an overflow dam or the entrance section for a spillway or channel. heavily constructed devices. The maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation for all test results was found to be 5%.122) where H = measured head.81) g = acceleration due to gravity.120) may be used to compute the discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of any shape simply by changing the value of n.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir. compute the velocity of approach. Inc.” Engineering News-Record. Thus. 866.121) where Q = discharge. ft. p. velocity head of approach. 21. solve for the submerged discharge Qs. ft3/s.63) is affected not only by the head on the upstream side H1 but by the head downstream H2. for that weir by a function of H2/H1. using this rate and the required depths. and then. velocity head. The discharge Qs.) To use the Villemonte equation. Fig. which may be done as follows: First. ft3/s. They must be determined experimentally for each installation.59). it is recommended that the weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions comparable with those at its point of intended use. using this discharge.2 ft/s2 Since velocity and discharge are dependent on each other in this equation and both are unknown.34. 1947. ft V = velocity of approach.) Equation (21. Dec. and finally total head. From this total head. 21. 25. 32. first compute the rate of flow Q for the weir when not submerged. but Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Where great accuracy is essential. Villemonte expressed this relationship by the equation (21.120) where n is the exponent of H in the equation for free discharge for the shape of weir used.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested Weirs The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested weir (Fig.34. discharge must be found by a series of approximations. Click here to view. ft/s V /2g = Hν. R. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. ft No data are available for determination of coefficients C2 and C3. The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. ft The head of water producing discharge over a weir is the total of measured head H and velocity head of approach Hν. 21. .115) is rewritten in the form (21. (The value of n is 3/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir and 5/2 for a triangular weir.
12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a radius equal to about 0. ft = measured length minus width of all piers N = number of piers Kp = pier-contraction coefficient Ka = abutment-contraction coefficient Ht = total head on crest including velocity head of approach.01 0 0 * r = radius of abutment rounding. Click here to view.5Hd and headwall is placed not more than 45° to direction of flow Ka 0. Washington. The discharge coefficient C must be determined empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. it must be calibrated in place or a model study made to determine its head-discharge relationship. there is a corresponding change in the relation between head and discharge.66 s Section Twenty-One compute the first corrected discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Therefore. average coefficients may be assumed as shown in Table 21.12. where approach velocities are high.S. These piers reduce the effective length of crest by more than the sum of their individual widths because of the formation of flow contractions at each pier. starting with the corrected discharge. For conditions of design head Table 21. the average pier-contraction coefficients are as shown in Table 21. The effective crest length for a weir not sharp-crested is given by (21. The problem of establishing a fixed relation between head and discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the weir. thickness of pier.) The pier-contraction coefficient Kp is affected by the shape and location of the pier nose. But the process should be repeated. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. F. use a submerged-weir formula for sharp-crested weirs. the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. ignore the submergence and treat the weir as though it had free discharge.7 Submergence of Weirs Not Sharp-Crested Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are submerged when their tailwater level is high enough to affect their discharge. A nappe undergoes several changes in succession as the head varies. The effect is most critical for low heads. Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not greater than 0.34.123) where L = effective crest length. Approximate values of discharge may be found by applying the following rules proposed by E. Inc. care must be exercised when using these weirs for flow measurement to ensure that the conditions are similar to those at the time of calibration. such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for accurate flow measurement. Because of the surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the crest.21. ft L′ = net crest lengths.5Hd > r* > 0.13. . and the approach velocity.2 of the head. (3) Broad-crested Table 21. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp upstream leading edge. DC 20402.15Hd Rounded abutments where r* > 0. Department of the Interior. All rights reserved. For each change of nappe shape. The abutment-contraction coefficient Ka is affected by the shape of the abutment. “Design of Small Dams.1 of the pier thickness Rounded-nosed piers Pointed-nosed piers Kp 0. and approach velocity.02 0. the head in relation to the design head. Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers on their crest to support control gates or a roadway. ft (U. head in relation to design heads. This corrected discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the velocity of approach is small. If a weir of untested shape is to be constructed.20 0.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients Condition Square abutment with headwall at 90° to direction of flow Rounded abutments with headwall at 90° to direction of flow when 0. 21.10 H. and the successive shapes that appear with an increasing stage may differ from those pertaining to similar stages with decreasing head.” Government Printing Office. For conditions of design head Hd.
65.” Government Printing Office. This depth coincides with the depth measured between the upstream water level and the bottom of the nappe. (21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.) When the weir is discharging at heads greater than the design head. “Open-Channel Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. DC 20402. (Ideal flow is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir under the same head H. and 3 probably apply quite accurately. When an ogee weir is discharging at the design head. Chow. All rights reserved. the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but less than hydrostatic. This relationship is shown in Fig. the pressure on the crest is less than atmospheric. This manual and V. Figure 21.5H upstream. “Design of Small Dams. Consequently. Washington. and therefore of an ogee crest. called the design head Hd. (4) For weirs with narrow rounded crests.66 for an ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coefficient Cd for discharge at design head Hd. an ogee crest is designed for a single total head. .122). Its crest profile conforms closely to the profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir. thus making the weir consistent for flow measurement. “Open-Channel Hydraulics. the design head may be safely exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation develops (V. The pressure may become so low that separation in flow will occur. and the discharge increases over that for ideal flow. 21. According to Chow. where discharge is given by Eq. increase discharge obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crested weirs by 10% or more. 21.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc. New York).S. Of the above rules.66 of the head. T. however. This crest pressure reduces the discharge below that for ideal flow. For flow at heads lower than the design head.67 Fig.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical upstream face. which varies with the ratio of height of weir P to actual total head Ht. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. 1.64) has such a shape. at the point of maximum contraction. These coefficients are a function of the approach velocity. 21. T. 21. Click here to view. A shape was needed that would force the nappe to assume a single path for any discharge. The shape of this nappe.65 Location of origin of coordinates for sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs. Fig. The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir is taken as the distance from the highest point of the crest to the level of the water surface at a distance 2. the flow glides over the crest with no interference from the boundary surface and attains near-maximum discharge efficiency. weirs are not affected by submergence up to approximately 0. 2. Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coefficients after an adjustment for this difference in head.34. (U. Chow. depends on the head producing the discharge. Department of the Interior.Water Resources Engineering s 21. for a sharp-crested weir. while 4 is simply a rough approximation. 21.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt to produce a weir that would not have the undesirable nappe variation normally associated with weirs not sharp-crested.
) Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams. Bureau of Reclamation.” U.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads Ht other than design head Hd. 21.S.” U.68 s Section Twenty-One Hydraulics. the flow differs from ideal. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. New York. Click here to view. Bureau of Reclamation.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head Hd for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs. Inc.21.66.67 gives values of the discharge coefficient C as a function of the ratio Ht / Hd. where Ht is the actual head being considered and Hd is the design head.S.) When the weir is discharging at other than the design head. Fig. (From “Design of Small Dams.” McGraw-Hill Book Company.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and the discharge coefficient changes from the discharge coefficient given in Fig. All rights reserved. . present methods for determining the shape of an ogee crest profile. 21. Figure 21.
(See.34.68..) Fig. it will be assumed to have vertical faces. F.10 Weirs of Irregular Section 21.” 6th ed. All rights reserved. and sharp right-angled edges.69 shows a broad-crested weir that.67 and 21. “Handbook of Hydraulics.) If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face. the coefficient of discharge.S. 21.” U.115) since the velocity of approach was ignored in experiments performed to determine This group includes those weirs whose cross section deviates from typical broad-crested or ogeecrested weirs. because of its sharp upstream edge.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head Hd for ogee-crested weirs with sloping upstream face. 21. This causes a zone of reduced pressure at the leading edge.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Click here to view. Unless otherwise noted. (E. there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over that for a weir with a vertical face. compiled by King. McGraw-Hill Book Company.14. (From “Design of Small Dams. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectangular in cross section.68 shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with a vertical upstream face. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direction of flow that the nappe is supported and hydrostatic pressure developed on the crest for at least a short distance. a plane horizontal crest. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.69 Fig. F. is determined from Fig. E.34. fairly common in waterworks projects. These coefficients probably apply more accurately. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Bureau of Reclamation. 21. . New York. Brater. for example. New York.) 21.9 Broad-Crested Weir This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal crest. if flow is at other than the design head. “Handbook of Hydraulics. The coefficient of discharge for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face. Brater. When the head H on a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its breadth b. Figure 21. therefore. the nappe springs free.. Inc. and the weir acts as a sharp-crested weir.69 Broad-crested weir. (21. appear in Table 21. Values of the discharge coefficient. Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by Eq. Weirs of irregular section. where the velocity of approach is not high.66 and is then corrected for head and slope with Figs. has contraction of the nappe. are used as spillways and control structures. Figure 21.” 6th ed. Experimental data are available on the more common shapes.
67 2.85 2.60 2. Click here to view.88 3.65 2.0 1. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.07 3. with its load of suspended silt.8 2. A density current.64 2.75 2.32 3. Water-supply facilities have increased costs because of the necessity of providing desilting works and because of the wear on mechanical equipment.07 3. such as gates. valves.0 5.64 2.92 3.32 3.35.00 2.75 2.32 2.68 2.5 3.00 2.64 2. travel farther into the reservoir before deposition.31 3.32 3.32 3.21.32 3.28 3. This incoming water.19 3.32 3.63 2.32 3.60 2.4 0.66 2.60 2.6 1.32 3.68 2.04 3.68 2.65 2.73 2.64 2. Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of the incoming sediment. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable channels and harbors and an increase in frequency of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood channels. The smaller silt sizes.34 2.75 2.8 1.32 3.50 2.68 2. or soil.29 3.26 3. 21. are deposited in a delta as the river enters calm water.80 2.63 2.32 3. Heavier silt sizes.64 2.89 2.70 s Section Twenty-One Table 21.54 2.75 2.89 3.66 2.70 2.32 3.76 2.32 3.30 3.2 0.50 H.70 2.67 2.68 2.28 3.63 2.61 2.68 2.63 2.32 3.92 2.00 2.32 3.68 2.64 2.54 2.64 2. those forming the bed load.35 Sediment Transfer and Deposition in Open Channels Sediment from open channels has many undesirable effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life because of loss of storage through the accumulation of silt.00 2.70 2.5 5.75 2.32 3.65 2.79 1.44 2.64 2.32 3. The visible delta formed by the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment.64 15.64 2.32 1. and turbines.32 3.32 3.97 3.70 2.63 2.65 2.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs Deposition of silt results when the transporting forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a body of still water. All rights reserved.68 2.76 2.14 Values of C in Q = CLH3/2 for Broad-Crested Weirs Measured head 0.63 2. ft 0. such as a reservoir.03 3.31 3. Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir.08 3.65 2.70 2.50 2.92 3. once formed.5 4.07 3.81 2. has a specific gravity greater than that of the clear water in the reservoir and may form a density current.67 2.72 2. Inc.68 2.32 3.61 2.79 2. depending on whether the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.67 2.85 3.49 2. where the stilling effect of the basin eventually causes deposition of the sediment.14 3.6 0.32 3.74 2.66 2.32 1.32 3.32 3.0 2.32 3.20 3. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.69 2.64 2.63 2.32 3.56 2. rather than mixing immediately with the clear water. erosion.32 3.65 2.32 3.32 3. The dense flow then spreads out in this deeper area.66 2.38 2. which are often of equal consequence.32 2.32 3.63 21.64 2.32 3.2 1.66 2.64 2. quickly moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked by a dam.67 2.89 3.72 2.20 3.00 2.64 2.69 2.68 2.32 5.72 2.48 2.60 2.70 2.00 2.68 2. ft 0.05 3.69 2.63 2.0 4.32 3.5 2.88 10.07 3.32 3. Much of all of this fine sediment is transported to its final location by density currents.32 4.64 2.64 2.32 3.86 2.50 2. The cost of operating irrigation systems is increased by the need for frequent dredging.32 Breadth of crest of weir.63 2.4 1.62 2.32 3.69 2.63 2.30 3.58 2. those carried in suspension.32 3.20 3.0 3.32 3.32 3.65 2. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers destroys fertility when the silt originates from bank or gully erosion rather than from surface.07 3.32 3.64 2.74 2.77 2.32 3. .08 3.00 2.68 2.80 2.64 2.88 2.98 3.32 3.31 3.
the rate is not uniform during the year. are coarsegrained. This method allows transposition of data from one watershed to another because the measured annual sediment accumulation of a reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment delivery per unit area of its watershed. If sediment deposits are periodically above water. so the suspended materials are carried out with the water before settling can occur. Deposits produced from the suspended load are fine-grained. (For a discussion of the factors upon which this adjustment is based.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. because of variations in rainfall. however. If density currents are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet determined. sufficient storage space must be provided in the design of the reservoir to compensate for depletion by silting during a reasonable economic lifetime. with an average weight of about 30 lb/ft3. If this adjusted figure is to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin. This procedure reduces new deposits by almost 30% after each storm. Sediment production and its transportation to reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevented at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits.2 Prediction of SedimentDelivery Rate Two methods of approach are available for predicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. their density increases and the volume ratios given above for continued submergence no longer apply. reducing sediment production to less than that normally found under virgin conditions. Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir. The deposits of silt that form in a storage reservoir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta deposits. . nature may be economically improved at times through a program of erosion control. Redemption of reservoir capacity lost through silting is almost always economically unfeasible because of the wide distribution of deposits in a reservoir and the large quantity present. with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft3.39. is through loss of storage by deposition of silt. These currents are stable.71 Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied shortly after a storm. 21. However. One approach depends on historical records of the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely empirical. once formed. By this method. The most practicable means of avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent formation of permanent deposits by taking advantage of density currents and to control rate of sediment production from eroding areas. both involve predicting the rate of sediment delivery. formed from the bed load. When neither can be done.35. The most common manner of destruction. The greater part of the annual suspended silt load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short time. All rights reserved. such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and loss of the dam by earthquake.Water Resources Engineering s 21. overtopping. The resulting volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss through sluice gates or over the spillway and is then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of drainage area. and often extend to the reservoir outlet. but it should average the computed annual amount over the life of the project. Inc. This venting operation can extend the life of a reservoir by many years. The stream runs comparatively clear during the remainder of the year. to give a figure that could reasonably be expected during a year of average rainfall. because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level. Of course. the silting records of a reservoir may be used to predict either the silting rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a similar area. Storage reservoirs used for water supply or power generation purposes. Venting of much of the annual suspended silt load is feasible through the use of density currents. on the other hand. see Art. normally retain any inflow long enough for settlement of all suspended matter to occur. Click here to view. appropriate gates can be opened and much of the fine sediment entering a storage reservoir can be vented before it has time to form permanent deposits. landslide. or failure of materials. The annual silt accumulation in a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed deltas and taking depth soundings. adjustments should be made to account for both soil cover and rainfall differences between the basins. Their discharges are regulated to allow generation of power or to produce a uniform flow downstream with no thought to the venting of silt-laden storm flows. They constitute about one-sixth of the total weight of sediment delivered but account for about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a storage reservoir because of their low density. 21. This silt-delivery figure is further adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions. or from year to year.
about 80% of the volume of all sediment is produced by streambank erosion.35.1). 21. Numerous formulas have been developed to represent the condition of flow involved in transportation of suspended sediment. This size range includes particles of coarse sand. lb/s Dg = effective grain diameter.124) where Gb = total bed load.21. An accepted formula for the quantity of sediment transported as bed load is the Schoklitsch formula: (21. Therefore. Constant erosion of the streambanks keeps the streambed well supplied with the coarse silt that travels as bed load. The difference between the amount of silt produced and that delivered increases as the size of the drainage area increases because of the increased chance that the silt will be deposited before it reaches the reservoir. Click here to view. this silt comes from land-surface erosion. which generally occurs only during a storm. ft qo = critical discharge. gravel.00532/S4/3)Dg An approximate solution for bed load by the Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining or assuming mean values of slope. Therefore. But for the most part. the remaining 20% is produced by landsurface erosion. Frequently.0 ft/mi.124) if it is necessary to guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of carefully collected field data. These formulas express the degree of turbulent energy involved in suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. if a silt-delivery measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a basin of different size. It is obvious that considerable error could result from the use of Eq. ft3/s per ft of river width = (0. in S = slope of energy gradient Qi = total instantaneous discharge. however. The fine silt that travels in suspension is produced in small amounts by streambank erosion. ft3/s b = width of river. According to Witzig. A mean grain size of 0. The total quantity of sediment in suspension is not necessarily related directly to discharge at all times. discharge. and a single grain size representative of the bed-load sediment. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling along the bed of the stream. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The size of grains moving on the bed of a river depends on velocity of flow. Therefore. this shortcut can give results of sufficient accuracy. The formulas require a number of empirical constants but are based on a sound physical and rational foun- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . and boulders. if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more thorough investigations. which varies with both slope and discharge. Inc. Some of the finer bedload particles are moved in a series of steps or jumps representing a transition between transportation as bed load and suspended load. The information for this adjustment can come only from field reconnaissance of the two areas to determine differences that might account for a variation in deposition of silt along the water courses. All rights reserved. The second general method of calculating sediment-delivery rate involves determining the rate of sediment transport as a function of stream discharge and density of suspended silt.72 s Section Twenty-One Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not give total silt production for an area because part of the silt produced in a basin is deposited on floodplains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir. measurement of the sediment load for a given discharge does not necessarily indicate the amount that may be carried by an equal discharge at another time. The total quantity of sediment carried by a river is assumed transported either as suspended load or as bed load (Art.04 in in diameter (about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope of about 1. The division is based on particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well. The quantity of bed load is considered a constant function of the discharge because the sediment supply for the bed-load forces is always available in all but lined channels. The total sediment inflow for the year is then computed from these relationships and the recorded streamdischarge data. The bed load consists of the silt particles too large to be held in suspension. an adjustment should be made to account for this discrepancy as well. the mean grain size changes as the flow increases during a storm or as the river changes slope along its course. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes. (21. The quantity is affected by seasonal variations in the supply and source of fine sediment and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the watershed.
The first type is a recording or automatic gage. All rights reserved. of water and its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. and pressure. which are of two types. Weather Bureau is 24 h. or year. (W. These charts summarize the various meteorological factors.37 Precipitation The primary concern with precipitation in water resources engineering is forecasting it. the accumulated silt in this area would detract from the added storage that might otherwise have been obtained. The standard observation time for nonrecording gages for the U. “Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. from which evaporation restarts the cycle. evaporation. by ink pen and revolving drum. groundwater flow. Inc. planted on the flats adjacent to the normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir. lakes. or desilting basins above a reservoir should be planned with future development in mind. New York. This necessitates development of a correction factor to balance out the rainfall variation caused by various topographical features in the watershed. recharges groundwater. on or near the land surface. Einstein.S. A major concern is the cir- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. It continually records.” U. contour plowing. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes 21. their chemical and physical properties. temperature. infiltrates into the soil. infiltration. the actual quantity of silt in suspension at a given depth.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and then flows into the oceans and lakes. if the dam is raised at a later date. Graf. or a combination of the two. check-dam construction. Thus hydrology deals with precipitation. reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that inundate these areas. Hydrology Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth. Current data. day. Department of Agriculture. Most methods used in runoff determinations are based on the assumption that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage basin. The means for doing so are based on either current or past data. and the stream velocity.) An approximate determination of suspended load may be made without using these complicated formulas. Weather Bureau. in the form of synoptic weather charts. They consist of soil conservation measures such as reforestation.73 dation. or digital microchip technology. and stream flow 21. and other sources is carried over the earth and precipitated as rain or snow. the variation in rainfall intensity as well as the total rainfall volume. water evaporation from oceans. . including their relation to living things. runoff. Use of vegetation screens.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. One phase of reforestation that may be applied near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens. Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall records for a standard period. The second type is a nonrecording gage. and their reaction with their environment. The precipitation forms runoff on the land. through whose interaction precipitation is produced. Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages.36 Erosion Control The various methods used in erosion control are collectively called upstream engineering. such as wind. Corrections must be made to rain-gage records to account for the mean precipitation over the entire drainage basin. discharges into streams. For instance. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. (21-124). In this cycle.S. This stilling action causes extensive deposition to occur before the silt reaches the main cavity of the reservoir. The total weight of material annually moved by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight of material transported as bed load during the year as computed from Eq. Such screens. They require information as to the sediment composition by grain size. “The Bed-Load Function for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel Flows. such as an hour. circulation. Also included are measures for proper treatment of high embankments and cuts and stabilization of streambanks by planting or by revetment construction. The weight of suspended sediment transported by a river in an average year normally equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed load. H. They are the major source of data for determination of the recurrence interval for storms of a definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms in a definite recurrence interval. and distribution. A. planting of burned-over areas. (See H. their occurrence. Click here to view. and regulation of crop and grazing practices. rivers. for hourly rainfall rates when only daily volumes are given. debris barriers.) culation. and for errors arising out of the location of the gage. are published daily by the U.S. it measures only the total rain volume that fell during the period between observations.
in air based on monthly mean air temperature and relative humidity at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or based on information obtained about 30 ft above the water surface for large bodies of deep water w = monthly mean wind velocity.125) (21. Inc. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as the design storm for major hydraulic structures to serve the basin when the rainfall records are short and extrapolation to the desired design-storm frequency could be grossly inaccurate. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. called interception. In transpiration. The Meyer equation [Eq. is a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain evaporates and never reaches the ground. especially if the reservoir is shallow. Evapotranspiration. The rate of evaporation is dependent on the vapor-pressure gradient between the water surface and the air above it. corresponding to monthly mean air temperature observed at nearby stations for small bodies of shallow water or corresponding to water temperature instead of air temperature for large bodies of deep water ea = actual vapor pressure. and it increases as wind velocity increases. in 30-day month C = empirical coefficient. . and other vegetation surfaces. mi/h at about 30 ft above ground ψ = wind factor 21. Interception may be significant for small-intensity storms occurring with little or no wind over an area with heavy vegetation growth.74 s Section Twenty-One that are too small. ground. while another portion may be caught on leaves. The two most important factors are wind and air-mass moisture content. A portion may evaporate as it falls.21. This phenomenon. An idea of the magnitude of the probable maximum precipitation can also be obtained by transposing the greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorologically homogeneous region. (21. The magnitude of probable maximum precipitation is based on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum values of the meteorological factors that combine to form precipitation.38 Evaporation and Transpiration These are processes by which moisture is returned to the atmosphere.125)]. Care must be exercised in placement of rain gages to ensure accuracy. tropical and subtropical regions.” McGraw-Hill. see D. This relation is known as Dalton’s law. This error is caused by the movement of wind around the gage. free-water surface evaporation is usually the most important. The probable maximum precipitation is the greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage basin. in of mercury. is one of many evaporation formulas and is popular for making evaporation-rate calculations. In evaporation. refers to the total evaporation from all sources such as free water. Evaporation may occur from free-water. commonly termed consumptive use. branches.126) where E = evaporation rate. equal to 15 for small. This “windage” error is much more pronounced when the rain gage is near the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstructions. plants give off water vapor during synthesis of plant tissue. New York. on a long-term basis. precipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff. shallow pools and 11 for large. Evaporation is a direct function of the wind and temperature and an inverse function of atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids in the water. plant. R. and is located in a semiarid or arid region.. Maidment. water changes from liquid to gaseous form. in of mercury. (21. has a relatively large surface area. For methods for determining the probable maximum precipitation. All rights reserved. Inc. and plantleaf surfaces. or ground surfaces. Evapotranspiration is important because. It must be considered in the design of a reservoir. On an annual basis. Click here to view. developed from Dalton’s law. Not all rain reaches the ground. the consumptive use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35 in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. deep reservoirs ew = saturation vapor pressure. Of the three. “Handbook of Hydrology.
Hexadeconal. depending on the geographical region. snow. Groundwater flow is responsible for the dry-weather flow of streams and remains practically constant during a storm. Click here to view. perhaps several years. All rights reserved. New York.39 Runoff This is the residual precipitation remaining after interception and evapotranspiration losses have been deducted. Its pan coefficient is commonly taken as 0. natural or manmade. The basis for this classification is travel time rather than path. Moving laterally. is in widespread use. time distribution. “Handbook of Hydrology. whereas base flow from the storm may not leave the basin for months or even years. This pan is a standard size and is located on the ground near the body of water whose evaporation is to be determined. or cetyl alcohol. runoff may be surface. dew). Precipitation—form (rain. tropical. Groundwater flow. Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually measured with an evaporation pan. . intensity. wind tends to push the film to the shore. That portion of the precipitation which contributes entirely to surface runoff is called excess precipitation. Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of minor importance. and storm seepage. whereas excess rain is only surface flow. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in deep. or excess rain. effective rain includes subsurface flow. hail. It is the flow of the main groundwater body and requires long periods.. and subtropical regions having high water tables and where it pertains to the determination of initial soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis. subsurface storm flow. it may continue underground until it reaches a channel or returns to the surface and continues as overland flow. Maidment. Subsurface flow. duration. Since hexadeconal is removed by wind. is that flow supplied by deep percolation. Commonly. R. Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to flood-control engineers.60 and 0. it combines with the other runoff components in the channel to form total runoff. On large reservoirs. Thus. it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a channel during or shortly after a storm. infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining the main groundwater body. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. A pan coefficient is then applied to the measured pan evaporation to get the reservoir evaporation. where it continues as channel or stream flow.80. Classified by the path taken to a channel. except in arid. It appears in surface channels. The time for subsurface flow to reach a channel depends on the geology of the area. Runoff is supplied by precipitation. or groundwater runoff. although it may vary between 0. Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the water surface. The standard evaporation pan of the National Weather Service. birds. (D. or effective rain if the precipitation is rain. whose flow is perennial or intermittent. also known as interflow. Inc. Direct runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a storm. subsurface runoff. Subsurface flow may be the major portion of total runoff for moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface flow under those conditions is reduced by unusually high evaporation and infiltration. The depth of water in this pan is checked periodically and corrections made for factors other than evaporation that may have raised or lowered the water surface. Climatic characteristics a. subsurface. After joining stream flow. frost. and biologic attrition. The number of factors is an indication of the complexity of accurately determining runoff: 1. Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on either humans or wildlife. to reach a channel. direct runoff and base flow are the only two divisions of runoff used. The portion of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct runoff is called effective precipitation.) Surface flow moves across the land as overland flow until it reaches a channel. the mean annual evaporation from Lake Mead is 6 ft. called a Class A Level Pan.70.Water Resources Engineering s 21. insects.75 As an example of the evaporation that may occur from a large reservoir. Annual evaporation from the pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to 120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Arizona borders. The two major characteristics that affect runoff are climatic and drainage-basin factors. it must be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. aquatic life. In practice. Groundwater flow is primarily the concern of water-supply engineers. is one such film that has been effective on small reservoirs where there is little wind. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.” McGraw-Hill. Inc. or groundwater flow.
Wind—velocity.S. shape. Atmospheric pressure f. frozen ground during storms.S. recurrence interval. Other agencies that collect and publish streamflow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers. direction. those of the Federal government being the largest and most important. yearly flow volume. lakes and other bodies of water. each part is for an area whose boundaries coincide with natural-drainage features. as shown in Fig. channels (size. Less obvious sources of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by district courts. extremes during precipitation c. drainage net. Geological Survey. The majority of hydrologic data is collected and published by government agencies. slope. The principal source of runoff data is the Water Supply Papers of the U. Click here to view. extremes of flow. Humidity e. land use and cover. orientation. Inc.S. the detail required in the final answer. permeability. These data are compiled and presented in monthly and yearly summaries in the Bureau’s “Climatological Data.S.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United States for stream-flow records published in “Water Supply Papers. Geological Survey. Also included in the Papers are lists of reports covering unusually large floods and records of discharge collected by agencies other than the U. and Weather Bureau. Temperature—variation. 21. as the first step in design of a hydraulic project cannot be overemphasized.” U. Agricultural Research Service. both published and unpublished. duration d. TVA. 21.41 Methods for Runoff Determinations The method selected to determine runoff depends on its applicability to the area of concern. The Water Supply Papers are published yearly in 14 parts. special-interest items.70. . which may be either precipitation or stream flow.76 s Section Twenty-One seasonal distribution. are published in Weather Bureau technical papers. The principal source of precipitation data is the U. Geological Survey. Topographic—size. and the accuracy desired. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. slope. areal distribution. and various state and local agencies. length) b. artificial drainage. the quantity and type of data available. shape of cross section. Solar radiation 2.40 Sources of Hydrologic Data The importance of exhausting all possible sources of hydrologic data. and completeness of the hydrologic records. stratification Fig. These papers contain records of daily flow. antecedent precipitation. county records of water-right filings and State Engineer permits. International Boundary Commission. the U.21.” In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries. such as rainfall intensity for various durations and recurrence intervals. direction of storm movement b. An example of the variation of detail in the final result may be Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Its extensive system of gages supplies complete precipitation data as well as all other types of hydrologic data. detail. Drainage-basin characteristics a. mean flow. snow storage. Applicability depends on the characteristics of the particular area and the assumptions from which the method was developed. roughness.S. general location. Weather Bureau. and annual reports of various interstate-compact commissions. Other sources are Water Bulletins of the International Boundary Commission. The Corps of Engineers publishes data on floods in which loss of life and extensive property damage occurred. Geologic—soil type. Quantity and type of data available refer to the length. soil moisture. All rights reserved. groundwater formations. 21. elevation. 21. and statisti- cal data pertaining to the entire record.
127) where Q = peak discharge.128) 21. Since these assumptions apply reasonably well for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics. A minor structure is one of low cost and of relatively minor importance and presents small downstream damage potential. Careful selection of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak runoff consistent with project significance. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for all storms on a given watershed. Its simplicity and ease of application have resulted in its being used for more complex urban systems and rural areas where the assumptions are not so applicable.or 100-year-frequency storm. the rational formula has gained widespread use in the design of drainage systems for these areas. and the intensity of rainfall decreases as its duration increases. “Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for the Design of Drainage Structures in Small Drainage Basins. 3. Typical examples are small highway and railroad culverts and low-capacity storm drains. 4. and large downstream damage potential. use of a more complicated formula is not justified because the time and money spent to obtain the necessary data would not be warranted for minor hydraulic structures. Several methods yield only peak discharge. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as the drainage area increases. great importance.41. The values of C in Table 21. All rights reserved. the rainfall intensity I may be determined from any of a number of formulas or from a statistical analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.Water Resources Engineering s 21. .77 found in the determination of flood runoff. Major hydraulic structures are characterized by their high cost. After selection of the design-storm frequency of occurrence. and highcapacity storm drains and flood-control channels. Click here to view. One method pertains to minor hydraulic structures. for example. T. the Los Angeles County Flood Control District gives runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of concentration. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form (21. Other similar refinements are possible if the resources are available. others give the complete hydrograph. The frequency of occurrence of the peak discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity from which it was calculated. 5. ft3/s C = runoff coefficient = percentage of rain that appears as direct runoff I = rainfall intensity. Although these and similar criticisms are valid. Inc.” University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin 426. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. in/h A = drainage area. a 50. Chow. 2. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rainfall is equal to or greater than the time of concentration. The rational formula is criticized for expressing runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall minus losses and for combining all the complex factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.1 Method for Determining Runoff for Minor Hydraulic Structures The most common means for determining runoff for minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula (21. acres The assumptions inherent in the rational formula are: 1. The methods that follow are a convenient means for solving typical runoff problems encountered in water resources engineering.15 for urban areas are commonly recommended design values (V. the second to major hydraulic structures. Numerous refinements have been developed for the runoff coefficient. The time of concentration is commonly defined as the time required for water to flow from the most distant point of a drainage basin to the point of flow measurement. deep culverts under vital highways and railways. Typical examples of major hydraulic structures are large reservoirs. 1962). The maximum rate of runoff from a specific rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or greater than the time of concentration is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Accuracy is limited by the cost of performing analyses and assumptions made in the development of a method. As an example.
50 – 0. 7% Runoff Coefficient C 0. 21. cemeteries Playgrounds Railroad-yard areas Unimproved areas Streets: Asphaltic Concrete Brick Drives and walks Roofs Lawns: Sandy soil.70 0.85 0.15 0. (21. and the flow time in conduits.21. detached Multiunits.40 0.50 – 0.90 0. 2–7% Heavy soil. All rights reserved. 7% Heavy soil.” McGraw-Hill.15 and determine the peak discharge from Eq. “Handbook of Hydrology. Then select the runoff coefficient from Table 21. factor.60 0.10 – 0. The time of concentration Tc at any point in a drainage system is the sum of the overland flow time.70 – 0.22 0. Sherman.50 – 0.10 0. streets.. steep.60 – 0.50 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. gutters.80 0. 2% Sandy soil.35 0. or any equivalent method. Since the rational formula assumes a constant uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over the entire area. the area A must be selected so that this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.128) or Eq.25 – 0. avg.30 – 0. years duration of storm. (21.95 0.17 0.70 0.13 – 0.95 0. steep. Inc.41.129) gives the average maximum precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.75 0.25 0. (See D. widely accept- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.40 0.30 0. (21.78 s Section Twenty-One where I = = rainfall intensity.75 – 0. attached Suburban Apartment dwelling areas Industrial: Light areas Heavy areas Parks.25 – 0. flat. New York.80 – 0. 2% Heavy soil. 21. Click here to view.16).20 0. min time of concentration Fig.60 – 0.129) Table 21. 2–7% Sandy soil. flat.71 Regions of the United States for use with the Steel formula.15 – 0.35 where K and b are dependent on the storm frequency and region of the United States (Fig. coefficient. 21.95 0.95 0.70 – 0.) The flow time in gutters. K. Equation (21.10 – 0. ditches. avg.89)] . The time of concentration is usually expressed in minutes. and exponents depending on conditions that affect rainfall intensity frequency of occurrence of rainfall. . n.20 – 0. calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from either Eq. Adhering to this assumption may necessitate subdividing the drainage area. in/h respectively.71 and Table 21.127). Maidment.05 – 0. is a convenient. and conduits can be determined from a calculation of the average velocity using the Manning equation [Eq.85 0. R.129).18 – 0. and n1 F t = = = Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the Steel formula: (21.10 – 0. pioneered in 1932 by LeRoy K.75 – 0. After determining the time of concentration. or ditches. the flow time in streets.40 – 0. Inc. Overland flow time may be determined from any number of formulas developed for the purpose.2 Method for Determining Runoff for Major Hydraulic Structures The unit-hydrograph method.70 – 0.15 Common Runoff Coefficients Type of Drainage Area Business: Downtown areas Neighborhood areas Residential: Single-family areas Multiunits.20 – 0. b. (21.
) It permits calculation of the complete runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit hydrograph has been established for the particular area of concern. The significant part of the definition is not the volume but the constancy of intensity. Click here to view.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs of a common base time are directly proportional to the total amount of direct runoff represented Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2. 108. .16 Coefficients for Steel Formula Frequency.” Engineering News-Record. Inc. This requires that a storm of short duration. (Leroy K. Thus. All rights reserved. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed over the drainage basin. The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to determining a set of factors for a specific drainage basin. Assumptions made in the development of the unit-hydrograph theory are: 1. JanuaryJune 1932. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a unit storm may have a 2-in/h effective intensity lasting 1/2 h or a 0. If the watershed is very large. 501-505. This needs no clarification except that the base of a hydrograph. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or a specified period of time. “Streamflow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method. usually 1 acre). termed a unit period. A unit storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for its duration. This specifies that the drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to be essentially constant over the entire area. Coefficients years 2 4 10 25 50 100 K b K b K b K b K b K b Region 1 206 30 247 29 300 36 327 33 315 28 367 33 2 140 21 190 25 230 29 260 32 350 38 375 36 3 106 17 131 19 170 23 230 30 250 27 290 31 4 70 13 97 16 111 16 170 27 187 24 220 28 5 70 16 81 13 111 17 130 17 187 25 240 29 6 68 14 75 12 122 23 155 26 160 21 210 26 7 32 11 48 12 60 13 67 10 65 8 77 10 ed procedure for determining runoff for major hydraulic structures. pp. The method is summarized by the formula (21. is largely arbitrary since it depends on the method of base-flow separation. The unit hydrograph is much quicker. the unit-hydrograph theory is then applied to each subarea. termed a unit storm. but corrections for highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made. the time of storm runoff. that is. subdivision may be required.79 Table 21. and more accurate than any such set of factors. Adjustments can be made within unithydrograph theory for situations where the runoff volume is different from 1 in. Sherman. be used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph. vol. The unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and stream-flow data for a particular storm or from stream-flow data alone. and a runoff volume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit area.130) The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rainfall and runoff. The set consists of one factor for each variable that affects runoff. 4.2-in/h effective intensity lasting 5 h. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is constant for any effective rainfall of unit duration. easier. It may be thought of as an integral of the many complex factors that affect runoff. 3.
80 s Section Twenty-One by each hydrograph. Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit storm of specific duration.21. . which is of fixed intensity and duration.73). 21. Manmade alterations and stream-flow conditions can be accounted for much more easily. This requires the recalculation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit Fig. All rights reserved. which illustrates the percentages of total runoff that occur during successive unit periods. Usually.72.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph (b) for any storm. the characteristics of the drainage basin must be fixed or specified. Click here to view. Inc. 21. it may be used only for storms divided into unit periods of that length. the runoff may be calculated by superimposing that number of unit hydrographs. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The ordinate for each unit period is the mean value of runoff for that period. Because this applies with varying degrees of accuracy to watersheds. 5. the unit hydrograph is frequently expressed in histogram form as a distribution graph (Fig. Daily and weekly variations in initial soil moisture are probably the greatest source of error in this method since they are largely unknown. It enables calculation of the runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration from a unit storm. Illustrated in Fig. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given period of rainfall reflects all the combined physical characteristics of the basin (commonly referred to as the principle of time invariance). This assumption implies that the characteristics of the drainage basin have not changed since the unit hydrograph was derived. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. A given storm may be resolved into a number of unit storms. For ease of manipulation. this is basically the principle of superposition or proportionality. the unit period must be different from that for which the unit hydrograph was derived. Then. because of storm variations.
Those formations from which extractions cannot be made economically are called aquicludes. during heavy storms. Also. 21. K.) Fig. 447–454). pt. I. This loss.. Aquifers are groundwater formations capable of furnishing an economical water supply. (See D. This is accomplished by offsetting two S hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the desired unit period (Fig..131) period. 21. R.81 21. (R. is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. Click here to view. .42 Groundwater Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata within a zone of saturation.74 Distribution percentages are determined from an offset S hydrograph. vol. It is a nonlinear function of volumetric soil water content and varies with soil texture. It is calculated by cumulatively plotting the distribution percentages that make up the distribution graph.” McGraw-Hill. This method was developed by Franklin F. Linsley et al.” 3rd ed.Water Resources Engineering s 21. In the application of the unit-hydrograph method. those from various basins may be compared to obtain an idea of the variations that might exist when transposing data from one basin to another. perpendicular to direction of flow. The rate of movement of groundwater is given by Darcy’s law: (21.74). Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one basin to another similar basin may be made by correlating their respective shape and slope factors.) where Q = flow rate. Where groundwater is to be used as a water-supply source. Snyder (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the extent of the groundwater basin and the rate at which continuing extractions may be made should be determined.. pp. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. ft/day or m/day I = hydraulic gradient. Permeability indicates the ease with which water moves through a soil and determines whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or aquiclude. The infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests. New York. All rights reserved.73 Distribution graph represents a unit hydrograph as a histogram. It supplies about 20% of the United States water demand. Many methods are available for determining hydraulic conductivity. “Handbook of Hydrology. 19. An S hydrograph is a representation of the cumulative percentages of runoff that occur during a storm which has a continuous constant rainfall. ft/ft or m/m A = cross-sectional area. ft2 or m2 Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability of a soil to transmit water. McGraw-Hill. Inc. Inc. since S hydrographs are a characteristic of a drainage basin. The distribution percentages for the new unit hydrograph are determined by taking the difference between mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs and dividing by the new unit period. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. a loss rate must be established to determine effective rain. Inc.. New York. “Hydrology for Engineers. Fig. 21. Maidment.
is a confined or artesian aquifer. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. recycling. All alternative plans must recognize all legal and jurisdictional constraints. These management plans should consider variations in the quantity of extractions. Quantity management consists of effective control over extractions and replenishment. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (Safe yield is the magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer that can continue indefinitely without bringing some undesirable result. quantity. (Indirect water-quality use costs are those indirect costs incurred by water distributors and consumers as a result of using water of different qualities. cost of pumping groundwater at the various operational levels considered. safe yield applies only to a specific set of conditions based largely on judgment as to what is desirable. and location of artificial replenishment. present and future water demands should be determined. Groundwater Management s With increasing use being made of groundwater resources. If a well is drilled into an artesian aquifer.) Economic evaluation of alternative plans should consider cost of water-supply facilities. because of impermeable layers above and below it. water softening costs. An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. Operations and economic studies are normally conducted by superimposing present and future conditions in each alternative plan on historical hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base period. quantity. this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the atmosphere. rather than a change in volume. where extractions cause a decrease in the elevation of the groundwater table. groundwater levels. Following the preceding preliminary work. cost of wastewater-disposal facilities. and methods of wastewater disposal. need for excessive pumping lifts.21.) In conjunction with the hydrologic study. alternative management plans should be formulated. An aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pressure. Second is a qualitative and quantitative hydrologic study of both surface water and groundwaters to determine historical surpluses and deficiencies. Use of computers and the development of a mathematical model for the groundwater basin are almost essential because of the number of repetitive calculations involved. Inc. wastewaters. (A base period is a period of time. and other waters that replenish the groundwater basin. These costs include increased soap costs. and quality of water supply. All rights reserved. among others. Click here to view.82 s Section Twenty-One Transmissibility is another index for the rate of groundwater movement and equals the product of hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the aquifer. and indirect water-quality use costs. First is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of the aquifers. A detailed water-quality study should be made not only of the groundwater within the basin but also of all surface waters. source. Extractions in excess of the safe yield are termed overdrafts. . Regardless of how it is defined. The final step is the operational-economic evaluation of the alternatives and the selection of a recommended groundwater management plan. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extractions from it cause a decrease in pressure. effective groundwater management is an absolute necessity. and overdraft. Adequate management should include not only quantity but quality. Several steps or investigations are necessary for developing an effective management program. the water in this well will rise to a height corresponding to the hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer.) Operational studies should determine the most efficient manner of joint operation of surface and groundwater systems (conjunctive use). and costs associated with the more rapid deterioration of plumbing and waterworks equipment—all of which increase as the hardness and salinity of the water increase. or other causes. safe yield. or infringement on the water rights of others are examples of undesirable results that could define safe yield. usually a number of years. This is in contrast to a free aquifer. specifically chosen for detailed hydrologic analysis because conditions of water supply and climate during the period are equivalent to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate data for such hydrologic analysis are available. quality. Deteriorating water quality. Quality management consists of effective control over groundwater pollution resulting from waste disposal. Frequently. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity conditions should be identified. poor-quality replenishment waters. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for the soil. cost of replenishment water.
institutional. K.43 Water Consumption The size of a proposed water-supply project is usually based on an average annual per capita consumption rate. Several mathematical methods are available for use in predicting populations of cities. . surface-water delivery facilities. Domestic use consists of water furnished to houses. transmission. bathing. 40. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. storage. All rights reserved. Some methods commonly used are arithmetical increase. land speculation. and age of the city. however. McGraw-Hill Book Company. (“Ground Water Management. forecasts of population for the design period are of the greatest importance and must be made with care to ensure that components for the project are of adequate size. The total water supply of a city is usually distributed among the following four major classes of consumers: domestic. distribution. Therefore. fire-fighting. and lawn-sprinkling purposes. or other unforeseen emergency.) to be consumed by the community since the engineer must design adequately sized components of the water-supply system. “Groundwater Engineering. graphical comparison with other cities. sanitary.” A. flexible enough to accommodate different growth rates. Integration of the above data with the computer model of the groundwater basin is an efficient method of evaluating the groundwater management scheme. The agency should have adequate powers to control or cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies groundwater recharge sites.. the most favorable management scheme should be selected as the recommended plan. pumping. “Hydraulics of Ground Water. 1987. This monitoring network may consist of selected wells where groundwater levels and chemical characteristics are measured and certain surface-water sampling locations where both quantitative and qualitative factors are measured. 21. wastewater disposed. A primary concern of the engineer is estimation of the quantity of potable water Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and environmental factors. and generally acceptable to the water and wastewater agencies operating in the basin. To assure continuous service to the consumer for fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an earthquake. Great care and judgment must be exercised in population prediction since many factors.” Manual and Report on Engineering Practice. and treatment works. Water Supply A waterworks system is created or expanded to supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate pressure from the supply source to consumers for domestic. Click here to view. irrigation. is a very difficult task. the larger the percentage of the total cost chargeable to dependable fire flow. Hydrology for Engineers. Estimation of future population. J. I. and wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. may drastically alter mathematical estimates.” R. fire.” N. Water-supply facilities consist of collection. The program should also include quantitative evaluation of extractions. washing.Water Resources Engineering s 21. An operating agency should be designated or formed to implement the recommended plan. percentage increase. A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for fighting fires considerably increases capital expenditures for system construction. and natural and artificial replenishment. Inc. motels. American Society of Civil Engineers. Grigg. financially feasible. commercial. Domestic use accounts for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per day) of total water consumption in an average city.” 3rd ed. such as industrial development. and sanitary purposes. water used. industrial. industrial. apartments. geographical boundaries. legal. amount and location of groundwater extractions.. The smaller the system. This selection should be based not only on economic and operational considerations but on social. flood. culinary. “Water Resources Planning. Bear. careful consideration must be given to the selection of standby equipment and alternative supplies of water. decreasing percentage increase. Maximum protection must be given to power sources and pumps that must be available to operate continuously during emergency conditions. no. Kashef. and public. and the ratio method of comparing a community with a state or country of which the community is a part. The plan should be capable of being readily implemented. and hotels for drinking. Linsley et al. The operating agency should develop a comprehensive monitoring network and a data collection and evaluation program to determine the effectiveness of the management plan and to implement any changes in the plan deemed necessary.83 Upon completion of the operational and economic studies. S. New York.
Normally. Usually the larger-sized cities have a high degree of industrialization and show a correspondingly greater percentage of total consumption as industrial water. air conditioning. 150 gal per capita per day for Baltimore. State of California Office of Planning and Research. Examples of divergent average daily demand rates for various United States cities are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago. The national demand-rate data. Metering water reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to 25% because of the usual increase in total cost of consumers if they continue to use water at the unmetered rate. it may control the design of the facilities. valves. and faucets. Gal per capita per day 175 280 420 % of avg annual rate 100 160 240 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Demand rates vary with time of day. High water pressures increase demand because of greater losses at leaking mains. No direct relationship exists between the amount of industrial water used and the population of the community. Public use of water for parks. including some very high and very low rates due to variations in climatic conditions. degree of industrialization. meter malfunctions. Demand for water is related to water-service meters. The total quantity of water used for fire fighting may not be large. as presented in Table 21. All rights reserved.” 1979. but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of water used per capita per day is normally charged to industrial usage. standard of living. presents Table 21. Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include that lost because of leakage in mains. cooling. Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist mainly of heat exchange. Cold weather sometimes increases consumption because water is allowed to run to prevent pipes from freezing. Calif. Public Health Service Report. and time of day.17. quality. The “California Water Atlas.17 is a comparison between water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles and a national average calculated from data in a U. Fire demands are usually included in this class of water use. especially if portions of the city are unsewered. but because of the high rate at which it is required. and air conditioning purposes. pressure. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be charged to waste and miscellaneous uses. influence the demand rate for water. the demand for it decreases. Demand for water usually increases with an improvement in quality. Small cities frequently have a low per capita demand for water. Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of water consumption because of sprinkling and air conditioning. Commercial use of water amounts to about 10 to 30% of total consumption. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. mainly because of the lack of large industries. janitorial. Mo. type of service (metered or unmetered). and unauthorized uses. and quality of the water.S.84 s Section Twenty-One Commercial water is used in stores and office buildings for sanitary. and cleaning. are the average of a range of values. size of the city. Inc. cost. lawn sprinkling. public buildings. About 5 to 10% of all water used is for public uses. degree of industrialization.21. Table 21. Water Demand Rate s Many factors. and year. and pressure. and 135 gal per capita per day for Kansas City.17 Water-Demand Rates National avg Gal per capita per day Avg day Max day Max h 160 265 400 % of avg annual rate 100 165 250 Los Angeles. Fluctuations in demand are greater in small cities. month. reservoir evaporation. 210 gal per capita per day for Denver. High standards of living increase water demand and fluctuations in rate of use. Click here to view. . A good estimate of the potential industrial water demand can be made by relating demand to the percent of land zoned for industrial use. such as the climate. cost. and streets contributes to the total amount of water consumed per capita. Presence of industries usually increases the total per capita use of water but decreases the demand fluctuation. if the cost of water increases.
All rights reserved. The difference is due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprinkling in Los Angeles.4 3.000 55.000 6. ft* Direct streams Engine streams 100. thousands The required fire flows computed from this formula are listed in Table 21. and Fire Reserve Storage* Reserve storage.0 3.000 1. inland. In selection of a source of supply. fire flow should be added to the average consumption for the maximum day.0 1.4 17. however.000 85. MG† 0. The total quantity of water used for fighting fires is normally quite small. and streams.000 8. h 4 6 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.500 2.000 40.000 28.000 12. is probably the most important because almost any source could be used if consumers are willing to pay a high enough price.44 Water-Supply Sources The major sources of a water supply are surface water and groundwater.000 4.000 110.000 1.18 Required Fire Flow. industrialization.000 Population Fire Flow gal/min MGD† 1.000 5. but with rapid population expansion and increased per capita water use associated with a higher standard of living.000 200.8 2.000 85.000 3.000 70.0 7. but the demand rate is high. climate. consideration must be given to desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.85 average monthly demand rates for water use in four coastal and four inland cities for the period 1966 to 1970.5 14.000 17. gal/min P = population.9 4. The criteria are not listed in any special order since they are.6 4. legality. however.000 40.3 0. The fire demand as established by the American Insurance Association is (21. The maximum monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to 141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry. and in some cases. dry climatic conditions is indicated for each location by the ratio of average monthly use to the annual average gallon per capita per day. Hydrant Spacing.6 1. surface sources have included only the commonly occurring natural fresh waters. diversification is essential for reliability.18.000 80. Total dependence on a single source. Cost. Inc. Adequacy of supply requires that the source be large enough to meet the entire water demand. . In some local areas.000 4. as increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing sources.000 40. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.132) where G = fire-demand rate. and so on should be considered and incorporated in demand-rate projections for water systems. When calculating the total flow to be used in design. In the past. quality. to a large extent. interdependent. Moreover.4 2.000 10.000 90. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.2 8.000 40.6 11. the increasing cost of each new supply focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies of wastewater and desalination.000 40. rivers.2 2. † MGD = million gallons per day.000 80. Click here to view. cost.000 120. and politics. valley cities. 21.000 90. the annual demand rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher than those for the coastal cities.8 7.000 100.000 * American Insurance Association.000 40.3 5. such as lakes.2 Avg area served per hydrant in high-value districts. Past water-demand records of both the city being considered and other cities of similar size. In the atlas.8 6.000 40.Water Resources Engineering s 21.3 Duration.000 60.000 48.000 125.000 2. the effect of warm.000 10. MG = million gallons. The source must Table 21. the various factors to be considered are adequacy and reliability. is frequently undesirable.
21.86 s Section Twenty-One
also be capable of meeting demands during power outages and natural or created disasters. The most desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether from surface or groundwater, which flows by gravity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and (4) sources that require both storage and pumping. As demand increases and supplies become overtaxed, conservation practices in everyday use become a valuable management tool. Quality of the source determines both acceptability and cost; it varies considerably between regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be made by examining the source, geology, and culture of the area. Legality of supply is determined by doctrines and principles of water rights, such as appropriation, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropriation right gives the first right priority over later rights: “first in time means first in right.” Riparian right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream or lake to take water from that stream or lake for use on their land. Ownership right gives a landowner possession of everything below and above the land. Legality is especially important for groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of water from one watershed to another. A political problem with water supply exists because political boundaries seldom conform to natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is especially acute in extensive water-importation plans, but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater reclamation and desalination projects. Desalination processes are of two fundamental types: those that extract salt from the water, such as electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that extract water from the salt, such as distillation, freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of the former processes is dependent on the salt concentration. Hence, they are used mainly for brackish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction processes are essentially independent of salinity. These processes are used for seawater conversion. Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desalination plants, which take advantage of the economies realized by enormous facilities, have been proposed, but such plants are feasible only for those large urban areas located on coasts. Transmission and pumping costs make inland use uneconomical. Although desalination may have advantages as a local source, it is not at present a panacea that will irrigate the deserts. Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a water source for direct domestic use is hindered by public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses. Much effort has been expended to solve these problems. But until such time as they are solved, wastewater reclamation will have only limited use for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed water is being used for irrigation in agricultural and landscaping applications. (D. W. Prasifka, “Current Trends in Water-Supply Planning,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.45 Quality Standards for Water
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated that nationwide standards be established to help ensure that the public receives safe water throughout the United States. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975, based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards (Publication no. 956), which were used for control of water quality for interstate carriers. These earlier standards had been widely adopted voluntarily by both public and private utilities and received the immediate endorsement of the American Water Works Association as a minimum standard for all public water supplies in the United States. Similar standards were developed by the World Health Organization as standards for drinking-water quality at international ports (“International Standards for Drinking Water,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland). Heightened concern over our changing environment and its health effect on water supplies was a major cause of the change from voluntary to mandatory water-quality standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contaminant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. The act clearly delineates between health-related quality contaminants and aesthetic-related contaminants by classifying the former as primary and the latter as secondary contaminants.
Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Click here to view.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.87
Primary Standards s Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list tests and maximum contaminant levels required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588, Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material and testing frequency for compliance with the regulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with those states electing to take primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The EPA updates standards periodically. Microbiological Quality s The major danger associated with drinking water is the possibility of its recent contamination by wastewater containing human excrement. Such wastewater may contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases. The organisms that have been most commonly employed as indicators of fecal pollution are Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole. Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results required to meet the MCL for bacteriological quality. When organisms of the coliform group occur in three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions of a single standard sample, or exceed the given values for a standard sample with the membranefilter test, remedial measures should be undertaken until daily samples from the same sampling point show at least two consecutive samples to be of satisfactory quality. The minimum number of samples to be taken from the distribution system and examined each month should be in accordance with the population served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 population, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000 population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For details of methods, see “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. Turbidity s A limit on turbidity has been set as a primary contaminant because high turbidity may interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may
Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Microbiological and Turbidity*
Type of contaminant Microbiological contaminants in all water systems‡ Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† When using the membrane filter test: 1 colony/100 mL for the average of all monthly samples Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20 samples are collected per month Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or more samples are examined per month When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions) Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions per month Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive when less than 20 samples are examined per month Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option) Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † TU = turbidity unit. ‡ Systems using surface water or groundwater.
Turbidity in surface water systems only
21.88 s Section Twenty-One
stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribution system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface water as it enters the distribution system is required, with certain exceptions in systems that practice disinfection and maintain an active residual disinfectant in the system. Chemical Substances s The MCL for inorganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table 21.20. Testing for these substances to determine compliance must be performed yearly for community water systems utilizing surface-water sources and every 3 years for systems using groundwater. Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years. If the routine test results indicate that the level of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, additional check samples are required. For the inorganic and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to the state within 7 days and three additional samples are taken at the same sampling point within 1 month. If the average value of the original and three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is reported to the state within 48 h, the public is notified, and then a monitoring frequency designated by the state should continue until the MCL has not been exceeded in two successive samples or until a monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a variance, exemption, or enforcement action.
Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water Standards—Chemicals and Radioactivity* Type of contaminant Inorganic chemicals in all water systems‡ Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver Nitrate (as N) Organic chemicals in surface water systems only Endrin Lindane Methoxychlor Toxaphene 2, 4-D 2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems‡ Gross alpha Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for populations of 100,000 or more Gross Beta Tritium Strontium-90 Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)† 0.05 1 0.010 0.05 0.05 0.002 0.01 0.05 10 mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L mg / L
0.0002mg / L 0.004 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.005 mg / L 0.1 mg / L 0.01 mg / L 15 pCi / L 5 pCi / L
50 pCi / L 20,000 pCi / L 8 pCi / L
* From “Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems,” American Water Works Association, 1979. † mg / L = milligrams per liter; pCi / L = picocuries per liter. ‡ Systems using surface or groundwater.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.89
When the nitrate test results indicate that the MCL has been exceeded, one additional check sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of the original and check sample exceeds the MCL, the water supplier should report this to the state within 48 h and notify the public. Continued monitoring follows the same rules as indicated for the other chemical substances. Trihalomethanes s Amendments to the interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for chloroform and three related organic chemicals of the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total trihalomethanes, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compliance are required of community water systems serving populations greater than 10,000 that add disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the system, a minimum of four samples must be taken for each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the remainder may be taken from the central portion of the distribution system. To determine compliance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane concentrations of all samples taken for the quarter are averaged. Next, the average concentration for the current quarter and for the three previous quarters are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water system is in compliance. Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration Recommended control limits, fluoride concentrations, mg / L or ppm* Lower 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 Optimum 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Upper 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.8 For more information on monitoring requirements and modification of treatment techniques to lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is required, see “Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,” American Water Works Association; Federal Register 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L. Jolley, “Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact, and Health Effects,” vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fluoride Limits s Fluoride is considered an essential constituent of drinking water for prevention of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower, optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They also recommended that fluoride in average concentrations greater than twice the optimum values shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply. The latter concentrations, based on average air temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used to set the MCL for the primary drinking water regulations. Water suppliers may continue to use these guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to control dental caries in children at the discretion of the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act precludes Federal regulations that may require the addition of any substance for preventive health care purposes unrelated to contamination of drinking water.
Annual avg of max daily air temperatures† 53.7 or lower 53.8 – 58.3 58.4 – 63.8 63.9 – 70.6 70.7 – 79.2 79.3 – 90.5
Maximum contaminant level 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4
* From “Drinking Water Standards,” U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962. † Based on temperature data obtained for a minimum of 5 years.
an analysis should be performed to identify the major radioactive constituents present. temperature. fluoridated and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with sufficient frequency to determine that the desired fluoride concentration is maintained. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the need for protecting the source of water supplies.5 mg / L 0. the average fluoride concentration should be kept within the upper and lower limits in Table 21. Click here to view. The corrosivity sampling program requires that two samples per plant be collected annually for systems using surface-water sources—one during midwinter and one during midsummer. and Water Pollution Control Federation. All water systems serving surface water or groundwater should be tested for the natural radiological contaminants. and calculation of the Langelier index. monitoring for additional corrosivity characteristics.90 s Section Twenty-One When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride in drinking water) is practiced.) Source Protection s The U.” American Public Health Association.22. . additional tests should be run to determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 separately. as indicated by the following extract: Table 21. Monitoring should be continued at quarterly intervals until the annual average concentration no longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level. American Water Works Association.S.05 mg / L 3 threshold odor number 6. Environmental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000. dependent on local conditions. All rights reserved. such as unavailability of alternate source waters or other compelling factors. Only one sample is needed for groundwater sources.22 Secondary Drinking-Water Standards Type of contaminant Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Sulfate Total dissolved solids (TDS) Zinc Maximum contaminant levels 250 mg/L 15 color units 1 mg/L Noncorrosive 0.S.21. (See “National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. such as sulfates and chlorides. Samples for sodium analysis should be collected annually for systems using surface waters and every 3 years for systems supplying groundwater exclusively.21. When the average gross alpha activity is greater than 5 pCi/L. and determination of the Aggressive index may be required.3 mg / L 0. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.20 for radioactive substance apply to the average result obtained from analysis of four quarterly samples or to one composite test sample formed from four quarterly samples.5 250 mg / L 500 mg / L 5 mg / L Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.” U. total dissolved solids. The states may use these SMCL as guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that may be appropriate. the data should be reported to the state within 48 h and the public notified. No maximum contaminant levels have been promulgated with respect to any of these parameters.000 are required to test for synthetic contaminants. 21. But only those systems serving surface water to populations exceeding 100. calcium hardness.5 – 8.) At the discretion of the state. alkalinity. Inc. if public health and welfare are not adversely affected.50 and “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. When the gross beta activity is greater than 50 pCi/L. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5 pCi/L. Special Monitoring s Among amendments to the interim primary drinking water regulations in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodium concentration levels and corrosivity characteristics. In addition. (See also Art. The appropriate organ and total body doses should be calculated to determine whether the maximum contaminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded. This calculation is required when tritium and strontium-90 are both present in any concentration. The limits are called secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed in Table 21. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federally enforceable. Radioactivity s The limiting values in Table 21. The measurements should include pH. Secondary Standards s The aesthetic contaminants are covered by the secondary drinking water regulations.
(See R. calculated with ν = νs. (21. from the source of supply to the connection of the customer’s service piping.) The settling velocity νs of spherically shaped particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of Stokes’ law if the Reynolds number R = νρd/µ. however. But economic conditions usually compel water purveyors to use more efficient methods of treatment. shape. Ann Arbor. velocity is constant. Pojasek. slow and rapid sand filtration. mm If R > 2000. and concentration of particles of each size is the same at all points of the vertical cross section at the inlet end. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. disinfection. Inc. νo is expressed in gallons per day per square foot of surface area.Water Resources Engineering s 21.133) where νs = settling velocity of particle. “Drinking-Water Quality Enhancement through Source Protection. Mich. g/mm3 ρ = density of fluid.134). Click here to view. 21. Figure 21. Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak demands without development of low pressures and the possibility of backflow of polluted water from customer piping.77) is a sedimentation tank in which flow is horizontal. the supply shall be adequately protected by treatment. and softening (see also Art. and width B. Inc. and effort should be made to prevent or control pollution of the source. Long-term storage of water reduces the amount of disease-producing bacteria and particulate matter. to locate and correct any health hazards that might exist. If the source is not adequately protected against pollution by natural means. (21. there is a transition from Stokes’ law to Newton’s. g/mm3 d = particle diameter. unpleasant tastes and odors. depth ho . For this ideal basin.0 < R < 2000. no exact expression has been developed to give the velocity. equal to the settling velocity of the smallest particle to be completely removed. . and hardness and to lower the levels of any contaminants when necessary to meet water-quality standards. the overflow velocity therefore is νo = Q /A = Q /BLo. Newton’s law applies: (21.134) where CD is the drag coefficient. Some of the more common methods of treatment are plain sedimentation and storage.75 shows a plot of CD values vs. Figure 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Factors that affect the settling rate of particulate matter suspended in water are size.1 Plain Sedimentation The ideal settling basin (Fig. coagulation-sedimentation. V the flowthrough velocity. particulate and colored matter. 21. (Usually. where Q = BhoV and Lo is the length of settling zone.51).001 and 5. Case histories and monitoring programs have been reported indicating that active source protection can enhance water quality with minimal extra expense. to be used in Eq.46. such as those mentioned above. The frequency of these surveys shall depend upon the historical need. and size and shape of the settling basin. The surface loading rate or overflow velocity νo .” Ann Arbor Science Publishers.. and specific gravity of the suspended particles.91 The water supply should be obtained from the most desirable source feasible. m/s2 µ = absolute viscosity of the fluid. 21. Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply system.46 Sedimentation Processes Sedimentation or clarification is a process of removing particulate matter from water through gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flowthrough velocity. Pa⋅s ρ1 = density of particle. temperature and viscosity of the water. can be determined by dividing the flow rate Q by the settling surface area A. The basin has a volumetric capacity C. Reynolds numbers. m/s g = acceleration due to gravity.0.) The detention time t = ho /νo = Lo /V also equals the volumetric capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q. Water Treatment Water is treated to remove disease-producing bacteria.76 shows the relationship of settling velocity to diameter of spherical particles with specific gravity S between 1. B. The settling velocity in this region is somewhere between the values given by Newton’s law and those given by Stokes’ law. is equal to or less than 1. 21. In the region where 1.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Inc. vol. All rights reserved. 103.21. 21. (Observed curves.92 s Section Twenty-One Fig. 897.) Fig. 21. .75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. at 10 °C. after Camp. Click here to view. 1946. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S.
New York.. The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the ratio of the flow-through period to the detention time. A well-designed tank should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%. “Water Treatment Plant Design. finely Fig. are removed in this basin. short circuiting. The particles with a settling velocity νs < ν1 that enter the settling zone between f and e are not removed in this basin. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by many factors such as cross currents. Okun. J. Inc.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 100 ft) Flow-through velocity—not to exceed 1. Click here to view. occupy less site area than the single-story basin. Inc. A.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin. The flow-through period is the time required for a dye.” McGraw-Hill. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. Multistory tanks. and D.5 ft/min (most common velocity. Geyer. Inc. Fair. salt.78b). . and eddy currents.77) with a settling velocity νs larger than (ν1 = h1 V/Lo) but less than νo .46. 21.78d) with parallel flow upward provides very high surface areas. for example. The tubular settler (Fig.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation To increase the settling rate and remove finely divided particles in suspension. All rights reserved. and those that enter the settling zone between f and j (at left in Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21. Without coagulants. 21. C. gal per day per ft2 of surface area—between 500 and 2000 for most settling basins Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a variety of shapes.” John Wiley & Sons. 21. such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.. or other indicator to pass through the basin.) 21. 21.0 ft/min) Surface loading or overflow velocity. Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are: Period of detention—2 to 8 h Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel— 3:1 to 5:1 Depth of basin—10 to 25 ft (15 ft average) Width of flow-through channel—not over 40 ft (30 ft most common) Diameter of circular tank—35 to 200 ft (most common. 27. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. M. G. 1.8c. rectangular (Fig.93 Particles with a settling velocity νs > νo . coagulants are added to the water.78a) or circular (Fig. New York.
All rights reserved. (c) Twostory sedimentation basin. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.94 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (b) Circular clarifier.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (d) Tubular settler.21. Inc. . Click here to view. 21.
production of a smaller volume of sludge. to get the small floc to agglomerate. or negatively charged. settling.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Jar tests should be run with several dosages of the various polymers available to aid in selecting the material best suited for each water supply. organic polyelectrolytes. “Water Supply and Sewerage. turbidity. L. “Water Quality and Treatment. When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water. Flocculation or slow stirring increases floc size and speeds up settling. New York. . and (3) coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity settling basins. Because of differences in the characteristics of the suspended matter found in natural waters. Flocculator detention time should be in the 20. highmolecular-weight. however. J. 18H2O]. not all waters can be treated with equal success with the same polymer or the same dosages. however. and easier dewatering. color. Anionic polymers. such as paper fiber.” R. “Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering.95 divided particles do not settle out because of their high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence of negative charges on them. Inc. they introduce highly charged positive nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively charged suspended matter. and hardness. lesser amounts of metallic salt are needed to effect good coagulation. These insoluble flocs of iron and aluminum. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. are often used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger floc particles. or positively charged. A. or neutral in charge. Process Steps s The complete clarification process is usually divided into three stages: (1) rapid chemical mixing. McGhee. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory to determine the optimum amount of coagulant. consequently. The filtering process has many components. The alkalinity of the water being treated must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide or hydrate of these metals to form. color.” McGraw-Hill.” 4th ed. such as physical straining. Culp. “New Concepts in Water Purification. (G. Click here to view. such as pH. The more common coagulants are aluminum sulfate. commonly known as alum [Al 2(SO4)3. in some instances.. anionic. and neutralization of electrostatic charges. Inc. L. considering both cost and performance. The detention period for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h. American Water Works Association. polymers have a minor effect on pH. Corbitt. such as mechanical stirrers. precipitate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed. Direct Filtration s It is possible by use of direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation step. All rights reserved.) 21. Also. and the negative charges on the particles produce electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.47 Filtration Processes Passing water through a layer of sand removes much of the finely divided particulate matter and some of the larger bacteria. and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). centrifugal pumps. New York.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. and air jets. It usually includes addition of a coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. chemical and biological reactions. The time necessary for mixing ranges from a few seconds to 20 min. ferric chloride (FeCl3). The coagulation-sedimentation process takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a plain sedimentation basin. T. There are several reasons for considering the use of polymers: increased settling rate and improved filtrability of the floc. and nonionic. Direct filtration is a water-treatment process in which raw water is not settled prior to the filtration step. temperature. Thereby. however. and suspended solids. The velocity at which drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low. Culp and R. Polymers are long-chain. Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly used as coagulants because of their high positive ionic charge. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4⋅7H2O). coliform organisms. the need for final pH adjustment in the finished water may be reduced. Cationic polymers are generally the most suitable for use as primary coagulants.. which combine with themselves and other suspended particles. The type and amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified water depend on the qualities of water to be treated. Some organic polymers are alternatives to the metallic coagulants. (2) flocculation or slow stirring. They are available in three types: cationic. The speed of the agitators must be great enough.to 60min range. Rapid chemical mixing may be accomplished with many devices. for treatment of raw waters that are low in turbidity. plankton. to cause contact between the small floc but not so great that the larger floc is broken up.
96 s Section Twenty-One a polymer as a flocculant aid. The process requires rapid mixing. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. agitation in a well-designed flocculator for 10 to 30 min. Click here to view. The slow filter is not as versatile or as efficient as rapid sand filters. and dual. depending on the turbidity. such as flocculation-coagulation and disinfection.35-mm range. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or 5 ft of water. (The effective size is the size of a sieve. Inc.) The uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less than 3. addition of a polymer as a filter aid. through the sand and gravel layers. The wash- Fig. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and operational cost may be cut 10 to 30% by reduced chemical doses. in millimeters. Elimination of settling basins can result in capital cost savings of 20 to 30%. so the water can be passed through the sand at a higher rate.to 0. Usually.to 12-in layer of gravel.21. The principal advantages of direct filtration are its lower capital and operation costs. The uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will pass 60% of the sample to the effective size. Rapid Sand Filtration s This is normally preceded by chemical treatment. A diagram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is shown in Fig. and then through the controller to the clear well for storage.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter. the effluent from a rapid filter needs further disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria are not completely removed in this process. 21. The normal order of flow through the varying components of the filter is from the clarifiers (settling tanks) to the top of the sand layer. watertight container containing a 2to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6. All rights reserved. Slow Sand Filters s These consist of an underdrained. The water passes through the filter at a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day.79. by weight. Direct filtration merits investigation before construction of new facilities if the turbidity of the source water averages less than 25 TU. Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for design of the filtration units.or mixed-media filtration. that will pass 10%. . The effective size of the sand should be in the 0. Wash (cleaning) water flow takes place in a reverse direction after the filter effluent line has been closed.25. of the sand. through the underdrain laterals to the main drain.
20 to 1. creating a high head loss across the filter. in The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or 3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y. and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. which produces an undertreated effluent. All rights reserved. or sand incrustation will be encountered. bed cracking. which is drained to waste.005:1 range. The depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be calculated from (21. which is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the water and formation between sand grains of bubbles that decrease filter capacity. The effective grain size is greater than that of sand. Other Processes s Anthracite coal may be used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. The troughs carry the water to the gullet. Some common design factors for rapid sand filters are: Effective grain size—0. Immediately after washing. mixed-media. The ratio of total area of perforations to the total filter-bed area is normally in the 0. may be more advantageous.25 to 1. A negative head is produced on the filter when the head loss across the filter is greater than the depth of water on the sand. gal/min b = width of trough. thus permitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs. Either manual or automatic rate control must be used to prevent such an occurrence. The diameter of the perforations varies between 1/4 and 3/4 in. Dual-media. water sprays. in y = water depth at upstream end of trough. Many treatment plants control the rate of filtration by using venturi tube devices.55 mm Uniformity coefficient—1.35 to 0. As clogging begins to occur in the filter. The underdrains should be arranged so that each area filters and distributes its proportionate share of water. Click here to view. and the rate controller then opens to increase the velocity. however. Pressure filters are primarily supplemental and are used for specialized industrial uses and for clarifying swimming pool water. Filters must be washed thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls. such as rakes.Water Resources Engineering s 21. They operate at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/min⋅ft2.97 water flow is through the main drain to the laterals. The lightweight sediment is washed from the sand grains by the moving water and sometimes by other agitating devices. The filtering medium may be sand. the velocity of flow in the effluent line decreases.75 Thickness of sand layer—24 to 30 in depending on grain size Thickness of gravel layer—15 to 24 in Gravel size—from 1/8 to 11/2 in Filtration rate—2 to 4 gal/min⋅ft2 (125 to 250 MG per acre per day) Total depth of each basin—8 to 10 ft Maximum head loss allowed before washing sand—8 to 10 ft Sand expansion during washing—25 to 50% Wash-water rate—15 to 20 gal/min⋅ft2 Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to top of unexpanded sand—24 to 30 in Length of filter runs between washings—12 to 72 h Spacing between wash-water troughs—4 to 6 ft Ratio of length to width of each basin—1. or deep coarse-media filters. Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced. . or anthracite coal. The underdrains of a filter are commonly made of perforated pipe or porous plates. diatomaceous earth.35 Rapid sand filters are operated until the particulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings between the sand grains. A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. This high head loss slows down the flow rate and may force some of the particulate matter through the sand and gravel layers. which throttle the filter effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.135) where Q = total flow received by trough. from the laterals upward through the gravel and sand to the wash-water troughs. and air jets. Negative heads can produce a condition known as air binding. Filters are usually backwashed when the particulate-matter concentration increases in the filter effluent or when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Inc. Backwashing a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the filter from the drains upward to the wash-water troughs.002:1 to 0. filters pass water at a high rate.
5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of hardness removed. L. Calcium can be removed from water as shown by the following reaction: (21.138) (21. where 1 gpg = 17.137) Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide particles settle out in sedimentation basins. in clear wells. Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeolite—2500 to 3000 grains.” John Wiley & Sons.” and T. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Three major classifications of hardness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused by bicarbonates. “Water Treatment Plant Design. A..21. New York. however.) (21. Inc. Chemical equations for the common lime-soda softening processes are (21. and R is the zeolite material. (2) noncarbonate (permanent) hardness. Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used to regenerate the unit. These materials remove cations. and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water causes hardness. Hardness of water is normally expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of CaCO3. (G. Inc. In the lime-soda process. M..” 4th ed. “Water Treatment Plant Design.49 Disinfection with Chlorine Chlorine in either the liquid. or open-joint pipes. New York. Fair. placed in shallow sand or gravel aquifers. The filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or allowed to flow out one end by gravity. Galleries typically are fed by diversion or pumping from streams into spreading basins with gravel or sand bottoms. Geyer. C. “Water Quality and Treatment. facilities must be provided for particle removal and disposal. Some.” 4th ed. taking into account that commercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about 90 and 68% CaO. “Water Quality and Treatment. Culp.3 and 0. (American Water Works Association. and American Society of Civil Engineers. Regeneration requires between 0. Okun.1 mg/L. New York. Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by passing the water through a base-exchange or zeolite material. McGhee. lime (CaO). gas. Culp and R. Deposition of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 on sand grains. perforated. J. respectively. “New Concepts in Water Purification. Municipal treatment plants generally use either the lime-soda (precipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite) process to reduce the hardness of the water to below 100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO3 equivalence.48 Water Softening Presence of the bicarbonates. as generally is done in regeneration of the softening unit. New York.. may be located in aquifers with high groundwater table.” Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. carbonates.98 s Section Twenty-One Filter galleries are made up of horizontal.” 6th ed.. Residual hardness of 50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO3 remains in the treated water because of the very slight solubility of both CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2.136) (21. synthetic zeolite—5000 to 30. and in distribution pipes can be prevented by recarbonation with CO2 before sand-filter treatment. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the hardness to an acceptable level. American Water Works Association.140) where Ca2+ is the calcium hardness ion removed.000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).” McGraw-Hill Book Company.139) 21. and (3) total hardness. J. . from water and replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen cations. such as calcium and magnesium. G. and D. All rights reserved. Click here to view. or hypochlorite form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The reaction can be reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na+ concentration to a high value. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. Na+ is the sodium ion replacing the Ca2+ in water. hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2].) 21. The amounts of lime and soda ash required for softening to a residual hardness can be determined by use of chemicalequivalent weights. and American Society of Civil Engineers. L. sulfates. “Water Supply and Sewerage.
Inc.45). Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic contaminants include conventional coagulation. Concerns over the potential for lead poisoning from lead in drinking water passing through lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged abandonment of such practices. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or pH than the CaCO3-treated water. manganese. All rights reserved. New York. Okun. the greater the amount of either unsaturation or saturation with Water Collection Storage and Distribution 21. (G. and recreation Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. the water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates. “Water Supply and Sewerage.” and T. “Water Treatment Plant Design.Water Resources Engineering s 21. C. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers.. Where the presence of lead is detected in a water supply. cation exchange. excessive fluorides. The benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or modified treatment plants.” McGraw-Hill. New York.) 21.141) The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated complex that destroys living cells.) respect to carbonates. reverse osmosis.” John Wiley & Sons. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.52 Reservoirs The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to hold runoff during periods of high runoff and release it during periods of low runoff. Other disinfectants are iodine. M. Chlorine residuals of 0.2 mg/L are normally maintained in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer. The carbon can be applied as a powder to the water and later removed by a sand filter. If the untreated water has a lower pH or alkalinity value than the treated water. flood control. Filter both solutions.99 water supplies. An approximation of the stability of a water supply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. iron. either take the pH or determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sample.62) has led to use of alternate disinfectants. odor.) 21. Fair. the water is highly saturated with carbonates. Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and odor removal. activated carbon. If the untreated water has a much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated water. anion exchange. ultraviolet light.” McGraw-Hill. If the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples. or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals. Inc.1 or 0. (American Water Works Association and American Society of Civil Engineers. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. “Water Treatment Plant Design. Inc. New York. particularly if there are color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.50 Carbonate Stability Water may either corrode or place a protective carbonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes.. The reaction of chlorine with water is (21. . J. then. A. The amount of chlorine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on the amount of impurities to be removed and the desired residual of chlorine in the water. irrigation. detergents. ozone. the water is unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. and D. chlorine dioxide. Stir or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about 1 h. The prime candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. Which it does depends on the nature and amount of chemicals dissolved in the water. Geyer. and lime. 21. Inc. The specific functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric. taste. and electrodialysis. J.51 Miscellaneous Treatments Many different methods of treatment are used to remove such undesirable elements as color. despite its low solubility. water supply. the water is saturated with carbonate and may deposit protective films in pipes. The greater the difference in either alkalinity or pH between the two samples. The concern over trihalomethane formation following chlorination of waters containing appreciable amounts of natural organic materials (Art. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the purveyor and consumer. Click here to view. its concentration can be nearly completely removed with lime softening or alum and ferric sulfate coagulation. and substances exceeding the water-quality maximum contaminant levels (Art.. 21. McGhee. bromine. lime softening.
as is the case for many water-supply projects. .80) is a graphical plot of total stream-flow volume against time. The slope of the curve is the rate of flow. 21.52. Once a reservoir site has been selected. For a water-supply or hydroelectric development. 21. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The plot of volume vs. Also. as a consequence of which the specific functions may dictate conflicting design and operating criteria. Many large reservoirs are multipurpose.100 s Section Twenty-One (see also Art. Selection of the critical period of years for a mass curve depends on the function of the reservoir. minimum flows will be critical. maximum flows will govern. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. A preliminary study of available reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative costs for various size reservoirs. The dependable flow that can be obtained from various-size reservoirs can be determined from the mass diagram for stream flow. the required size of the reservoir can be determined directly from a mass diagram of stream flow.21. The mass diagram (Fig. whereas for flood-control reservoirs. as shown by lines AB and AC in Fig. 21. equitable cost allocation is more difficult. water elevation is determined by planimetering the area of selected contours within the reservoir site and multiplying by the contour interval.1).80 Mass diagram of stream flow. The reservoir size that will give the maximum benefit should be selected. Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the demand for water is much greater than the mean stream flow is an economic balance between benefits and costs. An economic comparison should then be made of the benefits of various flows and the costs of various reservoirs.81) are drawn to give the characteristics of the site. Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to the demand tangent to the mass curve at the beginning of a selected dry period. Inc. The ordinates d and e represent the storage required to maintain demands AB and AC. Click here to view.80. 21. All rights reserved. When the demand rate is known. 21. Aeri- Fig. areavolume curves (Fig.
The waters above and below the thermocline circulate. (Water from practically all sources should be disinfected in the distribution system to ensure against pollution and contamination. water flows from these reservoirs to the consumers. perature drops in the fall. it is usually economical to size them for the mean annual flow and provide terminal storage for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand. but there is no circulation across this zone. If possible. and copper sulfate is used to kill vegetation. the water at the upper level becomes heavier than the water at the lower level and the two levels become intermixed.101 Fig. Terminal storage is also necessary because of the possibility of a failure along an aqueduct. The water in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen and develops bad tastes and odors. particularly in warm climates or during warm seasons of the year. The zone where the abrupt temperature change takes place. Alum is mixed into reservoirs to reduce turbidity. Click here to view. and Los Angeles. causing bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. the flow refills the reservoir. Inc. the watershed should be relatively uninhabited to reduce the amount of treatment required. is called the thermocline. and turbidity than deep reservoirs. In deep reservoirs.52.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is mixed with the water supply. while below a certain level the temperature may be many degrees cooler.) Shallow reservoirs usually give more problems with color. When the tem- 21. such as New York. San Francisco. give special attention to water quality. In selection of a site for a water-supply reservoir. Another important consideration in the design of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts. pumping plants.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir. During hours of maximum demand. odor. which may be only a few feet thick. A mass dia- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. are large distances from the city. 21.1 Distribution Reservoirs The two main functions of distribution reservoirs are to equalize supply and demand over periods of varying consumption and to supply water during equipment failure or for fire demand.2). 21. Because of the large cost of aqueducts.35 and 21. and treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily instead of maximum hourly demand. Major sources of supply for some cities. during the summer months the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed. It is usually economical to have equalizing reservoirs at various points in the distribution system so that main supply lines. All rights reserved. . When the demand drops off. To oxidize organic matter and prevent poor water quality in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months.52. al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older methods. chlorine or compressed air should be released at various points on the bottom of the reservoirs.
Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.80) can be used to determine the required capacity of the reservoir. the trap efficiency decreases with time since the capacityinflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.21. Standard elevated tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG. 34.52. The higher the capacity-inflow ratio. 21. no.35.84). 3. It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an elevation high enough to provide adequate pressure throughout the system served. A flowing artesian Fig. June 1953). Click here to view. so that during peak flows the maximum distance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half. acre-feet of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow. 21. it is necessary to build the reservoir above the area it serves.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency The methods of Art. For any given storage reservoir. 21. If the topography will not allow a surface reservoir. vol. Brune. For the correct hydraulic grade. All rights reserved.102 s Section Twenty-One gram (Fig. Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the opposite end of the system from the source of supply. “Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs.53 Wells A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospheric pressure (Fig.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. a standpipe or an elevated tank must be constructed. Brune. the greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a reservoir. M.83). This rate decrease occurs because an increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt load is vented before sedimentation can occur. 21. ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. who developed a curve to express the relationship between trap efficiency and what he called the capac- 21. Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc. 21. A pressure or artesian well passes through an impervious stratum into a confined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater than atmospheric (Fig. The rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when the capacity is reduced to an amount such that some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each major storm.82) (G. 21. M. 21.2 for determining the quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reservoir before the percentage of the incoming silt that will remain to reduce storage can be determined.
Inc.103 Fig. 21.Water Resources Engineering s 21. 21. Click here to view. Fig. All rights reserved.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer. . Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.
p. December 1938. 33. correct values for drawdown and the circle of influence can be obtained only after long periods of continuous pumping. and to stop movement of the larger sand particles into the well. A long time elapses between the beginning of pumping and establishment of a steady-flow condition (a circle of influence with constant diameter). from an artesian well is given by (21. hollow-core. M. ft (Fig. J. and D. vol.53.. A. bored. A permeability analysis of a soil sample that is not representative of the soil throughout the aquifer would produce an unreliable value for K.) Computer software packages are available for analysis of groundwater flow with finite-element models. “Water and Wastewater Engineering. screen. 5.2 Flow From Wells The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula: (21. The casing keeps the wall material and polluted water from entering the well and prevents the leakage of good water from the well. 1940. McGraw-Hill. C. Inc. Shallow wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug. “Water Supply and Sewerage. New York. 72. The pump. Hence. J. 21.53.83).” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. pumping tests should be made in the field to determine the value of the hydraulic conductivity K.142) where Q = flow. “Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of Artesian Well. (G. Inc. Both methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coefficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complications due to the time lag before reaching steady flow. and motor. Interference between two or more wells is caused by the overlapping of circles of influence. Jacob. or pipe placed normal to groundwater flow in an aquifer. Click here to view. New York.1 Drawdown When water is pumped from a well. A gallery or horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal tunnel.21. ft h = H minus drawdown. Interference between two or more closely spaced wells may increase to the extent that the system of wells produces one large cone of depression.” 6th ed. 629. the water level around the well draws down and forms a cone of depression (Fig. McGhee. V. 21. Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous.53.” Economic Geology. and eductor pipe are utilized to move the water from the aquifer to the collecting lines at the ground surface. gal/day K = hydraulic conductivity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. . E. or hydraulic rotary methods. p.57).. gal/day. eductor or riser pipe. C. Inc. 21.” John Wiley & Sons. to allow water to pass from the aquifer into the well.143) 21. Theis.3 Excavation of Wells Wells may be classed by the method by which they are constructed and their depth. ft The steady flow. ft/day under 1:1 hydraulic gradient H = total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping. 889. All rights reserved. Deep wells (depth greater than 100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard cable-tool. 21.. The screen is placed below the casing to contain the walls of the aquifer. ft d = diameter of well. 21.) Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. motor.84). where t is the thickness of confined aquifer. Okun. ditch.53. waterjet. “The Significance of the Cone of Depression in Groundwater Bodies. no.4 Well Equipment Essential well equipment consists of casing.104 s Section Twenty-One well is an artesian well extending into a confined aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause water to flow above the casing head. or driven. T. A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions where equilibrium has not been established. Fair. pump (Art. ft D = diameter of circle of influence. The line of intersection between the cone of depression and the original water surface is called the circle of influence. (C. Drawdown for each interfering well is increased and the rate of water flow is decreased for each well in proportion to the degree of interference. vol. 21. Geyer.
Water Resources Engineering s 21.105
21.54 Water Distribution Piping
A water-distribution system should reliably provide potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes. To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure in the main at house service connections usually should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumbing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside areas, the system is usually divided into several different pressure zones, interconnected with pumps and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone causes increased expenses and decreased reliability, it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum. The American Water Works Association has recommended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pressures; however, in areas of steep topography where local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such a narrow range is not practical. House plumbing is designed to withstand a maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi. When the pressure in distribution lines is above 125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators at each house to prevent damage to appliances, such as water heaters and dishwashers.
4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution system for fire protection only. There are only rare instances in high-value districts of large cities where this method is used because the cost of a dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.
21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of Distribution Piping
Distribution systems are usually laid out on a gridiron system with cross connections at various intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided because they cause water-quality problems. Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s, although during fires they can be much higher. Twoand four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short lengths in residential areas; however, the American Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft. In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe, with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The AIA standards also require that gate valves be located so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside main arteries, requires shutting off from service an artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued districts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small distribution lines branching from main arteries should be equipped with valves. (“Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions,” American Insurance Association.) Adequate service requires a knowledge of the hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution system for various flows. Several methods, based on the following rules, have been developed for analysis of complex networks: 1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of the flow rate. 2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of any pipe junction equals zero. 3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between any two points is the same by any route, and the algebraic sum of all head losses around a loop equals zero. A convenient device for simplifying complex networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe. For a series of different size pipes or several parallel pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one
21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting
Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on the technique and equipment used. Four methods of supplying fire protection are: 1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from a hydrant. This method is used in most large communities that have full-time, well-trained fire departments. The required pressure in the immediate area of the fire is 20 psi. 2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times in the distribution system to allow direct connection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique is commonly used in small communities that do not have a full-time fire department and mobile pumpers. The pressure in the distribution system in the vicinity of a fire should be between 50 and 75 psi. 3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various points in the distribution system, to boost the pressure during a fire and allow direct connection of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so reliable or so widely used as the first two.
21.106 s Section Twenty-One
specific length or any desired length and one specific diameter can be substituted; this will give the same head loss as the original for all flow rates if there are no take-outs or inputs between the two end points. In complex networks, the equivalent pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation. Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-indiameter pipe that will have the same loss of head as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a. First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the same head loss. The head loss may be calculated from Eqs. (21.34d). Assume any convenient flow through CD, say 500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of 8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in pipe for CD is 500 × 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 + 2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2, 165 + 420 = 585 ft long. To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2. For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29 × 585/1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or 3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 = 1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of 1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of 48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of 17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 × 17/48 = 350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig. 21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long. Pipe Network Equations s For hydraulic analysis of a water distribution system, it is convenient to represent the network by a mathematical model. Generally, it is useful to include in the model only the major elements needed for a mathematical description of the basic network. (For models that are to be used for such conditions as low pressures in a small service region, however, it may be necessary to include all the distribution mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p. 21.105 can then be used to develop a system of simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow and pressure in the network. Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the characteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequently, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a result, a direct solution generally is not available. In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration process, in which the values of some variables are assumed to make the equations linear and then the equations are solved for the other variables. The initial assumptions are corrected and used to develop new linear equations, which are solved to obtain more accurate values of the variables. One example of this technique is the Hardy Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method, which was widely used before the advent of computers. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive adjustments are computed to correct these assumed values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be obtained with three adjustments; however, there are rare cases where the computed adjustments do not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate method must be used.
Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop replaced by equivalent loop (b).
Water Resources Engineering s 21.107
Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accordance with the following equation: (21.144) where KQn = hf = loss of head due to friction. When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Example 21.10, is put in the form hf = KQn then K = 1.85 4.727L/D4.87C1 and n = 1.85. The expression ΣnKQn-1 equals Σ(nKQn/Q). In the Hazen-Williams formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the adjustment equation becomes (21.145) It is important that a consistent set of signs be used. The sign convention chosen for the following example makes clockwise flows and the losses from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows and their losses are negative. Approaches generally used for formulating the equations for analysis of a water distribution network include the following: Flow method, in which pipe flows are the unknowns. Node method, in which pressure heads at the pipe end points are the unknowns. Loop method, in which the energy in each independent loop is expressed in terms of the flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an assumed flow and a flow correction factor for each loop. Computer software packages are available for analysis of networks by such methods. They can perform not only steady-state analyses of pressures and flows in pipe networks but also timedependent analyses of pressure and flow under changing system demands and of flow patterns and basic water quality. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; AWWA, “Distribution Network Analysis for Water Utilities,” Manual of Water Supply Practices M32, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.; T. M. Walski, “Analysis of Water Distribution Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)
21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes
The cover required over distribution pipes depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should be investigated.
21.54.4 Maintenance of Water Pipes
Maintenance of distribution systems involves keeping records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves, and many other functions necessary to eliminate problems in operation. Valves should be inspected annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records of all inspections and repairs should be kept. Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage, lose much of their capacity because of corrosion and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with cement mortar restores the original capacity. Deadend pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce the accumulation of rust and organic matter.
21.54.5 Economic Sizing of Distribution Piping
When designing any major project, the designer should choose the most economical of numerous alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be separated and studied individually. An example of two alternatives for a distribution system is one serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reservoirs. The total costs of each plan should be compared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis. A method of determining minimum cost that can readily be adapted to many conditions is setting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation. To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero. The following equation for the most economical pipe diameter was derived in that manner:
Cast iron is the most common material for city water mains. ft f b = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor = value of power. such as polyvinyl chloride. The relatively high cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage. Some disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free lime from the concrete. and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies. riveting. rubber. Since steel is stronger than iron. dollars/hp per year Qa = average discharge. and high maintenance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thinner pipe walls. If it is cement-lined.54. Under favorable conditions. Common pipe-joint materials are: cement. psi a i = in-place cost of pipe. Steel pipes are usually corrosionprotected on both the outside and inside with coal tar or cement mortar. zinc. an anode and a cathode. bell-and-spigot with rubber gasket.108 s Section Twenty-One Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability to carry high external loads. and glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins. polybutylene. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in in diameter. ft 21.146) where D = pipe diameter. Some causes of corrosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with water or soil. resistance to corrosion under normal conditions. and meters destroyed by corrosion. Metals can Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the most common joints in cast-iron pipe. are present. concrete. the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years. Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the pipe. and sulfur compounds. contact between acids and metals. . are the most common materials used in distribution pipes. the metal in contact with the electrolyte changes into a positively charged particle.6 Pipe Materials Cast iron.) At the anode. sand. valves. dollars/pound = yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost) Ha = average head on pipe. and plastic are materials used in small pipes. (Water may serve as an electrolyte. Click here to view. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low maintenance cost. polyethylene. which goes into solution or forms an oxide film. sealed flanges. stray electric currents. The tranverse joints between pipe sections are usually made by welding. low transportation costs for materials if water and aggregate are available locally. (The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic ion when it is in contact with water depends on its oxidation potential or solution pressure. ft3/s S = allowable unit stress in pipe. impurities and strains in metals. Concrete pipe may be made watertight by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe walls. pumps. thinner and lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures. Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs when an electrolyte and two electrodes. jointless concrete pipe without formwork has been developed for gravityflow and low-pressure applications.55 Corrosion in Water Distribution Systems Many millions of dollars are expended every year to replace pipes. (21. Most of the precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed with steel. High-strength wire is frequently wound around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement. Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and assembled on the job or cast in place. the tendency to leak under pressure due to the cracking and permeability of concrete. largely offset by the long average life of troublefree service. lead. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and usually has good hydraulic characteristics. Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains.21. Wood pipelines are still in existence. and other appurtenances. and plastics. brass. and ability to withstand external loads. valves. Copper. steel. tanks. bacteria in water. however. plastic. or Dresser-type couplings. Steel pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are formed at steel mills from flat sheets. hydrants. bronze. Inc. A machine that produces a monolithic. or soil-producing compounds that react with metals. the Hazen-Williams C value may be as high as 145. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining with cement or tar materials. In unlined pipes. All rights reserved. iron tubercles may form and seriously affect flow capacity. but wood is rarely used in new installations. possibility of collapse due to negative gage pressures.
such as hydrogen in solution: 2H+ + 2e → H2 (gas). Zinc is an example of metallic coating materials used. All rights reserved. the anode reaction is Fe (metal) → Fe2+ + 2e. Common nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Inc. cracks. At the cathode. for example. . and Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Aluminum.86).86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water. High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility of the hydrogen ions to the cathode. Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by proper selection of materials. If the hydrogen gas produced at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reaction with oxygen to produce water molecules or by water movement (depolarization). 21. Several factors influence the type and quantity of metallic corrosion: Presence of protective films. and undissolved impurities in a metal act as sites for corrosion. the corrosion process continues (Fig. When selecting materials. and the more ions. water may be treated with bases. the faster electrons can move through the water.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up the rust or oxide film. zinc. Iron-consuming bacteria in water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron concentration is about 2 ppm. thus facilitating penetration of the film by oxygen and water and lead to increased corrosion. Metals high in the electromotive series corrode more readily than metals located in a lower position.109 be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing oxidation potentials. Tuberculation is caused by the deposition and growth of insoluble iron compounds inside a pipe. such as soda ash. Strains. the metal having the excess electrons gives them up to a charged particle. Protective coatings for metals may be metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. where e is an electron. use of protective coatings. Some metals form oxide films that act as protective layers for the metal. caustic soda. to prevent corrosion. A continuous supply of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances in the water increases the size of the tubercles. the engineer should take into account the characteristics of the water and soil conditions encountered. and treatment of the water. A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation inside the line. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and chromium are examples of this type of metal. Steel pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is commonly used for small service lines. Also. Agitation or movement of water increases the corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen supply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of metal ions from the anode are increased. Indications of corrosion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are discharges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water. Tubercles may become so large and decrease the capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to be cleaned or replaced. The presence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up corrosion because the ions act as conductors of electricity. 21.) For an iron pipe exposed to water. Click here to view.
psia. The potential applied to or produced by the two metal surfaces must be large enough to make the protected metal act as a cathode. It is the pressure in the liquid over and above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of the pump and is given. 21.147) where pa = pressure. To have practical meaning. of the impeller and is forced outward toward the casing Fig. “Water Quality and Treatment.” 4th ed. The sacrificial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodically. to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates.. and aluminum alloys are commonly used for anode materials.. Click here to view. .87 Cathodic protection of a metal. Inc. between pump center line and water surface Fig. Zinc. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump is a function of the impeller diameter and speed of rotation. or impeller. 21. hydroxides. (American Water Works Association. 21. z is negative. the most common waterworks pump. of water at its pumping temperature hf = friction loss in suction line. it must be referred to as either the required or available NPSH. normally precedes deposition of scale because iron must be in solution to react with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in the water to form scale. accomplishes that in two steps. To prevent cavitation. ft. efficiency.110 s Section Twenty-One by centrifugal force. horsepower. psia. 21. Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by application of a direct current to the metal to be protected and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode (Fig. or eye. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.56 Centrifugal Pumps The purpose of any pump is to transform mechanical or electrical energy into pressure energy. by (21. lime. Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the energy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. The centrifugal pump.87).88 Volute-type centrifugal pump. McGraw-Hill. Available NPSH is a characteristic of the system and is determined by the engineer. in feet. All rights reserved. called a volute (Fig. graphite. oxides. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.21. These thin films reduce the ability of water to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces. lb/ft3 If the suction water surface is below the pump center line. and so on on the walls of the pipes. and the head-discharge relationship.88). ft of water z = elevation difference. magnesium. Corrosion. Required NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given by the manufacturer. Design factors requiring consideration in the selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive suction head required. New York. on free-water surface or at center line of closed conduit pν = vapor pressure. Inc.) w = unit weight of liquid. Water enters at the center. The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging discharge tube. The first transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into kinetic energy with a spinning element. however. it is necessary to have the available NPSH always greater 21.
New York. rotary. head. Centrifugal pumps are available in almost any capacity desired.58.” 2nd ed. there may be three or four pertinent system head curves corresponding to various consumption rates. The intersection of these curves with the head vs.. it is customary to analyze a required NPSH vs.89. “Pump Handbook. Efficiencies may be as high as 93% for large pumps. jet. 21.) A system head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system vs. helical. J. below 200 gal/min. For that reason.89 are the other curves used in pump selection. and air lift. Click here to view. Inc. 21.. circumstances may dictate one of the other types. discharge curve with the brake horsepower. reciprocating. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000 gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft. Although centrifugal pumps (Art. In a typical water-system analysis.56) are the most common for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps. the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%. (I.111 than the required NPSH. An important consideration is that the point of maximum efficiency should be at or near the operating point. Q curve define a range of operation rather than a single point. pump discharge. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. 21.) 21. as shown in Fig. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21.57 Well Pumps These are classified as centrifugal. Fig. (Also included in Fig. propeller. . with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. The operating point of a centrifugal pump is determined by the intersection of the pump’s headcapacity curve and the system head curve.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump. All rights reserved.57 and check valves in Art. Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a matter of matching one of the many pumps available to the system characteristics. Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in diameter. Karassik et al. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. and efficiency curves when selecting a pump.Water Resources Engineering s 21. This curve shows the head differential that must be supplied by the pump. See also Art. however. Efficiencies may be as high as 90% for the larger capacities. 21. depending on the number of stages.
Helical pumps are small-capacity high-lift pumps.90) operate by discharging water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube. ft The favorable design range of Ns for radial-flow (centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. Jet pumps have low efficiencies. Helical pumps are a positive-displacement type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a rubber helical stator. They may be used in wells over 4 in in inside diameter.21. All rights reserved. It is the impeller speed corresponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head for the most efficient design. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavitation.90 fied). axial-flow (propeller) pumps should be used. gal/min H = head. Inc. or pistons rotate with very close tolerances. Shallow-well pumps have their motors and impellers at ground level. Specific speed Ns is a widely used criterion for pump selection. Their present-day use is primarily for small-capacity low-lift private applications. They are used in small-capacity low-lift applications. They are used in high-capacity low-head applications. These pumps have relatively constant partial-load efficiencies. The diverging conical tube creates lift by converting the highvelocity head to pressure head. mixed-flow pumps having both radial and axial characteristics should be used. which is a function of specific speed. Deep-well pumps have their impellers close enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita- Fig. For Ns between 4100 and 7500. so that the entire lift is suction. Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles to decrease the specific weight of the column of water in the discharge pipe below that of the surrounding water in the well and create a pressure differential that forces the water out of the well. either hand. the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and the velocity head at the impeller. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. At sea level. Reciprocating pumps. 21. Click here to view. and for Ns above 7500. The screw action of the rotor forces water through the pump and up the discharge pipe.112 s Section Twenty-One Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. (21. which are located at the well bottom. Because of the close tolerances. especially where the water contains sand or other impurities. Jet pumps (Fig. they can be used only for sediment-free water.or motordriven. 21. vanes. Section through a jet pump (simpli- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The suction connection is made between the nozzle and entrance to the diverging tube. Rotary pumps are also of the displacement type. . the maximum practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft. utilize piston action to move water. r/min Q = discharge.148) where n = impeller speed. They have a fixed chamber in which gears. cams. They can be used in any well but have the disadvantage of efficiencies below 50%. Air-lift pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well pumps since they have no submerged moving parts. Full-load efficiencies range from 50 to 85%.
applied through a gear-reduction device. below and directly adjacent to the impellers. Corrosion. Check. Very large valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power. the open area and rate of flow through the valve are not proportional to the percentage opening of the valve when partly open. (I. tubercle formation. and thermal expansion produce difficulties in opening normally closed gate valves or in closing normally open gate valves. Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and isolation purposes. J. Isolating valves are used for separating or shutting off sections of pipe. which are water. They have limited value as control or throttling devices because of seat wear and the downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk. air-relief. Needle valves are used for accurate 21. Karassik et al. easy operation are reasons why these valves are replacing sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Hand or motor power. because the meter is not directly adjacent to the distribution pipe. It consists of a cylindrically shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular orifice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpendicular to the direction of flow.58 Valves Water facilities use many different types of valves. one just upstream of the meter. availability. Other advantages include ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent operation. Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of reservoir control towers and in open-channel structures where pressure on one side of the gate helps to seat it and prevent water leakage.. Low cost and ease of operation in openchannel flow conditions are the major advantages. and easy. and low head loss when fully open. globe.113 tion. pressure-regulating.” 2nd ed. needle. The two major water-valve classifications are isolating and controlling. The motor may be at ground level with a long shaft connecting it to the impellers. sluice gate. Simplicity of construction and quick. fast operation. The pump shaft is supported at intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings. globe. curb. three valves must be used. solids deposition. Plug and cone valves are also used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. The major types of isolating valves are gate. even in the presence of unequal pressures across the valve. But these valves cost more than gate.Water Resources Engineering s 21. These are generally classified according to the function they perform. in-service lubrication features. A plug valve may be used for both control and isolation purposes. and butterfly valves. Inc. If sand is carried out with the water. “Pump Handbook. cone.) drives to permit manual operation. or it may be at the bottom of the well. or corporation cocks. respectively.or oil-lubricated. The former type is called a deepwell turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump. and altitude valves are usually considered as control valves. and butterfly. Also. rubber. Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. large pressure differences. plug. All rights reserved. A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully machined seat. Low head loss. Periodic inspection and operation of valves that are infrequently operated will prevent many operational difficulties. Gate valves are the isolating valves used most often in distribution systems. pressure-relief. A disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost relative to sluice gates or gate valves. The butterfly-valve mechanism consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on a horizontal shaft. Click here to view. One disadvantage is that the motors are difficult to reach for repairs. one at the service connection. The valves may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usually are). Small plug valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on domestic and commercial service connections and are known as service. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Submersible pumps may be used in crooked wells.. A control valve is normally used for continuously controlling pressures and flow rates. Plug. are the major advantages of plug-type valves. New York. and spherical valves can all be fully closed or opened by a 90° rotation of the plug. primarily because of their low cost. Los Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reservoir towers with butterfly valves having seats of corrosion-resistant metal. and one between the meter and the customer’s service line. rotates the disk. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Usually. Difficulties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice gates. Cone and spherical valves are special types of plug valves. Hydraulic or electric power is commonly utilized for operating the larger valves. Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for straight wells. or Neoprene. pumps. and control devices from the rest of the system for inspection and repair purposes. an enclosedshaft or submersible pump must be used to prevent bearing damage. .
21. a large pumper outlet must be furnished. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Air that accumulates at high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve placed at this location. The velocity-type metering devices are applied to measurement of flows in streams. Altitude valves are used to control the water level of elevated reservoirs. these excess pressures are caused by sudden closure of a valve. Interior-differential. All rights reserved. Needle valves are not normally used for isolating purposes because of the high head losses produced by water flow through the small orifices. Many automatic control valves. Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess pressure in an enclosure. and hollow-jet are three of the most common types of large needle valves. an additional gate valve is required between the hydrant and the main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant. The main valve in the dry-barrel type should be located below the frost line. such as for free discharge from reservoirs. tube. Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and inlet valves at the high points to prevent this. such as pressure regulators and altitude. a hydrant with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant. A pressure-activated control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the tank when pressure below the valve decreases. Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for one-directional flow only. Furthermore. 21. A minimum of two hose outlets is required on a fire hydrant.59 Fire Hydrants A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron barrel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve. . The most common check valve is the swing type. Click here to view. and 6 in for a fourway hydrant. such as trunk lines 21. Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes for domestic purposes. An air-relief and inlet valve serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either escape or enter a pipeline. This may take the place of one of the smaller 21/2-in hose outlets. Often. These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to the size of the main-valve opening. The wetbarrel. Where pumper service is necessary for adequate water pressure. draining water from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe. Usually. Large-sized needle valves are used for flow regulation under high heads. A barrel diameter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant.60 Metering Devices Metering devices are classified as either velocity or displacement types. but they are commonly used for pressure regulation in water-distribution systems. Velocity types measure the velocity of flow either directly by current-measuring devices or indirectly by venturi-principle devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the flow rate directly. The valve mechanism consists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on a circular seat. 5 in for a three-way hydrant. When the valve is in a closed position. Inc. Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce pressures automatically. rivers. depending on the location of the main valve in the hydrant. Two or more hose outlets are normally located in the barrel above the ground surface. which connects the barrel to the main. Because of high head losses. Check valves placed in centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot valves. Many fire hydrants have a safety joint above the ground surface to permit removal of the upper part of the barrel with a minimum loss of water. Hose connections 31/16 in in diameter with 71/2 threads per inch have been selected by the American Insurance Association as standard to allow for interchange of fire-fighting equipment between cities. globe valves are rarely used for isolation purposes. and relief valves. For example. Friction losses should not exceed 21/2 psi in a hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet when flow is 600 gal/min. Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet barrel. have globe-valve bodies with various types of control mechanisms. The number of 21/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a hydrant determines its class. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Fire-hydrant construction standards have been established by the American Water Works Association and the American Insurance Association. hydrants have the main valve located near the hose outlets. The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe connection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in. or California type. and large pipes. a drain should be open to prevent freezing of water in the barrel.114 s Section Twenty-One control of water flow because a large movement of the needle is necessary before any measurable change of flow rate takes place. check. These valves hold water in the suction line and pump case so that the pump will not need manual priming when started.
The disk is kept in motion by successive volumes of water which enter above and below it. nozzle. by recording and integrating the rate at which their measuring chambers are filled and emptied. Flow through a venturi meter is given by (21. Velocity-Type Metering Devices s Venturi meters. vertical velocity components. are the most common velocity-type devices. almost to the exclusion of the two other types. ft of water (For values of c and K for various throat diameters and velocities. 21. An automatic pressuresensing device directs the flow through the appropriate meter. has a vertical axis of rotation and measures currents whose velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity of construction and long-term accuracy. The clicking noise occurs either once each revolution or once each five revolutions. Nozzle and orifice-plate meters are used where conservation of head is not the prime concern or where head dissipation is desired. its angle is the major factor in determining the head loss. All rights reserved. “Handbook of Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Since most of the loss is associated with the diffuser section. The nutating-disk meter derives its name from the disk’s nodding motion. Displacement-Type Meters s These may be piston. Current meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow.. A hard rubber that softens at high temperature is usually used for the disk. rotary. The cup-type meter.5% within the normal test-flow limits. Straightening vanes are installed upstream from these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of insufficient length to eliminate helical flow components caused by bends or other fittings. ft h1 = pressure in main section. flows through nozzle and orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pressure difference across the meters. ft d2 = diameter of throat. Weighing meters are also displacement-type metering devices. Compound meters contain separate measuring devices for both low and high flows.149) Hydraulics. These meters produce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic grade line that is related to flow rate.Water Resources Engineering s 21. ft of water h2 = pressure in throat section. although the propeller type is occasionally substituted for a venturi meter in pipe flow.115 of distribution systems. but they are used primarily in laboratories. indicates the speed of rotation of the meter.91a) was developed to provide a device with minimum head loss. The standard venturi meter (Fig. see E. ft3/s c = empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter d1 = diameter of main section. Displacement-type metering devices indicate flow rate directly. Current meters consist of either a propeller or a series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to rotate under the action of the flowing water. made by the making and breaking of an electrical contact and picked up by a set of earphones. However. simplicity and ease of repairs. New York. or modifications thereof. and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. which do not affect propeller meters. which is similar to that of a top before it stops.) As in venturi meters. Displacement types are used for the smaller flows in distribution systems. The nutating disk is used.” 6th ed. . for metering domestic-service connections. Three devices that operate on this principle are the venturi. or nutating-disk types. respectively. Brater. Inc. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and cost. 21. McGraw-Hill Book Company.91. Error of nutating-disk meters is about 1. F. Click here to view. cause the Price meter to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. They are usually a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type current meter. (21.150) where Q = flow rate. called a Price meter. amount of head loss through the meter. so a backflowprevention device is required between a nutatingdisk meter and a water heater. such as meters for individual customer connections. Criteria for selection of a type of water meter include accuracy and range of measurement. A clicking noise. durability. The propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal and will not give accurate measurement unless the current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation.
utility-type enterprises. Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that does not vary with the amount of water used. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. and similar items.21. Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. fire use. Inc.61 Water Rates The interests of the public and individual customers of water-supply systems can best be served by selfsustained. Rates charged to finance these systems should be based on sound engineering and economic principles and designed to avoid discrimination between classes of customers. step rate. (b) Nozzle meter. if any. Click here to view. 21. . Gross revenue should cover operating and maintenance expenses. load factors. fixed charges on capital investment. peak rates of use. (c) Orifice- 21. The system of accounting should conform to the legally established system of accounting prescribed for the utility. or to some other recognized system. flat rate is falling into disuse. Although it has been commonly employed in small communities where water is not metered.116 s Section Twenty-One Fig. Rate structures are typ- ically based on demand. Billings for water should be based on metered use and such fixed charges as are required. and block rate.91 plate meter. and development of the system. This type of charge tends to encourage waste. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved. seasonal use. Rates most commonly used today are flat rate.
which generate electric power from water dropping a sufficient vertical Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by taxes.152a) Hydroelectric Power and Dams Hydroelectric plants. called the demand component.62 Hydroelectric-Power Generation Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water. equipment such as protective devices and regulators. The block rate schedule consists of one price per 1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used per billing period and lesser rates for additional blocks. distance to drive large hydraulic turbines. and power transmission lines to deliver the power produced to a load center for distribution to consumers.746 kW 1 kW = 1. Inc. where applicable. All rights reserved. Since peak-hour demands usually govern the design of a distribution system. If a customer’s usage is zero during peak hour. depends on the peak usage of a customer. generators and exciters. 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ft⋅lb/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ft⋅lb/s 1 hp = 0. The potential energy of a volume of water is the product of its weight and the vertical distance it can fall: (21. this is a good criterion for allocating distribution costs. Cost component 2. Both the step and block rates can have a monthly service charge. The major objection to this method is that a customer who uses a quantity slightly less than the point of rate change will pay more than the customer who uses a little more. called the customer component. of serving an individual customer. S. A typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to divert or store water from a river or stream.Water Resources Engineering s 21. and. tunnel. Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized. is directly dependent on total usage and therefore should be distributed equally to all water sold. . switching equipment. it will not appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution facilities. pumping energy.117 With step rate. treatment chemicals. including metering and billing. supply an appreciable portion of the electric power consumed in the U. buying water from a wholesale supplier. tunnels. Both the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost to the small user by charging a higher rate for the first water sold to a customer and charging decreasing rates with increased usage. When fixing a system of rates. This charge is usually small. (2) cost of distribution and treatment facilities. the kinetic-energy term does not appear in power formulas. For most distribution systems. 21. Hydroelectric generation is an attractive power source because it is a renewable resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. the supplier should consider the following factors: (1) cost of collection facilities. draft tube. penstocks. a large share of the demand component also should be allocated to fire service. called the commodity component. have very high ratios of peak demand to total usage and should therefore pay a major share of the demand component. Click here to view. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. turbines and governors.151) where PE = potential energy W = total weight of the water Z = vertical distance water can fall Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelectric power) developments. a building to house the machinery and equipment.341 hp Power obtained from water flow may be computed from (21. is usually distributed to the customer by a monthly service charge that depends only on the size of service. and a forebay to convey water to turbines. Cost component 1. The rate a customer pays decreases as the total quantity used increases. It is generally recognized that residential areas. Cost component 3. and (3) cost. where the majority of small users are. This type of pricing tends to discourage waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily. customers are charged at one rate per 1000 gal for all water used. or tailrace to return water downstream to the river or stream. and transformers. canals.
The seasonal operation requires many times the storage necessary for weekly or daily operation and therefore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is multipurpose. Depending on the size of the utility and type of customers served. Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply power for the periods of peak demand are generally called peak-load plants. The reliable plant capacity is set below the expected minimum flow in the river. the high flood flows are stored to be used during periods of low flow. Storage can be provided for a daily. On a daily cycle. Water is pumped from a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from η Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro without storage. ft = efficiency of turbine and generator reliable capacity of a hydroplant. weekly. or yearly basis. If the minimum flow is very low. weekly. generated during periods when excess generating capacity is available. A development of this type is usually built for some other purpose. Capacity factor is the percentage of the time the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the average power the plant produces to the plant’s capacity.4 lb/ft3 h = effective head = total elevation difference minus line losses due to friction and turbulence. On a seasonal cycle. to be used at some future time. Then. run-of-river plants with storage. Inc. only a relatively small supply of water is needed to produce a high generation capacity for a few hours duration. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. The main classes of peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and run-of-river plants with storage. but it is located on a river that provides a minimum flow capable of serving the power demand without supplementary steam-generating facilities. part of its cost can be underwritten by flood-control or irrigation projects. If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant. Peak-Load Plants s The power demand on an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to a nightly low. These fluctuations in demand necessitate generation facilities whose full capacity is used only a few hours a day. Run-of-River Hydro without Storage s This type of plant has no storage facilities. 21. Pumped Storage s This is a means of storing large quantities of energy. Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with the cost of the steam capacity that would be necessary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration were not developed. It must pass not only high seasonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize during hours of low power demand. Run-of-River Plants with Storage s A small amount of storage can greatly increase the Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The water not required for generation during hours of low power demand can be stored and used for generation during periods of peak demand.118 s Section Twenty-One (21. This type of run-ofriver hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of the flow of a river. Click here to view.152b) where kW = kilowatts hp = horsepower Q = flow rate. during periods of peak power demand (Fig.92). power production being only incidental. and peak-load plants. Power generation is totally dependent on the flow of the river. base-load plants. It can be computed on a daily. ft3/s w = unit weight of water = 62. Base-Load Hydro Plants s This type is also a run-of-river hydroplant without storage. All rights reserved. such as navigation. it will be necessary to invest money in steam-generation facilities to provide supplemental power during low-flow periods. or seasonal cycle. peak demands may be several times the magnitude of the low demands encountered at night. Therefore. the value of the plant will be only the fuel saved that would otherwise be required for steam generation.21. the required reservoir capacity is less than the river’s daily flow volume. On a weekly cycle. . The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant depend on the minimum flow of the river. the flow during the periods of low power demand on weekends is also stored to give additional capacity for peak periods during the week. This enables a large utility to use steam generation at a high capacity factor where it is most efficient and to supply peak demands from hydroplants.
Hasen. buttress. which is capacity above that necessary to serve the expected maximum load. 21.92).Water Resources Engineering s 21. This undesirable energy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome when it is used as reserve capacity. Calif. which results from deposition of silt at the base of the dam. All rights reserved. earth. the water generates power by flowing through a turbine back into the low reservoir. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Click here to view. it usually is not as economical. The largest force is usually the hydrostatic force of the water F1..) steam or base-load hydro when power demand is low. But because the weekly cycle requires several times more reservoir storage than the daily cycle. the energy loss may make it uneconomical. Los Angeles. Zipparo and H.93 shows the forces that act on a typical gravity dam. Force F2 represents silt pressure. 21. Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams that resist the forces acting on them entirely by their weight. Many utilities keep a spinning reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest single generating unit.) 21. The main classifications are gravity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. varying from zero at the top to full hydrostatic at the bottom. When needed.” 4th ed.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. Electrical systems require what is called spinning reserve. only two-thirds of the energy required to pump the water is recovered. This silt pressure can be cal- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. (V. J. (Department of Water and Power.119 Fig. arch. Inc. ready instantly to generate power in case of failure of generating equipment or an unanticipated high power demand. . The balance of energy between pumping and generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. When pumped storage is operated at a high capacity factor to transfer large quantities of electric energy from off-peak to peak. or 15% of their maximum demand (Fig. Because of friction loss in the penstock and losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps and turbines. Figure 21.63 Dams Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type of construction material or the method used to resist water pressure. and rock-fill. Its distribution is triangular. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York.
ft The force F6 acts at a point 0. Force F7 is due to the weight of water on an inclined face. Force F3 represents ice pressure against the face of the dam. depending on the rate of temperature rise and restraining conditions at the edges of the reservoir. The effect of accelerations on the dam is represented in Fig. today it is realized these values are much too high. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers.) (21. Click here to view. A close approximation of the force. Force F6 represents the inertial force of the water on the face of the dam. (“Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes. ice pressures as high as 50. 21. so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all directions.” discussion by von Karman. 98. (E.425h above the base. however. (21. ft/s2 h = depth of water behind dam. presented by Edwin Rose. Rose.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam. May 1946. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass of the object times the acceleration from the earthquake. All rights reserved. Force F8 represents an uplift force that acts on the undersurface of any section taken through the dam or under the base of the dam.120 s Section Twenty-One Fig. was developed by von Karman. .21.) Practically all regions in the United States are subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 434. 21. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. In the past. Gravity dams usually have an inclined upstream face to facilitate construction. vol. Most dams in seismically active regions in the United States have been designed for an acceleration equal to 0. culated by Rankine’s theory for earth pressure using the submerged weight of the silt.153) where w = unit weight of water. ice. Earthquakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of the earth. A method of calculating these forces. expands when the temperature rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam.153).93 by forces F4 and F5. In cold climates.” Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. This uplift is caused by the seepage of water through pores or Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. which forms on the reservoir surface. p. “Thrust Exerted by Expanding Ice.1 g. These accelerations occur in every direction. Inc.000 psf have been used for the design of dams in the north. gives values ranging from 2000 to 10. which create forces on any object resting on it. given by Eq.000 psf. lb/ft3 a = acceleration due to earthquake. 1933.
Earth dams are designed to utilize materials available at the dam site. Click here to view. These differ in that the watersupporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a continuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. However. sand.121 imperfections in the foundations or through imperfectly bonded construction joints in the masonry.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The foundation pressure at the heel of the dam should be compressive. The first two modes depend mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam. A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls for grouting along the heel and use of drains behind the grout. this pressure acted only on some percentage of the total area. their relative importance is much different. Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the force of the water through arch action. It acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of the dam. If the deflections are not equal. Stresses in an arch dam may be determined with computers by the finite-element method or by an approximate method in which the water force is divided between elements: a series of horizontal arches that span between the abutments and a series of vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. however. is available and clayey materials must be imported. engineers assumed that. With the rapidly increasing cost of labor over the past several decades. overturning by rotating about the toe. but the structural design is much more critical. the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe. All rights reserved. Although there are many types of buttress dams. those widely used are the flat-slab and the multiple-arch. and uplift forces are smaller. Their first cost and maintenance cost are usually greater than those of earth or rockfill dams of comparable height and crest length. a new division of the load is assumed and the deflections recalculated. however. Force F9 represents the weight of the dam. They can be constructed of almost any material with very primitive construction equipment. The distribution of load between the arches and cantilevers is determined by the trial-load method. Hence. whereas the third depends on both the cross-sectional shape and the foundation material. is that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base. . the membrane is a series of concrete arches. but its formwork is more expensive. First. They are not suited to most sites. Successful earth dams have been built of gravel. the vertical load of the water is much greater on a buttress dam. but ice loads and temperature stress are much more critical. the buttress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity. silt. Concrete has been used for an impervious core. since they must be located in a relatively narrow canyon supported by good rock abutments. In the past. rock flour. the material available locally making up the bulk of the dam. When the base is not drained. the dam would have a small impervious clay core. Although buttress dams usually require less than half the volume of concrete required by gravity dams. Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations. but it does not pro- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. The main reason gravity dams are used is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest without damage. The modes of failure are also the same. and clay. because of bearing contact. Inc. a division of the load is assumed and the deflections in the arches and cantilevers are computed. This process is continued until equal deflections are obtained. or failure of the foundation material. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing steel and can span longer distances between buttresses. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. but their height in these cases has been limited to around 65 ft. such as sand and gravel. On arch dams. the resultant of all forces acting on the dam should fall within the middle third of the base of the dam. The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually inclined at about 45°. The external forces an arch dam must resist are basically the same as those on a gravity dam. however. Arch dams require much less concrete than gravity dams and usually have a much lower first cost. The deflection of an arch at any point must equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same point. Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to the axis of the dam. uplift is not so important. The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane. The weight of the water on the face is necessary to increase the dam’s resistance to sliding and overturning. Recent belief. Summation of the vertical forces and of moments about any point yields the foundation pressure. If a large quantity of pervious material. they are not necessarily less expensive because of the large amount of formwork and reinforcing steel required. In the multiple-arch. The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly the same as those that act on a gravity dam.
One solution to this problem has been to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken place. Bureau of Relamation. (V. but rock-fill dams are very stable and have been overtopped without suffering major damage. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Leakage should be expected. displacements occur over a wide range of accelerations. S.122 s Section Twenty-One vide the flexibility of clay materials. The only type of water wheel used today in impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton— the Pelton wheel (Fig. and rising labor costs have increased the cost for concrete dams. The nozzle is directed at buckets positioned along the perimeter of a water wheel. The governing criterion is usually the stability of the slopes against slide-out failure. Today.” 4th ed. 21.3 on 1. For some types of soil. such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench. both the upstream and downstream faces are usually on a slope of 1. the impervious facing must be very flexible or damage will occur during settlement. If the dam is on a pervious foundation. New York. Inc. J. Army Corps of Engineers. The downstream face is usually 1. All rights reserved. hydraulic power-generating machines meant a large number of different types of equipment. Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1. however. with a cutoff wall extending into the foundation. determination of appropriate values for yield acceleration is very difficult. bonding into the dumped rock. Their cost compares favorably with that of concrete dams. although steel has been used occasionally. by free discharge of the water through a nozzle. sometimes from as high as 175 ft. For dams over 200 ft high. Its function is transformation of the kinetic and potential energy of water into useful work. The force of the water striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate. Rock-fill dams are generally designed empirically. Zipparo and H. Vertical settlements and horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height of the dam have occurred. Temporary facings are usually of wood. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks varying in size from small fragments to boulders weighing as much as 25 tons. Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water by first transforming it into kinetic energy. therefore. . Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream face as steep as 1/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. bearing on the rubble cushion. If pervious material is not available.” EM 1110-2-2300.” U. “Design of Small Dams” and “Embankment Dams..64 Hydraulic Turbines In the past. The seepage may also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket on the upstream side of the dam to increase the seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foundation. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote locations where cement is expensive and the materials for an earth dam are not available. The cutoff wall is usually concrete. The fill is usually compacted by dropping the rock. providing power. U. Earth dams can be built to almost any height and on foundations not strong enough for concrete dams. Click here to view. the dam can be constructed of clayey materials with underdrains of imported sand or gravel under the downstream toe to collect seepage and relieve pore pressures. S. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individually placed to reduce the voids and provide support for the impervious facing. Stability under the action of seismic forces is especially critical. the turbine is the only type of importance in hydraulic power generation. Another factor that sometimes determines the steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage that can be tolerated. The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams is large settlements that occur after construction when the reservoir is first filled.3 on 1. The facing is usually concrete. and an upstream impervious facing. onto the fill. or wood over concrete. the natural angle of repose of rock. Improvements in earth-moving equipment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth dams. Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and reaction turbines. The wheel is covered by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the discharge after the water strikes the wheel. no well-defined yield acceleration exists.) 21. it may be necessary to increase the base width to reduce seepage. Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock fill. For soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a result of shear strain induced by an earthquake. a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream face. “Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and Construction Considerations.21. Sluicing of the fill with highpressure hoses is also used to wash fines from between contact points of the rock and reduce settlement. Hasen.94).
21. efficiencies of 92% for full load and slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter of full load have been obtained.) Fig. All rights reserved. This creates a force on the runner. The basic difference between the Francis turbine and the propeller turbine is in the shape of the runner. The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging sides. The scroll case transfers the water from the penstock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner.. Francis turbines are commonly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement.Water Resources Engineering s 21. the water wheel rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the discharge from one or two nozzles. Hasen. It decelerates the flow discharged from the runner. control the amount of water that enters the turbine. if the load drops below 50%. . however. New York. The only difference between the two is that the pitch of the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine. Zipparo and H. The Kaplan turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load and drops only to 92% for 40% load. wicket gates. the flow from the headwater to the tailwater is in a closed conduit system. The runner is the part of the turbine that transforms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water into useful work.95) has the same basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case. and draft tube. Click here to view. wicket gates. the reaction turbine is usually better suited to low heads at large flows. The Francis turbine usually consists of four essential parts: scroll case.95b) and the axial flow (Fig. however. problems are encountered in controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case to take the high pressures. The propeller turbine (Fig. Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic In most impulse turbines. They have been used for heads as low as 50 ft. As the water flows through the tur- 21. Axial-Flow Turbines s These provide enhanced performance for operation under lowhead and large capacity. such as the Kaplan turbine. its efficiency drops off rapidly below full load. McGraw-Hill Book Company. In these. 21.” 4th ed. However.95a). so that the remaining kinetic energy may be regained by conversion into suction head.65 Methods for Control of Flows from Reservoirs Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with- Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. But vertical shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles.95c). (An impulse turbine at the Reisseck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net effective head of 5800 ft. and the fixed-blade type. the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient. Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads greater than 1000 ft. 21.) There is no lower limit of head for impulse turbines. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. a governor actuates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates. their efficiency decreases rapidly. runner. The fixedblade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about 94% for full load. to obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. Propeller-type turbines are used for heads ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of about 94% when operated at or close to full load. The wicket gates. causing it to rotate and turn the generator. (V. runner. At heads below 100 ft. J. The runner of a propeller-type turbine operates in the same manner as a fan or a ship’s propeller: The water moving past the blades creates a force that causes the runner to rotate. 21.123 bine. In such installations. Propeller Turbines s There are two types of propeller turbines: the movable-blade type. 21. At heads above 1000 ft.94 turbine. the propeller-type (Fig. and draft tube. It distributes the water so that all points on the perimeter of the runner receive the same quantity of water. Reaction Turbines s Types of reaction turbines include the Francis (Fig. When the power demand on the turbine changes. it changes direction. located just outside the perimeter of the runner.
95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis. Click here to view.21.1 Spillways An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the crest of a section of the dam.65. This may not be possible for high earth dams because the foundation may not be able to support a high concrete gravity section. (b) Kaplan. Inc.124 s Section Twenty-One out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir water surface below some predetermined level. it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete gravity section. 21. if designed correctly. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill dams. 21. widely used for concrete dams because. (c) axial flow. This type of spillway is Fig. . the dam will not be damaged by the water.
DC 20402). Water flowing over the crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and full flow begins. model tests are usually employed. open channel. overflow spillways keep the water level within close limits even when there is a large variation in flows. In a chute spillway. flared. the siphon’s intake is sealed. The crest is usually a concrete gravity section. . the water flows over a circular weir into a vertical shaft. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies.96) is a closed conduit for discharging water over or through a dam. When the head is relatively low. Inc. Once this second condition is reached. although it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment.125 The discharge over an overflow spillway is given by the equation for discharge over a weir (Art. All rights reserved. The flow is made supercritical to keep the size and length of the chute to a minimum. There are two conditions of discharge for a shaft spillway. The discharge for this condition is directly proportional to the 1/2 power of the elevation difference between the reservoir water level and the level of discharge of the spillway conduit. at some point the discharge will no longer be controlled by the amount of water that can flow over the weir but by the amount of water that can flow through the conduit. This type of spillway. Bureau of Reclamation. (This type of spillway should not be constructed over or through earth dams.34). Thus. Click here to view. sometimes called a morning-glory spillway. Since analytical analysis of discharge does not give good results on this type of spillway. A siphon spillway (Fig. a large increase in head will cause only a small increase in flow. or ogee in cross section.S. called an ogee spillway. When the reservoir water level rises above the vent. In a side-channel spillway. “Design of Small Dams. 21.) If the topography is not suitable for a chute or sidechannel spillway. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. 21. lined. Washington. both depending on the head on the weir. should be designed—as should all spillways—so that separation of the water from the face of the spillway will not occur. As the head increases. the flow passes over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest.” Government Printing Office. It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharpcrested weir. Because the flow depends on the siphoning action. the discharge is governed by the flow over the weir. water flows over a crest into a steeply sloping. The discharge end of the siphon is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter. Since the discharge varies as the head to the 3/2 power. 21. Chute spillways are commonly used for earth and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a chute to carry the water away from the toe to eliminate the danger of undermining. The entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged below the normal water level so that it will not clog with debris or ice. 21.96 determines the reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins. The weir can be sharp-crested. which is directly proportional to the 3/2 power of the head on the weir. the danger of cavitation will be eliminated. The flow in the channel parallel to the crest is determined by applying the momentum principle in the direction of flow and assuming the energy of the water flowing over the crest is completely dissipated (U. The shaft terminates in a horizontal conduit that carries the water past the dam. Gradual vertical curves should be used in the chute to avoid separation of the flow from the channel bottom. The air vent shown in Fig. In a shaft spillway. siphon spillways hold the water Fig. a shaft spillway may be the best alternative.Water Resources Engineering s 21. Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient crest length for overflow or chute spillways. The discharge over the crest is given by the equations for discharge over a weir or the entrance to an open channel.96 Siphon spillway.
The type of intake structure required depends on the functions and characteristics of the reservoir. The simplest type of intake is a block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign matter. the additional head and storage gained with crest gates may be very valuable. Click here to view. Flashboards and stop logs are the most common types of crest gates used for small installations under low head. These frictional forces make it necessary to use a type of gate that depends on rolling rather than sliding friction and operates freely under hydrostatic pressure. and the standard rules for reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.98 Bear-trap gate. Inc. 21. 21.3 Crest Gates These include a number of different types of permanent and temporary devices that operate on the crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reservoir temporarily while control of spillway flows is retained. 21. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. But they are not good for handling large variations in flows because their discharge is directly proportional to the square root of the head.2 Intake Structures The various functions an intake structure may serve include permitting withdrawal of water from various levels of a reservoir. To do this. Since flow passes under taintor and slide gates. During periods of low flow when the full spillway capacity is not required. Fig. The ports are usually provided with gates or valves and some type of trash rack. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. They are relatively expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel. . and providing support for the conduit. the intake towers at Hoover Dam. controlling flow. with two 32-ft-diameter cylinder gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft. All rights reserved. the pipes fail. Fig.126 s Section Twenty-One The main hydraulic consideration in the design of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. 21.5 ft/s. Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on lowfriction roller bearings are the most widely used types of crest gates on major installations. Flashboards are usually wood planks that span between vertical pipes that cantilever above the spillway crest. When the reservoir water surface reaches some predetermined level. On large stop-log installations. the velocities through the trash racks should be kept less than 0. 21. which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks. causing damage and hampering operation. In contrast. excluding debris and ice from a conduit. Intake towers are commonly used where there is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reservoir or where it is necessary to control the quality of water used for a domestic supply. allowing the full capacity of the spillway to be utilized. They are usually made of concrete and have ports at various levels to permit selection of water from different elevations. level of a reservoir within close limits. Stop logs are wood planks that span between slotted vertical piers which cantilever above the spillway crest.97 Taintor gate.65. are 395-fthigh concrete towers. the hydrostatic force creates large frictional forces between the sliding element and the vertical guide. there is a tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them.65. In a taintor gate (Fig.97). making removal difficult. the friction is concentrated in the trunnion and does not affect the operation.21.
Because of the large recess required in the dam. Hasen. Click here to view. Zipparo and H. .98.. and J. To raise a bear-trap gate. Doland. Inc.127 Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to pass over the top. J. J. Babbitt. Cleasby. 21.99 Drum gate. drum gates are not suited to small dams.Water Resources Engineering s 21. The drum gate (Fig. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. and H. All rights reserved. The bear-trap gate consists of two leaves hinged. (V. E. Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. water is admitted to the space under the leaves to force the leaves up. as shown in Fig. “Water Supply Engineering.) Fig.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not in use.” 4th ed. 21. “Davis’ Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. L.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. 21. J. New York.
Click here to view.blank page 21. Inc. .128 Copyright (C) 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Use of this product is subject to the terms of its License Agreement. All rights reserved.
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